The first Washtenaw Farmers' Instiute uuder state auspices was in session d this city at Newberry hallWednesday. 'lie farmers were a little tardy in geting in and it was 10 o'clock bef ore the nstitute was called to order by Presient William Campbell. After prayer y Rev. J. M. Gelston, the president made a brief talk. He, said amoiig ther things that the subject of sugar eets was at present time attracting rnuch attention. He thought the lore stigar beets men raised the fewer ead beats there would be. He said be farmer must fiad some way to get More mouey out of his business. Iuteligent farmers were not willing to live n potatoes alone and dress in sheepkins. They needed and mast have lothing and food suited to the needs f modern life; they must have the est schools, the best papers, magazines nd books, and henee, more money. They come together, he said, in intitutes to get better ideas on all sorts of subjects. And there were always at these meetings men and women who could give pointers ou a wide range of subjects. He then introduced Prof. C. D. Smith, of the Agricultural College who spoke on the subject, "Sugar Beets." He said the interest in the subject at present was intense. He should speak.he said.from the farmers' side of it as the manufacturers' side was only indirectly interesting to such a gatüering. Not all soils, he said, were adapted o tbe growing of sugar beets. Clay and muck were not suited to this purpose. Photographs were exhibí ted of he beets growu upon sandy loam, vhich he said was the best soil for tbeir culture, and likewise of those grown upon stiff clay. Those from saudy soil were long and tapering and nearly sinooth while tbose from the clay soil were sprawling, being divided into numerous roots. This división is accused by the iuability of the top root to get down into the grouud to a sufficieat depth to enable the beet to develop natvirally. These sprangly beets are just as rich in sacchariae matter as the others, bui; wheu they are taken to the factory those large branching roots are lopped off and there is a loss in weight of about 27 per cent. It was not altogether clear, he said, why black muck was not good for beet culture. Generally, however, the percentage of silgar was less although sometimes it was very high. Normally beets have but five or six per cent of sugar but sometimes they test as high as 22. The qnality depends largely on the seed used. It requires about five years to produce a beet, growing from the best seed each fear, which has the highest sugar perjentage. It is not easy to get the best need in quantities in this country tor the reason that Gerinany has laid a heavy eport duty on beet seed. We will 'have to cultívate seed here. Supplies for experimentaron can be obtained froni the agricnltural college. Ground shonld be prepared by deep plowing, seed shonld be sown in rows about corn planting tiine. The rows should be about 20 to 22 inches apart. Prom 12 to 15 pounds of seed ace reqnired to the acre. When the beets are up toabont thefourth leaf.they haveto be thinned with a hoe. Starting with two inches of beets, six inches should be cut out and soon. At the present time all this has to be done by hand. When the rows are 18 inches apart a person has to crawl on bis mees a distance of about five and a half miles to thin an acre. This is usually done by foreign vromen and boys. This Prof. Smith declared was an insurmountable difficulty to the arge production ef beets in this country at any considerable distance from a city with a large foreign populatiou. Sixty five cents a day is paid for this labor and it takes seven and a half days to thin an acre. After thinning their care differs little from care given to potatoes. The beets are pulled and two or three rows are placed together with the tops all one way. Then all that part which grows above srround is cut off with a knife. The delivery is generally in fonr parts and during October, November, December and Jannary. When not delivered at the factoryjuntil late in the winter they must be put in a silo for protection. It doas not hurt them to freeze provided they are used before they thaw out bntfreez ing and thawing spoils them. The average cost of production pe acre is about $32.06, divided soine what as follows : Preparing ground $2.50; seed, $1.50; sowing, 50 cents cultivating six times, f2.40; thinninp and weeding, $8; harvesting, The average yield abont 1 4 tons per acre. The usual profits range froin $32 to 86 per acre. The sugar, he said, comes entirely from air. But the other products of the beet are drawn from the soil and the soil must be fertilized to replace what tbey extract fromit otherwise diseased and inferior beets are prodnced. At the close of Prof. Smith's paper the institute adjonrned to the medical building so tbat Prof. Freer might have the use of a stereopticon in illustratiug his lecture. Prof. Freer in opening, upon the same subject, entered into a brief history of sugar from the earliest times. First cajne to Europe about 1140 or 1150 and was brought to Spain by the Arabs iu the 16th century and by the Spaniards into Mexico and Cuba. He'also gave a history of the developmeut of the beet sugar industry and said there was uow twice as much beet sugar produced as cane sugar. Many interesting statistics as to the building of factories in Europe were given and also a history of bounty system and how it has worked abroad. He said we only produced one-sixth of the sugar we consume in this country, but he saw uo reason why we might not produced all. He gave a minute discription of the methods of testing the sugar beet. Among the states producing sugar beets Michigan was second only to New York in the quality of her beets. Prof. Freer reproduced from this point in bis lecture on, much which had been given by Prof. Sniith. By means of the stereopticon he exhibited upon a screen a map showiug the regions of the Unitd States best adapted to the culture of .sugur beets, natural and deformed beets, ingredieuts taken from the soil in growing them and the percentage of the same, also the machinery needed for the manufacture. The womans sectioii which met iu the lower room of Newberry hall fllled every available chair. It was called to order by Miss Jenuie Buel, of Arm Arbor, chairman. lts success was shown by the interest manifested. A :justiou "Shoald the dnties of a wife be superceded by those of a inother," was answered by Mrs. Helen H. Kelley. The program for tomorrow afterQOOU. The afternoon scssion of the Farmer's institnte was slow in coming to order. C. P. Goodrich, the cow expert, was late in arriving, the benefits of ha ving two kinds of time receiving a practical illnstratiou. Until he appeared, Prof. Clinton D. Smith answered questions ou the beet sugar, He said while seed retain tbeir vitality three years, he wonld uot recoiumend old seeds as only 65 per cent of two year old seed will gerniinate. In speaking of the profits of raising sugar beets and manufacturing the sngar, he said, it all depended on the locality, seasons and above all things the business management. C. P. Goodrich, of Ft. Atkinson, Wis., was introduced and spoke on "The Profitable Cow. " He is an enthnsiast on the subject, knows what he talks about and so witty that he immediately captured bis audience. A profltable cow was one that would consume the crops of the farm, pay for the same and the labor of taking care of the cow and leavc something more. The soinething more was the profit. This depended on many conditions but on more than anything else on the man who handled the cow. He gave some of the points of a good dairy cow as being a broad forehead, mild large full intelligent eyes showing a strong brain. Milk was the product of nerve forcé. No cow without a strong brain could be a good milk producer. Af ter nrusic, Prof. G A. Waterman, f the Agricultura! College spoke on Diseases of the Dairy Cow." Theoore F. Liake, of Mansfield, Ohio, gave recitation and the afternoou session oncluded with a talk by C. P. Goodich on "Feeds aud Feeding Dairy Cows." At Wednesday afternoon's session of he Farmers Institmte, Prof. G. A. Waterman, the veterinary surgeon of he Agricultural College spoke of the 'Diseases of the Dairy Cow." He ilustrated hls remarks with large pictures on canvas. He was remarkably clear aud created much interest. He advocated that farmers learn to treat their cows ■when sick, and gave the treatment to prevent many diseases. He was followed by C. f. Goodrich on " Feeds and Feeding a Dairy Cows. " He believed in high feeding but advised great care in not giving too much concentrates in proportion to coarse feed. There must be a sufficiency of protein fed. Many questions were put to Mr. Goodrich which he answered very happily. He was asked if the kind of feed would produce an incfease in the richness of the milk. He said he coald not answer this. He had once said it did, and he had gone to work to prove this, and had found out he conld not. He had ever since been hearing of what he once said. He wished people would forget it. So much interest was taken in the subjects discussed that the audience seemed loath to leave the hall. Secretary Mills announced that all who became inembers of the association and paid their membership of 25 cents, would receive all of the bulletins issued by the agricultural experiment station, many o: which were very valuable. The evening's session was openec (Continued on Eighth Page.) SUGAR ETS TALK (Continued trom First Païe.) with a .song by the U. of M. Glee Club, "The Yellow and Bine. " The assemblage was greatly pleased ■with the singiii-: and called londly for more. As Mrs. Ella E. Rockwood, of Fliut, who was to open the program was not present, the president introduced President Suyder, of the Agricultural College, who spoke on "Progress and Education. ' ' He said the advantages we enjoy today were unknown to the preceding generation. There had been more progress during the spau of a single life than iu several previous centuries. He described the progress resulting frojn the application of steam as a motive power, how the earth was girdled with steel bauds and the waters plowed by the ocean grey hound. These tracks have become the arteries along which púlsate the commerce and jntelligence of the world. He noted the progress and development of labor saving machinery and the advantages resulting therefrom. He related what worlds of the unknown had been brought to view by the telescope and the mioroscope. He told of a sermón he once heard in which the preacher stated that in the heavenly world space visión would be practically anniilated and would know no bounds. Bot steam and electricity and the X ray have brought these things to pass in thé pïesent world. Modern civilization has beoome very complex and demands tho products of the whole world. To meet these demands and utilize the roaehinery óf production requires coopera tion. The business of the present has far outgrown the power of the individual. It is necessary to pool forces. Those who wished to be a liviug part of all this progress must have their f orce and abilities under the highest state of development and disipline. The men and the women of the coming generation must have the hand and the eye as well as the mind trained fo life's duties. Provisión for these neces sities had not been forgotten. School and organizations for moral and reli gious instruction had kept pace witl the developments in other lines. He would have manual training and cook iug and sewing provided for in al grammar schools and high schools There was plenty of evidenoe in suppor of the assertion that these could be had without detracting trom the standing of students in their usual studies These things were important since it i necessary that the entire man be edu cated. It would prevent in larg measure that idea which young peopl who have acquired some scholasti training sometimos affect that they are above and beyond anything in the lin of manual labor. He would hav each and every child well educated, fo education meant opportunity and lac' of it, lack of opportunity. Education and iudustry must be mixed. At th present time the average life in schoo is fout four years. This must be in creased. The application of machinery to industry in all lines made more train ing a necessity. Dr. Snyder's addres was written and was a fine literary effort. Af ter its close brief talks weimade on the same subject by Sen ator Campbell, Prof. Smith, Mrs Ernina Campbell, D. A. Hainmonc aud Dr. C. P. Goodrich, of Ft. Atkin sou, Wis. The Thursday sessiou did not open vintil 10 o'elock and Miss J. A. King preceptress of the State Noraml colleg was announced as the flrst speaker She said she would limit her subjec "Michigan "Schools," to Washtenaw county schools. The school was the most vital cornmunity interest. I was entitled to receive and should re ceive at the hands of the parents anc taxpayers interested the most carefu oversight and inspection. lts purpose is to serve the people as an adjunct to the home, the church and the Sunday school. All these were parts of on whole and should co-operate for th well being of the child. I the school is not what it should be, i is the duty of those controling them in the first instance to see that they are, made what they should be. Ther shobld always exist the closest an most intelligent relation between par ents and school. There shonld be no workiiig to diverse ends. Every effor of the various social agencies shoulc make for the proper fitting of the boys and girls for the dnties the men anc women are performing today. The next geneiaïton mnst live and do on a higher píáne than the present anc every help rbust be given the children te prepaTe them for this station. The home 'inust help the child for as the home is, so in large measnre will the school be. There was too much of the critical, in the nature of faultfinding, whioh greatly added to the teaeher's difficulties. Many times the teacher was looked upon as the natural enemy, there was a great gulf between parent and teacher. These dift'erences generally arose from lack of sympathy with teacher in the home. Parents shonld visit the schools, become aoquainted with the teacher and the management of the school. The school is onr dearest aiid most costly interest, the raeans through which the community works ont its elevation and henee is entitled to the aid and sympathy of all. Better teachers are needed and ruight be secured if the same careful attention were given to the school that farmers ?ive to their stock. There should be netter library facilities asthelibrary is a most valnable adjunct to the school. Then their should be a better course of ■rtudy. Children need to have more to So with things. There should be less Df the abstract and more of the conjrete, less of the "filling of thebneket" aethod of teaching. Lastly the social ide of child life should be cnltivated iud developed. Dr. Hinsdale coutinued the siou. He said in opening he had always noticed with much satisfactiou that Farmers instituten always devoto a part of their programs to educational snbjects. This was proper, especially the diseussion of edacalion iu its relatioii to their calliug The same thing would be most proper iu the meetiugs of other callings. He quoted from Judge Cooley's history of Michigan as follows : "In respect to the general edncation of the people, Michigan was fortúnate in the pert-ons to whoni the destinies of the territory were committed in its early days. Two ideas appear to have been dominant in the edncational legishition aud institutions of the state from the eaiiiest period. These are that the meaus of rudinientary education shall be placed within reach of every child in the state, and that opportimities for thorough culttire shall given as speedily and completely as the circumstanc.es of the people perinit. " Tlie school System of the state has been worked out in strict consouance with these ideas. He said the organizatiou of the school system of Michigan and other eastern states marked a step forward in the educatioual history of the country. The system in older states differs from ours in that provisión is made by law for elementary cduoation and seeondary schools, but there is no provisión for a uuiversity. Tte university feature is lackiug in a majority of the older states. The western systems of public education make provisión for three divisions of schools, primary, schools, high schools and university. This is after the plan of rnany European countries, notably Switzerland, France and Germany. There is nothing he declared, that lias given the state more credit an3 prestige out side than its system of education. But Michigan has never won her educatioual reputation by the excellence of her primary schools. This has come through her high schools and university. Farmers, he said, were most directly íd teres ted in the primary or elementary school, There were the foundation of the edncational system and all were interested in them. He spoke of the differences between the aSvantages of country and city children, bat did not attempt to say which had the greater. Country children cáine in immediate contact with natnre, the real things of life, while city children were ignorant of the phenomena of country life. Some of the weaknesses of the rural schools were the inferior teachers and shortness of school terms. The law requires but five months school and it should be seven. These weaknesses may be remedied by demanding seveu, by payiug teachers more and by combining schools under a township plan. CJnder the district system some schools were too small while others are too large. He gave evidence to prove that nnder the township unit system, the ■eaching f orce may be strengthened, the course of study extended and the ;hildren collected and conveyed to and :rom the school in conveyances which protect them from the weather and all !or a less expense than at present. Che plan is worthy of careful investida tion.