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Foreign Correspondence

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Oahu Coli.egk, , H. l., { Feb. 13th. 188(1. t So toniparatively little is detiuitoly cdowu by tho larjje majority of people u lie cast abuut the Hawaiian Islands, tliat t muy be well to preface thU letter with he stiitenu'iii of a fi-w general facts eont'rning t lic Islands. They were dlscovered in 1778 by Capt. Jook, who naincd them Sandwich Islands n honor of Lord Sandwich, then Lord of he Aduiiralty and a porti on of Cook's ;xploring expedttions. Sincc the orgauization of the Islands inder a deiiuite form of yovernment, they ire oillcially known as the Hawaiian Uland, so calle d f rom Hawaii, the name f the largest island of the group. . It is ioubtful if they ever outliye the old name jf Sandwich Island - not at least until ;wo or tb ree generations have boen johooled in revlsed geojrraphy. In geographical position, the Islands iré a good ways froin anywhere, being Lbe only important group in the vast north Pacific ocean. They are juet inside the torrid zone, extending from 18 15' to 22" 20' north latitude, and from 154" 58' lo 160' 15' west longitndc. The latitudo j( Honolulú is a little north of th.-it of the City of Mexico and nearly the same is that of Cuba. San Francisco is our nearest neighbor. bcing only 2,100 miles distunt. From Taliite, our nearest neighbor to the southeast, we are 2,380 miles distant, though tliis place doesn't couut for much; and we generally reckon as our nearest neighbor down that way Auckland, New Zealaud, 3,810 miles away. Right on in the same direction, 4,484 miles distant is Sydney, New South Wales, and on farther, t a Uistance of 5,060 miles is Melbourne, Australia. We have constant and regular communiciition with all these places and count them very good neighbors. Panama, Central America, is 2,400 miles distant. To the Northwest our most Intímate neighbors are Yokohamn, Japan, 3,440 miles and Hong Kong, China, 4,803 miles distant. With the above distances in mind, one need not be supriscd to know that we regard friends living in in San Francisco aa "next door," for we can get to ihem in a single week. In number, there are twelve islands in the group, oll'y eight of which are mbabited, the otherfour being mere barren rocks jutting up out of the ocean. Following are the namcs of the eight larger ones with their areas: Hawaii, containIng 4,310 square miles; Maui, 760; Oahu, 600) Kauai, 590; Molokai, 270; Lanai, 150; Niihan, 97: Kahoolawe, 63. The íslands lie in a chain extending northwest and southeast, Hiiwaii being fartbest south and east and Kauai farthest north and west. Oahu, on which Is situated Honolulú, the capital and metropolis of the Islands, is immediately southeast ot Kauai. These Islands are all volcanic In their origin and are aluiost entirely made up of lava, a coinparatively small portion consisting of coral. Geological indications go to show that the formation of the Islands began with Kauai t the extreme uorthwest and extonded toward the southeast in regular order to the largest, Hawaii, which is still iu procesa of formation and containB two of the most rciuarkablo active volcanoes in the world. All the other Ulands, tliough offerini? no special ittraction in the line of real live volcanoce, have numerous extinct volcanic cniters, showing how highly favorcd thcy were in days of old. The Islands are all very mountainous, running up into the irregular, sharp, fantastic and jagged peaks, peculiar to tuountiiins of volcanic origin. These mountains vsry in heigut froui a few faundred to about fourteen thousand fect; and niost of them are exceedingly pictnresque, often grand, offering scène so varied, soMriking and so beautiful that one never tires ot' them. Leuvlng ibr their proper place other inlercsting facts about the Islands, I will Uke up the narrative of my personal ex pcrience where I left it on or near the wliarf. As I was driven in a carriage through the business portion of Honolulú and out among the private residences, I was strongly impressed wlth the fact tht J was really in an American town ; and, in just the sanie proportion, 1 failed to bt impressed that I was in a foreign city and country. Turn; wliich wuy Ij would, America stuck out in soine form or othei trom gomewberc. Tlic buildiugs, public and private, were American the ness was essentlully American business, oomlueted by Americana in Americmi Btyleb; tlio moveinont and the bustlewere of the real United otates kind. To be ure the surrouading scènes of nature we re liardly American ; the Kanakas and and Chinese didn't look at all like wliitc folks; it wasn't quite American to see a royal palace and heur about the kingdoin and his majcíty, Ihe Ungí l)Ut uotwitlr stamling tlicse sliglit variations, my lirst iinprosuion ws tbat I was not in a forcign cily hut iu an Americau city, in which were numerous foreigners and this first iinpif.Hsioii lias only been conflrmctl by later experieucos aud observutions. The business blocks are rarely over two stories high, and the prevaillng style iu private dwtUiogs 18 one story. The principal reason of this Is the constitutional dislike people have of going up and dowu stairg. 8eyerl of the dwllng house that havo been built re of two storie8 similar to those ut home. Contrary to what one rulght expect, tlie architecture of the one story dwelHflffi s made to le cxceedlngly prettyaml plcturesque. Verandas aro veiy cs.enüal umi are probably more useil than any Olie room in the house. Tbey often forni parlor, siltinji -room umi dinniDg-room all in ¦¦ Consequently all üwelling Q00K8 are umply furnislieil with broatl, tpOOlot, airy varundas, which often niu around the wliole house. The kitchcu and sometimo the sleepinji apartuients are built tepw atcly from the main house. 1 presume I shall nol exaggBTate if I say that 110 homos in any town of equal size in the world are 60 uniformly furnisheil with such beautiful surroundings as those here in Uonolulu. The grounds about private residences are generally 9pacious and fllled with tropical trees and flowers, furnishing a feast of beauty the whole year around. The stately palma in no less than thirty different Tarleties, the graceful feathery algeiobas, the widespreading monkoy-pods, the tamarind, bananas and many othors grow in profusión everywhere, while orange, breadfruit, acacia, mango, and other trees are ([ïiite coininon. The verandas and roofs are oflen completely covered with beautiful trailing vines, which, wheu in blossom present a most gorgeous appcarance. Many of the tropical trees have brightcolored, immense sized flowWV, that almost dazzle the eye with the intensity ol their color. It is 110 wonder that with such a prodigal nature at hand, people can make their homes so wondeifully beautiful and attractive. I ara told that Honolulú has greatly changed in the last ten years. Fornierly the plain in which the city lies was little more than a barren, sandy waste; but now the whole is changeü in a blooming garden, crowded with luxuriant vetation of the tropics. Ten years ago there were fewtasty, beautiful dwellings, while now these are the mie and not the exeeption. During this time ihe city bas greatly extended its liinits; and, In all respects, so great a transformation bas taken place that the Honolulú of to-day isvery unlike the Honolulú of a few years ago; and, of course, the transformation Is greater tlie iarther lack one goes for comparison. As I drove about the city, I was eipecially struck with the serene quiet and restful repose that seemed to pervade ovtrythlng and particularly the homes outslde the business quarters. Nestling in bowers of greenery, tliesc private dwellings lookecl so cozy, so invuing, so really hooielike, that I feit the sanie sense of reet, comfort and hoinelikeness carne over me with wonderful power - I feit thorouglily at home. Tliough everythlng aiound'was new, nothing seetucil strange; everytliingseemed to belong just where it was and as t was. I was enjoying ray ürst dinner in Honolulú, rlien suddenly I felt a keen itehingsenaatkm on the back of my hand. Examining I saw a littlc abrupt swelling and at once knew that my exnerience with tropical rnosquitoes liad begun. These insecto are exceedinjjly fond of strangers and, even in this land of warm welcomes, they have a welconie warmer than any other. They instinctively know a new-cominer, aud have the desplcablc meanness to take advantage of his inexperlence and modesty. Then, too, these Honolulú mosqultoes have devised a acuerne quite unknown to their eaoteni kin, they have contrived to divido Ohemselves up lnto two distlnet varieties, known as "day mosquitoes" and "night inosquitocs." Taking advuntage of the law of división of labor, these tno varielies Klvc each other a rent, bilt 00 rest to poor humanity. In appearance and sie the nlght mosnuitoes reseuible the ordinary Michiuii fellows, but thoy are scarcely at all pois onous- at least their sting and hito cause no sensatlon of Itching or other fceling in most people, except pocbap :tt lirst until one is inocculated, leavtng ns the only sign a sinall red spot on the skin. Tliey are, thercforo, more troublesomc rather on account of the disagrecable nolse thev make in the evening buzzinjï about onc s ears and face in large numbere. The day mos(iuitocs are not very numcrous, boing contined to a few fuvored localities about town. They are of a very much darker color than their brethren of the darkness, and their wings have a peculiar niottled appearance. Their sting is more poisonous than that of the niglit variety, although, in my expeiience, it does not cause so much annoyance as that of the home mosquito. H causes quite a large swellinz and considerable itching for a short time and tliere ends. Tiiere is one thing about the day mosquito for which he is not to be forgiven, and that i, he puts In his work without any warning - he comes quietly, stings quietlv and deeply, theu sliuks away quietly and safely. He has no idea of honor - gives no chance for retaliation. Here in town everyone has to use mosquito netting over the bed at night. In some cases the netting is arranged on a frame over and around the bed ; in others the netting is fasteued to a large wooden hoop and this is bang trom the ceiling over the bed, the netting falling down to the floor aroand the bed. I cnnnot soon forgetthe my first niglit's oxperience fn Houolulu. I bupposed that it would keep me safe trom annoyancc, if the netliiiR uierely feil to tiie tloor about the bed. I presume the wlcked insects langhed all over when they beheld my freshuess in the vayol tuis lanu ana lamy lappeu thcir jaw8 in anticipation of thelrjulcy f jast. Maybe I lept an hour or two tliat night. I thought all tlie mosquitos of the Istands was insiiie of my netting. In the dark ono mosquito counts for a dozen, two for a hundreU and three for a tbousand. 1 learncd the iiext dny that the nettlng should be carefully tucked in all around bcncath the mattress and then any mosquitoes left tnaidu be killed off. These Island mo6quitocs, you kuow.are in icrpctiul buminer, - they Uo not, like those at home, blooui for one short seuson then fade from existence for the rest of time. They live constantly, and I think tliat it is owing to tliis coiiütant uninterruted existence of theirs that tliey have In the course of years devoloped wonderful acuteness of intellect or instinct. Tbey watch evcry possible opportunity to slip uuder the nettmg, and seeiu to hang around constantly for that purpose. They are the last to sav good-nixnt aud the ürst to bid you goodmorning. On different occasions I have seen them fly up against the reflection of my face in a mlrror. They are more troobleaome In certaln tte of weather and n certain loculities,- in many places on island they do not exist at all. Thcy ni lie Bulxlued by the burningol i litile insect powder, Uic smoke of wblch raakes Uiem very tireil- 111 l'uct renlly mtoxicated, and it is exceediugly amiuing to sce a dranken mosqrrtto tinnWeto the floorHiid staker kIiouI 111 vaiu Bffortl lo il v. In gciiLTal, pioplc n-r nu ncttinj; al w'iinlows or doors, bul have sonic one rooui that is kopt mosquito proof, to uhii li they can retire in tiinc ( special troiible. Terliaps,! bave glyen uudeerva piominencototlie HawaUan Island mosqiUtQM; but they are rcally liere and, wbile Dot M 'reat auuisance hs misht be supposed, life In the tropics TOBtd be quite as deliRhtful without them. 'l'liey fonn, perli.ips, the only real pest in the line of insects or of animal life in general.


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