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The President's Message

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Fellow-citizens of the Senato and House of Mepresentalives : Another year of health and sufficiently abundaut barvests bus passed. Für these, and especially for the improved condition of our national affairs, our renevved and profound gratitudo to God is duo. - We remniu in peaee and friendship with foreign Powers. Tho efforta of disloyal citizens of the United States to involve us ia foreign wars, to aid in inexcusable iosurrectioD, havo been unavailing. Her Britannic Majesty's Government, as was justly expeeted, have exercised their authority to prevent the depaiture of new hostile expeditions from British ports. - The Empuror of Franco has, by a like proeeeding, promptly vindioated the neutrality which he proclairaed at the beginniug of the coutest. EUROPK&N RELATIONS. Questions of grest intneacy and importance have arisén out of the blockade and other beHigewo operations betwecn the Government and several of the niari time l'owcrs, but they have been discussed and, so far as was possible, accommodated in a spirit cf frankness, justicc and mutua] good will. It is cspeeially grati fying ihat our prize courts, by the impartialily of their adjudications, have comraasdod the respect and conSdenco of niaritinic Powers The supplement al treaty between the United States and Grcat Britain, for the suppressiou of the A frican si ave trade, made on the I7th day of February last, has been duiy ratificd and carricd intb executi'on. It is believed that, so far as American ports and American citizens are eoncerned, that inhuman and odious traffic has been brouglit to an end. I shall submit for the consideration of the Senate a eonvention for the adjustment of possessory claims in Washington Territgrv, arising out of the treaty of the 15tb. of June, 1846, between the United Staies and Ghreat Britain, and which have been tbc source of soino disquiet among the eitizens of that now rapidly iinproving part of the country. A novel and important question, involving tho extent of the maritime jurisdictiou of Spain in the waters which snrround the island of Cuba, has boen debated without reaching an agreement, ;md it is proposcd, in an amicable spirit, to refer it tOjthe arbitrament of a iïiendly Power. A convention for that purpose will be submitted to the Senate. I have thought it proper, subject to the approval of the Senate, to concur with the interested commercial pnwers in an arrangement for the liquidation of the Scheldt ducs, upon the principies which have been heretofore adopted in regard to the imposts upon navigation in the waters of Denmark. SOUTH AMERICAN MATTEUS. The long pending controversy between tbis Government and that of Chili, toaching the seizure at Silana, in Peru, by Chilian officers, of a large amount in treasure bclonging to citizens of the United States, bas been brought to a close by the award of liis Mujesty the Kiug of the Bclgians, to whose irbifration the question was referred by the partios. The subject was thoroughly and patiently cxamined by that justly-rcspected magistratc, and, although the sum awarded to the claiinants may not have been so large as they expeeted, therc is no reason to distrust the wisdom of his Majesty's decisión. That decisión was promptly complicd with by Chili when intelligence in regard to it reached that country. The joint commission under the act of the last session for carrying into effect the convention with Peru, on the subject of claims, has been organized at Lima, and is engaged in the business entrusted to it. Difficulties concerning inter-oceanic transit through Nicaragua are in course of amicable adjustment. In conformity with principies set forth in my last annual message, I have received a representativo from the United States of Columbia, and have credited a minister to that republic. eONBlTION OF ALEENS. Incidents oecurriug in the progress of our civil war have foreed wpon my attention the uncertain state of international questions touching the rights of forcigners in tbis country, and of the United States citizens abroad. In regard to some Governments, these rights are, at least partially, defined by treaties. In no instance, however, is it expressly I stipulated that, in the event of civil war, a foreigner residing in tiiis country, within the fines of the insurgents, is to bc exeniptcd from tbe rule whicb classes bim as a belligerc-nt, in whose behalf tbe Government of bis country caunot express any privileges or inmiunities distinetfrom that character. I regret to say, however, that such claims have been put forward, and, in some instanees, in behalf oi forcigners who have livcd in the United States the greater part of their lives. There is reason to believe that many persons born in foreign oountries who have declaied their intention to become I citizens, or who have been fully natural izcd, jhavc cvaded the military duty re quired of them by denyicg the fact, anc thereby throwing upon tbe Government the burden of proof. It bas been founc difficult or impracticable to obtain this proof from the want of guides to the proper sources of information. These might be supplied by requiring tbc clerks of oourts where dcclarations of intentioü may be made, or naturalization efl'ccled to seud periodically lists of the ñames o the persons naturalized, or declaring their intention to become citizens, to the Secretary of the Interior, in whose department these names might be arranged and printed for general icfonnation. Therc is also reason to believe that foreigner3 frcqn;nt]y b'Oj-if citizeo? of the United States for the solé purpose of evading the duties imposed by the laws of their native country, to which, on becoming naturalizod here, they at once repair, and, though nover returning to the United States, they still claim the interposition of this Government, as citizcus. Many altercations, and great prejudiccs, have heretoforc ariscn out of this abuse. It is therefore submitted to your serious consideration. It might be advisable to fix a limit beyond which no citizen of the United States, residing abroad,may claim the interposition of his Government.- The right of suffrage has often been assumed aud exercised by aliens, under pretence of naturalizaron, whieh they have disowned when draftcd into the military service. I submit the expediency of such an arnendmeut of the laws as will niake the fact of voting an estoppel against any plea of exemption from military service, or other civil obligation, on the ground of alienage. JAPAN. In comraon with other western Powers, our relations with Japan have been brought into serious jeopardy through the perverse opposition of the hereditary aristocracy of the empire to the enlightened and liberal policy of the Tycoon, designed to bring the country into the society of nations. It is hoped, although not with entire confidence, that these difficultics may be peacefully overeóme. I ask your attention to the claim of the minister residing there for the damages he sustained in the destruction by firc of the residence of the legatiou at Yeddo. INTERNATIONAL TELEG11AP1I. Satisfactory arrangements have been made with the Emperor of Russia, which it is bclieved will result in effecting a continuous line of telegraph through that empire from our Pacific coast. I reccommend to your favorable consideration the subject of international telegraph across the Atlantic Ocean, and also of a tolegraph between this capital and the national forts along the Atlantic seaboard and the Gulf of MczicD. Such communication, established with any rcasonable outlay, would be economical as well as effective aids to the diplomatic, military, and naval service. OUR MINISTEES AND CONSULS. The consular systcm of tho United States, under the enactments of the last Congress, begins to be self-sustaining, and there is reason to hope that it may become entirely so, with the increase of trade which will ensue whenever peace is restored. Our ministers abroad have been faithful in defending American rights. In protecting our commercial interests our consuls have necessarily had to encounter increased labors and responsibilities, growing out of the war. These they have, for the most part, met and dischar ged with zoal and efficiency. This ackuowlcdginent justly includes those consuls who, residing in Morocco, Egypt, Turkey, Japan, China, and other Oriental countries, are charged with complex functions and extraordiuary powers. TUE TEliUITOEIES. The condition of the several orgfcozed Territories is generally salieíacto■y, although tho Iridian in !iew Mexico have not been entirely suppressed. The mineral resources of Colorado, Nevado, Idaho, New Mexico, and Arizona, are proving far richer than has been heretofore understood. [ lay before you a communiöation on his subject from lbo Governor of New Mexico. ENCOURAGEMENT OF IMMIGRATION. 1 again submit to your coilsideratioD he expediency of establishing a system or the encourageinent of immigration. Although this source of national weakh uid ttrength is agaiu flówihg with greater freedom than lor seveml years sefore the insurreetion occurreel, there 8 flill a great deficiency of. laborera in every field of industry, espeeially in agriculture, and in our mine, as well of ron and cofil as of the precio us metáis. While the demaTid for labor is thus increased here, tens oí íhousands oí pert-ons, destitute of remunerativo ocuu pation, are thronging our foreign consulaten and ofieriqg to eqnigrate to the Uniled States if essential but very cheup íssistíinc.o can be afloided them. It is easy to sce th:it, under the sharp discipline of civil war, the n:iiinn is begiiining a now lif'e. This nolile eflcirt demanda the aid and ought to recoive the attention and support of the Government. ORIEVANCES OF ALIENS. Injuries unforseon by the Government, and unintended, may, in sorne cases, havo been oflioted upon the snbjects or oitizefl8 of foreign counlries, botli at sea and on lind, by persons iii the service of the United Statep. As this Government expects redress from other Powers when similar injuries aro inflioted by persons in tbéir service upon citizens of the United Staten, vvo must be prepared to do justice to loreigners. If the exigting judicial trib.unals are inadequate lo this purpoc, n ppecia] court may be authorized, with power to hear and decide such claims of tho character ref'erred to as may have brisen under treaties and the public lavv. Conventions lor adjusting the claims by joint comu is.sion have been propnsed to some Governments, but no defiiiite answer to the proposition bas yet been reeeived from any. In the course of the session I shall probably have occasion to request you to provide indemnification to claimants whero decrees of res'itntron havo been rendered and damages awardcd by thë Admirally courts, and in other canes where this Government may be acknowedged to be liable in principie, and where ihe amoant of that liability has been a6certuined by aD iDfonual arbi' tration. . TAX ON' FORKIGN CONSULS. The proper offieers of the Troasury have deemed themselves required, by I the law of the Uuited States upon the '■ subject, to deinand a tax upon the íd ' comes of foreign consuls in this couni try. While snch a deinand rnay not, ' in strictness, be a derogation of public law, or pérbapa of any existing treaty between the United States and a for' eign country, the expediency of so far : modiiying the act as to exempt i'rom ' tax the incoine of such consuls as are Dot citizens of the United States, deriv' ed from the emolumenta of their office or from propertjr not situated in the i United. States, is submitted to your sei rioug coueideration. I make this sug' gestión upon the ground that a coinity ■ wbich ought to ba reciprocated exempta ' our consuls in all otber countriea from : taxation, to the extent thus indicated, ' The United States, I think, ought not ' to be exceptionully Iliberal to interna: tional trade and commeree. : STATE OT THE T.REASURY. The opera'.ions of the Treasury '( ring the last year have been ( ly conducted. The enactmont by Congress of a Nati mal Banking law bas . proved a valnablc suppoit of the public credit, and the general legislation in ( lation to loans has fully auswered the èxpectation oí its favorers. Some nmendmrnts may be required to perfect eximing laws, but no chauge in , their principies or general scope is believed to be needed. Since these measures have been in operation, all demands on the Treasury, including the pay of the army and navy, have Oeerj promptly met and fully nat istied. No considerable body of troops, it is believed, were ever more amply provideel and more liberally and punctually paid, and, it may be added, that by no people were the burdens incident tb a great war ever more cheorfully borne. The reeeipts during the year from all sourees, including loans and the balance in the Treneury at itseommencemept, were $901,125,674.86, the aggregate disbursements, $895,796.63065, leaving a balance on the lst of July, 1863, of $532,904.421. Of the receipts there were derived Irom custorns, $69,059,642.40; frnru intertui revenue, , $37,(340,787.95; Irom direct taxes. $1,. 485,10o. 61 ; from land, $167,617.17; from miscullaneous sources, $304,651,535, and from loaus, $776,682,361,57 making the aggregate $901,125,674.86. Oí the diabursements there were for the civi! service, $23,153,922; for pensions and Indians, 4,216,520 59; for . est on public debt, $24,729,846.51; for the War Department, $599,298,600.83; for the Navy Deparcment, $63,211,105.27; for payment of funded and temporai y debt, $181,086.635.07, making the aggregute $S95,796,639.G5, and leaving the balance of $5,029,044,21. But the pnyment of the funded and temporary debt having been made trom moneys borrowed during the year, must be regarded as ir.erely nominal payrnents, aid the moneys borrowed to make í hem as merely nominal receipts, and their arnount, $181,086,635.07, shotlld therei'ore be deducted both from the receipts and disburseinents. Thirf being dony, there remains as actual receipts $720,039,039 79, and the actual disbursemente $714,709,995.58, leaving the balance as ilready stated. The actual receipts and disbursemente for the first quarter, and the es limatod reeeipts and disbursements lor the rem a i ni ng threequarters of the current. fiscal year oí will be shown in detail by the repoi-t of :he Secretary of the Treasuiy, to which I invite your atlfciitiu.M. It is aufiScient to say here that it is not believed that the actua! resnlts will exhibit a ftate of the finan-, ces less favorable to the country that) the estimates of that officer heretolore submilted, while it is confideutiy expected that at the close of the year both disburseinents and debts will be found very considerably less than has been anticipatod. THE WAR DEPARTMENT. The report of the Secretary of War is a document of general interest. It contains of - First, The military opcrations of the year, detailed in the report of the General in-Cfiief. Socond. The organization of colored persons into the war service. Third The exchange of prisoners, fully set forth in the letter of General Hitchcock. Fout-i h. Tho oporations under the act for cnrolling and calling out of the national forcea, detailed in the report of the Provost Marshal General. Fifth The organizaron of tho Invalid Corps ; and Sixth. The opcrations of tho several depaitmcnts of the Quartcrmaster General, Coiniiiisaiy Gcneial, PaymaBter General. Cliicf of EügiiiROl's, Chiyf of Oidinivü'-t;, aod öurjoo Gcncr;sl. j It has appcarcd impossible to rpake a I valuablo summary of this report, except such as would be too extended for this place, and henee I content myself by askiug your attentiou to the report itself. THE NA'Y DEPARTMENT. Tbc dutios (Jevolving on tho naval bnmch of the service, during the year and throughout tbo wholo of this unhappy contèst, havo been tlischargcd with üdelity and eminent success. The extensive bloekade has been constantly increasiri in eflieioncy as the navy has expanded, yet on so long a line it basso far been impossible to entirely suppreps illicit trade. From the returns received at the Navy Department, it appears that more thau opa thousand vessels havo been coptured siuee the blookade was institutid, and that the valuo of priz s already j sent in for ndjudication amounts to over Í 813,000,000. The naval forcé of the United States consista at this time of 588 vessels, : pleted and iu the coufse of completion, ind of these 75 ure iron-clad armored ' steamers. The events of the war give i in increased interest and importance to the navy, which will probably extend i beyond the war itselr. The armored pessels in our navy, corapleted and iu ' jerviee, or which are under contract and ' ipproaching compietioh, are believed to jxceed in uurnber those of any o'.her Power; but while these may bo relied ;ipon for harbor defence and coast ] fice, others of greater strength and capacity will be necessary for cruising ] poses, and to uiaintain our rightful tion on theocean. The change that has ■ ken place in naval vessels and naval f Tare, since the iotroduction of steam as a motivo power for ships war, deuiands üither a corresponding change in souie of ( sur oxisting navy yards, or the ' ment of new ones, for the construction i ind necessary repair of modern naval I reseelfl. No inconsiderable I meut, delay, and public injury havo been ' sxperienced from the want of such i srtiment establishments. ' The neeessity of such a navy yard, so ■ furnished, at some suitable place upon tbc Atlantic seaboard, has, on repeated aasiöns, been brought to the attentiou of ' Congress by the Navy Department, and I is again presentcd iu the report of the ' Secretary which accompanks this communication. I think it my duty to 1 vite your special attention to this subject 1 iind also to that of establishing a yard ' lepot for naval purposes upon oue of the Western rivers. A naval forcé has been created on these interior waters, and nn ' der inany dissdvantages, within little more than two years, exceeding in numbers the wholc naval force of the country at the oommencement of the piesent Administration. Satisfactory and important as have been the performances of the heroic men of the navy at this interesting period, thoy are scarcely more wouderful than the success of our me chanics and artisans in the production of war vessels which have created a new form of naval power. Our country has advantages superior to any other nation in our resources of iron annd timVjpr with inexhaustible -[uantities of fuel in the immediate viein ity of both, and all available and in close proximity4Sto navigable waters. With out the'advantage of public works, the resources of the nation have been developed and its power displayed in the construction of a navy of such magnitude which has, at the very period of its creation, rcudured signal service to the Union. The increase in the nnmber of seamen . in the public service from 7;500 men in the spring of 1861 to about 34,000 at the present time, has been accomplished without special legislation or extraordinury bounties to prom.te that increaffe. - It has been found, however, that the operations of the draft, with the high bouaties paid for army recruits, is beginning to afi'üct injuriously the naval service, and will, ifnot corrected, be likely to impair its efficiency, by detaching seamen from their proper vocation, and inducinf; them to enter the army. I there fore, respect fully suggest that Congress might aid both the army and naval services by a difunto pi%vision on this subject, which would at the same time be cquituble to the communities more especially interested. THE NAVAL ACABEMY. I commend to your considoration the suggestious of the Secretary of the Navy in regard to the policy of fostering and training seamen, and also the education of offioers and engineers for the naval service. The Naval Academy is renderiug signal service in preparing midshipmoii for tlie highly responsible duties which in after llfe t'uey will be required to perform. In order that the country should uot be deprived of the proper quota of educated officers for which legal provisión has been made at the Naval School, the vacancies caused by the negieet or omission to make nominations from the States in insurrection have been filled by the Secretary of the Navy. - The school is now more full and complete than at any fonner period, and iu every respect uutitled to the favorable consideratiou of Congress. THE POSTOFK1CE DEPARTMENT. During the past fiscal year the financial coudition of the Post Office Department has been one of increasiug pro.perity, and I am gratitied i being ible to state that the actual postal revenue has neurly equaled the entire expenditures, the latter auiouiitiug to $11,314,20(1.84, and the iormer to $1 1,103,789.59, leaving a deficiency of hut $150, 417. 'Ja. In lb(50, the year immediately preceding the rebellion, the deficiency amounted to $5, 050, 705. 49, the postal receipts of that year beiug $2,645,722.19 less than those of 1863. The deereaso, since 1860, in the annual amount of transportatiou has been ouly about twenty-five per cent, but the unnual expenditures on accouat of the same lias been reduced thirty five per cent. It ia manifest, therefore, that the Post Office Department way beeome self sustaiuing in a few years, even with the restoratiou of tho whole service. The International Conference of post al delegütes, from the principal countries of Europe and Auieriea, wliich wasculled at thu suggestiou of the Postmaster General, met at Paris on the llth of May last, and concluded its deliberatious on the 8th of Juno. The principies estublished by the Conferenco as best adapted i to i'acilitato postal intercourso between nations, and as tho basis of future con ventious, inaugúrate i general systoin of uniform international charges at reduced rutes of' postage, and cannot fail to produce beneficia! resulte. TUE INTERIOR. DEPARTJIKKT. I rofer you to the reprt of tho Sec' retary of tbe Intrior, whioh is herewith .... ... ■ - laid before you, for useful and varied information in relation to the public lands, Indian affairs, patonts, pensions, aad ither mattera of public concern pertaiuing to his department. The quantity of land disposed of during Ihe last and the firat quarter of the present fiscal years was three millions sight hundied and forty-ono thousand Sve hundred and forty-nine acres, of which 161,911 acres were sold for cash ; 1,456,514 acres were taken up under the homestead law, and the residuo disposed of under laws granting lands for military bonnties, fór railroad and other purposes. It also appears that the sale )f public lands is largely on tho increase. [t bas long been a cherished opinión of ome of our wisest statesmen that the people of the Uuited States had a highr and more énduring intere.-t in the sarly settlenient and substantial culti?alion of the public lands than in the imount of direct reveDue to be derived roin the sale of them. This opinión lus had a controlling influenee in whapng iegislation upou the subject of óur .ïaüonal doiiiain. I may cite, as evilenco of this, the liberal measures jdopted in reference to actual aettlers. Tlie grant to the States of the overflowd lands within their litnits, in order to their böing reclaimed and rendered fit For cultivalion, and the grant to railroad otnpanies of altérnate sections of land npon the contemplated liues ot their roads, which when completed, will largely uiultiply the facilities lor reaching our jistant possessions. This policy has received its most sigaal and beneticent illustration in the re3dnt enaetment granting homesteads to ujtual settl'ers. Since the firet day of January last, the bélore mentioned quantity of one tnillion four hundred uud fifty-six thousond five hundred and lourieeu acres of land has been taken up uuder its provisions. This fact, and the atnount ot sales, furnish gratifying uvidenee ol inereasing settlement upon the public, lands. JNotwithstanding the great struggle in which the energiea oí the nation have been engaged, and which has required so large a withdrawal of our citizens from their accustomsd pursuits, I cordially concur in the recommendation oí ihe Secfetary of the Interior, suggesting a modificution of the act in favor of those engaged in ihe military and naval service of the Uuited States. I doubt not that Congress will cheerfully adopt such measures as will, without essentially changing the general features of 'the systein, securo to the greatest practicable extent its benefits to those who have left their homes in defeuce of the country in this arduous crisis. I invite your attenlion to the views oí the Se;retary as to the propriety of raising, by appropriate legislation, a revenue from the mineral lands of the United States. INDIAN AFFAIliS. The mtasures provided at your last session for the removal of certain Indian tribes have been carried into effect. Sundry treaties have been negotiated, which will in due time be submitted for tiie constitutional action of the Senate. They contain stipulations for exitin guishing the posscssory rights oí the Indiaus tn large and valuable tracts of land. It is hoped that tho eflects of these treaties will result in the establishment of permanent friendly relations with such of these tribes as have been brought into frequent and bloody col lisions with our out-lying settlemenls and emigrants. Sound policy and our imperative duty to these wards of tho Government demand our ansous and constant attention to their material wellbaing, to their progress in tho urts of civilization, and above all to that moral training which, under the bleesings of Divine Providence, will confer upon thein thè elevated and sanctifving in(iuence, the hopes and consolations, of the Christian faith. 1 suggested in ncy last annual mossasre the propriety ot remodeling our Indian system. Subseqent eventshave satisfled me i Le necessity. The details set forth in the report ot the Secretary will ovince the urgent need lor immediate legislative action. TUK D1STI11CT OF COLUMBIA. I cominead the benevolence of the instilutions establiehed or patronized by the Government in this Distiict to your generous and fostering care. TUE CHICAGO SH1P CANAL. The attention of Gongress during the last session was engaged, to somo extent, with a proposition lor enlarging the water Communications between the Mississippi river and the northeastern seaboaid, which, however, fuiled at the time. Sinco then, upon a cali oí the greatest respectability, a convention has been called at Chicago upon the same subject, a summary of whose views ia contuinod in a memorial addressed to the President and Congress, and which I now have the honor to lay before you. That this interest is one which ere long wil! force its own way I do not entertain a doubt, while it is submitted entirely to your wisdom as to what can be dono now. Au2;ment ed interest is given to this subjuct by the actual commencement ol wopfe upon the Pacific lïailroad1. Under ouspices so favorable to its rapid progress and completion, the enlarged nuvigntion becomes a palpable need to the great road. THE AG1UCCLTUKAL REPORT. I transmit the second annual report of the Commissioner of tho Departraunt of Agriculture, asking your attention to thiTdevelopments in that vital interest of a nation. PUOGRESS OF TUK WAR. When Oongress nssombled a year ago, the war bas already bsitod ndarly .Wenty months, and there had been nany conflicto on both land and sea, with varyiug resul ts. The rebellioa iail been pressed back into reduced imits, yet the tone of public feeling jnd opinión, at home and abroad, was lot satisfaetory. With other signs, the Dopular elections, then just passed, inlicated uneasiness among ourselveB ; vhile auiid much that was cold and Tienaciug the kindest worda coming 'roni Europe were uttered in accentsof )itj', that we were too blind to surrenJer a hnpeless. cause. Our commerce Kaa suffuring greatly by a few armed essels, built upon and furnished from hores, and we were threatened with uch additions from the same quarter is would sweep our trade from sea, uid raise our blocknde. Wo bad failsd to elieit frora European Governnents anything hopeful on this subject. TÏIE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATIÖN. The preliminary emancipation proclanation, which was issued in September, vas ruDuing its assigned period to the seginning of the new year. Á month ater the final proclamation came, incluling tho auuouncement that colored men f suitable condition would be received nto the war service. The polioy of eraancipation, and of ímploying black soldiers, gave to the 'uture a new aspect, about which hops ind fsar and doubt contended in uncer;ain conflict. According to our politieal system, aa ï matter of civil administration, the General Government had no lawful pow3r to eifeet emancipation in any State, and for a long time it had been hoped that the rcbellion could be suppressed without resorting to it aa a military measure. It was all the while deenjed possible that the necessity for it might come, and that if it sbould, the crisis of the contest would then be presented. It came, and, as was portended, it was followed by dark and doubtful days. Eleven months having now passed, w are .permitted to take another review. The rebel borders are pressed still further back, and by the complete opening of the Mississippi river the country dominated by the rebellion ia divided into distant parts, with no practical coramuDication between them. Tennessce and Arkansas have been substantially cleared of insurgent control and influence, and the citizens in each, owners of slaves and advocates of' slavery at the beginning of the rebellion, noiv declare openly for emaneipation in their respective States. Of those States not ineluded in the emancipation proelamatiou, Maryland and Missouri - neither of which, three yeais ago, would tolérate any restraint upon the extensión of slavery into new Territories - only dispute now as to the best mode of removiug it within their own limits. Of those who were slaves at the beginning of the rebellion, full one hundred thousand are now in the United States milittiry service - about onehálf of whieh uumber actually bear arns in the ranks - tlius giving the doublé advantage of taking so much labor from tle insurgent cause and supplyhig tho places which otherwise must be filled with so niany white men. So far as tested, it is difficult to say that they are not as good soldiers as any. No servüe insurrection or tendency to violence or cruelty lias marked the measurea of emaucipation and arming the blacks. - These measures have been much discusssed in foreign countries, and cotempoiary with such discussion the tone of publio sentiment there is much improved. At home the same measures have been fully discussed, supportcd, criticised, and denouneed, and the annual elections following are highly oncouraging to those wbose official duty it is to bear the oountry through this great trial. Thus wn have the new reckoning.- The crisis which threatened to divide the friends of the Union is past. RECONSTRDCTION. Looking now to the present and future, and with reference to a resumption of the national authority within the States wherein that authority has bren suspended, I have thought íit to iasue a proolamation, a copy of which is herowith transtnitted. On examination of this proclamation it will appear, as is believe, that uothing is attempted beyond what is amply justified by the Constitution. Trus, the form of an oath is given, but no man is coerced to take it. A man is only promised a pardon ia ca3e he voluntarily takes the oath. The ConstitutLon authonzes tho Executive to grant or withhold the pardon at hia own absolute discretion, Bed this includos the power to grant on -uch terms asi fully established by judicial and other authorities. It is also pfoffered that if " in any of the States nanied, a State Government shall be in the mode prescribid set up, such government shall be reuognized :ind guaranteed by the United States, and th:it uuder it the Statu shall, on the constitiuional conditious, bo protected against invasión and dornestio violence." The constitucional obligation of the United Stutes to guaranteo to every State in tho Union a rcpublican form of government, and to protcet the State in the cases stated, is explicit and full. - . ]3ut why tender the benefits of thifl provisión only to a State GovernmenVset up in this particular way ? Thissaotioa of tho Constitution contomplatC3 n oaso wherein the element within a State favorable to a republican forra of governmont iu tho Union mny be too fecble for aa oppnsite and hostilo element, external to and even wi'.hin the State; and such ara precisely tho cases Vii:h which wo aro now dealing. An aUompt to guarantoe and protect a revived Sttito government, constructcd in wholo or in preponderating part from the vory element againet wbose hostility atnj .vleiend ft is to b.y tWrttmod, U Biinplj absurd. Thero muil be ft tost by wliich tn separate tbc oppa ing ulemeim. so as to tmild only (rom lili sound ; and lliat test ís a sufiióiently liberal one whio'i aceepts as sound wliacvur wili mako a sworn recantatimi of ais former unsouhdnoss.But if it be proper to feqaifo áTn test of admission to the poü;ial boáy frn oath of alWiance to tho Constituí ion of tuo tjiiilej States, and to tho Union und r it, why not nlso to tho fawsnd pro olaraations ui rt&ivé to .slnvery ? Thosc la8 ad proclamationg wero enaeted and putforth for tho purpose of aiaing in tho uppression of the rebelión. To givo thoiu Iheir fuüest effect., tliere had to be a pledge for their m liivtenance. In my judgment they hava aidod, and will fur tiier aid, the cause for which thoy wero vnlistcd. ïo givo up this principie would bc rtot only to relinq.iiah a lever of power, but would also be a cruul and astoundinobreauh of fnith. I suft add, at this poini that while I reinain in iny present positien I shall uct aïtempt to retreat, or modify tlvn en:hr.L-ipation proelamation. Nor shali f return tu slaverv any person who is freo y the terms of the proclaniation or by any aec of Congress. For these and other reasons, it ia thought best that the support of thrsc raeasures shalJ bo hcluded in the oath and it is beiieved tho Executivo may lawrfully ciahn it in rtturu for pardon and res-toration of forfeited rights which be bus a olear coristitutionaf power to Wïihhold altogether, or grant uj.on tho termi which ho sliall deeta wisest for the public u teres t. Itshould bo observed, also, that this part of thó oath is subject to the modifying and abrogiting powor of legislativo ud Rupreme judioial decisión. _ The proposcd ftcquiesoenoe of tho National Ksecutive in any reasonablo temporary State arrangement for the freed people is made with the view of possiblv laodifj'ing tho confusión and destitutioñ ■ which must, at best, attend all classes by a total revolutioa of labor thre-aghout whole States. It is hoped ttet the already deeply afflictcd poople ia those btates majr bo soiaewhat asore ready to giv ap the causo of their afflietion, if, tetéis extent, this vital matter be left to themselves, whilo no power of tho National Ëxecutive to prevent an abuso is abridged by the proposition. The suggestion in the proclarnation, as to raamtainmg the political framework of the States on what was called reconBtruction, is made in the hope that it mav do good, without tho danger of harm.- It will save labor and avoid great confusión. But why any proelamation now npon the subject ? This question is beset by the conflioting views that the step might be delayed too long or be taken too soon. In some States the elements of resumption seem rcaay for action, but remain inactive, apparently, for want of n rallymg point- a plan of aetion. Why shüll A adopt tho plan of 13 ratlier than B that of A ? and if A and B should agree, how can they kuow but that the Genera! Government here will reject their plan ? By tho proelamation a plan is presented whieh may be accepted by them as a rallying-point, and which, they are assured in advance, will not be rejected hero. This may bring them to act souner than they otherwise would. The objection to a premature presentation of a plan by the National Excautivo consista in the dangcr of eommittals on poiuts which could be more safely loft to further developments. Caro has been taken to so shapo the document as to aroid euibarrassmcnt irom this source. - In sayiug that ou certain terms certain classes will be pardoned, witli their rights restored, it is not said tbat other classes on other terms wili never be included. In saying that a reconstruction will be aecepted if preseoted in a specified way, it is not said that it will never be accepted in any other way. The movemeuts, by State action, for cmapcipatioii, in severa! of tho States not included in the emaneipation proelamation, aro matters of profound gratulation ; and while I do not repeat in detail what I have heretofore so carnestly urged upon this subject, my general 'views and feelings remain unchanged, and I trust that Oongres3 will omit no fair opportuuity of aiding theso important s'ops to the great consummaúon. RELIES ON TUK WAR POWER. In tho midst of other causes, howaver important, we must not 'ose sight of tho fact that the war powor is stilT our main reliance; to that power alone can wc look yet for a time to givo confidencc to the people in ihe contested regions that tbo insurgent power will not ïgaiu overrun them. Uutil that confidencc shall be estabhshed little can be done anywhere for wiiat is callcd reconstruction; heneo our chicfest caro must still be directed to tho army and navy, who havo thus far borne their harder part so nobly and well. And it may bo esteemed fortúnate that, in giving the gieatest efficiency to thosc indispensable arms, we do also honorably rooognize elie gallant men, from comrnaiidor lo sentim;!, who composo them, and to wliom, more than to others, tho world raust stand indebted for tho home of freedom diseuthralled, regenerated, enlarged, and perpetuated. ABRAHAM LINCOLN. Dsc. 8th, 1863. PBOCLAMATION. Wkereas, In and by the Cons.titiition of the United States it is provided that tho President shall havo power to grant reprieves and pardons ibr offences ngainst tho Uflited States", oxcept in cases of impeachmont; and, wkereas, a rebellion naar exi.sts whereby tlu loysl Stnte Govermnents of several Stalea havo, for a loner time, been subverted, and inany persons havo coramittcd and ure now guilty of treason agaiost the Unitod States; and wkereas, u-iili ref erenco to suid rsbellion and treasoq, laws have been enaeted by Congross declaring forfeiture and confiscation of proparty and liberation oí slavee, all upon tarrns and coodiüons therein stated, and also declaring tbat tho President was thereby authorized at any time theroafter, by proelamation, to oxtond to persons who may havo partictpated ia tho existiDg rubollion in any State or part tbereof pardon and airinesty wilbsuch oxemptions, and at such tiinew and on sach condilions as he mav dom, xpadient itr tho publia welfare; ir.-i i Whcrcnn, The Cimgrcssional deolaI jration for limitod ancl conditional pori- don nccorda with vel] estubiiMicd judi■ cial oxposition of e pardoning power" and Wiiereúi, Wiili referenco to said rebellion tho President of tho Uoited .Status bus issuedsèvoral proffamations vn'th provisions in regard to tho libera lion o! shives; and Whtreas, 11 is now dosired by soTie pereons heretoforo enjraged in said rebellion to resume their allegianoe to tho United States, and to reinaugúrate ()y. al Stato Governmcnts withiii and for thuir respectivo States, Therefore, Í, Abraham Lincoln, President of thö United States, clo proolaira declaro fínd make known to alt persons ho have direct! v, r by impliciion partiüipntod in lio existing rebellioo esoept as hereinafter esoeptèd, that a full PAHd is hereby granted to them, ' and each of them, ,vith tho restoration ofallrighta of property exept as to j Biaveö, and In property cases wlien tho nghtaótthirdjjartiessbajl have intervenid; and upon the condition that every su;oh person shull tako and subscribu an oatb, and thenceforwafd keep and mantain said oatli inviolato; nnd whïch oiith shall be regisred for permanent preservatiori, and shall be oi the tenor and effect foUowihg, to wit : "I do solemnly swear, in the presenuo oiAImïghty God, that Iwill henceforth faittifully support, protect, and defend the Constftntron of the United States and the Union of the States thereunder; and that I wiü, in iko ïnanner, abido by and faithfullj support all acts of Oongresg passed durïog the existing reb!!ion with reference to slaves, so ■ long and so far as not repealed, modiI fied, or held void by Congress, or bv decisión of the Supremo Conrt; and that I will, in like manner, abide by and faithfuliy support all proclamations I f the President made duriag the exist■ ing rebellion having refcrenco to slaves, so long and so far as not modified or declared void by the decisión of the Supremo Court, so help mo God." Tho persons exceptad f rom the benefits of the forogoing provisions are all who aio, or shall havo been, civil or diplomatic offioers or agents of the socaïled Confedérate Government ; all who have left judicial stations underthe United Slates to aid the rebeilion ; all who are or shall have been military or naval officers of said Confedérate Government above tho rank of colonoi in the army or of üeutenant in Ihe navv ; all who left scats in the United States Congress to aid the rebeilion ; all whoresigned their cotnmissions in tho army or navy of the United States, and aftrvvards aided the rebellion, and all who have engaged in any way ia treating colored persons or white persons, in charge of such, ptherwise Ihaii Iawfully as prisoners of war, and which persons may be found n the United States service as soldiers, seamen, or i,i any other eapácity. And I do further, proclaim, declare, and mnko known, that wheuever in any of the States of Arkanaus, Texas, Louisana, Mississppi, Tennessee, Alabnma, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, and North Carolina, a numbor of persons not loss then one tenth in number of the vot& cast in such State at tho Presidential eleelion of the year of pur Lord 18C0, each having taken the oath atoresaid, anc! not baving since violated it, and being a quahfied voter bv the electi'.m luw of the State, existing immediately btforè tho ao-callod act ot seeession, and excluding all others, shallestablish a State Government which srhail be ropiiblican, and in no wise eontravening 6id oath, such shall be recognized as tho troé Government of the State, andJthe State shall receive therennder tho benefits of the constitutional jïrovisions which declares that the Unitexl Status shall guarantec to ovcry State in this Union a republican fonn of governmenf; and shall protect each of them against invasión, and, on npplicatiun of the Legislature, or the Executive vvhen the Legislature eannot bo convened, against domestic violencn. And I do further proalaim, declare, and mako known, tlial any provisión which inay bc adopted by such State Government, in relation to tho fiecd penple of such State, which shall reeognize and declnre thuir permanent freedom, provide for their educiition, and whioh may yot be consistent, as a temporary atrangment. witt) their presenc condition, as a laboring, landless, and hoineless cluss, will not bo objected to by tlie National Executive. And it is suggested as not improper that, in coiiKtVucting a loyal State Government in any State, the namoof the State, the boundiiry, tho subdivisions, the Constitution, and tho general codo of laws as b'ïfnre tho rebe:lion be maintained, subject only to the tnodiiications rnadtf necessary by the conditions hereiubeforo stattid, and such ether?, f any, not eontravening th'i said aonditions, and which may be deenaed expedient by those fraining the new State Governnient,. To avoid misunder.standing, it may be proper to say that this proclamation, so íarus it relates to State Governments, has no reference to the States whêrein loyal Stato Governments have all the while been rnaintüined. And for the same rcason it may be proper to furtber say that, whether members of Congress from any State shall be adinited to their seats constitutionally rosts oxclusively wiih the respective House?, and not to any extent wilh the Executivo. And still further, that this proclamation is ntended to present to tho people of the States w hartan tho national authority hr.sbeen iuspfn.ded, ana the loyal State Governments have been subverted, a mode by which the national authority and loyal Stato Government may be re-establishei! within tho eavd States, or iu any of them ; and while tho modo presented is the best the Executivo can suggest with his present impressions, it pauet not be understoocl that no other possible mode would be acceptable. Criven under rny hand at the city of Washington, the eighth day of December, A. D., ono thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the United States of America the eightyeighth. y the President : W'm H. &s.vaw, of 8:ot


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