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The Battle Of Lake Erie

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We present our re?.dTS witn the addreset entire wliich was made on the occaaion of thi nauguration of the Perry Monument, at Cleve and, on the lOth inst , theatmivöraiiry of thi oattle, by the Hon. (Ieohoe Bancgoft, our Na tional Historian, and by Dr. Usheb Paksons, of Rliode Island, who was Surgeon of PerryV fk t, and with bim ou the Ladronee, during the action, and who is now the ocly survlvor ïrjiong tlie eoinmiesioned officers wliopartici -ted ia that conüiet. Both addresses wil ' ie read v. ith de?p interest t ADDRESS OF MR. BANCROFT. Men of Ohio- Fcllow Citizen of the ünitod State ! The defence of our country is not a uurden to be shunnod, but an ÍDalieu ablo rigbt which we are to assert, and sacred duty which we are to fulfill. The horoic deeds of those who n manly battle, have stood up for 1he moral existence of the nation, and given the greatetit proof oí thoir love for it by penling their lives in its defence, do serves to be commemorated by workf of art, that the evidence of their virtue may be ever present to the eyo of the peoplo. By our wüling sympathy with Lbeir effort we make tbeir giory our own ; by contemplating their actions with love we renevv ia our own breasts the just courage with which they glowed, and gain the ennobling consciousness that we too have the power within us to imítate their example. Citizens of Cleveland, executing a purpose which had its origiu in their own municipal governrnent, dieered by the patriotic zoal ot an artist who is a native of their State, and suetained by the coiifidiug energy of their epirited contractors, havo, raised the monument which has just been unvüiled. Before the myriads here assemblod thia statue is now dedicated to the Union iu the name of the penple. of Ohw. The inhabitants of this Common wealth are allied by their descent of common blood with noarly all the oidor United States, and all the most highly civilized countries of the old world. The homes of their ancestors are to be Ebund in tbe Old Dominion and in all the States to the north of it, in the British Islcs and Ireland, in the Iberian península, in France, in Italy ; and iu all the Continental States, especially in Germany ; so that in additioa to the mysterious afBnity of human nature with truth and freedom, no word can be uttered in any part of the cultivated world ior rigbt and liberty but you rnny claim in it a family interest of your own. It is the sons of your forefathers of whom you expect that the tomb and the birth plaue of Virgil will be secured to the guardianship of the free ; it is your brothers and your kindred who ure to tako the only worthy eengeance for '.vhat our revolutionary tathers suffered frorn the petty princes of a now fullen empire, by ineiting aud teaching its imrnortal people to construct a free and united Germany. OLio rises before the world as the majestic witnessto the beneficent reality of the democratie principie. A corainonwealth younger in years than he who addressea you, not long ago having no visible existenco but in the emigrant wagons, now niimberfi almost as large a population as all of England when it gave birth to Iialeigh, and Bacon, and bhakspere, and began lts continuoua attempt at colonizing America. Each one of her inbabitnnts gladdens in tbe fruit oí bis own toil. Sbe possesses Svealth that must be computad by thousands of millions ; and her frugal industrious, and benevolont people, at once daring and prudent, uniettered in the usü ot their fucultiea, restless in enterprisfi, do not squander the aecumulaüons of their industry in vain show, but ever go on to ronder tbe earth mora productiva, more beautiful and more oonvouieut to man ; mastering for rnechauical purposes the uowaating forces of nature; koeping exemplary good faith with their public creditors ; building in balf a century moro churches than all England has raised since this continent was discovered; endowing and su.stainihg universities and other seminaries of learaing. Conscious uf tho dynamre power of mmd in action as the best of fortresses, Ohio keeps no standing army but that of her school teachers, of whnm aho paya moro than twenty thonsaud ; sha provides a library for every school district; sho counts among her citi.ens more than three hunured thóusand men vvho can bear arm?, and she has mora than twico that Bumber of uhildren rogistered as tudents in hur pubüc schools. Here the purity of douiüstic inórala is maintained by the virtue aod dignity of woraan. In the beart of the températe zono uf this ijoitiaeat, in t'io land of corn, of v.h:.: the elifeít daughter jf the ordinanco oí soventeon hnadred and eighty-seven, alfeady the young motlicrof other comrnomvealths that bid fair to vio with her ia beauty, rises in hor lovelioess and glory, crowned with oities, and oballengèa the admiration of tho world. Uitlier should come the political sceptic, who n his despair is ready to strand the ship of state; for here ho'may learn how to guide itsafe!y on the waters. Should some modern Telemachus, heir to an islaud empire touch these ahoros, here he may observe the vitility and strength of the principie of popular power; tako froin the book of experionce the lesson that in public affuirs groat and bappy resalta tbllow in proportion to faith in the efficacy oí that principie ; and learn to rebuko ill-adviaed counselors who pronounco the most momentoaa and most ;ertain of political truths a delusion and a failure. This anniversary of the groat action f Oliver Hazard Perry, in set apart for inaugurating a monumeat to his fama. Who has not heard how gallantly, forty-seven years ago, the young horo, rtill weak trom wasting fover, led his squadron lo battle ? As if shielded by i higher power, he eneountered death on his right hand, death on hisleft, ey;r in advanee, ulmost alone for two lours fighting his ship, till it becamo u .vreck, ao thut but ono of its guns ;ould be uscd any looger, and more har fonr-fifths of his crevv lay aroi'nd 'lim wouiidad or killod; theu uoharmed, átnding as beseerned his spirit, he passed in a boat to the uninjured ara, uniuneu nis nag, Doro noirn ín pisiol shot of hisenemy, poared into them jroadsides etarboard and broadsides )ort, and while the sun was still high ibove tho horizon, leít uo office to be lone but that of meroy to the van juished. If the oomparison does not i Heem fancií'ul, I will cll his oonduct luring thoso eventful huuri a completo !yric poem, perfect in all ite parts. - Hiough he vvas carried away and raised ibova hiinself by the power with which iie was possessed, the passion of his in■ipiration was tempered by the serene self-possession .oí his faultlass courage ; lis will had the winged rapidity of fiery ihought, and vet observed with dt'lib jrateness the oorabinations of hurmony tnd the proportiona of measurod order. Nor may )rou ornit due honor to the virtues oí the unrecorded dead ; no! ns nournorá who req uire consolntion, but with a clear perception of the glory of thoir eud. The debt of nature all musf pay. To die, if need be, in defei.ce o the country is a common obügation ; it is granted to few to exchange life i'or a victory so full of benefits to thoir fellow men. These are the disinterested unnamed martyrs, who, without hope of fame or gain, give up their lives in testimony to the all pervading love of country, and lefve to our statesrnen the lesson to domand of othera nothing but what is right, and to subrnit no wrong. ''We have met the enemy," were Perry's words as ho reported theresult of tho batfle. And who was the "enemy?" A nation speaking another tongua? A state abandoned to the caprices of despotism? No ! they were the nation from whom most of us sprung, using the eamo copious languaye, internally the freest government that the world had ever known before our own. But the external pohcy of their govermnent has been less controlled by regard for right than thcir doincstic administratiou ; and a series of wanton aggressions upon us, useless to England, condemned now by hor own Btatesmen and judges as vioíations of the law of nature and the law of nations, forced iuto a conflict two pooples whose üoinmon syinpathios should never have been dis turbed. And is this aggressive sys tem forever to bo adventured by her rulers? How long is ttao overshadowing aristocratie element in her goverument to stand between tho natural affections of kindred na'ions ? Even now, a Iiritish minister whose past caroer gave hopea of greuter f xirness, is renewing the okl systum ui experiments on the pos6iblo contingency of the pusillanimity, thu indiöerence or the ignoranco of soim futura American ad'uunstration, and disputes our boundary io the Xorth-west, thoughthe vvords of the treaty are too plain to be perverted, and thoughthe United States claims no more than the British Seuretary of State who offered the troaty explained as its raeaniDg before it was signed. British soldioi-8 are uow oncamped on part of our territ.ory which boars the name of Washington. With a raoderation that should havo commanded respect, the United States waived their betterolaim to Vancouver, and even to any part of it, thinking it conducive to peace to avoid two jurisdictions on different parta oí tho same island ; and in return for this forbearance, the Iiritish Minister, yielding, perhaps, to soma selíish clamor of a trading company, is much against JUritish interests as American rights, reproduces on an An.encan island the inconvenionce f divided occupatiou, which it was the vory purpose ot the treaty to avoij. IÍ thu hum of the American seaboard is in part the echo oí sentimenta frc;n abroad, hore tho unmixod voices oí America may be hoard, as it pronounces that it is too late to wrost territory from the United States by prevarication, by menaeo by force. From the English dockyards it is a long voyage to San Juan ; the only irood land route across the continent lies South oí Lake Superior; in a íew years thero will bo three Ohios on the shores of the Paoiflc. It is England'h interest, as woll as duty, to give efiect to the treaty as it was uterpreted by her owq ministor to ours. Toar voices on this memorable day give the j instruotion to our own grovernmeat o abide by the treaty faithfully, on the condition that Britain will do the same; but the treaty must bind neither pafrty or both, must be executed in good faith or cancellod. Thu men who honor tho memory of Perry will always know how to dyfend tho dómain of their country. Has any European statesman been miscounting the streagth! of thia nation. by substituting a rüminiscence of our old feeble confoderation for the present j efficiënt and altnost perfect organisin of tho body politie? Has any foFWga ruler been so fooüsh as to libton vvilh credulity to tuo tales of impénding disunioñ í Every man of tho people of Ohio, this grout central highway of national travel, wil) without oue e.xception, teil the calunmiator er tbt? unbejipver that the voicos of disoontont ainong us are butthe evanescent vapora of rnen's breath ; that our little domestio strifea are no more than momentary disturbances oa the surfacu, easily settled arnongoursalves; that tho love of TJnion has wound it8 cords indissolublv round the whole American poople. So then our last word shall be for Tue I The Union vvül guard the fama of its defender, and evermore protect our entiro tei ritorv ; it wilt keep alive far mankind the beacon lights of popular iborty and power ; it will dissuade nations in a state of onripeness from attempting to found líe pablican governinents befbro they spring up naturally by an inward law; and its inighty heart will throb with deüght at ovñry true advance in any part of' the world towarda lïepublicuu happinoss and freedom. DU. FARSON'S' ADDRES3,. Mr. President : - Zn responding to your flattering nvitation to addreaa this vast assemblage, vain would ba my endeavor, afier tho rich banquet we have enjoyed, tü entertain you with historie or classic allusions, or with the graco of a pohshed style. Mine, sir, is the more humblo and appropriate task to describe briefly the battla oí Lake Erio. A story so often told must Éail to interest the most of you, and I should decline repeating it,but for the expressed wish of rnany to hear it from the last surviving commissioned oilicer of Ferry's squadron. Prior to the lOth of September, 1813, the TJaited States squadron on this lake, commandod bv Commodore Perry anchorod in Putin-Bay, which is formed by a cluster of islauds, öftv miles from this place The enemy wcre in the port of Malden, forty miles farthcr distant, preparing to moet and give us battle. Our crows were reduced in number of men by a prevaiiing fever, which induced Gen. Ilarrison to send thirty-six volanteen from bis army. Some of these still live, and are hero present. Within a day or two previous to the fight, Perry caüed a council of cnm maoders, aad assignod to each his station in the order of battle, and concluded his orders by stating his intention to bring his enemy to close qaartera, in order not to lose by the short range of his carroñados; and tho last emphatic DJunetioD with which he dismissed them was, that he could nofc, in case ol difficulty, adviso thom bot'or than in tho words of Lord Nelson, - "Ia cise you lay your enemy close alongsido, you cannot be out of your place." Early in the tnorning of the l.Oth a cry carne from the rnasthead, "Sail ho !" All hauds sprang from their hummocks., and ere they could dress and reach tho deck, six saus wero announced. Signal was thon made to tho squadron, 'enemy in sight," "get undor wny," and soon the hoarso sound of' trumpets and shrill boatswains' pipes resoundod throughout the fleet with, "All hands up anchor, ahoy." After some detention by adverse winds, we cleared the ii-lands and directed our course toward the enemy, distatit at ten o'clock aboutfivo miles. The American squadron consistcd of nin vessels, carrying 54 guns and 400 men, and the British of six vessels, carrying 64 guns and 511 men. The line ot battle was arranged with the Boorpion and Ariel ahead, followed by the üag ship Lavvrence, Caledonia, Niágara, and four small vessels, they were ordered to keep within half a cable's length of oach other. By this arrango ment it was understood that tho Lawrünce should fight tho fiag ship Detroit - Commodore agaiust Commodore ; tho Caledonia the Lady Provost, tho Niágara the Queen, and the ibur small vessels astern uttack the Hun ter and Little Bolt. Tho Scorpion and Ariel were to support the Lawreuce and fight the Chippewa, the head vossel oí the British line. The Commodore now produced the burgee or figliting flag, hitherto concealed ia the ship. It was inscribed with largo white letters on a blue ground, legible throughout the squadron, "Don't yive up thé ship," the last words of the expiring Lawrenco, and now to be hoisted at tho masthead of the ship bearing his name. The Commodore made a spirited appeal to the crew, and up went the flag to the foro royal amid hearty eheers, repeated throughout the squadron, aud the drums and fifes struok up the thrilling cali, "AU hands to quarters. The hatohes or passage ways from below to the deck were elosed, exeepting the main one in centre, through which balls miglit be passed up to the uaunon, and the wounded down to the aurgeon's apartment. Over this apartmeut was au opening, or skylight, ten inches square, to pass cart-ridges through froni tho magazine, and to lot in iight to the surgeon. The floor of the apartment was level with tho water outsido, and left the Burgeou aud the wouaded quite as much exposed to tho cannon balls of the onemy as were tljose oa deck. Every preparation being made, and every man at his station, a profound silenes reigned for more than an hour, - the most trying part of the whole scène. It was liko the stillness that precedes the hurrioiiae. The two squadrons moved on in their respective lines, gradually approximating till aquurter before 12, when the awful stillness and suspense were relieved by a shot aimed at the Lawrenoo from the J)etroit, about ono mile distant Purry signalled to the sqadron to inako moro sail and come into close action, at the samo time pressing forward the Lawrenco to within cauister distanco of the Detroit, and then opened upon her a rapid and destructivo ure. The Caledonia followed the Lawrence in gallaiit styjo, and maintained her position nobly. The Kcorpion and Artel bcing smaü, aurauieu less firing from tbo enemy, whilst their larga guns in constant play did great executiou. Tbe Niágara failiug to gra-pple hor antagonist, the Quoon, tlie latter vos86} shot ahead and joiucd the Detroit in firing upon tho Lawrence, and fiually 7iiade a completo v;rcck of hor. Fortúnate ly, however, Perry had escapod injury, and stopping into a boat hu ordured the fighting flag to be brought to hira, and then pushed oiï to the Niágara, whieh had by tliis tiina conm up neurly abreast of' tho Lawrence, but further frora her than the enemy's flag ship Detroit was ou the oppoaito Ede. Ferry ï-eachod Lur deek. exposed on his vray to balls and musketry, unscathed. Ho fouud her ft fresh ship, with only two or three persons ïnjured, aud every canr.on in working lier eomraander rosigned the deck to hiiu and hastened to press forward the four sinall vossels that were astern, which i were dull sailers, and with tho utmost ; ertioa of their erews were unable to koep up in the place assigned them in the line. i ïho Lnwrence r.ow lagged behind, aud haulod down hor flag in tokon of surrender, which drew forth boisterous cheers on board the enemy's ships. But Porry immediately changed the eourao of the Niágara froin the ouu ïn which she was steering, making nearly a right angle, and crossing ahead of the Lawrenee, bore dowii, head foremost, tu the eneiny's line, determined to break through it and take a raking position. The Detroit attempted to turn so as to keep hor broadside to the Niágara, and avoid being raked. But in doing this, gae feil against the Queen, and got entangled in her rigging, and thus were exposed both British ships to a raking and destructiva fire from tLe Niágara; whilst heavy blows wore received from the small vessels astern, which had by this time como up within good dia;ance for effective shots, and the two ships were uuablo to fire in return. - Thoir counnandcrs were thus compelled to haul down their colors in token of submissiou, or link. Perry then shot ahead to the Lady Provoat, which having been crippled in her ruddor, had drifted out of Ier place in the line to the leeward, and was pressing forward towards tho head of the British line, to support the two ships. One broadside from the Niágara silenced lier battery. The Huuter uext hauled down her flag, and the two smaller ves seis, in attempting to escape, were overtakeu by the Scorpion aud Tripp, and thus oudod the aotion aftcr oight o'cloak. Let us now for a moment to the scènes exhibited in tho Lawrenee, of which I was au eye witness. Tho woundad bogan to come down before she opened her fire. Soon, however, the storm of batlle burst forth, in deafening thunders of our own broadsides, in the crash of uallá dashing through our timbers and bulwarks, and in thé shrieks of the wounded. were brought down for aid i'astsr than I could atteud to theiu, furiher than to stay tho bleediug, or to support shattered limbs with splints, and )ass thora forward upon the berth deck. In less than two houra few mon were left on doek in working order, and the six meu stationod with mu at first to assist in noving tho woundud, wero called away one by one to work the guns, and even soino of tho wounded thoniselves crawled jack to the deck to lend a feeble hand in pulling at the last guns. At this time tho surgeou's room presented a seene truly horrible. Thero lay ;he lifeless bodies of Midshipmen Laub and Chas. Pohig, both killed in the surgeou's room aftcr having their wounds dressed. Laub had hardly left my hands when a cannon ball struck him in the sidc, dashing him against tho wall, and cuttiag bis body nearly 'm twain. Lieut. Brooke, son of the Governor of Massachusetts, an elegant and acoomplished officer, lay with his hip mashed by a can non ball, of which he diad before the battle closed. Hambleton, the intímate friond of Pcrry, lay bloeding, his shoulder being broken. Claxton, a promising offieer, lay with his shouldor and arm shot away, aad doomed soon to die, and several others, with limbs crushed and flesh laeeratcd, all lay woltering in their blood, and writhing iu agony, and calling for cold water to rel:eve the sense of faintness, Wbilst I was intent upon stopping the flow of blood, a new visitor came from the deck, reporting that the Commodore had gonc to tho Niágara, and that our own ship, unable to fight longer, was hauliug down her colors. This added wailings of despair to the groans of the wounded. Death or Dartmoor prison seeuied inevitable, and some were nlamorous for binking the ship, and all going down togüther. But in a few minutes more a cry carne from tho deck that "tho ship has struck !" I leaped upon the deok, oalliug out, ':what ship bas struck?" aud saw tho Detroit's flag actuully bauled down, and tho Queon's flag coming down. It was enough ! The day was decided, the enemy beatón, and I rushed on deck shouting "vijtory !" "victory !" As the smoke cleared away the two squadrons seemed mingled together undistinguishably. Tho shattored Lkwrence lying to the windward was once more able to hoist her flag, which was cheered by a few feeblo voices, making a melancholy sound comparcd with the tremendoua checra that preceded tho battle. Tho shot holes betweeu wind aud wator wore iaimediately plugged to prevent our siukiní, and tho ïnasts secured from feiling overboard. Perry fovthwith dispatchod two messages to -Harrison and to the Secretary of the Navy, remarkable for their pith and brevity. To Harrison he says : " We have met the eneuiy and they are ours - two ships, two brigs, oue sloop aud one schooner ;" to the Seeretary, ''It has pleased the Almighty to give the arms of the United States a signal victory over thoir eneiüies on this lako. The Britiih squadron, consisting of two shipSj two brigs, one sloop and one schooner, have this moment surrenderod to the forces undor my coinuiaud, aftor a sharp conflict." Tho proud, though painful duty, of taking possession of the conqaered ships, was now performed. The Detroit was nearly dismantled, and the destruction and carnage had been dreadful. The Queen was in a condition little better - overy comuiander aud second in commauij, says Barclay, in bis official report, ■was either killed or woiuided. The whole nuiuber killed in the Britiah fleet, was fürty-one, and of wounded, ninety-four. In tlie American fleet, twenty seven wore killed aad ninety-six wounded. Üf the twenty-sevon killed, twentj-to were on board tho Lawrcnce, and cf tho niaetysix woundod, sixty-one were on board the same ship, making eighty-three killed and wounded out of 101 reported fit for duty in the Lawrenue on the mornhig of the battle. On board the Niacara were two killed and twenty-three wouudod, ïnaking twenty-fivo, aud of these, frvrént-two worc killed or wounded after Perry had command of her. About foor o'clook a boat was disooverod approaching the Lawrence. Hoon the Ootnmodore was reeognized u her, wlio was returning to resume the command of hi tattered ship, determiued tliat the remnftOt of her crew should hae the pivöegfl of witnessing the formal sui-rendcr of the British ofiieers. It was I a timo of couflictmg eruotions when ha j .■; .■-.I upon the deck. The battle was wtn, r.uJ i'.1 tule, ■ but the dei '. slippery with blood, aud strewed with tho bodies of tweuty offioer3 a;id niun, somo of whom sat at the table with us at our last meal, and tho skip resounded with the groans of tho wounded. ïhose of us who wore spared and able to walk, met him at tho gaugway to weieome him oa board, but the salutation was a sileut one on both sidea - a grasp of the hand - our hoarts wcre too full for a speech - not a word could fiad utteranco. Perry walked aft, whero his first reinarle was addressed to bis intímate friend, HambletOD, then lying wounded ou the deck, "The prayors ot' niy wife," eaid he, "havo prevailed in saving me." Then casting bis e3ros about, he inquired, i "Where is my brother?" This brother was a youug midshipman, of thirtaen years. He had, during the battle, actcd as aid in running witli orders to different S parta of the ship; for you must know that in the din and uproar of battle, orders i can hardly be heard at three feet ! tauoe. We made a general stir to look him up, not without l'eara that he had been knocked overboard. But lie was soon found in his berth asleep, exhausted by the exereise and excitcment of the day. And now tho British officers arrivcd, one from eaoh vessel, to tender their subïnission, aud with it their svrords. When they approaohed, picking their way among the wreek aad carnago of tho deck, with their hilts towards Perry, they tamlered them for his aocepfanoe. Witli a dignified and solcmn air, and with a low tone of voioe, he requested them to retain thoir stde-arms ; inquired v,Tith deep concern for Commodore Barclay and the wounded offioers ; teudered to them every comfort his ship afforded, and expressed his rogrot that he had not a spare medical offtcer to send them ; that he only had one on duty for the fleet, and that one had his hands full. In a lew days the two Commodores partcd, nerer more to mest ench other, ïor with Oen. Harrison. Tokens and nessages of friendship, however, wcre ofton iuterehanged between them. Perry served two years as oommander of the Java, taking with hini the survi vors of tho flag-ship Lawrence. Hö after this commanded a squadron in the West [ndies, where he died of fever in 1819. Possessed of high-toaed moráis, he was above tho dissipation aijd seusuality preyilont with soma officers of his day. His iterary acquirements were respectarle and his taste refined. Uc united the graces of a manly beauty with a lion ïeart, a sound mind, a sufe judgmeut, and a firmness of purpos-a which nothing oould shake.