Little more than a ínonth ago the liberal niinistry in Eugland resigned, the oppositiou took office and ordered an election for a new house of comruons. Since that time the issues of the opposing parties have been fonnulated, a campaign on those issues conducted, elections held, the will of the people ascertained and the new parliainent is now ready to carry that will into legislation. What a contrast this with our long drawn out, business disturbing campaigns of from four to six nionths, and the subsequent thirteen months of delay before congress comes togetlier to consider the issues on which it was elected, many of which may in the meantime have become obsolete, or, in view of possible change of conditions, of little oonsequence. Perhaps it was necessary in earlier years when there were no railroads and telegraphs and but few newspapers to have a long campaign. It may be necessary now, in view of the mnltiplicity of questions submitted to onr electors to take a longer time to inetruct and enlighten them than is reauired in England where electors are required to vote for menibers of the house of corumons only; but surely there can be no necessity for holding conventions and noininating candidates eeveral nionths before the time set for the polling. The great mass of voters are kept in pretty close touch with the qnestions which are pressing for solution by the newspapers and other periodicals, and do not require so long a time to arrive at an undertsanding of the issues on which their will is to be expressed. Then there are positivo disadvantages in long campaigns. Attention is taken from business and time and energy spent in the excitement of campaigning without necessity therefor or adequate advantage. Business is interrupted and immense losses result. Large amounts of money are expended in carrying on these protracted campaigns, if not in the corrupting of, voters, -which might be devoted to worthier objects. The burdens of the canipaign are often so great upon the candidates that they consider it necessary to use their office to reimburse themselves for "legitimate expenses" incurred by engaging in questionable practices and thus their time instead of being given to the performance of their duties to their oonstituents, is occupied in rehabilitating their private fortunes. Shorter campaigns would avoid much of this expense and a consdierable part of the corrupting influence resulting from the expenditure of enormous carnpaign funds. Business would snlïer less and every electoral interest would be equally well cared f or. We ruight learn a valuable lesson from the methods of carnpaigning aoross the water. In many respects therecent encampnient of the Michigan National Gnard seems to have been the most suocessful in years. The real purpose for which the state makes a considerable anuual expenditure - the acquantiing of our citizen soldiery with the actual duties and discipline of life in the field - was never more prominently kept before the men. The basis of all efficiency in a military organization is discipline and drill - thorough understauding of the reqnirements of the service. Nothing will do more either to preserve the confldence and faith of the people of our fair state in the citizen soldiers than to see them respond in soldierly fashion to the proper demands of the service. Michigan has had reason to be proud of her militia and is never indifferent to its merits. The ease with which ït was converted into veteran soldiers in the late war and the record then made has disarmed criticism for all time. In view of the general succees of the enoampment it is to be regretted that any thing should have occurred to make the memory of the same in any degree unsatisfactory. That any should have feit that there was a possible unnecessary display of authority on the part of any officers is unfortunate. The militia, being in large measure a voluutary organization, every display of authority not necessary for the efficiency of the service should be avoided lest it tend to make the systern impopular and discourage ïnen froni enlisting. The ïnilitia is a necessary arm of the governnaent and those who are willing to enter it should be given no cause to consider themselves unjustly treated. It is etimated tbat farmfirs and horse breeders during the past three years have lost in horse values about $-124, 000. 000. This has been due to Varióos canses, prominent among which may be mentioned the trolley and the bioyole. During the time mentioned $400,000,000 have been expended in constructing and equipping electrio railways. This has thrown out of use in each of the large cities f rom 7,000 to 10,000 horses and stopped the purchase of horses to take their places. The bicycle has also in a considerable degree superceded the horse for light driving and is destined to become still more important as a mode of conveyance in time to come. In 1890 the horses on our farms and ranches nuinbered 14,000,000 and they were worth $987,000,000. In 1892 the number had increased to 15,500,000 and their value to $1,000,000,000. In 1895 the number had increased to 15,893,318, but their value had fallen off to $576, 730,580. There are no present indications of a restoration of horse values in the near future. Comptroller Bowler of the United States treasnry has reopened the question of the constitutionalty of the sugar bouñty clause of the McKinley Ltariff act by refusing to pay the claims for bounty on sngar manufactured duriug the season of 1893. The refusal of the comptroller to settle certain claims amonnting to $238, 000 was sustained by Secretary Carlisle on Jnly 23. The United States court of appeals for the District of Columbia bas held that the act granting a bounty on sugar was tmconstituitonal and on this decisión is based the refusal of the comptroller to pay the claims. The last congress appropriated $5, 500, 000 for the payment of all claims which might arise under the provisions of the McKinley act, while it was in force, but of course if the bounty provisión is unconstitutional the claims ought not to be allowed. The principie of government favoritism to one industry at the expense of all others, through a bounty, is odious to our ideas of equality of opportunity and privilege before the law, and henee these claims should not be paid at least until the question of constitutionality is settled by the court of last resort. Associate Justice Howell E. Jackson of the United States supreme court, died on the 8th instant, of consnmption. Judge Jackson was well known in Michigan, he having been judge of the circuit of which Michigan forms a part before he was elevated to the supreme bench. He was highly esteemed by all who knew him both as a man and a jurist He was a scholarly man and a man of wide experience in affairs. He had served his state in various capacities, and was a member of the United States senate when appointed to the circuit bench by President Cleveland. He was made associate justice by President Harrison. He has been in failing health for sorne time and his last appearance on the bench was on the occasion of the second hearing of the inoorne tax question. The vacancy on the snpreme bench caused by his death is the fourth which President Cleveland has been called upon to fill. An elevated bicycle road is to be constructed between Chicago and Milwaukee. The road contemplated is a wooden elevated road sixteen feet wide, extending in nearly a straight line between the two cities and terminating as near the business center of each as possible. A company has been formed in Chicago with a capital of a million dollars, the stock has all been subscribed, plans prepared and work on the road will begin as soon as the ri ght of way has been secured. It is to be a toll road, ten oents being the charge between the two cities. It is thought that 20,000 wheelmen per week will use it. At last it is said that the famous Mora claim against Spain is to be settled by the payment by that country of $1,500,000. This claim originated years ago in the act of the Spanish government confiscating the estates of one Mora, a. naturalized citizen of the United States during a rebellion Jin Cuba. The Spanish government long since recognizéd the justice of the claim, but failed tomakeprovisions for its payment. Recently Secretary of State Olney has been pushing the claim with the result stated above.