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Contiñued from page 25 Genocide... alcoholic intoxication was the most cvils. Harold Drivcr, author of 1ND1AMS OF NORTH AMERICA, s that among the Aztecs "Public dmnkenness on the part of studeiUs, nobles, or pricsts was punishcd with commoner would receivc only a beating tor Ü offense, but would be killed if foiind drunk a second tim Imagine, then, the cultural strife that took place between the Spanish missionarics, who regarded wine as the blood of Christ, and the holy men of the Atecs, who regarded fourteen species of three genera of m u s h r o o m s - - P S I L O C Y B E , STROPHARIA, and CONOCYBE-as sacred. TEONANACATL--"G'd's flesh." Moreover, the Aztec shamans knew jhc use of both N. RUSTICA and N. TABACUM, called rcspectively in Náhuatl PICIETL and QUAUHYETL. And they knew about the best natural source of lysergic acid amides-the morning glory seeds they called OLOLIUQUI (R1VEA CORYMBOSA or IPOMOEA SIDAEFOLIA). According to Francisco Hernández in 1570, the morning glory seeds were the means by which Aztec "priests communed with their receive a message from them, eating the seeds to induce a delirium when a thousand visions and satanic hallucinations appeaxed to them" The word "satanic" is the key to the psychedelic genocide which followed; for the Spanish explorers and missionaries were quick to notice similarities between cextain rituals and and henee thought that the Aztecs were quite literatly practitioners of black magie, heretical Satan-worshippers. In addition, the Aztecs used Jimson weed (DATURA) and öther exactly as the witches of Europe did, for both religious and medicinal purposes, and the lowly Jimson weed was regarded as holy. Driver says "There were special officials who took DATURA, along with peyote, to discover cures for illness, lost or stolen property, and the cause of chronic illness due to witchcraft. Sometimes the patiënt was given the drug instead. DATURA was also one of the ingredients in an ointment made of venomous insects, burned to ashes and tobáceo.. The priests who were annointed with this salve were said to have lost all fear and to have become bold and cruel enough. to kilt their sacrificial victims." Perhaps the least-known aspect of Aztec psychedelic religión nowadays is their ancient use of chocolate as an aphrodisiac. A Mayan Inidan girl, Dona Marina, captured by Cortez on his way info Mexico, knew Aztec and acted as interpreter for the Spaniurds at the' court of Montezuma. Il was she who first, in 1519, told Cortez about the "food of the gods," CACAO, the bitter brew made from the chocolate tree and its seeds. The Aztecs called it CHOCOLATL, and the half-scnile voluptuary Montezuma drank the choking brew before visiting his concubines. His courtiers explained that it not only excited thei ardor but made them more potent-they got high from it. Before Cortez ordered Montezuma murdered (1520), he had the old prince plant 200 CACAO trees which were to be sent later to the King of Spain,at that time a boy about 12 years old. In about 1550 some Spanish nuns at the Mexican cloister of Chiapas mixed vanilla and sugar with the bitter chocolate drink, thereby making it palatable. (No one has explained what the nuns were doing messing around with the infamous aphrodisiac of Montezuma.) From that time on it became the rage ámong the European nobility, especially among ladies in church. Thus chocolate, like tobáceo, was accepted only after its psychoactive properties had been so weakened that it was .turned into a merely fashionable pleasant drink. It was peyote, however, which provided the prototypical case of psychedelic genocide. This best-known ol the Indian psychedelics was used by the Aztecs (from whence the name was taken-PEYOTL) and the Huichols. It was first described by the Spanish historian Sahagun in 1560; Sahagun was the friar who fust crudely dcscribed the I TEONANACATL mushrooms as wcil. The chroii f the ,uistadores are, as Schultes notes, "fu'll of fanatic and vituperative condemnation of petyote as a diabolic root. Missionaries combated its use in native Feligions as a sacred element and compared the eating of the cactus with cannibalism." (Cannibalism was, incidentally, one of the first things Columbus accused the tobáceo Intinns of the Caribbeans of.) Frecisety BECAUSE peyote (LOPHOPHORA WILLIAMSI1) was a major sacrament among the Indians of central Mexico, it was outlawed in 1620 by the missionaries of the Spanish Inquisition. It was the religious uses of the plant which most offendcd the friar prohibitionists, as may be seen in the wording of the law itself: "We, the Inquisitors against heretical perversity and apostasy, by virtue of apostolic authority declare, inasmuch as the herb or root ca lied peyote has been introduced irïto these provinces for the purposes of detecting thefts, of divining other happenings and of foretelling future events, it is an act of superstition, condemned--as opposed to the purity and integrity of our Holy Catholic faith. The fantasies suggest intervention of the Devil, the real authority of this vice." For a century on either side of that date, the Spaniards destroyed as many Aztec religious documents and records as they could find, and mercilessly slaughtered anyone found guilty of practicing the oíd religión by consuming ïtjese drugs. Because of this vicio us suppression, the use of peyote, mushrooms, 'morning glories, and the other Aztec religious drugs died out. This was the most direct and most ty pical form of psychedelic genocide. ííowever, as readers of Carlos Castaneda's The Teachings of Don Juan kttow, the traditions were kept secretly alive by the indians of Mexico most remote from the Spanish masters. Don Juan, a Yaqui from Sonora, tried to explain and demónstrate the uses of peyote, Jimson weed, and the mushrooms to Ihe anthropology student. Earlier, in 1952, R. Cordon Wasson and his wife had learned the uses of the mushrooms riróm the Indians of Huautla, Mazatlan, the Sierra Costera, and the Masahua country; their research burst upon the world in 1957 Wíth the publication of Mushrooms, Russia, and Htstory. And in August 1960, in Cuernavaca, Dr. Timothy Leary consumeé seven magie mushrooms given htm by the anthropologist Gerhart Braun, who had gotten them from oíd Juana, the Inidan CURANDERA. Tint ate the mushrooms and was impressed. The psychedelic 'revolution was on! In August, 1963, Tim claimed that his ingestión of the mushrooms was "above all and without quesüon the deepest religióvtó experience of rny life." He tried to found a church, the League for Spiritual Discovery, using psychedelics as the chief sacraments. Consequently, the modem Lnquisition (Federal and State governmertts) has found him guilty of the heinous crime of possession of a little weed and has sentenced him to twenty years in prison. Psychedelic genocide, of exactly the kind pracüced for centuries againsl nonwhites .in Amerika, is now being practiced against hundreds of thousands of-whitcs. 3. WHY THE NATIVE AMERICAN CHURCHPSÜRVIVED Wheri the Catholic Conquistadores wiped ouL.the Aztecs, they wiped out the AzteÜt religión. They did this by forcing the Indians to accept Chrisüatiiiy or be kilkd. As the Spaniards moved nor tlvtÖ„ California they suppicssed psychedelics wherever they fouml ilicm, and' gave the red people fewater instead. A few Indians practiced the old ways, and sccietly handed them down to theii young-iirëliiding the primty rule o Aztec rel%ion, adoptcd Öw by the Native Amerikan Church, that no liquo is alloweá-'and alcohol-drinkers will no be accejÉM as membersÉÍf the true psychedefic religión. As tiirne went on, hoever, many of the yoinig peoplc wf had beei forced to accept Chrisüli ways fo survival, mixed the Christian custom they learnedi' witj rituals from the olde psychedelic ereinonies. The Christian trinity. and other Christian spirits such pted in full by the Native Amerikan Church. Ofte with comparable Indian spirits. The ethics Christianity. such as the Golden Rule, and even nominally including the Protestant Ethic ("Members should work steadily ibly at their jobs iod living") were adopted re. The essential rituals of eating peyote, and the ritual as ne whistles, incensé, bird-feathcr fans. gourd rattles, water drums, and bundie are primarily indian. But, as Driver says, the NAC is a "blend i cqual portions of Christian and Indian clements and patterns." Tliat is to say. onty by accepting Christianity as half of its essence did the peyote Church survive. Had it retained its full Indianness it would never have been accepted. Some tribes understood that the peyote religión was primarily accepted by the white man because it was a way of killing off Indian beliefs and customs, or at least watering them down. Read Frank Waters' most brilliant novelTHE MAN WHO KILLED THE DEER, for a discussion of this fact among the Pueblos. There is anotrter factor here The peyote ceremonies had a most difficult time taking root amone Indians who were used to a settled existence, with highly complex, conservative, and organized. religions not based on peyote. For the white man to say that these Indians should or could accept peyote as their religión was yet another form of cultural genocide. Similarly, tribes who used Jimson weed primarily did not readüy accept peyote-it was an impositipn on their religión to hold that peyóte was okay. but Jimson weed was aot. Finally. the nomad Plains tribes, such as the Dakota, who eventually accepted peyote, did so only because their tobáceo religión was bastardized beyond belief by the encroachments of white culture, and because the 1890 Ghost Dance messiah religión whiefe grew up to replace tobáceo was brutally wiped out at the massacre oí Wnuruierf Knee. In 1937, when the government was moving to outlaw "narcotics" such as marijuana, the Feds tríed to outlaw peyote. Some Indians, and, more importantly, some white liberal Anthros (including Franz Boas, A.L. Kroeber, and Weston La Barre) went to Washington to testify thát the Native Amerikan Church was, in La Barre's terms, "a bona nde faith entitled to full Constitutional guarantee of religious freedom, whether we share its native theology or not.'The supercilious and arrogant white lhthrt were quite willing to present this snide commentary on "native theology" to legislators AS LONG AS INDIANS WERE INVOLVED. However, this defense was, in their tenns, not applicable to whites or non-Indians who töok peyote, even though the whites vowed thát their expei is deeply religious, because, "again in La Barre's words, all non4ndian peyote lovers including Havelock Ellis and Aldous Huxley "seemed to me ethnologically spurious, meretricious and foolish ,poseurs." That is, Indians in the NAC are religious peyote-eaters, but whites are not religious peyote-eaters because ihey're not in the NAC. The argument is mcrely a circular definition and an excuse for (a) forcing Indians to join the NAC if they wánt to eat peyote for religious purposes, regardless of whethe they believe inJlie Christian parts oö the NAC, andjfrj) excluding white or non-Indian peajle from partaking of the peyote psychedelic religión. This definition is absurd, circular,j self-serving, and an excuse tur psychedelic genocide. 4. OTHER INDIAN PSYCHEDELICS, SACRAMENTS, AND STtMULANTS The best way to avoid psychedelie genocide in times of insane repression such as ours, is to maintain the secrecy surrounding certain psychedelics, just as the Indians did earlier. I am therefore of mixed feéiings about giving out this information. On the other hand, it is our right to take these drugs, most of them are legal, and hopefully by the time their use becomes widespread, we will jbe sufficiently powerful in Amerika torssure that they are not outlawed. Belsides, the govemment cannot stop use of. these drugs even if they do get i aroiind to orohibiting tii SWEET FLAG (ACORUS CALAMUS). - This little plant, also known as rat flag root, and sweet . caJomel, may be found almost anywhere in marshy, freshwatcr soils. Look it up in an herbal or an cncyclopedia for a it looks somewhat li-ke cat-tail. In the l9th century. it was widely used in folk medicine to cure stomach ache and as a tonic; aromatic root is the principal ingrediënt in many well-known "bitters." It was used by the ancicnt Greeks as an eye-lotion, and by the ancient Chinese, who c;;lled it CH'ANG P'U, to stimulate appetite, alleviate fatigue, and as medication for inflammation of the gastric membrane and for colic. Usmond and Hoffer report in The Hallucinogens that rat root. is collected in northern Canada by the Cree. "Rat root users seemed to be healthier and were not subject to alcoholism. The Indians used rat root (a) as an anti fatigue medicine (they chewed about 1 inch of the dried root which had a diameter equal to a pehcil); (b) as an analgesic for relieving toothache, headache, etc; (c) for relief of asthma; (d) for oral hygiëne , and (e) to relieve hangover." Moreover, one of their informants walked 12 miles out in the north woods to fight a forest fire, and feit exhausted; he chewed and swallowed 2 inches of the root; "within 10 minutes the fatigue vanished and on the return march he ■.seemed to be walking one foot above the ground and feit wonderful. The effect was very unlike amphetamine." Finally, "the informant and his wife, a trained psychiatrie nurse, were both sophisticated "subjects with hallucinogens. They had taken LSD several times in well-controlled experiments at one ot our researcn laboratories. They had both taken Í0 inches of rat root 5 times and both agreed it produced an experience very similar to LSD." Asaroiie qnd B-asarone, the active chemicals in sweet flag, were found by Dandiya and Menon (1965) to antagonize the action of mescaline on rats, indicating that it is a true psychedelic. Asarone also protected rats against d-amphetamine more effectively than chlorpromazine did-speed freeks and researcher take note. Whitman wrote a sJBall book of poems, CALAMliS, using the plant as his chief mfitaphorfor a universal psychedelic -mystical experience. What did he Know? ! COHOBA (PIPTADENA PEREGRINA)-Ramon Pane, who accomp'anied Cölumbus on his second voyage, described COHOBA (an Arawakan word for snuffed tobáceo) as it was used by the Tainos of Haiti: "This they draw up through the nose ;ind it intoxicates them to such an at when they are under its influ icy krtow not what they do." Safford (1916) quoted Las Casas: "The ends of these two canes (a bifurcated snuff-pipe) inserted into the windows of the aostrils and the base of the flute intu the powder on the plate, they wou ld draw in their breath and, snuffing up, would receive through the nostrils as much of the powder as they wished to take, which, when taken vwould go at once to the brain almost as though they had drunk strong wine..." Cohoba is made by grinding the seeds of PIPTADENS PEREGRINA, & tree commonly found in Uaiti, Puerto Ütico, Venezuela, Peru, Argentina, and 1 Brazil. The Otomaco tribesmen of Colombia and Venezuela mix it with ? quicklime before snuffing. Schultes warns that it may cause convulsions, for several BUFOTENINE, the toad-sweat drug of the witches, and DMT (N,N,-DIMETHYLTRYPTAMINE). Thus it appears that the exterminated Arawakans and other Indian tribes had discovered a natural source of DMT long before Cölumbus arrived. It was used, Schultes jays, "to induce bravery before a battle, to give Jnrs keener sight and as an agent for prophesying, clairvoyance and divination." Seeds may perhaps be obtained from any tropical seed company. MESCAL BEAN (SOPHORA SECUNDIFLORA)-Not to be confused with mescal (Agave) or mescaline from peyote, the Mescal Bean grows commofy ui western Texas and coirtinuedt on page 36 ■4 i. Jg 2 Ml 3 ■ mM t Continued from page 31 southern New Mexico as well as in Mexico. At least a dozen southwest tribes organized cult-groups involving the eating of the bean. It contains a toxic alkaloid callcd sophorine, which, according to Driver, "resembles nicotine in its physiological action." lts use, while hardly as extensive as that of peyote, has made its way clear up into the Plains tribes. Score from the Arikara, Caddo, or any of the west -Texas tribes, or go piek, pulverize, and gobble it yourself. Make up your own ritual-most of the Indians did. Take very small doses, however--it can poison you severely. VINHO DE JURUMENA and RAPE DOS INDIOS--both from Brazil. The beverage called vinho de Jurumena, used by Pancaru Indians in Pernambuco, Brazil, is prepared from the seeds of MIMOSA HOSTILIS and again seems to contain DMT. Rape dos Indios, taken as snuff by the Indians of the Brazilian Amazon, is reportedly made from the fruit of a giant forest tree, OLMEDIOPEREBEA SCLEROPHYLLA' YAGE, YAKEE, AND HOJA DE LA PASTORA--For a description of BANISTERIOPSIS CAAPI, called ayahuesca, yaje, or caapi by the Indians of the western Amazon in Colombia, read Burroughs' and Ginsberg's THE YAGE LETTERS (New Directions). lts use among soreerers as a telepathy drug has extended to Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia. But it sounds like a death trip... YAKEE or Parica, used by Venezuelan Indians as snuff, on the other hand. sounds like a minor psychedelic. Schultes reports getting a headache only, but says the witch-doctors see visions in color. Osmond notes that t is dried, pulverized, and mixed with ashes from the sterns of a wild cacao species, so perhaps Montezuma's chocola tl aphrodisiac had Yakee in it.Yakee is prepared from two trees of the genus Virola of the Myristicaceae family, the family of the nutmeg tree, Myristica Fragrans. Researchers in my own commune teil me that eating a whole nutmeg makes them high for a couple days and increases sexual potency. U's probably easier to get whole nutmegs at the grocery store to gnaw on than to mess around with Yakee: besides, Schultes reports that a witch-doctor once died from smiffing Parica. Hoja de la Pastora, recently discovered by Wasson in use in northeastern Oaxaca, Mexico, is from a species SALVIA DMNORUM of the Mint family. The Aztecs Indians grind up the leaves, make an infusión of strained leaves, and drink it. Wasson thinks it may be the P1PILTZINTZINTLI of. the Aztecs, though JSchultes says "there seem to have been no very early , reports of SALVIA D IVINORUM in magico-religious rites." The leaves, presumably available from any herbal supply house that stocks Mexican mints, may be che wed directly. The effects are "similar" to those r of the psilocybüi muchrooms, but come on quicRer, are "less sweeping," and of shorter duration . Several other mint-family plants in Mexico have been reported to be psychedelic, but research has not been done on them as yet. Virtually any herbalist can supply these items, and they are legal. If your dealer hasn't been able to come through with any DMT or psilocybin röcently, you might write to any of several herbal ist supply houses and see if they can turn you on. COCA LEAVES (ERYTHROXYLON COCA) -Finally, I would like to mention the ancient Peruvian, Bolivian, Colombian, and Argentinian Indian practice of chewing coca leaves, though strictly speaking it . is not a psychedelic. Dried coca leaves have been found in Peruvian mummy bundles over 2000 years old, and it was the divine plant of the Incas. {The leaves are toasted with small bits of lime, and chewed or packed betweeh the gums and the teeth and allowed to dissolve. Millions of Indians keep their cheeks full of coca for most of their waking hours to relieve fatigue and provide alertness. It is not addictive, and Schultes confesses that "for the greater part of eight of my twelve years in ■ exploration of the northwest Amazon, I used co a daily and" found no desire for it len, back in the capital city, I had no supnly." Unlike the cocaine made coca even in daily use seems to have no debilitative effects and seems to be as safe as, or perhaps safer thati, chromosome-damaging coffee. If we had not so stupidly classified cocaine as a narcotic, and its users as dope-fiends, in our patterns of drug-genocide this century, we might have found ordinary coca leaves a valuable minor stimulant in our drug-bedevilled society. As Taylor once said, "Even today, it has the touch of the miraculous." 5. THE REAL PSYCHEDELIC WAR. This, then, is the historical pattern of psychedelic genocide. Either the drug itself has been weakened beyond recognition, and its use thereby changed from psychedelicsacramental to merely sociable effect, as happened with tobáceo and chocolate; or the drug has been banned directly and all users, whether they use the drug for social or sacramental purposes, have been slaughtered. The one exception, namely the Native Amerikan Church, is in reality not an exception at all, but rather a different form of psychedelic genocide which requires that all peyote users belong to a specific, half-Christian, half-Indian ritual ihstitution. The alternative, historically, to psychedelic genocide has been simply to gp underground , forming sécrei. orally-transmitted cultures of psychedelic freeks, therby keeping the drugs from being banned beciause the authorities aren't very much aware that they are being used. This was, for a while, a viable alternative for. us; but in the global village of instant sensationalism, this secret -society alternative has proven not to work. líiis was the essence of the., "Hippie" , movement in 1966, 1967 ,and' even 1968, and there are still plenty of idiot hippies around who think that they can sit around, smoke dope, drop acid, and jive about "the psychedelic revolution" without actually doing anything about it. Such people-and sad to say, some of our finest leaders including Leary are among them--madé the Qssential mistake of thinking that as long as they were "nice," and cultured, and posed no "physical threat" to the established ownership government cliques, the government would leave them alone. The basic mistake was ignoring this pattern of psychedelic genocide, which has been used for centuries to slaughter, imprison, and and enslave the Amerikan Indians and which has been used for decades to abuse nonwhites who smoked marijuana. The basic "hippie" mistake, repeated as recently as this summer at the banned Powder Ridge rock festival in Connecticut, was TO CONTRIBUTETO THIS VERY PATTERN OF PSYCHEDELIC GENOCIDE by not recognizing that the pattern would be applied to young whites as well as to nonwhites. The heart of the mistake is not believing that there is, indeed, a WAR GOING ON. Does it have to be spelled out, for every pot-head or psychedelic hippie in the country, that this war applies to him or her personally? Already some 250,000 people, mostly young, are in prisons because of marijuana, LSD, or other psychedehcs. Must the pólice break down the doors of every doper in the country before he or she believes that the government is actively pursuing a war to extermínate dopers that has been gping on since November 5, 1492? Unless every hippie understands the nature of this war, all people who prefer psychedelics to alcohol or narcotics are doomed. The Psychedelic Revolution is a fraud, for most psychedelic users don't understand that there is a real, physical war going on, and have never really attempted to make a Revolution in anything the vaguest "cultural"that is, ineffective -terms. Granted, psychedelic culture, with its love of freedom is proto-revolutionary, especially in rejecting the moneymad culture of bourgeois Amerika. But unless every hippie becomes a Yippie, willing literally to fight and to die for that psychedelic culture, it is doomed, and there will be no hippies left except for a few backwoods shamans, just as happened with the Aztecs and their progeny the peyote Indians. If we are going to win the Psychedelic Revolution, we must make and win a real revolution. Instead of bullshitting about acid in the water supply, which is impossible anyway because chlorine kills acid, how about going through supermarkets with a hypodermic needie and injecting acid into cake mixes?How about growing N. rustica and glories everywhere? How about miniature dart-guns or dart-blowers whose darts are tipped with DMT? How about some of the so-called psychedelic revolutionaries in rural communes getting hip to training militiae in the use of rifles, shoguns, handguns, and bombs? How about urban communiste undergoing strenuous physical (calisthenic) training in preparation for real war? How about manufacturing smoke bombs that emit real clouds of Cannabis? How about renting a helícopter, or skyjacking one, and dropping hundreds of rifles and pistols into state prison yards when the prisoners are .out for a stroll, after smuggling in messages so the prisoners know what to expect? Or, for those who think that "civil disobedience'" is a better route to social change, how about every pot-smoker in Amerika being very open about smoking, all the time? How about clogging the courts"SO MUCH that they literally can't put us all away'How ■ about smoking pot in eveiy church in Amerikkka, openly, eveiy Sunday? What would happen if every fieek in New York City, San Francisco, and every other city walked into a pólice station on October lst, 1970, smoking a joint? Instead of pointless "demonstrations" at colleges, what if every head in the country tripped on September 15,1970, and announced it to the world by walking into class or getting on the bus stark naked? The 'hippie" psychedelic revolutionaries also make another mistake: they underestimate their, and our, power. There- are now as many po t-sm okers, between 25 and 30 million, as there are blacks in this country. Together with young chícanos, Puerto Ricans, and Indians, the black and white pot-smoking youth of this country are a majority of the youth. The adult owners of the world are not going to hand it to us on a silver, marijuana-leaf-inlaid platter. If we don't TAKE IT ourselves, it will be everlastingly too late. They wiU continue to do as they have done for centuries, that is, piek off as many of us as they can. They 're not going to stop the War, or their pattern of psychedelic genocide. If we don't stop it for them, by real instead of bullshit revolution, we might as well cali it psychedelic suicide-for we are simply allowing them to kill us as they please. It's our world. If we don't take it, we are lost, and the planet will probably be lost with us.