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Industrial Education

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Boarú oí Educatiort, Aun Albor, Midi, Gentleman : - The writer, for months, sat at a hotel table by the side oí a Uerinan Jew drummer twenty-four years oí age, win.) was educated in the gymnasia of Germany and who was intelligent in the whole.range of natural and physica] i-n-ienees and eould speak Bnglish, Germán, Frencll, Hebrew and ápanLsh, and read all these, and Lat in Greek and ltalian, and nis employer, a Wholesale llquor and tobáceo dealer and manufacturen was, also a polyglot, aaxrytng on a business correspondent-e in six idfferent languages. in New Orleans during the war, your petitioner boarded in a house kept by a family trom Northampton, Mass. whose liead liad been true for freedom when it cost him liis business and almost his life to remain so. and in thl8 home were Bishop J. P. Newman, ]. D. and wiie, of the Methodist church, a, brother of Bishop Ames and a local íurniture merchant, also from the uiorth, the latter having a sweet little girl about three years of age, who could only speak a few words of Bnglish. Frequently to play with the merehant's daughter, a colored woman waiter brought into the house her little tot of the same age, black as ïiight, who could jabber in both English and French as ireely as any natives born to either, and this fact was .the subject of mach coinmeait by Dr. Xewnian and others. Dr. Paquin, editor of the "Bacteriological World," and famous for his researches with the inicrosope, has a pretty little daughter only two and one-half years old, who speaks both English and French iluently, the mother epeeklng English and the grandmother French. The reports of the superintendents of schools in St. Louis and Cincinnati, men of national reputation, and tlie testimony of parents, teachers and superintendent in this state, concur in the statement that the average American boy and girl where Germán is jiot spoken at home, will learn to speak the Germán in the public schools if it is introtlueed in all the grades and properly taught, and carry along all the other grade work just as well as without the Germán language, and the writer as an officer in the arniy who, under the special direction of the great and wise Lincoln suppleniented by the labors of his humanitarian captain, General X. P. Banks, superintended the organizatlon of the first public eolored schools ever opened in the city of New Orleans where the French language is spoken by ia majority of the inhabltants in the lower half of the city, observed the same law among the colored children generally as in the special cases cited, chüdren of parents whose intellect 'for unknown ages, perhaps, from the eradle of the race, hundreds of thousande of years, had been clouded by the deepest ignorance, the law of mental development of both the white and blaek races, t hat two languages, if not more, are acquired as easily as one. These facts drawn from a wide field, afber more than th'irty years of observation, induce the writer, who was 'Of a contrary opinión in the interests of true progress, to ask that our board of education take measures to introduce the Germán in all the grades below the high school, ïhere are many Germans living among us and our children can as readily acquire the Germán language as not, and what intelligent parent is there who would not prefer to have his children have this acquisition ? If the French occupied the same relativo position bs the Germans, we should oieed the French language instead. American people think that their schools excel all others, but President Eliot of Harvard, recently said : '"We are all wrong in tsupposing that we have the best school system in the world. There ts mot a country in the north of Europe that has not a better system. The immigrants who come to our shöres from abroad, will be found to liave received a far better school training in what are denominated the c-ommon branches than the average of the rural population of this country. "In democratie schools we close the gate to the scholar lu all the ïnterestlüg studies ftfter the age of thirteen. Not a chance for sciences or literature unless one can go to the high school." This is true of the common and graded schools generally, and the scientüic and linguistic attainments of the commercial traveler referred to, would shame that of nineteen-twentieths of our college graduates. In Europe where so many languages are spoken, it is common to learn two or more, and we can do it as well, and should, where facilities are easify accesible. Physical cuiture or training is next in importance to moral training. Mens sana in sano corpore (a sound mind in a sound body) is an old and wise maxim. It should take no argument to convince any intelligent person of its value and this instruction should be begun, made compulsory and continued iive days in a week through all the grades from the primary through the high school, and should be planned with reference first, to systematic exercise with dumb bells, etc., accompanied by music under a leader from each class or división, a teacher directing, in wnich it i found that children, young and old, always delight to join. Secondly, with reference to specified daily cise taken neeessarlly outside the school room. at the homes of the pupils, -vitli special atteaition to each pupil's meeds. For a boy who is hollow chested, one set of exepclses would be preseribed; for agirl with weak luaags and a delicate organization another set : the object being to secure the best possible development of the body to make eacb healthy, but all should be untler the dlrectlon oí a competent lady teacher, who is either the gradúate of some medical school, or who has had special training with practice and understands well the physiology and hygiëne of the human system, and eau. also, instruet in physiology and hygiëne. To make this training the most effective, a chart of measurement should be i'uriushed as is done in the best schools in the country and each pupil measured carefully at the beginning of each year or term, and then a comparison made froni time to time, with the ideal anodel of the human figure of the same age, and the pupil taught how to correct his or her personal defeets. The effect of this training is so appareait in all schools where it is properly taught, that strangers at once notice the good carriage of the pupils, as all visitors invariably do the erect and manl.v hearing of the cadets at the U. S. military academy at West Point. As to its bearing upon health its importance is too great to be estimated. In one young ladies' boarding BChoool, it was the constant boast of the principal after its introduction, that his bilis for the doctor were reduced to notliing, practically, and Prof. Edward Hitchcock, A. M., M. D.. of Amherst College, Massachusetts, where thorough compulsory physical culture lias been the rule four or five days per week during the whole college course, after thirtyfive years of experience, reports that the benefits are incalculable, that the health of the seniors averages 50 per cent, bettert han that of the freshmen. This testimony is positive and conelusive. We need no gyannasium, and there will be no expense for apparatus save ïor ludían clubs, dumb bells, etc, and these the parents of the children will most gladly procure. The teacher the board must provide, aad no time should be lost in securing one, but great care should be exercised that she has the right qualüication. This ie not an experimental matter. It was made compulsory in Prussia4 in 1S42, and in 1859 at Amherst College ; in 1889 Boston adopted it and employed a director to train teachers and the demand for them has been so great that it has been difficult to supply them, and the state law of Massachusetts requires that all children be taught how to take care of their bodies. There should, also, be special training in deela-mation in all the grades above the third or fourth, if not tn the lower, aiid this should be continuous and obligatory, not optional, each year, Iroan the third year through the high school. "TTCre is nothlng which 'so completely equips the ave- íacro man and woman to perform well their duties to themselves and the communities in which they reside, as the ability, as President Garfield expressed it, "To think on one's feet," and to express those thoughts in public, and this comes from practicum the youth in deelamation iirst, and then in debating, the latter to be commenced and continued in addition to the former in all the grades above the seventh. Public exercises in deelamation and essays should be given in all these grades, to which the parents should be particularly invited, and parental visitation to all the daily work should be especially encouraged. During a residence of over thirteen years in this city, neither superintendent or teacher ever invited either the writer or his wife to visit nn.v regular school exercise, a fact very significant, sjnce in Massachusetts, a state considered the leader in all educational inatterx, the opposite course is pursued and each superintendent and teacher exerts himself to secure the greatest possible showing on the school register of parental visitation, and experience provea that nothing so stimulates both pupil and teacher, as frequent parental presence in the school room. The state superintendent of public educatlom in this state, informed the writer only last week that he constantly recommended this to teachers in his lectures, and always strove to induce parents to visit the schools frequentIs it not time that this course was pursued in Ann Arbor ? It is a duty we owe to our children, and if the teachers do not invite this a rule of the school board, that the record of their books, the school register, showing the number of parental visits, (each parent signing the register and giving the date of visit) will be regarded as aai index of the value of their services, will, if enforced, at once correct this indifference. We can, also, and hould have more of science teaching, bring our children into closer contact with nature, and have our boys and girls as familiar with the ñames ol the grains, frnits nul uil the products of the Held, garden and orchard, and ihe noxious insects infesting them, the wooda ol the foresta, tlie trees, grasses, flowers, bxiga, creeping things, rock and earths oí each school yard, the birds which nxake melody over their heads, as wlth the townships of their native county, the rivers of China or the capes of África. Manual should also follow lor the boys, and Manual Training and cooking and sewing lor the girls. in ihe Sprlagfleld, Massachusetts Jiepublican, of January 27, '93, we find tlie following : "The school board were entertained at the eooking school Wednesdny afternoon in a delightful mamier. They were invited to come in time to take in the exercises of the afternoon clase frora the public schools, whlch oo this particular afternoon happened to be from the eighth grade of the Worthington street grammar school. Those of the committee who arrived in time, seemed much interesteil with the lesson, and certainly the pupila presented a most attractive appearance in their spotless aprons, natty white caps, and towels and holders tied to the side in such a housewifely way. Alter the lesson was over, the pupils served to the guests a delicious repast of their own compounding. The menu Avas corn soup with croutons, scalloped chicken. creamed potato and crisped crackers, cheese soufflé and bread sandwiches, Dutch apple cake with lemou sauce, and coffee. Each course was daintily served by the pupils, the guests beiug seated at smaJl tables disposed about the room. Every dish even the bread lor the sandwiches, was made by the pupils. and they and their teachers are to be Mghly oomplimented on the success attained, for a professional catarer need not have hesitated to claim credit for such toothsome viands." Cooking lessons were introduced in the New York city schools seventeen years ago., and the cience of Domestic Economy is now in the courses of many of the agrieultural colleges and in the schools of more than twenty cities in the United States and tliis experience in Springfield, ilass., can and should be repeated in Ann Arbor in sixty days. President Eliot, .of Harvard, in a magazine article not long since, under the title '-Whether Popular Education Has Failed," sharply criticised present methode, showed how we fail and briefly summarized in his masterly way, the object of au education to be ■1 .- Observing accurately ;" "2.- Recording correctly;" and "3.- Comparing, grouping and inferring justly;" '4.- Expressing cogently the result of these operations." Dr. C. M. Rice has also added the weight of his expert testimony to that of President Eliot (to particularize) on the general inefficiency of the metliods of the Cincinnati, Baltimore, Buffalo and St. Louis schools, and has as warmly commended the examples of the opposite course in the Indianapolis schools. The collecting of specimens by each pupil as suggested, will give ampie opportunity lor applying the first three .pomts made by President Eliot of "Observing accurately, recording correctly, and grouping and inferring justly" and the practice in declamation, essays, and debating, will round up in --Expressing cogently',' etc. All the work in languages and in ience teaching by observation (the children in iall the grades making their collection of woods, grasses, plants, flowers, bugs and butterflies, etc.,) all work in detlamation and debating and in physical training is done in some schools now, and the universal lestimony is that this method equips the children for doing their grade work better, and they do it better in consequence. Experience proves that to begin teaching Germán we need have iittle, if any, extra expense incurred for teaching force, since teachers who can teach Germán in all the grades are already employed, and as to science teaching, declamation, etc, if this is at once required, and made the rule by the board, all the teachers can acquire the necessary information to lead in observation, etc, and will join heartily in the work if the way is pointed out. All this can and should be done this year with the possible exception of introducing Germán in all tlie grades and Manual Training, but they should be decided upon now, and announcements in the catalogue, and no extra expense now will be required except for the cooking school and two teachers, but as a tax payer, the writer is willing to bear bis proportion of the burden necessary to put our schools in line witli tlie most advanced thought. If there is any doubt as to the wisdom of intrdoucing Germán now, the matter can be discussed, and the admirable papers of Hon. W. T. Harris, ISL. I., U. S. Conimissioner of Educacation. fofmerly superintendent of the schools in St. Louis, Mo., and Hon. John P. Peaslee, Ph. D., LL. D., „.„perintentlent of schools in Cincinati, c&refully read meanwhlle, and possil)y tó insure its euccess it may be aecessary to make such changes in the teaching forcé -as to place .the movement in t he hands ,0{ those who are heartily iij favor of it, or those who will uot use their influence to throw objstaclcs In the way. But there should 1 uo delay whatever in beginning the werk in declaination and composi,tion and in extending the science work i)y observation, etc., and in beginning physical training, and a teacher of do-mestic economy or household scimc and one tor physical training mhould be secured at the earliest moaicnt, tbat the girls of the present senior class in the high school may add the art of being expert cooks to their otlier flccomplishments upon graduation, and all have the benefit of pbysical culture. Your petitioner is positive about the advantages of a complete Matinal 'Training school in which the boys are tnught carpentering, free-hand and mechanical drawing, letteriug, joining, jig isawing ; proper care and use of tools, designs for wood carving, wood turning, pattern making, inoulding and carving, architectural drawing, forging, weiding, t-empering, braziaig and soldering, machine and Architectural details, free-hand Ürawing, decorative designs, and as machine shop work, chipping, filing turning, drilling, planing, study of machinery, care of steam engines and boilers, study of electrical machinery and Vesting apparatus. And the girls are giveai instruction in free-hand and mechanical drawing, designs for wood carving', lettering, light carpeatry, care and use of tools, course in cooking, sewing, garment cutting, and making, architectural drawing, designs from leaf fornis, in preparingand cookins food, nurchasing of household supplies, chemistry of cookry, machine and architectural details, decorative 'designing, cutting, naking and fitting garments, niillinery, household decorating, typewrlting and stenography. ïliere is no questiom about ithis. It is admitted by all t-1io have investigated the subject. Jt is a great advantage to both boys 'and girls, and besides they can add thero to their literary accomplishments without any way detracting f rom the latter. And there is no over-taxing since it is a law oï psychology that the mind is relieved by a change of employment, and actually grasps and acquires more in the regular lines of literary work than where this relief is not furnished. This is also true of the study of Germán in the lower grades. Hon. .ThTi P PaKle. Ph. D.. LL. D. above referred to, testifies positively on this matter in tlüs way : "The fact is that a child can study two languages at the same time and do as well in ach as he would tí all hls time was devoted to either language alone." Dr. HarrUs, U. S. Com. of Ed., Dr. Kiddle, íor years superintendent of schools in New "ïork City, Dr. Rickoff, ex-superintendent .of schools of Cinciimati and Cleveland, all corrobórate this. An'd there is another fact wliich those of the board who have had experience will at once admit, it is that we all learn the most about our own language after beginning the study of another. In educational circles it is well bnown that a committee of ten appointd by the National Educational Association, consisting of President Charles W. Eliot, of Harvard University, as chairman, U. S. Commissioner of TDducation, Hon. W. T. Harris, ■Washington, C, and President Jas. B. Angelí of the University of MichiMIl. and others, recommended in 1892, 1.- Tliat it was best to hold a conference of school and college teachers of each principal subject in the eecondary schools in the United States, such as Latin, the sciences, modern languages, etc., to consider lts proper limite, best methods of lnstruction, etc, and each conference to represent iairly the different parta of the country. 2._"That a eomniittee be appointed to select members, arrange meetings and report." Tlüs was adopted and $2,500 appropriated for necessary expenses, and seventy representativo teachers and college professors ■were selected, and conferences were held in different places,-the Latin and Greek in Ann Arbor. Reports were made to 1893, and the oourse recommended for schools such as ours was fas swígested above) tne introduction of sciöace teaching in all the grades, and, in ie case of the modern languages, to the posltive testiinony of the experts above referred to and our personal experience, this conference has added the weight of its dictiun os folio vs : "That an elective course in Germán or French be provided in the grammar schools open to chüdren of ten years of age, in ie firm belief that the educationiü effects of modern lauguage will be of immense benefit." lt seenis to the writer that there can be but one opinión upon this matter with those who have taken pains to iDTestigate the subject ,-and ly the view of lliose who have not careiully studied It, caá not In juwtiee be entitled to serious eonslderation. The luauguratiou of a complete Manual Training and School oí Domestic Economy will probably require the erection oï a uew building, lts .proper equipment and the employineiit of a few ypecial teachers, but careful investigation will prove that teachers can to-day be employed who cain teiich both Latin and (reek, or the modern languages, sciencetí, and mechanical drawing and carpentry, - both Latin and Greek or the modern lajiguages, sciences and wood turning, carving and forging, - büth Latin and Greek, or the modern languages, sciences and machine work,- both cooking and sevving and hygiëne 'and physiology or English literature, etc.,- in fact college graduates haviug the degrees of A. 15. and B. 8., one or both, and A. M. and U. 6., and Ph. I).- yes, doctors of philosophy, 'ladies and gentlemen, either, or both can be found to teach well all the studies üi our courses in the high school 'and in the manual training, physical culture, cooking and sewing schools, 80 great have been the advanceiuents made in the last decade,- so that the extra outlay ïor teaching force need uot be large. Besides, our present teachers, many of thern, can, ii they choose, readiiy fit themselves to teah most of the manual training and physical culture under competent supervisión. Professor Felix Adler says, 'Durlng an experience of twelve years manual training has liad the effect to save those who are deficiënt in the literary quality, and in conjunction with the study of .natural history, awakens their self-confidence and self-respect and stiimulates them generally and that their regular work lias been strengthened by its introduction." Dr. C. M. Woodward, director of the St. Lduis Manual Training School, says : " If we abridge, in some cases, the hours given to books and the time wasted in idleness and introduce excrcises of a widely different character, the result is a positive intellectual gain. There is plenty of time if you will but use it aright. The students of a well conducted manual training school are iutellectually as active and vigorous as in any high school. Nay, more I claim, and I have had a good opportunity to observe the fants. t'hat even on the intellectual side, the manual training boy has the advantage. I have been in charge of both kinds of schools and know whereof I speak. The education of the hand is a means of more cotopletely and efliicaciously educatiug the brain. The great end is education, the development of the mind and the body, the simultaneous culture of the intellectual, physical and moral faculties. We believe in the study of things first, their syrnbols second." President Francis A. Walker, LL. D., of the Boston Institute of Technology, says: " If we ask a boy to take his place at a carpenter's bench, it is not that we wish to make a carpenter of him, but that we wish to make him more of a man. We know that there is not one chance in fifty that he will use the saw, the chisel, the plane, the hammer, as the tools by which he earns his bread, but if he has had the proper raining in their use, he will carry to his work in life, whatever it may be, not only a better hand and a better eye, but liso a better mind, a mind more perectly fitted and rounded out on all ides." Professor John Fiske, of Cambridge, says : " In a very deep sense all human science is but the increment of the owei of the eye, and all human art is he increment of the power of the hand. Vision and manipulation, these, in their countless, indirect and transfigured forms, are the two coöperating factors m all intellectual progresa." Industrial training has been estabished in the schools of twenty-five states and over forty educational institutions, ranging from the most famous universities to the public schools of insignificant cities, include this training in their curriculum, and the fact that graduates of other schools canreadily be obtained for this to us new dewdeparture, is another weighty reason why we should proceed at once to take measures to keep abreast of the times ; yes, ahead, Ann Arbor should lead. It has been demonstrated that both girls and boys perform their other school work better for this addition of manual training department, just as before we have seen that the study of another language, and science study by observation, or Professor Agassiz's method of the study of things before ideas, aids in the same line. It is a change, a positive relief. The object is not to produce niechanics, machinists, expert hotel cooks, dress-makers, etc, but to edúcate the hand, the most marveloua instrument in the world, as well as the brain, to teach our children the dignity of labor, in fact to equipthem in the very best manner to become useful citizens in every walk of life. As to a new building, there is room in the same block south of the old high school', and the tax-payers will as generously vote to build and equip it, and be as proud of it, as they were to erect the addition on the north side. As an investinent for the city it will be of priceless yalue. It will do moreto adrertise Ann Arbor and her schools this year thau mything else thatcan possibly be done. Every educational joiimal, and about svery magazine in the country, will have inicies upon it, all the newspapers will liave paragraphs about it, and this adrertiaing is what Ann Arbor needs tolaj. The city has grown as a residence ;ity ; real estáte has advanced steadily Eor years, and we can continue this growth ; keep up the ad vanee. Property lias not reached its full limit of value in Ann Arbor. Real estáte is much highèi in Kalamazoo than here. In Madison, Wisconsin, lots no more advantageously situated than many on Washtenavv avenue, or on State street south of the nanipus,or on Tappan street, sell for sixty dollars per front foot. é Ann Arbor will continue to grow as a residence city if we keep our schools in the ad vanee line. We arebehind now. The University has manual training in its department of miniug, civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, and these departments me popular, too, and everything is ripe for this advance iu the city schools. We now have over seveu hundred students in the high school. Let the fact be known that we are to introduce eooking lessous and physical culture this year, and then push forward the project and open a complete manual training school, well equipped in all its departments, at the earliest possible moment, and introduce the Germán, and the predio tí on is now liazarded that in less than two years we shall be compelled to provide necessary accommodations for at least one thousand high school pupils, and, of course, this increase in the high school will make a corresponding gain in the number iu the University. This request to the board is not made in a captious spirit. Ann Arbor is the reputed "Athens of the West," and henee Aun Arbor schools should lead. Besides every citizen is aware that the city has grown because of the excellence of her schools and her great educational advantages, and can we afford to be in the rear of this car of progress? As property owners we are personally interested to have our schools as good as the best. We want to rnake them so attractive that thousands of families as soon as they hear of them will at once move here, add to our population, increase our wealth and reduce our rate of taxation. Since the originator of this request is not a native of this comrnunity, and cept íor nis neariy nneen yeais residence in Ann Arbor, is a stranger to eacta member of the board, it is hoped that it will not be considered egotistical to add for inforination, lest it may be claiined that he has no right to indulge in this request from either knowledge or experience, that he edueated hiraself for a teacher by nis own labors, began in a Vennon t district school at sixteen, „boarded round," but in a few years bis work as a teacher was the only one specially notieed and comniended in the annual report of the State Superintendent of Education, and, besides this, was his army experience above álluded to. He was, also, principal of a long established and still flourishing Vermont academy, and afterwards of a Massaclmsetts high school, where boys (no girls then thought of it) were fittted for any eastern college, and was, without solicitation on his part, as was the case in his appointment to organize and superintend the colored schools in New Orleans, above related, elected superintendent of all the schools in New Orleans and member the state board of education for Louisiana, and in a life now spanning more than half a century, his constant endeavor has been by business assoeiation and otherwise, having ctaiLdren of his own to edúcate, to keep in close contact with the most advanced educational ideas. Eespectfully submitted, April 10, 1894.


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