Press enter after choosing selection

The Governor's Message

The Governor's Message image The Governor's Message image
Parent Issue
Public Domain
OCR Text

Ft;]lw-citizens of the Senate and House of Representatives : The iiii.ple of Michigan havo cnmmitted o MS the respcfosibilities of the Stüte government fnr the coming .two years. We nssemble to enter npot our dulies in n time of great seriousness and public trial. It will becon.e 113 to pauo öt the threshold of onr term und survey the work hefpre us, cknowledging our entiru dependence upon that Divine Provider.ce which is constan'.ly over us ilike in war !is in peáce. The state of the country itid the temper ol the times demnnd wisdom and putriotiu ener;y in every departrnent of the government. Our flret d'ity is naturally and properly ith interna] affaire of our own fasVgrowini; Cnmmonuealth; md here we are not without many causes for cnogratu'ation After srmie yera of diffiiïulty the State finnnces are free fr m einiiarrasmnent ; all the avocations .o-f business flnurish ; harvests are abundant; general health prevails; and the difiusion of education M almost universal. The public ordei has been maintained, and all the nstitntiony of civil government hold undisturbed sivuy to the. general happiness and se curity of the p' ople. üur one great m'e1is national pe:ice, and the only road to that ïeads through the gatu of viciory. y THE STATE TRKASURY. I extract from the report of ihe Suite Treasurer the foilowiug statement of the present financia] ciondition ot theS'ato: ."The total iniomit if receipts of the Ráoái v dr is $1,124, 595. iO bulante neainst ihe treiisurv, 'iii(i iji inv favor, N'iv. 30, 1861, ivas $2.,l79.7'9. The tutji] nf iiyment's tor ihe ye::r is 8896,624 69, leavincr a halatic.e in the Treiisury of $200,794.62 The fundeii deil of { Stute iri is fcillows : First, Full paid ffve mUlion dallar loan bond?, 6 per cent.,due Jannary 1, 1863, $L77,OO0.0O; adjURted bonds, 6 per cents, due Jannary 1, 1863, $1,746,185.00 ; tèmporttry loan, 7 per cents, due January 1, 1878, $50,000.00; renewnl lian, G per conts, due Jan. 1, 1878, $216,000.00; Ga.-1 bniids, 6 p-r cents, (iue Jnn. 1, 1879, 100,000.00; war lian, 7 -per cents, due Jan1, 1886! $607.300.00: out standing iiitemu! in.proveinent wari-Mi.ts S3.553 75; fundable debt, $140 000; ■ utstandmg part pmd hve mi. hou dollur Wn, which when fuiided, wil] umount to $80,999.80. Total of fundéd und iqndHbÜ' dubt, $2,981,038.55.- Th' Tinst Fund deht i made ilji of the fulliiwiiiy items, towï'.: Priinary .School Fund, 8753,801.73; University Fund, $185,887 33; Normal School F. nd, $22,453 47; R lron.1 4e{Kwitw, $2,217.82. ToImI $064 359.85." The wise lugidiation of vuur predecesï-or.-i hus pltiCfd the public credit of the bhite ujion n firm basis. Auule xirvking fund were provide.d for the" gradual but eert ai n extinguishii ent of the present debt, and a systein of iaxatifin inaugnrated which is not burdeiifome but sufficient for uil present nétids, thu presenting any further ifiorettB of the State debt. In this coniH-ctioii I have reconiMH-iid that this ptriicv be cominiied, thnt iu new sohemee, invoivinjr iarge eypendiinies, be undeitaken, and that, lor the payment of all exinioidinary appropriations, a tiix ba levied at the time. In pursuanee ot the act entHlecf, " Au Act to Próvido Means for the RedeuioUod of the liundsof the State, matur ing Janiuuy lst, 1863 - Approved M;irch llth, 1861," negoiiations havo been entered into for ihe exehange uid sale of the $2,000,000 loan bonds. end the ohjects of the act fulty aecorn plished. I think it may now be suid that the turhifig point in the 6aaneinl aSaira of the State hus been aufely passed. Under the act " Authorizing a War Loan," bonds have been inned and Bold (o the nnouiH of $607,300, and the mniiey lias been expended iíi pnrsiianee of the law. The priiicipil pur in of ihia sum bas been expended in ra8Ír and eqoipping trtHipa for the general gnvenitnunt, and tor whieh the State has a claim (or ruimbnrsenient. - The accounts and vouchers have been torwarded to Washington for allowance, and no doubt W'll be adjusted in due season. When so adjusted the atnount will be due to the Slate, less the direct tax due trom the State to tlm natioiiiil {rovornment, amounling to $426,496.84. THE STATE PP.ISON. The number of convicta cunfinec] in the Stiitu Prison November 30, 1862, was 410, phoWïng a decreasa in tvvo years of 211. Thin is lo bü acüOunted for by tho e ate of the country. The sound of the fife umi drum on the Southern border has oalled to the camp niost of those restless 'and reokless t-piritH ho aro easiest ternpted to the eominisgion of crime-, Fiíinnciully, the Prison has been les si:03t'j-ltil ihe past yuiir thun heretofore The reduction in the Murntier of convicts huw pro duoed a corivt-poriding reduc'ion of the amoimt rbeeivud fiir conviut lalmr, while lh--' expenses oould nol be rednced in tho sume ratio. By un unfitruinate tirojht portiiri of the vvorksh-ips was desti'ovud, and ha1 to bo rubuilt al a COHt pi $5,439.27, Those c.aues, with soine others oí lesa importanco, have made the Prison for the last year, U some extent, a burden to the State treaeury. I om satisfiud, howevtr, that thirt H no tault of the officers. The man-igement has 'jeen skillful and econoiriical, and under moro favorable eirenmstanoeH, it would havo provea self-8uetaining. The discipline of the Prisoo haa steadily iroproved, whioh I attribute, in a mensure, te the wiso Stuttite giving to ovury wel! bebKVed aonvtct it.Hbiíral deduotion from his hp ntenoe, for h'is good behuvior and orderly conduet. The appeal to the hopen of the prisoner has been entirely sueoessful. His IoV of liherty is stronger ilmn his fe ,r of the last). After all, lie is still a man, and every amolioration of the hardchips of his conditinn rneeta :i response from his better nature. Tha act luthorizinn; the Board of Inspectors,in thefr discretion, tn reluust! 1 i f e coi.victs from -tbeir soii tarv. culis, and illow them to live lik.é other eemvicts, has preved peifeclly s.ife as vvell is humane, lor tlie saine roasons. Tho exéroi'ae f the pardontier power I have tcunii the .nost difficult and tryiii'.'ot all iny du'.ies. Soto temper justice 'vith im-rcy as to pro lect society and vet, to soine extent, pare the criminal and restore hitn to the nath ot viriue and to his friends, is the 'prnblem whioh ia not always possible to solve. A detailt'd account of inv doings i this respect will ba submitted as 11 supplement to tl:is message I am not aware that any legislation is npw neces.iary for the benefit ol the State Prisoii THE STATE BGFOKM SCHOOL. The numberof boys nnw oonüned in the Reform School ig 183. The minibar reeeived dunng ihe yenr has been 72, vi hilo the iiuruber dinohuiifed is 34, buiiifi an nereuBö of 38. The school hiis iinw bucome'oiie of t he permanent and eheri-hecJ inslitutioiis i'f ;he State, Hiid deserves the wutchfu! cure of the Legislalure. I uu surprit)d at the extraordinary increase of the nutnber oi boys the past year. The Board ot ; Control cali for more room, 'and f this rae of increaso uoks on, thty must have it Huleas somu uíher difp)ii'iD can Le made for the future inorease. - It is wcrth white to consider il' tlie present laws are ruit putting too many b(i in this school. The great body oi them are sentenced by Jnsüces of the Peace. Is this judiciously done? Is no.t the road made too easy, si) that sume boys come here because their purents and Inends witih only lo ba rid i)f them? The' institutinn is veiy bnr densome to the treatsury, Oofting soire $15,000 H year. The board ivcomiriend an appropriation of 14.000, tc; btiild a wing ëxiending easi Irom thu north end to the present building. - W hot her, all thincre ciusid(ired, this is best, I must leiïvu to the beller jndtr inent of the Legislature. My on opinión irf that it will not be wise to increase the rmmbera iu thiss' huol, ur to inabe provisión for placinsr the older and more hardoned oftendera elsBivhere. In any cafe, I think the faniily systein, with farm labor, is to be preferred TUK DKTROIT IIOUSK 01f COEIiECTION. Bv socüoti 11 of in iet, approved March 15, 1861, the Board t In-peotors of the Stüte Prison were .uut hor ized la contract u ith the Detroit Huse of Convi;tiin t take charge of ;ill per sons mi coovicted of any nflensu punixhüble bv imprisonment in tiie Ötntu Prison, provided that the compeneation tii be paid should not cxceed cfne dol ;ir per wiek, agd that üie persons so emitractfd lor should !)e mulo oonvk-.ts letw en the ige.- of si.xteun and twen y two years md all lortialeS. Tlie city 'f De.roit has beun anxious to inakt this contract, but the Inspector have elnsed, for reasons Btated by thom in heir report :it page 11. I have baen 'urnished by the Öupunntendent with a irinted copy of in act which, it n projosed to ask the. Legislatui'e to itdopt, se'tling this disagHifciiient. The fir&t section coiititituteB the House of (Joirection "a ötate Penitentiaiy," md the ;econd places it ander the control of a Board of Inspectora, to bo appiinted by the Coniinon Council of the ciiv ot ' Detroit. To this cítate Pen.i;entiary i'. ' s proposed to iillo.w all the eourts of' ] the State, io th ir disurtiiion, to en tenue any male oonviot belween the age sixteeii md twenty-one years, and all emules. The law ot 18(51 was recomnendcd in niy inaugural inessag-e of UmiI year, for the purjiose of iving to tho Iri3i:etnr.-i ot tho 8tate Prisoii the power to relievt the Pii-üii o{ the buiden of excefmve minibars, il it ahould bacome necesary, and I sup pose, was adopted by the Legsiature for the samo reason. The rapid redutioa of' the ntnuber oí convicta tenteneed t' tr.ut Prison, whi''h was :hen unlooked for, has eiiüiely disposed-of that itijfct. One entile wing of the State Prison is now untenanted, and it is dilKcult to perceive any reason for erouling a new State Penitentiary at this time, and certainly I could nver recommend it. upon unv other prir.ciple than that the State, h iould purchasu theintitutiou and assuine the entiro control of it. THE STATE ASYMJ.MS FOR THE DEAP, DUMB, BLIND, AND INSANE. I enmmend t ttie fosturino; 'care o( the Jegislature the Asvhims for the Deuf, Durnb and tho Blind, and for the Insano They ure Inth well cóndilo ted,I believe, and nro restizing, fis far :iu possible, the benevotent oljncts niitjht in tlieir creation. Thebuildinarfl ft bnth these institutins ure still, t i crt-at extont, nntinished, íind, no doubt, sound policy requirex ihat tbey Bhonld be completad ns foon ns ihu firuinces vvill ndmit uf it. Still, I cannot ndvise the tnxation necessnrv for the entire cornpletirn of the buildinnfs no.v, but, perhaps, thü ppproprintinn oi som moderate amount at this timp might bring into use a portion of tho bni'diníís to their grtnt benefit. For detailod information on this subjeet, I rn'jst reer 70a to the reporte of che several Boards of Trustees, wheru thö objeets and vvunts of the Asyljms are fully set forth. THK SAUT CANAL. 'i he receipts frorn the Sault Ste. Mary's Falls Ship Cinal, for the current vear. over una abovo-all expenses, have' been $15,000. The Cunul is in good oondition, and its business steadily inefeawng. By an aut of the Ltgslature, upproved March 11, 1861, the entire reueipts from tulls ure set apart fo,r tfia.purpom nf reimbursing suoh tiutna us are due the several ooiirttias on account of taxes remitted by the Stute on lands belonging to the Canal Company, exct'pt Hiieh surns as may be required to pay the current expenses of (he Canal, and al-o the intei-est neuruing upon tin; Canal loans guaranteed by th'e State. It is very desirable, as soon as possible, to reduce the tolla so as inerely to bo suffioient to pay the cui' rent expenses and keep the Canal in repair. ïhis was, no doubt, the intention ot Otmgreea in inakiny the graat of lar.d for its construotion. Already nearly twenty millionsin valué, of prperty, pass througli this Canal yeuily, and the iinount cannot fail to inciense rapidly for years lo como. The immense arnount of mineral ore3 both of iron and copper, to ba found in the Upper Península will ({Citinue woi'e and inore to attract labor and capital to thut región, inureasing w'on(lorfully its weal h and prodnctions. The Cana] its moét natura] and cheapet oir.let. The Superintendent has Milimitted, in b8 iimiKil report, a vai'itsty nf iïicts inttmded to show that the present rates oí tolls opérate liiijustly upon steam-vessels, and he rgues that the tolls upon sueh vesnuls Oiigbt to bo roduced. Ilis principal arguinentH are, first, that t iü umcti more expensjve iiiniiiiig steani than üail-vusieis, and, secnd, that sail-vess els oarry h tonnago niuuh liirer in faot than that at whioh Hiey are ratati, while steamerw cin-y, necessarily, very rnuch less. Whcther there ia anymioh inequality aa to require leislation to correct, I recommend you to inquire, and, alo whether a general reduction ol'tht) tolls may not propurly bu made at this time. THE MUSKEQON FLATS. The Legishiture of 1857 passed " An Act to Próvida for tho ImpivDvement nf Navitcation on the Sand Flats of the Musiegon Iliver," and appropriated lor that purpose " fitty thousand dollars, to be paid froni the Infernal Improvement fund of this State." In pursnance of this act, a contract was mado with llon Jol) ii A ]3i"ii'ks, and the work wiis eninpleted ind uccepted by iny preoiei.-ssiir Tho Inter-.iu] improve ment Fund was exhausted at the tiirre of the passage of ths Uw, Tfetrre wars noihing to appropriute front it, uo ihreVefire'the uoiitructor got nothing tor hifi uork. The contract w:.s ;is wiine' I by Mr. Brooks to one Williarn Beurd, who, in gnod faith, it appears, expended uonsidrabla suras of nioney in the oompletion of the work. Mr. Beiird oame before the )ust Legislauiiü iih his cl'.iiin, and the action takon upon it s oontiiined in Joint ïtesolution No 11 - ipprovtd Miirch 9th 1861. Tbujiiint ReaoluUQn, afLer reei: ting thö'inaiiïfuot uBecting the claim, tiikt-s thu uroimd that the contract wiih Mr. Brooks was illegal and void, he having been, at the timo, a member of the Legislatura that passed the act, but, in con?ideration of the value of the work and the good faitb of MivBeard, the claim was refuFred to the Board of State Auditors for adjustment, nnd the amount found equitably dut; was directed to be paid in State suarnp lands at Ihe minimimi prioe per acre, upon the claimant tiling with the Board his re oeipt in -full. This eettlerrent Mr. Bi)ard has decüned to accept, and I ani adviged that the claim will be again prcsented tlii- session. ' It is vory eer :aiirthat the Lögiilii'ure ot 18o7 nev r .utended to pa.' for thal improvemcnl. ii cash. T'hev were led, I thinlv to riulieve that there were soinu interim) mprovernenl Kinds utill unsold whioh might be made ivailable for this purpose to gome estont, uid that capitalista in that quartur would iurnish the réinain Jer to do the wolk. Thuy were willina; to enoouraga the mprovement to the amount that rnight rerr.ain unexpended of the fund, bút no furthor. I can only counsel that this chiim, if present ed, should be very thoroiijfhly exnmined. Strict justiuo shonld ba doiiu, und the rights oi the )eople, as vp us of the claimant, carefullj guarded THE STATE ROADS AND SWAMP LANDS. The acts of sucoossive Legislaturas, devoting the swamp lands to their own reoluniation and improvament by means of Ötate roads and ditches, inay now be consider d as ba v Lag established a defi iiita pulicy upon that subject. Thu settlement and ïinproveinent of the central and northern portions of the State have been grGatly aecelorated by it. The systein hus now only begun to show the benctits which will be reaped f'roni the oompletion of some of the main üiicb of road. It would huve been more wiae, l beliove, ii the" Legislatura liad confined the expenditures inainly to tliesu lii'.ea, iustead of ajlowing so mnuy roads of rncrc nciglibürhood importancc, and I hupe that, 'thereforè, ibis trror may be ivoided. Many roads havo buen autlior ized whi'ch it is of d present rnport;mco to build, and secniingly witli 110 view exoept to give to eaoh secüon its sliare of the lands. We need bo iu no burry to be rid of theso la'tids. Tbcy are steadily growing in value, and those tbat seein neurly worthless now will, in a few years, uomin:ind a fair priaa. It is ono of tbo evils of a now country tbat tbo peoplo uadorvülue the low wet lands, and the timber The Wr has retarded the work upon the roads this year very i much, but a good deal has atill been done and is uow in progress. The sales of swamp lands for cash Imve fallen off to a small amount, being only 85,188 30 for the year, owing to the large amount thrown upou the market at lower rates by the road contractors. THE SALT INTEKEST.' Ths manufacture of salt has become a liirge, permanent ar,d rapidly-increasing business in this State. The saline waters are obundant, and of excellent strength and quality, and there is every reasoi' to bel.eve thiit they will be found throughout a very extended terr'uory A large araount of capital is already employed in the manufacture, and large quantities have been produced. For the securitv of purehaseis, and the credil of manufacturera alike, 1 thiuk there should bo soinè systera of inspection adopted, and iherelore recommend you to consider the question. THE AOIUCÜLTÜRAr, COLLEGE. The eticouragement of the pursuits of agricultura has been ahvays a cherished. object with the people of Michigan One of the mandates of the constitution to the Legislature is, that it " shall eucourage the promotion of intellectual, scien tifie, and agricultural improvement, and sliall, as soon as practicable, provide fbr, the establishment of au .agricultural school." This du!y was undertakeu none too soon, but was uot entured upoo wisely. The school itself was set iu operation mucli too eaily, aud before adequate provi ion had been made fur its sup'port The result has been a failure and disappointment. By astrange over sight the farm was selected and localud in the woods, as if oür young men ueeded to bo taught scieutiHcaily tho business of chopping and logging, thus postponing anything like experimental farming for years. Having no eudowment upon which to rely, tiie Ooilege has necessarily always been a solicitor to the Legislature for appropriations, and the people have grown weary of it, to some extent, in sonsequence. It is not strange, therefore, that it bas not been able thus far to assume that commanding influence in the agricultural affairs of the Ötate that it should, and otherwise might have done. There re many better farms in the Statu than the College Farm - much better stock, and more soientitie farming - and yet I think there is a steady improvement. The errors committed in the orgauization are beiug retnedied by liiie aud more judic'ous management. We ought not to expoct too much at first. The foumling of a great institutiou of learning is the work of time, and more especially so when, as in the present case, tbe eourse of instruction is to a great extent new. It is u'ecessary, first, to edúcate teachers who aro fitied for the new professor.-hips, or to find such as fully comprehend the scope of tho enterprise and the means essential to its success. The contidence of the coiu munity lias to be obtained, both in the pertuanence of the iistitution and its to accomplish what it proposes. Hy the legis'ation of thu last roguhir session the coilege was, to some extent, re organizad, its inanag 'inent was trans lerred to a new board, called the State Board of Ariculture, and, as I think, with good effect. All the objeuts sought by this lejjislation hsvo not yet been at tained. The board it-eli' was organiznd in purauance of the law, but no p.-rmanent Secretnry has j'et been chostin, principally for the reason that adequate funds to pay his salary and expenses were not within the control of the board. It was thought, also, that the times were not propitious for setting on loot the enterprises contemplated in the duues assigned to the Secretary The board liüvH rnnrlfi vprv considerable inoiits, and still kept we'l within the appropriation. They ask for the sama appropriation aa for the last two 3'ears - to wit, $10,000 for each year- whieh I rucorumeiid. Seventy 1w students have boen edueated -,it tho oollego during the pust year, whilo considerable numbors wlio eontemplated admission liave enlered the military service. By an act of Ooiigrcss- approved July 2, 1862, - tliere was " granted to 'the several States, for the purposes tliereafter mentioiied an uinount of publio land, to be apportioned to cach Stile a quattity equal to thirty tliousand acres for each Senator and Representativo in Conprress to which the States are respectivcly entitled by tho apportionment under the census of 1860, provided that no mitieral lands shall bo selected or purchaaed uuder the provisions of this act, Section four of the act is as folluws Suc. 4 - J.nd be il further enacted, That all moncys derived f'rom the sale of lands aforesaid, by the States to which the lands are apportioned, and from the sale of land scrips liereiubefore provided for shall be iuvested in stocks of the Unitec States, or of the State, or some other safe ítocliS yielding not less thanfive per cent. upon the par value of said stocks and that the moneys so invested shall cnnstitutc a perpetual fund, the capital of -which sliall remain forever undiminished, cxcept so far as may be provided in section fifth of this act, and the interest of which shall be iuviolably apprnpriated by each State, whicli may take and claiip the benefit of this act,to the endowment, support,, and inaiutenance of at least one cullege wliore tho leadiug o'ojeot shall be, without excludin;; other seientific and classical studies, and including military tactics, to teach suc branches of learning as are allied t itgriculturo and the mechanic arts, i such manner as tho Legislatura of the States may respectively prescribe, in order to promote the liberal md practbal eduöation of the industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life." Sootion 5 prescribe.Sj'iiiore partioularly, the conditions of tha grant, vhioh are all wisely intended to preserve it froin destruction. I make no doubt that you will liasten iramedUtely to accept this mun fi ent grant by a most enliglitencd Congress. It araoUDts to 240,000 acres, and s, by the act, to be selectud wilhin this State It vvül be necessary for you to provide for tho seletion and disposition of theat! lauda, a- well as of tbe futid to be derived from them under the conditions of the law of Congress. I can sue uo better plan th-ui to select these lands and dispose of them at the same prices and in the same marmer as the primary school lands are, and have been, disposed of. As to the applieation of the funda, the Agricultural Collego is already in existente, and is just such a college as the grant contempUtes - with ihe exception of the military profes-orwhip, which can be eaáily added. If t a to be mnintainod at al!, then this endnwment is preeisely what it uecds and should have. This is an important, subject, and I hope vou will give it careful cunsideration. THR PÜBLtC SCHOOLS .The public schools continue to be the most cherished, as they are by far tjio most important, institutions of the State. They are the only true and firni foundation of public nii private virtue, morality, and power. The Legislature has álreády been liberal and faiiliful to tliem. The funds set apart for their main'enance and support have been sacredly preserved, and the increase wisely used. It is still our duty to study carefully the. best rneans by which the benefits of the schools may ba extended and increased. It is yet possible very greatly to improve the primary schools - in particular by cxtending the course of study, nnd'tn-king it more lboröugh - by adopting a more effec'.ive and iutelügcnt supervisión - and, most important of all, by providing more competent teachers. It is in the primary schools tliat tho great body of the people find tlieir nnly educatio-n. - Every ïmprovetnent in these reaches benoficently nearly every child in the Stato. I reoommend your earnest attention to the full and satisfaetory report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction on this subject, in whose rccommendations, or nearly all of them, I mest heartily concur The whole number of chiidi-en in the State, between the ages of five and twenty, is 261,323. The whole nuirber who atteuded the public schools the past year is 207,332. The University of Michigan is steadily increasing in reputation and usefulnesa. ■Ureadj' it ranks among the foremost of the great institutions of learning in our country. The whole number of students educated there during tho pa-t year, in the variou-1 departmonts, i- 615. lts corps of professors nuiubers 25, to wliich it proposes to add one of Military Engineering and Taetlcs The Bourd f Reaents, however, indicate that this catrnot be done unless-the State will provide the means, the nootnw of the University beinff insufEeierit for that purpose. The object is a very important one, and should he enoouragcd if the Stnte finances will permit The inórense during the year, from all souroes, is 57,394 99. The State Normal School is still very successful. The number of students in 'ïttendance durinf the past year was as follows: In tho Normal department 407 ; in the Model School 86 The Board of Instruction consists of eisrlit ïiütle and three female teachers. The expenses for the year have boen about $11.000. " THE PUBLIC BUILDINGS. It aeems a nccessity that some addition should be made to the public buildings at this capital. It wotild be excecdinofly desirable if we could at once comtnence entirely now buildings, suited to the present wants of the State, as the old ones are not That, however, is not to be thought of in the present oondition of affiiirs The State Treasuror and or (jenerul are uow orowaea nir-o a space uito too narrow for the business required f thein. I recommnnH eitlier that some ddition be mado to the present building, r fome othcr couvse be taken to n-licve hem, 13 may secm to the Legislature most advisable. THE MILITARY DEPARTMENT. Tho military departmeut, whieh before the war, was rcgarded as of t importanee, and w"tfs generalij dismisscd in the messages ot' Governors with a paragraph, now deniauds the principal place, To it nearly all my time and attontion have been given tbr the pust two years, and to it they must still be given. Wc. are yet cnpaged a3 actively as at the beginniiip in raisin; troops. The total' iiumber raised and organized in the State, sinoc the beginning of the war is 45,5ü9 Of these 24,481 were sent to the field before July last; 987 - tho Lancers - - were disbanded, before leaving the State. The quota of tho State under the calis of July last. was 23.372, of which there have been raised as follows : Thirtesn regimoots and a battery sent to the field, 13.759; recruits for old regiments sinoe Jifly 2, 2,1(52 ; pro. vostuuard at Detroit Barracks, 101 ; estiniated strength of regiments yet recruiting, 4,400 ; total, 20,402. Remaining to be raised to fill the cali, 2,970. The State has now in the field twenty six rcgiments of infaaify, one regiment of mechanics and euprincèrs, six reginieqtí of oavalry and eight battories. There are recraiting in the State two .rc-giurenta of iafantry, onc regiment of sharpshootcrs, three regiinenls of eavalry, and two batteries. The returns of the late military census show ap aggregitte subject to draft of 95,000 in round numbers. Many of the older reglrnentshave bo come greatly depleted in numbers, and theireíBsiencycorrespondinp:lyitupaired. To reinforce thoe, and bring them up again to the maximum standard of strength, is at present tho most imperativc demand of the service. It is certainly much easier to keep up tlie quota of the State by raising new regiment than by filling the old ones, but both justice and sound poliey forbid such a course. To abandon the old regiments, which have fuught with marked distinction through all the carupaigns of the war, woul'd be to disregard the firt principie of military succesa, the prid of the soldier in his corps. It would ulso be a disregard of the impoitanoe of military skill and discipline. New recruits put into old organizations, under triiued and competent offleers, are of much greater value to the service than if orgunized into new bodies, with offieers unused to war. They quickly catch the spirit, and acquire the skill of old soldiers. It is far better for th soldier himself, because, by contact with men of experience, ho is led to avoid the bad habita so ruinous to the uevr soldier, and to adopt thoae wliich tend to preserve his health and. üfe. Thera is nothing from which the new regiments have sufferedso fatally asa causeless disregard of tht rules of health, as applied to camp life. Notwithstanding he obvious advantages of enlisttnent in M regiments it has been found impoi sible to fill up their ranks while new ones are raisiug in the State The suïerior activity of new officers on the ;round, working for their commissions, with the ambition of tlie soldier for the non-commissioued offices of tlie com)any, have swept the great body of the ecruits into the uew organizations, and so it will continue while new regiments ire raising. To get clear of th3 diffieulty it Í3 proposed to organizo no more new regiments after the present ar completed. The recruiting will then je confined wholly to the regiments ia the field. When this shall have o5curred, I anticípate but one remaining difficulty, and that grows out of the cious, but well infonded citizens bounties. As soon as the draft is over, no doubt those bounties will entirely coase. ïhey have been the cause of cndles trouble. Being of various amounts in different lo.calities, those seeking to enHst have been indueed to' offer themselves wherever the higböst bounty was offered. The vesult has been a very injurious biddinjj between differeat pluces, aud very uiuch higbci bounties havo been paid thau reason would dictato. Appeals have been made to the cupidity, instead of the patriotism of the citizens, to that eitent degrading the senico. In consequenee, souie have enlistad merely to obtain the bounties, and havo then daserted disgracefully. The evil has grown, not out of the fact that a bounty is offered, but out of the want -of uuiforniity in the amount. When tlic citiiöns' bounties cease, I think we must have a subsiitute for them, or the enlistments will also eease. What shall that substitute be ? I can think of nothing but a uniform State bounty, moderate in amount, to be paid ouly to thoso who eulist in the regituents ftnd battsries now organized and organizing, on their being mustored into the service of the United btates. The amount of the bounty, I think, should be fifty dollar, and it ïuight bu paid from the war loan, of wliicn there remain a balance unespended of near 400,000 Perhaps it would be well to give a discretion to increase that loan by 250,000 in cese the money should be required, which I do not anticípate. If tliis phn shoujd be adnpted, there is no reason to doubt that the Michigan regiments can be liept in efficiënt force. One of the principal sources of encouragement to enlist men is the law for the relief of the families of the volunteers, wlicn in dtistitute circumstauces. In thtí íuiiin the law is well administered, and is productiv'e of grcat guod. In a few loealities, liowever, there are hard, unsympalhjziog Supervisors, wbo exercise their discretion uot only witliout humanity but with positive cruelty, if my information is correct. I do not k;iow that it ia pöasible to remedy this A discretioa must be left somewhere, and any change might result in an incroase of tlie evil. L recommend you to consider whether an appoul miglit not be allowod from the Supervisor to some county officer, iu such cases, with authority to review his aetion, and thus inerease the probabilities of justico being done. Sueh an appeal tnay now be uiade to the Board of Supervisors, but it is an inconvenient tribuna] to reaoli, consisting of a considerablo number, nd asscmbling but BaldoHi. The duty of the State to its soldiera does not eeae with their enlistment, and it should follow them to the field and the hospital, and make its active symprvthv and aid manifest in all. their trials and sufferings. The Government of the United State.s does all it can. It furnishos ab'jnd&nt supplies of every kind, and, to the soldier iu health, all that is necessary. It furnishes goed and suffioient hospitals for the siek and wounded, and nurses and attendacts ia number enough but, it cannot mako fure that they all do their dut'y kindly and w.'ll It is in the hospital that th soldier needs sympathy and help. Uf? who is bravestin the active duties of the field grows i eliild when languishing of disease in the hospital, far away frota fïi'nds, and the tedious hours drag heavily, and he sighs for hnme and' the attendance he "was accustomed to thero, He is oneof a thoussnd, and the physiciaa comes on his hurried rounj once a dny, looks sliarply at him, makes a hjjjv riod prcgeription, and passes on. So it goes on for weeks, and perhïps month. The physioint} ceases even to cali, anj says truly that lie can do notlÚDg for hita - th3 uurses negl'eefc him, tud stoaCoxtinued onfourth pis. Conc'uJe i wp. Bfiht wilh libei-tj Ïu'lj sur-ïjlfl elass, composiog a!.nt tha eatiro b.jJy of producers of tho vulto 1 Staten, must necossarily ba oui' iVï.-ud.-, luy i ia feel;üJ ansious to beèomu ivy.A in actiou wkeiiever we will uüow tho.ij the smalte.'t- ri-'ua uf : , üU]jr (,e taoy flSk is freadiKu - a priue wu ca cus;ly paj, anj wliih thu riibül Guvorameut canuut Jeslrojiu{ tïïe entirefabrie. Keuiüvj thess miüioBS of wurkers froni the phntatioud and workshopj. of tha South, and ifc Ls plaiu that rebulliou cannut last a yeáí. Oïie ehief din;, i y, ihus l'.ti1, )as been t in repossussiiij;' llie oomiuy, but in bulJiug it n!ï,.rwiii U. Oat unnitís have pasaoj over au 1 tnken forrttffl posaession of exUusivg regióos o!' tba Soutlieni territoiy,driving out ti:9 organized forces of the Confaderaev, but tliopropertv of the people uniouched, and existing inWiwUotmiudisturbad. üpon tluasystem it been fuu nd iiecessiuy to keep as !arge a foice n such regións to hol.l Ihem aa it did to tako ihem in the liist instance. If Lire army passes on, these people iirt risa ia the roar, ent offcommunications, dtBlroy its inunitioos and supp'ias, seize its leinfmceinen'a in smal] detitchmeote, id thua beoonw moro dangerous than before. It foliuws that the further ue progresa tb more diffieult ourtask b8come=. Tbo army ia eonstantlv reduced by detachments for gfflriton duty. and kaepiug open cominuiiicatloiis, until H becmaes too weak far olïensive opt tions. At tbo same time our oecupaliun does Dot harni ihe rebel Government materially. lts peopie adbere firmly te tbat cause,. aud tbeir tuaatw of' warfare Tomaiu Biuoh the same, üalesa tliií conHioa oftliingscau ba.cbaagadj onr .cause is plair.iv hopeless wii.haot lang jears of war, accoinpanied by saerifiees appalüng to contémplate, nu whieh we can hordij , peet our :eop!e to maka. Seeing this clearly, and alter a year and a half of effoj-t tnsubilue the leliflhon without dis tuibng existing aws and nstitutions io t.e ïdsurgont Suites, the Governmeut of ibe üuited Suites has adopted the two great remedies of eiuaucipatioa aud conliaeation. We are about to strike hapds vvith the entire lo.ial p.pulatioiiof thö S.uuth,w],ether aiie pr black. Wtí shalPuo loner respfict the claim of a white tra i torito ooiupel a black loyalist Lo ald him in destroyiug tho Guvernmcut; uaither shall we any furtber admit his title to use hispropt-'rty of aay sort for the same purpose. By thy proclamalion of September 22, 3SO2, and Jnouary 1, 1863. tho Presiaeut, by virtue of the power vesteel io him M OMnnisnfcrin;('.l''eKftUe Arji.vf.nd JS ivy of the United States, has, by a sinale blow, struck tho sliacklesïrom near 3,Ü00,00ü of slaves, and acWed them to the loyal (Vee people of the Kepuhlic This actnill be memorable as as instory endure. It has been done for the strem-thenmg of the countrv against iis eneinies, and under the war póweT-; hut it not forbUden to the philanthropist and the g.iQtl to rèjoiqe in the redempüon. of a mee. VVith it facies y lüa uno great and hüiniliating stain upoo uur nati-ual escatéhéon, Viom ibis point our country starts upon a new and Uie experiment of repubiican Itbsrty tmy be faiily tried. Of Üia necssii.v an;' lHty of this graat measnre, tliere is iittle "room tb doubt. It is hardly vvorth while to stop to answer Ihe fee ble oroaking oftiiatclass of people wl). always fiml in the Consli tution a;i iusurmpuQtable bar to everythmg that jnstico and timh reqUire. Their wioked pretences and unsound logic are only a th,n guiée of ceal disloyaify. ihe Ptasidnt lias now not oulv to exe-cute the ordiisary power of govermnent onfened upoo hirq fcy the constitution, bat ne has aleo to prolecl, an.l defe'nd ihe onstitution itselffrom destróctíon-, Bv vutue of that instrument he is CoinmandMtt-Ohief, andas such, ia . conjunction with Oongress, he possesses all tlie war power possessed by the most dpotic'overnroeat on earth, and for the okSm of tbose vast powers he is responsiblo only to the Congr8S etecied bj the people. Iheconsitiuhn Ualfhas not underiaken w preicriDe tbe manoer of t10 exercise of those powois but has left t!mt to be detefmined bj the exigencies of the case But tliat t would beexercised arbitrarilv and contrarj to the ual forms ia nan"v cases, ,9c,early pontem.plated by the e cond Mb-divisloB of Seotion 9, whicb Pp,niits the suspension of the writ of the habem corpus in of rebellion or invaiioD ,f tl,0 public afctj requirea it. Whatever the , public safety requires Dot fUL'rf-hresideotto -- .-,„. 1UO ,„,, wiiiL'Q are snoeien: in time of heace, feil altoptber i„ ,he „," eenceofwar ïl.escLesofthepubc enBmy must be met witb . decisión and fP7 the enemj m known in tliearmyof renneSSee, an! upon ttdertaking to áríes tl.e.ebeanvdo.btofthepowe.anddu,; of _tle Comm.n.'er m Cluef to wirwe and orthe p.,iver of a„v civil magÍ8lra[ , return h„„ to be dealt wit„ o, L to he militan code, thaÉ „n.l.r tluu de hemightbesummariljtrfed, conde rnnd public i„- iï qired ,t Wltl,out trial at all. ï( ti iu!"st,r;rtrip!osed'woiii'iiiti.e ess, li 110 if the H,y D queition retidad Je Bo bwa iba ohieí direetiori of af tíi. Wb.kacwi.thpatno.ic motive, -1 aspuKof „Iljllst fault.fiiüS camor.BhUieltLa,, criminal. TI m the nalional administráis i. „.„.„ _ Jhat it Sdeppyll!eai.ne8tn '■: Pt down .lie rebdijo and save be üiinm feaiso m;lllifö,t. Tmt .re, have Leen h, the m,n wge f J Jieve and X tl,e great body of the poople re hkely Lo fioianj fnultwitl, ,t. nel on !'Ower,oofaforexp,,, tlera S too mué!, Mjji RllJ pr0IDRtaefg We Wiort tM tte r.Uüión ougbt to havo betíi! siíjipressud n a campiyn of ni.néty il,is. Vv'jj ira upwii t ho ]iinu;)cle of hnpü w lu a our íumi.'s win.-i vietory, un 1 tli'e vüí.o ui i',u uiiiriptifiurf is scarceiy hsard in whispe, Luí üan ihey meet a re-piíúc v tinl kiniieuiiittj)' i;,t.i tbo very .-! igh of J.--ÍM)..ik-iRy, aii I !:.e icbel fyiuKilliisei goe UítVhng ifrruuh the ChikI, willi all tiij aasutaje uf i (atriu!, wliile voiy liko !y Mittier i!i vieiurv uur dedeitt ras f muca accfíirrrt as ífetrcíng thu fina! resull. Great un.JerUikiiigs rquiri time, and it is not by a view of the operations of a single moull), or even a year, that reaults ai-e to ba c irrectly mensure;1.: Tliout;h we lieve not made sucl) progresa in eab duin; the lebellion ís Iiüiny, perluips a in;n -titv, hoped, yot, upon a survey of tlie whole field, it will ba ipsirent tbat a ateady and . powerful progresa lias been made. A: the commeneemeDt of tlie War, tho State of Maryland, lyinr in the traeik of the armies liBstonJcg to delend thecaniul, wils tfioroughiy dislyyal; and more trou bkaoifle lima aciy otliui ; now she is entiiely oberlient to the lawe, and not even the priísencecf n vklbrious rebel army could shake her fixed pnrposa to abide ii the Union. The gieíit and powerful Staie of Mis souri, t!ie battle-ground of iho West at the beginning uf the war, bus been cleared o tha public enein'ies and runged bersal upon the layal side. The te emancipa tion trúuiiph in Uie eleolion in tbat State convoya tlie eheering intolligenee tliat alie s torevermoto stsínifast Iqr the Union. Ker.tu.cliy luw boen prevented froin falling iato tho reliel gtasp. The now State of Western Virgiaia has heen finally won, and neaily half' of oíd Virginia ia firmly beid hy the Unión armies. We possess largs portions of Tennessee Mississii)i,aii(! Louisiniü, wiih nearly tl.e enlirovalley of the Ffither of Watera. We hol.j several of the principal parts of the Confeeercj ti the Oulf and on the Atlantíc sea bciari, whila tlie remainder of ttietn areclosely blue km led. Our Br mies are larger and better disciplined thao at any former period. All this baa bea:i accomplisbed in a üttle mojo than a year and" a b;ilt'. A like success fpr the saine lengthof time to come, and the power of the rebellion wil! be entii-.dy bi'oken. Our saoiifiees have indeed been great, but eompared wiüi those of our enemy they are as ndtbing. O ii -State has beeiiííntirely frea from invasión, while theirs have been toe' scènes of all ths great battles of the war, and literaliy liainpled miJer the feet of buth armies. Oiir business avocations' liave been uninterrupted, wbile theirs are neaily dèstroyed. ïhe whole Southern ooast is either held by us or blockaded by an invinoible fteet, and their commerce liearly cut off. Ia there any causa fór discourageinent in all this J Shail we listen to thesensation croakers, forget our nianhood, aad bow dowo befoie the rebels? " We have assaulted the enemy 's intrenched position at Fivdeiicksburg, apd rwieato tafee it. Sa .Napoleon lost the battlu of Matungo, and won it again before sundown. If wo öannpt bejar a disaster or two.without crying out for a parley.lben, inJeed, do we need the stern education of war. Tlie ónty way to be secura in peace, 3 to be ab!e to conqner in war. Military' pmwess isessenüal to the .stahilily and perpetüity of a natiwi. The traa glorv of tha Republie rmi3t count not only iñ beuefioi'üoa and freedom of our institutions, hut also in our ibility and courage to dofond and prolect tliem. Itoauaot be too ot'ten repeated tlmt it costsev&n reara of -wir to löund tbis Repubüc, and f it was woith the struggle tlien. mucli more is it worth t now, alter t!io experiment of freo govemment has provecí so grandly successful. Neither wero they withoul their defents in those days; nor without tliiiir cro.nkers to gloat over thern witf) sid faces ftn, inward predicting that utterfailure must attand iicli .1 mad attampt, and recoramendiDg that it wero beltor at onoe to have done with suoh liGndlong abstractionista as the Washinatons, the Jnffersons, the Franklins, and the Adjiras, and to rnake terms wilh the o!d Government of King and Parliament. As lt was, thoy Bad also their do nothing (xeneral?, their Benedict ArnolJs.and the sad and sickening rivalries of men in high position, whosa ambition far exceeded their patríotisra, but tliay had virtue enough and valoï enoutrli to dvercome all and after years of bloody toil, throjizh many üeteatsand som o yietorie-s, stool faet am] beroic ti)! (bey fio'aliy reaehed their victorious Yorktown, and gave a natioo of freemen to the worM. Where are their grumblers anti faint-bearted counselors now? History has etnMmed tbeir very names for fnfainy, while it strings its never fiiilihg garlands frotn the beroes of IndepeödenC. In the history of the past read tb'at of the future. We have a pfqud' name among the nations of the earth Gallant ancealors left us pure escutcheons and bright names. Shall vva dd a gloriuspao-.-j to au already renowned bistory ? Ihon tiiere must be no peaoe wiih a diamembered country. Nb yielding to the demanda of srrani traitor.-. Poaee is in1 ' wst desii-ab'e. bot it must be an eu-luring pe;,ce. Only ooe tliing stands hetwoen it and irs, and that is- alavery One enemy only süncfered the Union and' now prevenís its restorntiotf, and ihat enemy ia slaverv . Alltha bloo.l and carnare ot tliis terrible war all the heari-rendin casiiRlutiSof battle and the sacl bereava" ments oceasioned by lliein have the saine cause- slavery. TI10 greatest, vilesf criminal of the worM, it raust perish in the srnoke ind flama of bnttle. It must pensil, go it choso, s'truck by the rosisttew Hnti üf ts conqueriBf antammis' emanctpatwn. Let im rally round the govermnent; the last grató Uowisstrikingthe viefory, once won, i, won for-veV llie peace wlnch Toilows is the peace of the conqueror whose cuse ia mercifu and, bMngrinff good will to all meo (Signed)


Old News
Michigan Argus