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Pins And Needles

Pins And Needles image
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Pins are of. very ancient invcntinn, as hey were manufacturad by the Egypt.ians n the time of the Pharohs. Many rif these isoful articles were found in the tomhs of he kings in the pyramids. Sorae of thcin iroro of quïtrt nlnfinrnto mnmifjiptnrp and nust have been costly, as thoy had pnld leads, and were 8ix to eight inches in cngth. Nedles are also supposed to be of rcat antiquity, and thoir introduction into hiurope is said to have taken place at the time of the Saracen invasión and conquest )f Spain. The (irst needlcs made in Kngand were nianufacturod at London by a negro, who carne there from Spain during the reign of Quccn Mary. He died without iniparting the secret ot' nis art; but, it was subsequently rocoverediu 1 565 by one Klias (Jtowsc. A century later one Christopher Greening was instrumental in estaMishing a factory at Long Creadon, in Buokinghamsuire. Pins have now been in pretty general use in this ceuntry for nearly 400 years. They were at first merely clunisy irou spikes, but in iöll) brasa ones were introduced froin France. The importancethc ladies of those days attached to theru may be gathered froin the fact that they ihduoed "Parliament to pass an act " to avoid the sleighty and false making of pinnes which be daily ventod, uttercd, and put to sale within this realme, to the no little hurte and danaage of the kinge's subjeots, byersand occupiers of thu same." " Be itenaoted," oontinueJ the üld law, " that no manner of perrons shall vent, utter, or put to sale by retayle, or engrosse, or otherwise any manner of pynes within this realme, but only such as shall bedouble-headed, and have the heades soudered fast to ihp sliank of the pinno, wel smethed, the shaiik well chaven, the poynt well round, filed, eanted.and shaped." From tbis curious old enactment it appears that at that time of day pins were made pretty much as they wero ever sinoe until recent years. Improyements were effected in the various operations. and the división of labor was in course oí' time carried to a very remarkable cxtent. Tt lias been reckoned that no fewcr than twcnty-seven persons were formerly employed in uiaking a pin. This probably includcd all who liad anytliinir to do wit U the metal from the mine upwards. But even in the manufacture of the actual pin as many as twelve or fourteen were concerned. One would straighten the wire, anothercut ioto handy length, another make the points, several would be engagcd in making heads, others in putting them on, and so forth. Clcarly, therefore, when pins were made by hand a very large proportion of their oost ""'P'ito thu maintenance of work-pcople. hands. The machine canie in, and all but abolishcd the operativo. Wire ia put in at one end, and ihds come out at the olher. A child may tend five or nis. of these wonderful pieces of mechanism, caeh of which wül turn out pins at the rato of 300 a minuto. Thus, in the present day a child may produue at the rate of ),00 to 2,000 pins a minute, each of which a few years ago would individually havo required the atterition of twelve or fourteen persons. No doubt such inventions benefit all olassos, and usually developa demand whivh in tbc long run cmploys lar more than the original number of hands. Unfortunately, however, it usually happens that the loss of employinent and the sutlcring such changos entail are borne bv one conoration, and the cfits re:ipcd by the