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Washtenaw Pomology

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Xbe May meeting of the Washte„aw Horticultural society was held caturday last.Hon. J.Austin Scott preding The discueaion of the topic,' Fer tilizin? the Orchard," was opened by. the corresponding secretary. The tbeory and experience of Hon. J. J Rjbison, that natural trees or seedlings fnrnished the pollen for the grafted or budded trees and in that way were a help in increasing the fertility of the orchard was confirmed. The secretary further stated that it was necessary to feed tbe trees liberally. His orchard as seeded down in orchard grass , and it was his experience that the apples on gras's land ripened later and were better keepers than apples on cultivated lands. In order to keep up the fertility of the orchard, he fed them very liberally with liquid rnanure from a cistern in the barnyard. If the cistern water, collected by the rains and leachings of the manure pile, was not strong enough, he added hen manure. This would help both the grass and the trees. He also kept his pear orchard in grass, but mulched the trees heavily. It is easier to gather fruit in grass land than on cultivated ground. President Scott said; "There is sometbing in the pollenization of grafted trees by natural fruit trees. Grafted trees come into bearing soonerthan seeálings, but the seedlings would hold out longer. The practice of some nurserymen to raise trees from root grafts or from sprouts he didnotap-. orove. Trees should start from seediings. Fertilization of the orchard has not been brought before the public as it should have been. When young do not feed your trees too high to stimulate unnatural growth; when bearing, feed your trees liberally but not near the trunk but away around the tree as far as the branches grow. The feeding roots are way out there. Roots grow as far as the branches extend. I had an ashery near my orchard in the Maumee Valley and applied it very liberally to my orchard of sixty acres. This orkard frequently brought me $4,000 per annum clear of all expenses. Leached ashes are a very fine fertilizer. My grandfather planted an orchard for everyone of hischildren." (Such a man deserves a monument. - Editor.) The gecretary thought that farmers and horticulturists should burn wood instead of coal. It creates a more pleasant heat, is cleaner and furnishes an invaluable fertilizer for most plants. J. J. Robison: "The farmers in Freedom have more natural fruit ainong their erafted trees. Their grafted trees are better loaded with fruit. They make better eider from natural fruit." L. Xordman : "I barrel more apples from thirty-five trees which I cultívate and feed well than from 400 trees, which are in a sod of blue grass and which are not manured." Jacob Snhaefer: "I believe in nianuring and cultivation of the orchard." H. C. Markham lectured on potado culture. In his very able lecture he coHsidered scil, fertilizers, preparation of the ground, varieties, planting, cultivation, harvesting, marketing or storing. This lecture, the outcome of brains and special attention to the cultivation of this most popular and useful vegetable, is worthy of a wide circulation. Mr. Markham exhibited perfect specimens of the Eyeless, Eureka, Fariña, E. Rochester, Stray Beauty, Hosh Konong, Rural New Yorker No. 2, Thunderbolt, Burpees Super, Dandy, White Flower, Bannok, Cambridge Prol., Alexander Prolific. He believes in late potatoes for the farmer, who ha6 no time to market early potatoes Tho6e who wish perfect seeds and sound councel on the potato culture should consult Mr. Markham. In this connection it tnay be remarked that "Bulletin 85 of the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station, "Potato 'Tests," by Prof. L. R. Taft ia a blessing to the farmer and an honor to our state. The paper on Insecticide and Fungicides by A. A. Crozier, the entomologist of our society, was well yrepared and as well received. The paper, after going over the ground of the extensivo literature of the subject, mentions a few of the insect and fungus enemies which fruit growers of this locality nave tocontend with, "Codling Moth." For this moth or apple worm Paris green and London purple have puperseded all other remedies. A thorous;h spraying of the trees once or twice after the petals fall, is an almost perfect preventive of wormy apples. The poison is applied at the rate of one pound of Paris green to 200 gallons of water or one of London purple to 160 gallon?. London purple, applied as for the Codling moth, bas with some given apparentiy good resultsagainst the curculio en the plum and cherry. Others, however, have observed little benefit from its application, so that for the preSent the old remedy of jarring the insects upon sheets of canvas is probably the most reliable. The insects usually first make their appearance when the young plums have attained the size of ycung peas. Daily jarring for one week will usually insure a erop. Many valuable trees are needlessly lost by means of the peach borer. lts presence is readily detected at the baee f the stem by the gum exudingfrom the wound, which it makes just under the bark. A strong knife and eonietimes a hoe to remove the surface soil are al] the tools needed forits exterminatiou The only knuwn remedy against peach yellows is to root out and burn every tree which shows the disease and plant a healthy one in its place. Black knot, which disfigures and ultimately destroys trees of the plum and in some cases of the cherry, is caused by a well known fungus which lives in the interior of the wood and bark and is therefore out of reach of ordinary remedies. The simple8t and safest reinedy, therefore, is to cut away and burn all limbs that show the disease and thus prevent its pronagation in other trees. , The remedy for grape rot known as the Bordeaux mixture is best known and has been applied with uniform success. To prepare this procure a barrel holding forty-five gallons and dissolve in it six pounds of powdered copper su!phate.usingeightorten gallons of water, or sufncient lor the purpose. In another receptacle shake fcur pounds of iresh lime, to wbich then add sufficient water to make a creamy white wash, strain this through a coarse sack into the barrel containing the copper sulphate, then fill up the barrel with water, when the mixture is ready for use. This formula is given in the latest bulletins of the U. S. department of agriculture and is only one half of the strength of that heretoforo used. All pruning, o'.d berries, leaves, etc, should ñrst be removed and burned to destroy the spores. The first application of the mixture should be made as soon as the buds begin to swell, to be followed by a second, when the leaves are one-third grown and a third application at the time of blossoming. This should be repeated at intervals of ten ortwelvedays until the fruit is fully grown, but should then cease in order that no lime remain to disfigure the berries. If long droughts occur fewer applications are needed. A comparatively new remedy worthy of trial, is an animoniacal solution of precipitated copper carbonate, nr copperdine. as it is called by one manufacturer. This has the advantage of being a perfectly clear solution which never disfigures the fruit and is also useful as a remedy for apple scab and several other fungus diseases. In conclusión, I desire to again cali attention to the suggestion made at our last meeting that some one in each neighborhood take up] spraying as a business. It requires considerable study to learn the best remedies and how to apply them and in the hurry of spring work it is apt to be neglected. The twelye tooth planet junior cultivator, or rather harrow, on exhibit was very much admired. For fine cultivation, either deep or shallow, especially among small plants, where even cultivation is so desirable, this machine, with its peculiar dagger-shaped teeth, filis the bill. Close observers of tools missed a braee from the handles down to the second teeth in order to keep the toul more steady. The secretary who had this tooi in use this spring, is satisfied that he never had anything equal to it for thorongh and even cultivation. A resolution was passed to extend the heartfelt sympathy of this society to brotber Stephen Mills, who lately met with a severe accident. Mr. Mills was always a regular attendant from the beginning of this society ,and one of the closest and most experienced observers on horticultural topics. Mr. V. F. Bird and the secretary were appointed to draw resolutions of regret at the death of James Toms, the florist, who so cheerfully had adorned the rooms of the society with the flora of his greenhouses since the creation of this society in 1878. The only fruit on exhibition was D'Aremberg pears by tbe secretary, which were enjoyed by those presnet. Emil Baur, Secretary. First Shade (a concert-goer while on earth) - What are those wondrous harmonies I hear? Second Shade- That is the music of the spheres. First Shade - It is divine. What piano do they advertise? Upstart - I have made up my mind to become a journalist. What kind of paper would you advise me to go to work with? Gruffly - Well, I think you are best fitted to work with a piece of sand-paper.


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