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Miscellany: Notes On Political Economy: Division Of Labor

Miscellany: Notes On Political Economy: Division Of Labor image
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Tho 6ubdi visión oí labor, howcver, has ome tlisadvsntagcs. It is true that the man who does one on!y all his lifc, will do thnt particular thing better and quicker than others; but cvery other ihing he will do worso, both corporeaHy and intelkciually. Tio tendency of folluwing on pursuit cxclusively, is to contract the mind, nd rendcr it unsusceplible of cxrer.ded and various efl'orts. Ilpw'ho has slüirpened the point of pins uli his days, nay pcrhnps of benig dble to do that iu less tiuie and more perfect!}' thnn snjr othcr man; bnt he niiy be almosi without understanding in other tilinga. Bbsíí'os, it s a poor accounu for a rnüonul and immortal bcing to give of his exisieiice, that it !m3 been spent entirciy in sharpcuiug the points of pinsl. The remark olso holda good ofintelleciuitl pursuits. Somc attorniea nnd dergymen of good uttainmentö in thcir professionti, ennnot drive a nail without jTiakitig cvery carpenter's apprentice Jsugh. 'J'he only roniedy for this state of things among the laboring classes, is found in the general difiusion of knowledgc and.cducatton. By this means the capacity of the luborer is exter.died, his judgnient iniproved, and more rnfiiiüment ntroduced into the relations of social and domestic lili;.LIM1TAT10XS TO DIVISIÓN OF LABO II. These mny bc considcrcd in reference to Natiotis, and Ini'vhuais. lc is limiied in the case of individuáis hy the naitire of te j'ocess, dejipienaj of capital,, and the dantind. 1. Vhen an operation is icducod toits simple elementa, we can procced no funlier: for it is no división of ïab'or to cmploy two rn'on to perform prccisely the 6anio operation. Henee an establishment which cairies divifion to its greatest litnit, can ahvnys undersell nnother whcre the opcratione aro not so í'ully divided. 2. División of labor is lhniicd by cficiency of capital. This división cannot bc carried out, uniese ihc proprietot have suflicient capital to keep craployedall the persons neecssary to such. diviBion. muil the proceeds of.their work enaWe hi:n to furnish th'erri ag'án willi fresh matertals. - This, of coursc, ia n èbnsiderablë ouílay. Henee in n poor or new country, tliere can bc but little división of labor; and each indivicluul perforáis all the opcrations of a brnnch of business, and Bometimes imiten scveral branclies ín liis ówn persoh. Suppose a nail-inaker to be able to purcha6e only stock enoasii tor ono day's laljor, it je obviuu5 ho must perform oll tlso onerationse t. As soon ns hi, proft.s have doubl J 1 cupial, he can on,pl„y anolher person nn(J wmcc adivi8on.of labor. Whon hefrns ui, led hJ caphd, l,o ,,,r, ciupLy vvcku.a... and carry yi5ion stilj iunhcr. ke naj tlius go on ,1 He has n wora lur cnch ,er. ation. Jie will the!), f,o,n hs „,,,:,! g;lns, bc aWeto invest capita! in thé npccssary nibcñínery" andthusmnnufo.-inre naüs ns cheap a3 lièy can be ma Je. At cvery s:rp, J,s gans w:ll 1)0 - 1(_ or, hnd the srnne lime the pricc of his „rod-ct mti become lcs3. These rcsults do not often cc cur in the lifethne of onn. person. The prorr! of society is not gcnerdly so rnpid. But whatevcr Iongthoi time may ba cmploycd, the process is the sanie.


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