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Report Of The Secretary Of War

Report Of The Secretary Of War image Report Of The Secretary Of War image
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War Department, Deo. 1,1861 Sik: I have the. honor to subiuit the annual report of this departinont. The accompauying reporta of the chiefs of thö several bureaus present the estimatcs of the appropriatiofls reuuired for the service of this department during the fiscal year eadiiig June 30, 1853, and also the appropriations neeessury to cover deficieucies iu the estimatcs for 1SG1 62. STHEN'GTII OF THE ARMY. The following statement presents the entire estimated strength of the arniy, buth volutlteers and regulara: -a'VlLS. . VOI.UXi'1-.ERí , 3 Mot. Far War. AgX'tll ; California, 4 668 4 6'H j Conncoticit, 2 23fi 12 400 ]4G:16 Delawar, 77ó 2 000 2 775 IIIioom 4 911 80 0(10 84 'JU Indiana, 4 686 57 338 B3 018 lown 968 19 Po 90 78 K ntucky, 15 000 15 000 M.une 763 14 239 15 007 Marylana, 7 000 7 000 MnssnchusettJ, 3 435 86 760 30 195 Michigan, 781 28 55(1 29 331 Miiin.-'sota, 4 100 4 1G0: Missouri, 9 356 2a 130 314-6 ITew H.uiipshire, 779 9 600 10 1)79 NVw Jersey, 3 008 9 349 12 410 New Fork, 10 1P8 1002108 110 338 Ohio, 10 2M6 81 205 91 431 Pennsylrani, 19 199 94 7(50 113 959 Kimde Ishind, 1 285 5 898 7 183 Vennoot, 70 8 non 8 7ii Virginia, 779 12 000 18 779 Wiwoiwin, 792 14 153 14 945 K.nsa. 5 000 5 000 Col.u-ado, 1 000 1 0(1 Nebraska, 2 500 2 50(1 Nevada 1 000 1 OitO Nchragkn, 2 500 2 50 New Mexico, 1 0(10 1 000 Dist. rjolnmW, 2 823 1 000 3 823 77 875 040 C37 718 512 Fstitimieil s'renttth of the regalar irmv, including tlie new enlit'-menti un der act of Congress of July 2J, 1861, 20 334 Total, CGO 971 The geveral arms of the servico are estiinated as follows : Volunt're. Efgl'rs. Aeer'g. Infantry, 557 20 11175 568 383 Cavalry, 54 654 4 744 59 98 Artillery, 20 380 4 308 24 8 Hiñes i'sharpshoot' 8 395 8 395 Engineers, 107 107 Total, 60 G37 20 334 G60 971 The appropriatiations asked for the sorvice of the next Saeal year are com puted for a forcé of 500.00Ü men. They Lave been reduced to the luwest possible amouut consistent with the publie interests, and are based upou a strietly eeouomioal administration of the various branches of thia department. The apüropriatious to cover cies aro reudered neoessary by the exeess of the forcé in the fiejd over that upon whieh the estimates werc fouuded, and by extraordinary expenditures conuected with tho employment and discharge of the three mouth'a contingent. CAVALRV. An item of very heavy expenso is the large mounted force wbich has been orgauized, eijuipped and made available siuce the called sessiou of C"i)gres, and whioh was uut computed for in the esti mate. Wliile an increase of eavalry was undoubtedly ueceasary, it has reach ed a oumerioal strength more than adequate to the wants uf the service. As it cun ouly be maintained at a great cost, ineasures will be taken for its gradual reduction. IIOW THE ARMY WAS RAISBTD. In orguniziug our graat anny, I was cffeetivel) aided by the loyal Governors of the different stateg, and L olieerfully acknowledge the prompt patrintisin with whjeh they responded tu the cali of ihis department. Congress, during its extra Bession, autliorized the aruiy to bo increased by the acoeptance of a volunteer force of 500, (K)0 men and made an appropriation of five hundred millions of dollars for its support A cali lor the troops was imïnediately made; but so numerous were tho offers that it was found difficult to disoriminate in the choice, vvhere the patriotism of the peoplc demanded that there should be no restriction upon en listments. Every poition of the loya States desired to swell the army, and evory OQuauauuity was anxious that it should be represented in a cause that ap pealed to the uoble&t impulses of our neonle. So thoroughly aroused was the national beart tliat I liave uo doubt thia forca would have buen swollen to a ID Ilion had not the department feit compe'led to restriet it, in the absence of authority from the reproaeutatives of' the peuple to increasc the limited number. It will be i'ur Congrega to deelde wliether the anny shall be further augmeutcd, with a view to a more speedy tenniuutioii of tho war, or wliether it shall be confined to the streugth already tixcd by law In the Uttar case, with tho object of radueing the voluntcer forcu of 51)0,000, I propose, with tbe consent oí' Gongresa, to consol idate suth of tlio rcgiuieuts as may tïom timu to time ful] below the regulatiun standard. The idoption of thia muasure will decre ise tiia number of officcra, and proportionably diuünish the oxponses of the anny. It is said of Napoleon by Jomini that, in the cainpaign ol 1815 that great General on the lst of April had a regular arníy qf 20Q,000 men. On the lst of June he had inureased tliis force to 414,000. The proportion, adds Jomini, "Lad lie thought proper to inaugúrate a vast systum of defonse, would have raised it to 700,000 men by the lst of September." At the commencement of thia rebellion, inaugurated by the attack upou Fort Sumpter, tho eotire military force at the disposal of this Government was 16,000 regulara, principally employed iu the Wet to hold in check marauding Indiane, 75,000 voluuteei-3 wero callea upon to enhst for thrce montbs' service, and responded with sucb alacrity tiiat 77,875 wero iminediafcly obtaincd. Under tbc authority of the act ot Congresa nf Jnlv 22' Ifilli. the Statos were askcd to furnish 500,000 volunteers to serve .r thrco years, or during the war; and by tlie act approved the 29th of the sume ; month, the addition of 25,000 men totlic regular ariny of the United States was authorized. The reault is that we havo uow an anny of 600,000 men. If we j sdd to this the uuntber of the discharged i thrce mouths' volunteers, the aggregato force furuished to the Government since April lust exceeds 700,000 men. PTltBNQTII 01' TUK NATION. We have herc an Bvidenee of the wonderful itrength of our institutions. - Without coDScriptions, lovics, drafte, or j other extraoidiuary expedienta, we have raised a great(;r foree than that whioh, j g.t'ueredby Napoleon with the aid of all j these appliances, was considered an dence of his wonderfal geuius and ener gy, and of the military spirit of the Freiuh natiou. Here every man has an interest in the Goveriiment, and roshei to itfl defense when daogarl bcset it. AN ARMY OF TIIREE MILLION'S POSSIBLE. By refercuce to tlie records of the Revoiution it will be seen that Massaohusetts, wi:h a population of 350,000, had at one time 5G.O00 troops in the field, or about otie-sixth of' her eptire people - a forcé greatly exceedinc the wholo uum ber of tpoopa furnisheaby all the Suuthern States during that war. Sliould tlie present loyal States furnisb. troops in like proportion, which utidoubtedly ! would be the caáe should any emergencj deiuand it, the Governmgt could prouiptly put uto the field au ariny of over tnres million. DI.-CIPLINE. It givcs iry; great saiisfaction to refer to tlie crcdilable degiee of discipline of our troops, most of whom were, but a short lime sinc.-e, eugaged 11 the pursuits ut' peoe. Tiiey are rapidly attaining an effieiencj which cannot fail to briog suocess to'our arma Officersaná men alike evince an earnest dtsire to acoomplish ; themselvei in evcry duty of the camp and field, and the various corps are animated by an em'ulation to exeel each other in soldierly qualities. TUK KUBELUOS. The conspiraey against the ' ment extended over an area of 7i3.144 ' square miles possessing a coast line of 3, h-Z'i miles, and a shore line of 25,414 ' miles, with au interior boundary line of ' 7.U31 miles in length. This conspiracy j ' stripped us of anus and munWions, and scattered our navy to tho most distant quarters pf the globe. The cffort to restorü the Union, which the Government entered on in April last, as the most gigantic endeavor in the bistory of civil var. The interval of seven uionths bas )een spent in pri'paration. The bistory of this rcbellion, íd comxiou with all others, for obvious causes, ecords the first suecesses in fuvor of the usurgents. The disaster of Buil Run was but the natural eonsequenoe of the tremature advance of our brave aml uuliaciplined troopa, wliich the imputieuee of the country demanded, The betrayal also of our luovements by traitors in our midst euabled tbc rebels to choosj and ntreneh theirposition, and by a reiuforeement m great streugth, and at the mouient of vietory, to suatcli it from our grasp. This reverse, however, gave no discoaragement to our gallaut people ; tliey have crowded into our ranks, and akhougb large numbejfi have been neecs s:nly rejeeted, a niigíity army in invincible array stands cager to precipítate itself upou the foe. ' The check tbat we have reeeived pon the Potoiiiac bas, tberefore, but postponed the oampaigu fo; a few nionths; tbeother successes of the rebels, tliough dearly wou, were mere affairs. with no important or permanent advai.tages. The possessiou of W estera Virginia and the oecupatiou of ilatteras and Beaufort have uobly redeemed our At tte date of my last report the State of Belaware, Maryland, Kentucky, and Uiouri were t: reatened witli rebelión. In Delaware, the gcmd MDHe and pa'.riotism of the poople havo triumphod ovor the unholy schmi of of trai om. Tho peoplo of Koiitucky emlv pronounced Ihumselves, by ati unt'quivccal deolaration at the ballotbox, in favor ol the Union ; and Maryluud Botwithstkotiingtbe effortH t bad inen in power in the city of Bahimore when the opportnnity ofa genera) eection was sflorded, ander the lead ot her brave and patriotio Governor rebuked by ui overu heltniiifi majority the traitors who would hnvo led lier to destruction. In Missouri u loyal State Government has bea estiblibhed bv the [HMiplo, tl.oiisaiida of whom háve rallied to tho mipport of the Federal anthunty, and, ia couj'inution with troops lrom othcr lortions ot tlie OOUTh trv, hnvc Inreed the rebels to retiro into'ihe rtdjoiüinir Saté. Tho Govern ment wtb!ihed in Virginia hy tho loyal popalatiou is in sucoessful operation and 1 have no doub will be sustainod by the people of th entiro State whooever the thrald'iin of tho torcos shall have baen ro'uoved. Tlius has it been made clearly apMEtrant that in whutever direetioD tbe direotion iho furcos of the Union have extended their protection, th ; repressed loyalty of the pO] Ie, irresis'.lbty manifêsting i sell, has sided to restore and maintnio theauthority of the &ot eminent; and 1 doubt nol tht the ariiiv now assembled on the b-tuks of tho iXitouiac, wil I, under its ablo leader,! soou !iuke BUfifa a tlomon.strntioii as wil! reestablish its aulhurity broughout uil rebellioiu tateg GOVKKNMKNT 01' 0ÖMüïKD DISTRICT?. The loyul Govtrnor of Virginia is procedifig to organiza court uruJer the Coiistitution and Iu.vh of tba State, in :ill her eastern oo'lDtioa in tho ocoupation ot oor traopt) I respeetfully üuggust thai ttütbority thould le givun ui thö Pfofideot to st'iid Onmmisgtaners I uilii tlie iinny, vviili pouer to exercise j all the fuociion öf locml Government whei-ever the civil umhority lius oeased o i'sist, and epeciaHy to euforce the obligiltwns of contract, and the ;o!r leotion ot' dübts dut; to loyal weditoni. THE SPItlXGl IKLB ARMORY. As statyd in tny last report, at tho j ouinmónuemeht óf tlii rebellion, the ' goveniiiiont foilnd itelf deficiedt in [arma and muiiitious of war, through tho bad i'uith of ihose éntruiitod wiiti íheir control duriug the preoeding dI ininitration. The arrnoiy at Hurpci's Ferry having been destroyed to j , vent its posessioh and use by the rebels, the goVBtnnient was cotoperléci to relj : thu tinglo arinory at Springfield, anH unon Di'ivate efctablifchinents, for a supply of arms. Every efioet bus , i boon imído to iaore&H the eapaoity of] that armory, the greatatt product of which, prior to themi troubles, had never exceedod 800 rousket per month In charge of an enorgctie. and able ordnanoe offieer, the forcé being d.nibeled, and operation vigorously prosecnted dity and night, there wero made Bt tbi etiiblisliraoüt, durinp tho pat month of Ootobor, (total of 6,900 niuskets; and it is contidently expccted thitt 10,000 will be tnamifuctu ed durin the present month. Ou a recent visit, with a view to enlarde the capac ity oí tho snnory, I direutud tlie purchase of a larse quantity of mnchinory already finimid, which, when put in operation wül enable this ustablUhnieflt to produce, duriíig the next year, 2O0,000 stand of the juatly oelebrated Springfield rifles. I rt?spectfully uggtist thu reoommendatíon of a liberal appropriation by Congruss for the purposo ol yet further incrcasiníj the cupacify oí this urinory, believinar that it can be made müficiunt to supply all the niusket.s and rifles which the government may hereafter nued in any confín gency. Loeated in a liealthlul country, in tho midst of an indastrioaa and in -niuiis people, where competent work men can slways be obtained without difficnlty, and suíliciently near to all the m ateríais ueeded in the manu1 íacinre of arms, it is at the sanie time accea&ible to evory part of the country by water and railway com.nnnication. PORCIIASE OF AIIMS. After making contracts for arms with the private eatablishments in this country; it was deenied necessary by the President to inaure a speedy and ampio supply, to send a special agent to Europe with funU to tlieamount ot two million uf dollars to purchase more. I arn ;;ratiho%U .state jyat he has made arrangements íor TFlarge Dumber pf arms, part of whiob hve already been delivered. Thu remainder will he shipfwd by succensivu eteamers un til all shall have been received. Combinations arnong manufacturen-, ira portera and agenta for ihe salo uf urms, have, in tnany cases, caused an undiie increase io price. To prevent advantuge to be thus taken of the ner.esities oí the poverrKiient, collectors of custrns have been directed io delivor to the igents oí the United States all arm, and munitioiif ihut may be ioipoi'ted into this ccutitrj . NECESSARY STOCK OF AIÍMS. The deinand for arms has called in t exis.en' o nimierous establishuients for their manufacture throughout the loyal portion l the country, and it has been the polioy of tlus department to encouragti the dèvi'lop n.t'tit of the capita], unterpnse, and skill of our peopïe in this direötion. Thegovernmentshonld never have ]es=s ihan a million of irmskets in ita arsenala, with a oorrespondiog prnpörtion of anus and equipmentsfor artillery and cavalry. Otlierwise, it may, ::t a most eritical menu nt, find itst'lf deficiënt in guns while having an abundance of men. A NATIONAL FOUNDRY. I recommend thyt application be made to Congrega for au hor i ty to establish a national íoundry for the manufacture of heavy artiileiy at such a point as may aff rd the greateat facilities lor the purpose. While a suffi cient nurnber af catmon perhaps could be procured frona private manufaotories the posbessioD of a national establishment would be useful to the country, and prevent imposition in pricea by the accurate knowledtre that would be acquired of the real valué of work of this character. REOKOANIZATIOX OF THE MILITU. In iny last report I called aüention to the faoi that tegfelation was necessary for the reorganbation, apoó a uniform buM, of the nrliüa of the country. Some general ph.n should be provided by Congreee in aid of the States, by vvhich our militiu ciin bb organized arraed, and diauiplined, and madu effoctive at any mon.ent for immediate service. If tboroughly trained in time of poace, wlien occasiun demand-, it may be converted into i vast army, confident in its discipline and un-j cotiquera le in its patriotism. In tHB absencH of any general i-ytstem of organi.atiou, upwards of i'OO.OOO men have alroady been brought into the field; and, in view of the alacrity ond onlhusiasin ihat have been dJRplayed, I do not hesi'ato to exjiress the belief that no combination of eventa can arise in which this country will not be able not oniy to protect itself, but, cantrary toitepotiey, which is peace with all the world, to entí.r apon Bggreesive i-tnin'itirtnú un-.iint mu'or ih'it mía' intermeddle with our domestic a ff airs. A committoe ph.mld ba uppointed by Congress, with authority to it dn ring the rocc'Ks, to devise iirii) report ) plan tor Üio general organizaron oí' thd Militia ef the United States SEABOAÜD FOUTIF1CATIOKS. It is of great importnnoo thatimmudiate attention shculd be givch t the eondition of our fortifioatiooa upon the séaboard and the lukes, and upon our exposed frontiera. They shnuld t once bu placed in perfect eondition for snccoi-siul defüpse. Af'ST' espiona are i eoldorn made upon a nation ever readj to delend it honor and to repel inBultfl: and we shculd show to tho world that while engaged in quelling dlnturbances t boma se ure itile tn protoct ourselves against attacks trom abroad. INCUBASE OF THE CADET CORPS. I earnetly recommend thnt immediate provisión be made for inereaninc: tho corps of cariota ro tho greate-t capocñty of the military aomiemy.- There are now onlv 192 oadets at that important. initit u tion. I atn BMured Uy the superintendent that 400 can at present be neeoramodatod and that, with 7i'rv tiiflinsr additional expense, this numher may bo inoie.-ised to 500. It. is not twoBisary, at this lato day, to speak of the vahío of educated sol diere. While in the tirne of war or rebellion, we must ever depend tnainly pon our militia and votuntoem, we ehall alwava noed thöroughly trained officers. Two das-es havlng boen ' gradnfito'1 during the preont year, in order that tho service might have I the benefit of their military eduoation, I 1 had bopad that Congres, at iti entra session, woüld aijthorize an inoreaie of tho nütiiber. Ilaving falledtodo! EO, I truét tbat at the approaching ' sion an ÍO0Tee will be nuthonzeil, and that the selection of cudets will be limitad exclusively to thoso States ! whioh, co-operatiog with tho Government, havo brought their forros into the Beid to aid in the muintenance of iti authority. COL. 8YLVANU8 TIIAYKU. ín this connection, j'istice requires that 1 should cali ittention to the claims of f. veteran officer, to whom, move than to any other, tho military acaderny 18 indebted for its present prosperóos and ;fficient conditinn. I iilluJo to Oolonel Sylvanus Thayer, of the Engineer corps, ho öow, by renson of advanced years and faithful public services, i incapat;itated íor duty in the field. TJnder the recent law of Oongress he may j'iatly claim to bo retirad (rom active service; but, believiutf that his distitiguishcd services should receive some mark of acknowledgment Irotn the Government, I reeonimend that authority be asked to retira him upoa his fuü pay and emolumenta. HEALTH OF THE ARMY. The health of nn ar.rny ia a ' ratinn of tho highost eonsequence. - Good nnen and women in different States, impelled by the higheat motives ] of berievolenoe and patriotism, have ' come in aid of the constituted sanitary ! nrrangementa of tha üoverntnent, and ' beun greatly "struniental in diminishing diseasu in the camp, giving increaed '[ comfort and happ'.ness to the life of the soldier, and mpartiog to our hospital service a moro humane and generoua c.harac.ter. Salubnty of situation and pleassn.tnefa tff surroundingi have diciated tho choice of the hospital sites and establishment for our sick and wounded, of vvhich we have every re.ison tri bu proud, have been opwied in St. Louis, Washington, Georgetown, Bultimorë, and Annapolis, and will be attauhc d to every división of the army in the field. To the close of the war vigilant caro shall be given to the hualth of the vvell sol-dier, and to the comfort and recovery of the sick. FUOMOTION' UN THE VOLUNTEEKS. I recommend thit the system of promotion wliich prevnils in the regular service be applied to the volunteor forces in the respective States; restricting, however, the promotions to men actually in the field. At present each Governor selects and appoints the officera tbr the troops furnished by his State, and complaint is not unfrequen'.ly made, that when vacancies occur ín the field, men of ioferior qualifications are placad :n command over tlioe n the ranks who aro their superiors in military experience and oapacity. The advanoemeut of merit should be the leading principie in all promiitions, and tho vol inteer soldier should ha given to understand that preferment will ba tho sure reward of intelligence, fidclity, and distinguished service. The course above recommended has been pursued by t Lis department, arid it is my intention, go far as in n,y power, to continue a system hich cannot fail to have a most boneficial effect upon the entire service. REGULARS AND VOLUNTEERS. By existing Iaw3 aud regulation an UllUiC i ui luw J V" mui ui iu y iiiiiitu uu lyiiivvi ot volunteers of the sume grade, notwithstanding the commissiou of the latter inay be of antecedent date. In my judgment, thia practiee has a tendoncy to repress the ardor and to limit the opportuuity for distinctiou of volunteer officers, and a change shouid be made by which seniority of comraissioQ shouid coufer the right of eommand. I submit for refleotion the question whether the di-tinetiou between regulan and volunteers whicli now exists, sliould be pnrmitted to continuo. Tke effisieney of tho army, it appears to me, might be greatly increascd by u consolidation of tho two during the continuauee of tho war, which, couibining both foi'ces, would constitute them oue grand army of the Union. RECRUIT'ö. Recruitiug for the regular army has not been attended with that success which was anticipatcd, although a largo number of men have entered thia branch 'of the service. While it is admitted that soldicrs in the regular anny, uuder tho control of officers of military educatiou and expericnce, are generally better cared for than tbose in the volunteer service, it is certaiu that the popular preference is largeiv givcn to the latter. - Young men evidently prefer to enter a corps officered bv their friends and ac(luajntaneos, and besides the bounty granttd to voluuteers in most of the States, inducemonts are often directly offered to them by those whose commissions depend upou their success in pbtaining recruits. In additiou, the volm teer is allowed to draw ljis full pay of 13 per mohtb, while by law $2 per nionth are deductcd from the pay of tha regular, to be returned to him at the end of hia term of service In ray judgment, this law shouid be repealed, and the reg ular soldier be allowed to receive Lis full pay when duc. He shouid also reoeive either a reasonable bounty upon enlisting, or au advanco of 20 of the $100 which a law of the last session of Congreso írrants to volunteers on the ex piration of their periods of service. - Thia would doubtluss stiinulate enlistmoiits, as it would euable the soldier to mako somo provisión for those depeu dent upon lam lor support untu he reco .ves uis pay. AIDS DE CAMP. By thft act approved August 5, 1861 the President is authoïized to appoint as many aids to Major Generala ot the regular army, acting in the tield, as he um' deein proper. The nuinber of aitj.-i, in my ipinion, .hould hu hmitod, and no mure ahould be allowed to each Major Guneral than c:in be advantageolisly omployed upon hisowu proper Sta il. Much expenso wmild be saved and tho Executive and thia dopartment would be relieved of applications very ernbarraasiog frrathair naturo and ex. tuut. MINOES IN THE AT.MT, The filth section of tho act approved September 23, 1850. makes the dis charge of itiinors obligatory upon this I departrnènt, upon proof that their en lislment was without the consent o their pnrentsor guardianf. In vi-w o the injüi'ioüs oporations of the law, ant of the facilities vvhich itopéns to ( ' I respectfnlly urgo its eftriy repe:: Applicatiens lor the discharges of aors enn Uien bc detcnnined e'ther by ;his depnrtment, n nccordaneo vvith luoh rcgulntions aa expeiienco mny lave shown to be neecssary, or by tht sivil tribunals oi'lho country. BAX DS. The employment of regiitiontal bands slioukl be limited ; the proportion of musicians now allowed by luw being too great, and their usefulneaa not at all commensurato wih their he:ivy expenae. TRAÜSrORTLÈlON'. Corporatiou3, like individuáis, are lisble to be governed by sclfisb tnotiTcs in the absence of corapetition. Au instaiïee of this kind occurred in the munageuitnt of the railroads between Ealtimore and New York. The sum of six dolíars wás chargcd upon that route for the transportation of each soldier from Ne York to Baltimore. As this rato seeiiied extravagnnt to the department, whcii cqiconsidered in conncction with t!fe pest ncrease of trade upon these roadsV niádu jocoBsary by the wants of the JKoycTiincnt, inquiry was made concertn-nsf' the 3xpediency of using the roads from New York to Baltimore via Ilarrisburg. The result was an arrangement by wbfeh troops were brought by the last nientioned route at $4 each, and as a consequence, his rate was at once neeessarily adoptetl jy all the railroads in the loyal States, uaking a saving to the government of ,hirty-three and qpe-third per cent. in all ts transportaron of soldiers, and at the same time giving to tho railroad, tlirough ncreased business, a liberal compensation. S1W RAILROABS. Tho railroad connection hetween Washington and Bultimoro has been a'ely mueh improved by additional aideing, (rtrd by extensions in this city. In order, however, that abundunt Buppliös may ahvays be at tho comrnand of the department, irrangf'rm'nt should be mnde lor laying a doublé track betweetl ; his city and Anniipoli Junction, with improved sicleingi" jind fnci lities at Annapolis and along. ihe branch rond. Should tha nnvigation of tfic P'ntnmac river be interrupted bj' bldckado, or the soveriüus oL winter, it would beeome abRülutely neecp?:iry, for thu proper snpply of the troops in tb District of Colombia and vianity, and of tlio inhabitants of this city, to provide additional railroad connection be twêen Washington and Baltimore A respoDsible compnny. vith a hartor from the btate ot M;:ryland, havo proposed to do this upon condition that the Government vi!l indorse their bonds, they binding themselvos to set aside annuíilly a sufficienS. sum tor their redemption at niaturity, and1 thtiM eventually releaso vlie Gove&irr.ent frnra any Hability whatover. and to chargo, for tracsportation, ratea in no case to exceed four cents a ron per milo íor freight, and tlroo cérits por mile for passenger. During tiró eontinnance of tha war, however, their charge for passengors betweén the two cities is at presen 3 3-4 cents per mile, and for freight, tho raies per totv vvill Average fnwi five to oight persons per milo. The large saving to the ' ment in eost ei tranaportatióti woühl be amply compénsate for a!l Jiabiüt v, and give "to the citi.ens of uil the hiyal States grea'ly improved facilities for eauhing the nutional capital, aml ut Tiuch loss rates than they are now uom)e!lfd to pay To tho citizens oi iha Jütrict it woul.d cht-apen thu cbt of upplies, and prove of irtmietiísB valué n evèry respect. I recemnend thnt ft raüwhy bo'constructed l'hrough tliis city, fr n 'tho navy yard, by the Capítol to 'GKwgetown, ftifmins ortnet'iións it!f thu exiting railrotid depot-, and nsirg iha aquiduot hiidge for the purpöse of rouftiny the river nt Geogetown. l5v a junction of thin r.iposcd raüway witu the Orange and AU'xandria Rnilroad not only woul'l thettofumuiíWHfcíi with uur tronpa in Virginia bfl graatly nprovod, but au easy acetas lie bbíHÍne( to the Baliiiuore and Ohio bitjilroyd near Ilarpcr's Ferry, by means 6f tl-o Loudon aiui lltiiupsiiiiv llai'rcii'l. -ï its mpurtance as aft'oráing í antílfeB-í"í" inoving troops ar.d nappliei i felio f war, innv ba :idded tho liitmo h;'iietii! it would confer upon tho dfiltihit of Co'iniibia. Theonllay reqúiied wniJ.l be saved in a i'ew mon'h by onabüflii iho Governmei.t to diupáhsa Buéh-Vli1iu expansivo ferry at Gorgl(ntil. ild'"6y groacly decreasing tho costly -fc':t3ia tr.nspi rtation ti tha :irfi tLroiigh th:s city. ■■'; '-' BALTIMOKE AND OIII D ü'.i ! L;iÓ'.'1 ' ? The injuries ío rai!n).ul").insTígaJctl Ly the rebol autkorties oí' Baltiinoo;in,rder to embarrass comumaicatiöji plUruie Nortli and West via Hari'Hburgandthj Bast viá Philadelphia, havo béeu.'rejaired by tho different eompaiieV that wn thcra, That portion of,tlu! "BaUinoro and Ohio llailroad, west of. "JJarjer's Ferry, which was sq ruthlossfv ,oV itroyed by the rebels, lias npt 'yoX. .bceu restored. ïl.e great interest of.trado ■equire that this road shoutd be re'opened as speedily aspos.sible by theco.upany, 'or the transportation of tho ünmcusu surplus of tha agricultura! pfodJciion of the West. To aid this ölyect t'hu 'dujartment has tendered to the coin'pany a suffioient force for its protectioH during the progress of the work, andAnll reuder such facilities as it may bi ablfe to provide, in connection with its iiuportaut public duties. For the purprB3 of faoilifaíiíi" the transportation of supplies to ATesa-ridria and poiuts beyond, it has been Louu'd. uecessary to rebuild portions of the Qrango and Alexandria and the Londen nd Harapshire Railroads, and to lay a traok frona tho railroad depot to a poL,t on t'iu Potomac rivon in tliis city. TEI.EGItAPIUO BUUK.i!!. f Under an appropriation grnVtil " fr that purpose at the last sesiiou of Congress, a Telegraphic JJuroiui was establishud, and has been found of the graatest service in cqr military operatins. - Eight hundred and fifty sevou uiües of telegraphic line have 1jüü;i a'rjadyj' built and put int j operation, with an eöieieiit corpa of operators, and a largo uxtousiuu is noiv io procesa of couetruc-tiou. the Losa EmpaR. Congres3, at ts last sossion, m:de an appropriation fr the reconstrucción' jf tho Long Brjdgo across tUo Poomae, whieh, in its t'iiüii dilapidated conjjition, was unsafe for miütury purposes.. The work, whicb has bean carriod ou jthont interrugtion to trada or travel, is r;ipidly approacbing completion, and whun. tjuished, will bo a substantial struotui. gen. sco?T. ■ i Ou the first of tho prrsent inonth Lioutennnt General Winfield Scott volüntariy relinquishcd Lis high command as genera! in cliief of the American artny. - lic had fhithfnHy and gallantly scrveil iiis country for upvrnrds of half a entury, and tl.y glory of' hij aohieverijMta lias giyan aiMi'.io'.;1)! luíít'O to the bnghtest of our national annn's. Tho uffections of a grafofal p[ile foüowed him lalo his retiiOrtioüi. Tite Presidsht irof the nrniy apon tlio officer next in rnnk. Fortuiwtcly for the country, Mnjof General JicCli.'ll:in lunl provea birasclt ctjanl to i eVerv iituation iu wliich liis great talents lmd been palled into exercise. ÏTis brilliHiit Schievemeiits m Western Virginia, the untiring energy nnd eonsumuiate ability lio has niüployed in the organizatiou and discipline, of nn pntirely ne.w nrmy, have justly won for liim tlie confideneo Hnd .ipplause of the troops nnd of the ustión. aumy 8CPPLÍKS. Extraordinary lubor, enorgy, r-.nrl tnlent havo beet) requirtd of tbs variou bureaus of depttrtaieot to provirle 4'i.r tlie wants ot our immense nrmy, While orjtora tnay have hoen oecaionoHy oommitred by subordínate, ' lid while extravagant prices have i tioubtedly in some onsen, eontrol'ed by lianto (ind the pressure of rapid events, been paid for HUppliw, it is with jreat , Ifnttitieation thut [reler to the ' cal administraron of altairs displayed fn the Vurjous branches of the service. ; Onr iorces hnd not only -to be urnied, i rlothed, and fed, but had to be suddenly provided wi:h means of transportation to an exter.t heretofore unpnral'ek-d. Wliilo I bol evc that tliere it no armv in the world better provided for in eveiy respect thun our reguhir? and vohink'eis, I candidly think tliat no force po lurge, and so well equipped, asever put in the field in po short n ppace of time aso small an expense. ITAItK KO KXPENSK TD CKUSII THE RKnKLI.IOX. Wliilo it is mv intention to preservo the Btrictest economy and Roèountnbility, I think the last dollar shonld be expended ind the last man should be rrned to brinp tliis nnholy rebellion to ft opeedy nnd permanent close. RBCOXSTRUCTION' OV MARYLANI, DKLAWARK AND VtIU.INI A. The geogrnphical position of the metropolis of the nation, menseed by rebels, nnd required to bo defended by thoufands of our troop?, induces me to ftiggest for consideratinn the proprieiy nrid expediericy 'f a recootruction ol the boundaries ot the States of Dolawnre,, and Virginia. Wisdom nnd truo statesmansliip wonld dictate that the seat of the National Government, for 11 timo to cone shou'd be placed beyond rensoDable (langer of iöizure bv enemien within as weil as frotn' capture by foea from without. liy agreemt-nt bctween tl-.o States named, such as wns efiected for n Kimilar purpose, by Michigan and Ohio, and by Missouri and Iowa, their boundaries er uld be so changed ns to render the capital more remote thnn at present from the infliiences of Stato Government8 which have arrayed themselves ngainst the Federal authority. To this end, the limita of Virginia might bo po altered as to mako her boundaries consist of the Ulue Ridge on the East and Pennsj'lvania on the Norih, leaving those on the South and West as at present. By this arrangement two oounties ot Mnrylaod (Alleghany and Washington) would be transfurred to the jurisdiction of Virginia. All that portion oí Virfrr.ia which lies bttween the Bine Ridge and the Chesapeake Bay cnuld then beadded to Maryland, while that portion ot the península between tho waters of the Chesapeake nnd the Atlantic, now jointly held by Maryland nd Virginia, could be incerporated into the State of Delaware. A röference to the map v.ill show that these are great natural bnumlaries. which, for all time to come, would eerve to mark the limits of these States. To make the proleclion of the Capital complete, in consideration of the large aocseion of territory which Maryland would receive under the arrangement proposed, it would be necessary that that State should consent so to modify her constitulïon as to limit tho bsis of her representation to her white population. BB8T0RATION Or THE OI.D I.IMfTS OF THE DISTRICT OF COI.LMBIA. In this connection it would be the part of wisdom to re-annex to the District of Columbia that portion of itd original limits which by act of Congres was retroceded to the State of Virginia. WIIAT TO DO WITII TFIE 8LATW, It is already a gravo question what ehall be done with those slavea who are abandoned by their owners on the advance of our troops into Southern territory, as at Beaufort District in Suth Carolina. The nurnber left within our control íit that point is verv onsiderab'e, and similar cases will probably occur. Whrit shall be clone with thetn ? (!-n we afford to send them forward to their mesters, to be by them armed against ns, or used in produciog supplies to rnaintain the rebellion ? Tlieir labor raay be oseful ti) us ; withheld from the cnemy it loss;ns bis military resources, and withholding thora lias uo tendency to inducu the horrors of insurrection, even in the retel communiiies. They constituto a military resource, and being such, that thoy should not be turned over to the cnemy is too plain to discuss. Why deprive him ot supplitjs by a blockade, and voluntarily give him men to produce supplies ? Tho disposition to be made of the elaves of robéis after the cioso of the war can be safuly left to the wisdom and patriotisrn of Congrese. The repreentative8 oi the people will, unijuestionubly, ecuro to tho loyal s'.aveholdars evory right to which they are entitled under the Constitution of the country. Simok Uambbon, Secretary of War. To tbc PrssMf nt of th Daltod Stules.


Old News
Michigan Argus