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Ex-president Martin Van Buren

Ex-president Martin Van Buren image
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Martin Van Bul-cu, thó oighth Presi4orftTfflre United Státos, wss born at ' Kiridoilio.ik, December 5, 1782. lio was'dtfeceodúd from an aucient üuteh tíimilv, kís anoeators on both bidés bavirg tseén ainotíg tho oarly emiprants from HoííHnd to the oolony of tbo Now Nutherliinds- íiis father was a farmer n ivderato oirounastances, and unabto to girériifa sou the ndvaritages of cducalion, exept tg a rcry limited extcnt. After ocrjiiiring thc cominon rudiuienfsof JearninL'TWartin beuume a sluóVut in tho Kij'óírhook AcAtletuy, trbitl I}0 lcft at fliu ití of Punteen, o orJor to coiujoctiïo thf s'udy of law. For ibis 1 lósate eti'orcd theoffiee of a lawyer in 1. is 'nativo villügo, and soeu ateraotod at teotiou by h''s aptnoua for oxtewporuoooua ppeuking nd litercrj' composition, and !.i líocn interest in aífiirs - i Rven ;:t t'iis Mily pi.'.rijd, he was I qnetitlj employed in t Lo maiageniont of oases bêforo Justice of ;bo Peacc, and it wis hot ldng bc-foro bc beoamo an ardeiit and activo pi'titician üf tho demoeiatio party. Vlien only in bia cigh teciitb ycar, and befure oomploting lis loga! Ltudic, bc was appointed a dclagato io a couventioD For nominating a caudidate [or t lio Legislaturo. . Sueh (narks of Iho coiifidenco of bis politieel fvieuds wci'o not uncoramon wbilo be naa vot uiidvr One anl tweoty yars ot ngu Tlao last year of Lia protca-ional siudi'-s ■ñas spent in tho city (.f New l'ork, in tlie.olii'íe of Mr. VVilliam 1'. Van Nl-ss, n distinguished member oí' í he bu-, and fauToaa for bis n ti mato fiiondsliip witl) A a ron Buir, at tbat tiine Xiw President of tho United States, 3Ir. Viin DuiOD waa tbus introduced to the acquaintanco of Colonel Burr, and at Quoa becamc a favorita .íritb tbat wilv and uuscrupuloua poliiioian, bv wiiom he was iuitiated into tho systein of party tactits df whieh lie was a oouspiououa and succesaful ropresentativé iu subsequent Ufo. I n November, 1SOÖ, Mr. Van Buren "íií adnaittfd to tbu bar, and hnmedtKtcy coinijienced the praotreo ot' bis prúfea míhi o tho vi llago of Kindorbook. Iu ]07 bo was adinitted as a counselor in tbr; Supremo Court, and in 180S was a pointed SuiTngate oí' Columbra county. Koon after whicb he removed to thc eity of Hudsun, wbt'ro bfl resided for thc next Stvtín years. In 1815 bo was appointed Auunn'y General iLtbeStt(tO, ;.t vhich timo bo liad attained un eiiiinent vunk in tbo proi'. ssí.jij and a largo ai.d lucrrttivi. praotico. Mr. Vin Buren was manie 1 in 1806 to .Miss lloc-s, a diííiuit relativo ot' ihc. f.uuily, who clied twclvu yo,,rs after of ' ■ msumption, luaving i'our aans ; si'.icc1 w'iicb time ho roniaiued a widowcr. Iu 1812, Mr Van Baren wcs f.r tlu fiit tiiuj a cancjülHto t'ur an office ti thy gilt ff the people, haring boon nominated as Senator froui the oountiea thon cowptihicg the middlo district of tho State. H; was clocttíd over bis opponent, Mr Ed-.vard P. Livingston, by a otajoritj of ubout "200 i:i an aggregate of 0,000 votos, after a (harp and rioionl uuiitest. A f tor tiking lus Mit ín the .■i?natc, lio supported t!io electoral ticket whieh g;ive the vote of tho State for j'rmiflilt to UêWitt Clinton. At the same time, be wat a 8treuuus advocate pf dcided nicasvjrfljr agaiitst Greit Briti'in, durmg tbj KttiMl o f Uongrc?s in 1811-12, inoluding the #ar, wliich was toclared in Juno of the bitter vear. - At tbo soasiou of tbo Lüislature whieii c)iinuencod in 1813, bis politieal relations ■with Mr Clinton were dissolved, and uuver again resaniecl In 1816 ho was loelectvd to the Bsnato for tho furtber penod of four years. During tbat year, thu piujjt't ut' the Eiii! v.iú Chainplain Oaualá, whiuh wka brOugbt bofore the Lesishturi', reccived lus cordial support. In 1S18, Mr. V.m Buren engaged in fllt'orani:iii;.i:i of (háí pcirtioil pf ibe leinoeratie party who wero hosiile to the adiuinistrutionof DoWitt Clinton as Govwnor of the State'. Prom tbis uitso the politieal suooiat ion kuown as tho " Albany Rej'eiicj," with wbieh ths name of Mr Van Buren has been iden'ilied, althougb hia participa ion in its counsels bas been soinetimes deuijd by his frieods. In Februiry, 1821. Mr. Van Buren waselected to tho S'oiuite of the United States, ai.d during tho samj year, was obosen a moinber of the cofivention to revisa the coustitution of the Statj of New York. In this sonvention hu took au activo and prominent part. Ho was ia favor of moderate changea in tho eonstitutioü, of tho extensión of tho e lectivo frau nhiso. and the abolition of the freehold qmlifijation of vo'érií. O:i tho proposi iiou te fostriot tho right of suftïago to white citizens, he voted iu tho negativo, but subsequently supported tho provisión reqniring eolored votara to possess a freohold estáte of the value of 82;0. ]Ie oppo ;ed the elcction of Justiccs of the Peace by the people, and proposed a plan by whieh uppoiutmuuts sliould be coutrolled by tho EsecUtive of tho State, tïirough tho Judges of tlie eounty courts. Upon taking his seat in the Seuate of thó United States, i:i Dscembor, 1821, Mr. Van Buren wis placed on the comraittoo cf Finnuce, and on the Coinmittec on tho Judiciary. ÍIc su, ■porte:! the abolition of iinprisoument for cïebt iu act lons in ihe United States courts, proposed atnendmenta to the judioiary systeui, and advooated a general bankrupt law, to includo corporutio:)S as well as parsons. lie ivas in favor of vesting tho public lands in the Otates in wh:ob "they were s'tin'eJ, on '■ üuií ja;t aad euiiable ternis." In tho Pnsidcntial eleotion of 1S24, Mr. Van Buren was a dooidod and act ve supporter of the claims of Mr, Crawt'ord, and, upon hid defeat, touk an aotive pirt in the opposition to John Quiu cy Adams which was orgauized imuiuai ately after the cloutioti ot tliu latter. Hu opposud the nii.-.tiou to Famima, aud most ot' tho bilis for internal iniprovemeut. althougli, as hts couatitueuta vvero gencrallv in favor uf protectivo duties, hu voted for the Uriff laws of 1S24 and 182S. Tic w;is re elected to the Sonata in Fobruary, 1S27, fjr auother term of ssx yoars, but haring boon chosen Governor of tho State in November, 1828, he resigued bis seat in that body. He entored upon tho duties of his new office in Juuury, 1829, and in liis ürst message directud tli3 attentiou of tho Jjcgislature to ♦'ie subject of bauking and the ourrency. Sjou after, ho proponed the celobratod Bifuty-tuud systeii), which vsas ünally .idopted by the Legislaturc. Ho remainod but 9 short time iu the Cliiuf Mugistraey, resiaing tho office iu March, 1829, in conseijutjucc of his ippoinuuent by Presideiit Jackstiu a3 tíeeix'Ury of fcitute of the United tSiat'js. Iu Juoe, 1831, he rotired í'roiu the Gabiuet, was iipoiuled Minis'.er to Greit J5:-itain, was■iHiiivcd at tlie (!ourt of Üc James iu September ; but his nomiaation was sub- geueutly r-jjtícied by the Sonate. In 1S,2 he was olecled Vice President, aud in 1Sü6 Pi-dsidöht, of the United States. 1d 18-iU he was noininated for re-elee tion by. a cooveutioa of hi political friends, but was deteatt-xl by Qen. llar riBon by an overwhelmmg majority in t!.e electoral colleges. Au ut8 ■:■■ Mr. '&:. reu's BóniMtion for thu Presidenta! eleotiou in 1841, bui wiih'out suceess. íMncc Mr. Van Buren retiwd froni public life, lie lias rosidud ou :i splendid Mtate near Kiudorhook, and called " Liadenwald." In 1818, u the split of thd deu;ocrutic party and the lirst fieree I exeitauftrat of tbe tree suilera, Air. Van Uuren aooopted tho nonata: io.i fur ' idout, Bad received loss tlian 300 000 j votos, a largo pution of wbioli camefnyra the dividcd democratie party ol hia owu State. For tlie last foúrtecn yoarn, tbo ! President has been eiitircljr, wili.di'uwu , front political or public life, ;Ld haa passod the evoning oí' his dnys in quiet. . Uu was i man ol fine personal appoar anee, and kindly and winning manuPis. - i These gave liim much of that suexeíb , which seemed so uaturally tü belong to him, as f be was the pettea child of fori tuno. As a politieian bo was riidly to uacious of bis party tr.iditiuns aml cusi toma, and it believer to the bil lest cxteut in tho dootriue, that " to the victors belong tho spoils,:' a doctrino said to have been hy him carried to Washington : whcro ifc tlirovo with wonderful vigor, i ! ï ti liis dajthe democratie pmty waain the I t'uli splendor cf its power, aud during tbe Presidootial terms of Jacksoa and Van Uurci), it had the imjlest swuy büth in Fodo; al and State couucils. Jlr. Van Uureñ possessed a cluar intellect and u. ooinprohonsivo bnowledge of ineu and things. Ha filled well all tho offices held by him, and boro juüiciuusly the great hnuors beaped upon him. flis eouduct in 1818 alicnated from him the good feclings of a largo portion of his old adheretita, and turneil tbem to bitter on(.'iniet!, whilfl he failed to gain the leadership or the entire coufideneo of -the new frienda to whocu he oniniuittsd bimself, He v.i3 tho wtlüng msans of d ing :n áct of vengeaocë, and with the defeat of Gen. Gaas and the pr"S'ration of the democratie party, taatiy of those wi'.h whom ho actcd began to ignoro the principies and policy to wbieb tbs Iree soilers rnllied. Mï Van Buren himaolf has never boen regarded as particularly attaehcel to tho deohiration of principies adopted at Buffalo. In tho quict of " Lindcnwald," surrounded by frieoda who never desorted hiiii, among the aeeuea of hi early lile, enjoyiug t li o udyftiitagos ot' fortuno the ex President cuhnly awaitcd tho end of ] h;s life. lie recoived inany visitera, and ' none left the s'du of tiio old man without b-..'iiig iniprcMeJ. with the peculiar power by wfiicu he gained sueh aaoeodapoy over those with whom be was svus brougbt in contact. During lus last days lie nianitVsted inuc'n interest in th? progress of the war, uid while fice n his deauiiciatiou of tho poliey uf the last adminisIfatiou, h"o bas tpproved and sustaiucd the couise of Mr. Lincoln. Ho had an aliiiüng iaith in the govenunent and a oonfident hope of its restoration. Mr. Van Buren was inar.ried in early lila. His wiio died about forty years sinco. He bas thrce sons surviving, Siuitb, Abraham and John, His famiiy were with him in his last ülness.


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