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A List Of The Mammals Of Ann Arbor And Immediate Vicinity

A List Of The Mammals Of Ann Arbor And Immediate Vicinity image
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1. Vulpes fitlvus. Red fox. Supposed by some uUhors to be deutical with l'n, vidgaris- the red fox of Europc. This animal still retains a foothold i" the swamps and hiulTs ;it)out city, while it8 cousin, ihc yray fox, has entirely disappeared. In itt food, the red fox is more or less omnivorous, eatiug green corn und wild fruits readily. 'i. Puloriu.i Xoveboracensis. White weasel. Krmine. This is now supposed to bc identical witli Putoritu ermineus- the European erraine- thoujh the two aeem to ififfw groatly in the Qnenees of tlicir fur. Tlie white weasel soinetimeu enters the ciiv, as is shown by its tracks in the snow. It is a solitaiy animal, and never plentiful anywhere, but very generally distributed. 3. Putorius vüon. Hink. It still exists here along the river and smaller Btreams. I once found one living in the wall of the race of the lower town milis. 4. MtpJiiH iiitjihilka. Skunk. This animal beurs m;m"s society well, smti frequently enters the city in its search for food. Though Ihe glsuak is placed amonj; caniivorotis animáis, it live niuch upon insects. It is quite social in its habils, aml from five to aiue ure, frequently found living togeüier. 5. Proeyon lotor. Itaccoon. This still rttains its place in our swamps and tiinberèd lands. A darle and nearly black variety is quito eornmou. TUére i's ajeo a race of albinos in this part of the State. fine one is inoiiniod and on exhibitiou in Uu' liiivoraity Museum, and I havo Men several skins of the same in the city of Jackson. G. VetperUtio subulatu.i. Little brown bat. 7. Atalaplui Novehoi-'u; i;. Jíed bat. 8. Scalops aquatica. Common mole. Rare in tliis vicinity. !t. ('tiwlylHni cn'nldlii. Stur-iKised molo. A mach more abundant species in this vicinity than tlie last, it I can jnd(ï froui the number brougbt into the Museum. 10. Iilarinn breticauda. Ifole slirew. I lind no otlier slirew in the Museum from Ann Arbor, but half a dozen or more specimens of this species have been brought in u tliin two or three years. 11. Sciurojiterun volucdla. Flyingsquiriel. 'om ilion, li is nocturnal in Lts habits and raielv seen. It nuikes loog Jonrnevi aftel niffht In its learcfa foi food. It is social also, quite a number ahvays Uving together. A lar;e colony took poaaeselon of the attic ot Prof. Frieze's house, a few years since, and were fed and petteil until they became quite Uune. V. Srinnis iiiiir. Fox squirrcl. It sci-ni-. Ihat a black variety of this species from tlie Southern States was iirst naiued.and in this way this squirrel, which is usually of a foi solor, gets the sjiocilic name of niyer (black). It is quite abundant in this vicinity. and lias boon so long protected about the houses il l'rof. Ten Krook and Mr. Scott, that it lias beciime lialt tanic, and ia fre(iuontlv ieen in other parta of the city. It is usually iolitary in its habits, but in the tprlngktrgB numbeis somotinies ussoniblo tor some unknown pnrpOM. I saw at least lift y jrath■rod together in this way, in the spring of f 1Ü77, I think, near Prof. Ten Brook's iono, and olliers speak of still largor It is haratet aml. probably, nore omnivorous, and henee less inigratory han the black and gray squirrelë. It goes ibroad in quile severo woather in its search ifter food, and makes long excursions on ;he grouud. It has oue ieculiarity, well uiowii to boy hunters, which I have never icen inentioiicd. When found in a tree, vith no liollowin which itcan take refuge, t can f requeutly be so frightened by blows )ii the tree and shouting, that it will make wild leaps and come to the gromo, I have caught several in my hands that wen; stuuned in this way. 13. Sciurus Carolinensis. Black and ii;iy squirrel. Onr black and gruy squinels. though so distinct in coloring, aro known to be varietiea of one species. They are still found In the high woodlajids near the city, but, probably, rarely or never enter the city itsolf. In the back woods lffhl oc ten of the black varicty aro usual ly killed to one gray one; but, i'n the older partí of the country, the gray variety beeotnea more ulminl.iiit. The black ones 'are nu. re ewHji seeu by hunters, and the comparativa increase in the numberof gray ones is, probably, a direct result of this. It was supposed that neither tliis nor the foi iqoilTBl laid up food lor winter; but a more eureful observatiori of tbehabitsot' ibis species has led to a change of opinión. Nul and acorns are frequently lound in the lidl eoncealed, one in a place, on the groiind under the leaves. These are found to be at a distanée of tliree or four l'eet from the tree, and it is pretty well proved that they are boards of the black and gray squirrels. These takr a nul in the moutli. and, leaping from the tree to the ground, bury it on the spot. In tin winter, wtaüe the 'groiind is OOVCred with MJOWj wlun a warm, thawy dar calle tliem (rum their hole-, they leap o IV of the trees into tlie BntfW.and dig down tci the leaves, and rarely t.iil to tind w bat they searcli tor. Though haviog nothing to pe comparecí to tbe regular migrationa of the birds, tliis species is t'requcntly driven in larpe numbers from one part of the country to another in the search for food. 1 t. Sciurut Hiidxnhiii.i. Ked squirrcl. Abundant in all woodland, and frequently enters the city. The otlier squirnls, tbongfi much larger, tand in diadly iear ol' it. and it s amusinj to sec witb what beadlona haste they Öy when pursued by it. it i's Ihe most priividenr of all our sqi'urri'K, laying up large boards of nata Cor tbs u-c during winter. It seeks the trees before tlie lrost has ripencd the nuts, and ciits them Off with its teetb. trequen tl v bltlag off the end of the braneh willi tin: eluster fastened to it. This is ailpwed to l'all to the ground, and otberg are cut off In the same way, and one red squirrel may throw down in one morning a bushel of nuts. Thea they are careiully gatbered together and buried; sonietiines ander the leaves. sonietimes midi ]■ Ihe -hv (ifan ohl lci!í, a ml nllen in sume creviee In a (og,or in an 'aliandniied wobdchuck hole. Here they are lert. unlesa some boy finds them, until thev have rlpeiieil, and the shiieks loosened, when they are shuckcd and carried to some secure place. The red squirrel does uut hibeinale, and is abroad in all weather. IB. ''mutas striatus. Chipmuck. Common; but rarely or never enten the city. 10. Spermophüustrideremlinealuti. Stiiped gopher. Plentlful on the University campus, and In tlie saudy fields about the city. 17. Aretómut monax. Woodchuck, Comiiiim. lt is becoming a great pest to the t'ariners, by dijiging hoh-s and raiting mounds in the lields, as well as by traniptng down and eating the grass of the ineadous. 18. Zitttx luilsoniux. Jumping nmusc. 19. Afits dicumanus. l'.rown rat '20. Mus mnncidus. (!ommon mouse. 21. Ilcaperomya MichiganenHx. Michigan deer mouse. 22. Arvícola Amterus. Shorttailed meadow mouse. Abundant and iujurious in meadows. 23. Fiber zibethicus. Muskrat. Builds its nest in the mili pond and along the river. Quite a part of its food is freak water clama (Unios), whlch it opens with its sharp teetli. Ever}' spring lieaps of several species of these shells can be found ou the banka of the river. 24. Lepuê Americanu. White rabbit. I place this animal in the list with some doubt. It is said to be still found in the tamaraek swanip to the south. Whatever additions are made to this lis; will, probably, be from the slirews and tlu mice. Among the animáis that should be founc here, but of which I can find no account are the folio winr: Putorius vulgaria. Least woaspI. Tarúi Americana. American bailjfcr, Sorex Cooperi. Western shrew. Ilatperomys leucopu. Deer mouse. Arvícola riparias. Coinmon niuadow mouse. Didelphyt Virginiana. Üpossum. These are all animáis common to this latltude, and that bear the presence of wan. Badgers are killed about Jackson, and I have killed opossums in Lena wee county. Among the mammals that, without doubt, have inhabited this vicinity before its settlement by the whites, are: Lynx rufus. American wild cat. Canis occidentalis. American wolf. Urocyon cinereo-argcnUUus. (íray fox. Musida Americana. Pine marteu. Lutra Canadensis. Otter. Ursus Americanus. Black bear. Cervus Canadensis. American elk. Mr. Chipman Sinitli éug a pair of elk liorna from the marsh just south of the city. Gariacu Virgiiiiannx. Deer. 'ítitor Jiber. Jïeaver. Erethizan dorsattts. Porcum'nc. These lat naincil aniumls havo lol t Ihis part of the State, elther brcauM' théir peculiar foods have been dustroyed by the white mau and his domestic anímate, or because ilicv bare been eicessirely hunted forthelr flesh or fur, or because from thelr nature tluv are not able to bear the presence of man. In the list wc can, probably, ti ml antmáll that have become extinct from e:ioh of these tbree causes. There seeins to be gdOé nëeon Bar llic stateinent, that tliosc wild animáis b.v-i beU the pfMBnOt et' man, u hich are not striclly conlined to any one kind of food, but are in somc sense omnivorous. The red fox, raccoon and skunk, amontg caruivorous animáis, are examplo l thi-, while the wild eat and gray fox, animáis mote strictly carnivorous, disa)in.itrcil, almost as soon as the settlers appeared. The fox squirrels and muik-rats, aotong rodents, are also examplesof animáis whicli are not confined strictly to any one kind of food. There is also some cause for beliovin that varieties, whicli, in a perfect stale of nature, would have beon destroyed, have been partlally protected by man. The albino raccoons are examples of this, while uc (reqaenüy beai af white red Bquirrels, and of other sports of the kind.


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