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The Irish Land Troubles

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KinToii('(uiuKit. ProfcMor Adamsdelivcred au sddress oa t In uhjeet of the Irish had trnublos, in the opera house, Man-h Sth. In the course of liis address lic advanced tlie following theories to exp!ain Irish d utree : Irelaml i- too fatnorth. The gvlfltratUB makes her climate loo nioist to raÏM BKWl of the cercáis. The country is not high cnough above tbe water. Tlie land is not rich enough to rapport ihe population. The. population is too great : i r i ¦ i inOTMIflH UW fust. Arucricaii 000106" tition is too prcat. The attraction in Loadon is so great that evcrytliing and evcrybody that inight niake Ircland prosperous go to Londen. The propositiou to niake the landlord-i sell is inconsistent with Anglican institutions. The reuiedie.-i England is willing to a jiply ai e insutiieient and the lrish, as tlie Knglish eiaiiu, are not cduoati'd eoough politieally to gaven tbemaeWea, 1 bcg leave, Mr. Editor, to subiuit the follou'mg reply : The SoroagO ot Ircland I 20,000,000, of which 6,290,000 aeres, aeeording to (iriftith, were uncultivated in his time. There are 630,000 aorta of Iroland mvared Wlth water. Takiug out the uncultivated and' water ana, there would ramal n 13,000, acres, which is arabic land. Of the 6,290,000, 1,425,000 i improvable lor tillare, atid 2,330,000 for paatura ; tlii-i nivea ui aboul l f, 1,000 arable land, and in all 17,000,000 oapable of cullivation, giving 3 aorei to every man. woman tod child now living in Irelaod, llie produce ot which would tfibrd a decent rattfinanflt to eaab individual, if every other business than agriculturo was destroyed. The actual acerare uudercullivatinn er hcad il -, acres. Whe.ii ws consider that the acieage of eultivated land per head in Great Britain is only 11: in Holland, I ¦ ; in BcIgiutB, 1; andinSwiiz erland Btill les.s, and that the soil in DOM of those eountrios u superior, but on the contrary il in most of thetu interior to the soil of Ircland, the piopositiuu that lreland is incapab'e of upporting her present liopulation loMeeven that credibility and eharacter which us. advocacy ly a historial) niielit lend ii From l"'s i" ls"i the produotioa of wheat deereaaed l,UU0,000 quartera- eight bniihela is oo qnartar - bat hay noreaMd 600,000 tons ; o.its doreawd 1,500,000 bu. ; mangel wuizel increasi .1 300,000 tons; potatocs decrea.-ed 600,000 tons; turnips deeraaaed 120,000 tons; barley increased 1,280,000 bu.xhcls ; liorses deereaaed 600,fWU head ; pigs inoreased 50,000 head ; eattle increased, 960,000 head ; sheep iaereaaed 1,000,000 head; and the population decreasod 400,000 It will be scen li urn the.-e figures ihat there bas been adeoreaae in buman beiogt and human f'ood and an inerc:isc in tlie lower animáis aud their fodder. There bas pnilMbly boon an inoraaw in landlord satelities and polieeuicn, but their place in the above list is doubtlul. The speakers statement, in eonn"ction with the scareity of rooui ia lreland, ihat in one yoar 1,500,000 aorea were withdrawn from tillage and devoted to grazing, and this in Mtpport of' the theory of over-population.'lelt the un - avoidablc inlereneo that in his roind existed the very innocent query, what will the people do when the whole of the land is withdrawn from tillage and given to pasturage, and when they aro crowded out by live stock, whose inerease thcycannot check and whose bonos it is unlawful for theui to piek ? Xotwithstanding the fact that lreland has uiore cultivatable land per siuare natie than (ireat Hritain, Belgiutu, Switzerland and many othcr countries, and that of this land tbe has more per capita, the population per square mile ui' the wholc country, incjnding mountain, bog, water and moras, i less than it il in tin -e countries taking llieir supiifuial extent also (exeept Switzerland. ) Thus the population per MUM milo in Switzerland is 10(i, in Ircland 166, in Holland S06, in Great Britain 266, in Saxony nearly 400, and in iielgium 4(K), vet in all, except Great Britain and Irelaud, the people are eontented and prosperous. The remark that if lreland were rank 500 feet most of it would be under water, inight, in view of the Duteh invasión ot the sea, be passed over lor mere shame lake, if it was not unfortunately true that niany statements are made regarding Irland, by the Anglo sytnpathctio portion of mankind, and many theories proosed for her relief, the utterance of which by the mciTf-t schoolboy in regard to any other nation, would give rise to suspicions of his sanity. Facts unconsciously destroy many pet theories. but tbough what has beeo related would rebut the theory of uncongenial clime and high Iatitude, yet since that was regarded as nn uncancelable factor in the problem, a little reference will be appropriate. To the statement tbat lreland is too lar north, I would say, lreland lies between "il 26' and S6 81' north Iatitude. She is thercfore nearer the equator than Scotland, Denmark, Norway, or Sweeden. As near ai Kngland, and the greater and most prosperous parts of llussia and Germany, while the guit' stream, which the speaker kindly reminded us of, gives her a cliuiate not inferior to Missouri or l'ennsylvania. The speaker said the raintall was 60 inehes. Now it happens that the rainfall is only about 3G inohes, but let that go- rain, moist and mist togethcr-as .it is only an Anelo Saxon yarn. li eland produces all the cereals in great abundance, neverthcles it may not be suporfluous to state that the temperatura of lreland is in winter 41 , in spiing47, autuuin 57", and summer tP, and when we refiVct tint wheat ripens in such latitudes with a summer temperature ol theory laüs to the ground also. In England the rainfall is sometimos 8 1 inehes. Who bas ever known 84 inehes of rain to fall during onc year in any one locality of lreland, as Dr. l'atterson tells us frequently happcm in the west ol Kiiglaml.' Dr. Kane says the maxiniuiu annual rainfall in lreland is 3') inehes. John LeaBa Pwtet myt that three linies as niueh rain falls in Loinbardy ai in lreland (P. UlLi, Vol 1,) and Kdward Vrake6eld contirms bil statement. In regard to soil, MaOnUoagh says lreland has no stitl' clay soils siicli as WOM ol Ëatez, HanLs, Oxford, etc; nor any chalk soils, as those of llertibrd, Wilts, and Sus sex. Sandy soils are also raie. Loaiu, resting on a sub-stratum of lirupstone, predominates in lreland and though OflM shallow it is aln.ost everewhere fertile. Arthur Vouni; says that acre for acre, the soil of Irelaml is superior to that of Kngland. If this is not enough to prove Ireland's ability to Mppott her population, it may beadded tbat the valueof crops raised on .'i.OÜO.OOÜ acres, accor'ling to McCnllough's dictionary, was $141,000,000 or $140 for evcry faniily of Iva. This esti mate includes only wheat, barley, oaf, potatoes, tallow, flax and garden stuff. The value of live stock in ISTo was f l".1),(XK),0OÜ. or #175 for cvery family it' tive. If we add to these estímales manufacture producís, etc., we have an MOM of over $5oo for every family 'of tive. It may bo urged that Ircland is failing in productiveness. This is true in regard to human beings but as to her powers of production in üther respeets, a few facts witl sufEcu : Prom ahom ton Iri-h porta, the exporti ' .i the weckending May 8, 1880, wereffi. 20 animáis, and for the week eoding May SO, 28,900 animáis. 8,500,000 lbn uf animal lood cxported in one weck ! Wex 'ord ships lm) animáis a day ; 1 rr v, -_'imi , h-ohed, 300; Watcrford, 400; Belfort, Cork, 800, and Dublin, 1,000. Por hc weck endÍDK lec. 6, 187, the yiar of be t.iminc, which tlie exertions of the and league avfrted, 17.' i animáis were exporled ('rooi about tfn Irish ports. 18,k),(kmi lbs. of animal Ibodl More than hreo pounds per week tbr every man, wntnan, and chili in all In-hu. 1, (hipp-d ii om week. from a few Irnh wartort. Selfut ships SÓO dy; Droh-da. 600; Wau-rford. 800; dirk, 1,IMH); tnd Db in. 3,000. Beaidei ih: greatdnin lor tl.c-e ¦ aoominaed uuiflow of taxo, the i -om ut f whtofa are kpt in England Not OM rat of the Mirplui of tkoM luei ! r.1 turns W lr'!and. The whole 'u sp'iit fur jurpose in whieh Ir'land lias no voice, nul whicb ara tt m interest to Ii-t. 8he eH none ot tlie appropriations froru the surplus taxi-, nut a cent for internal devel ipmetits, nit a e nt to develop her vast mineral resources, or to protcii er devolop lier wuTninj BraerÍM, and tlie whole of tlie vast oAomI pütninaire ol' tlie country Í3 parceled out to fuivigoeri In a country well "verned the import stiould generally C(ual the export. Pof every bit of wcalth taken out acorrespondiiiK quivalent thould returned. From Inland $3O,U00,UH) for rent, and 120,000,000 for taxes. are annually !- ported, nut a i-nit oj niih ever goei bode in inu farm, rxrept in the tiirm o!' military I hc - ;iinl coerción ael. A ld to this the iDtiooal lrain on the intelligenpc, enerpy, and tnanhood of' the eouniry. The remeily of coarte, is to spead the rents and taxes at. home and ive lrelaml her 0WB lcfti.-lature to apply the rtiucdv. Apply the same remiily to Ireland that was applied to Prmnce, to o mnteriel the infloenoa of l'arisian attraetion onder Louis XIV. The ab ilition ol lundlorlism will do tor Ireland what it has doM f r Fiancc The Irish ak nu BOT tlinn tlie (iermans, Ku-oians, Swi-is, Frtmeh, I5elKÍans, and Dutch enjqy ; namely, ihe rinht toown the land they live on, and the rigbl (0 eat the food they rÜM. l would like to cali attention to the right of emineïnt domain, which isexerci-ed böth in Knirland and America, and ak whether lts ezefOM i inconsistent with Anfrücan ostitnUons, and whethcr what is done here, and in Knirland, jir the benefit of eorpirations, would be iinjust il' done in Ireland for the benefit of the nation? l don't think it statesmanlike, and l deern it hiihly uneharitalile, and ihoroughly un American, to seek dtt'ects in the natural character of a people, and llicir politieal developmeut, to explain the MOM of their poverty and diatreat, when t!iercexi-ítsamon! that peopl", as the rcsult of foreijrn domination, evils a thousand fold Rrciler than those that drove the thirtcen colonies into rebel Imii. l,and!iM'li-iii and Uiitish rule is toblamc Inr the whole tinne;. Away with tln-m, they are curse d of God and man ; one cyed historiara and of liistory to.lhe contrary, notwithstandin. With many thanks for your kindnem in publishing this letter, 1 remain, Mr. Kiitor. vours trulv.