Delivered. Jiily 4th. 18C4, at the Pic-Nic Celebration of St. Thomas' Churcli, Auu Ar. ber, and publi.shed by requcst of the members of that Society. Eighty-eight years ago this day, our fathers, in solemn council aBsemblcd, acquiescing in a necessity whieh had become iinperalive, aiid appealing to ihe Supreme Judgo of the Universe fnr the rootituclc of their íntentions, declarei the Confederated Coionies of America freo and independent; free frorn the tyranuioal misrule of a foreign paténtate; free froin the corroding fetters of usurpatioa, odious laws and unjust exaetious. Conscious of the magnitude of their underlaking; perceiving llie inany and formidable diffioultits to be eiicountered ere they could liope for the establishment oí' the liberty they eoveted ; calculating the chancera againat thoin in the iiery conflict which must iucvitably ensue fioni the s ep they were about to takc, and weighing woll the immense cost of success if finully attained, we may well suppose that the héroes of the eou gre88 of '70 entered upon the discharge of the duty wliii'h a wise Providence had impused upon theni, with no little trepidation and misgiving. Yet, rtlying upon the justice of their cause and the potency ot the truths they uttered, after weeks of culin, yet earnet diseussion. and a uight of unceasiugdeliberution and labor, they firmly and uuhesitatingly 8evered the connectiou whioh had long rendered thein the abjeet subjects of' de.spotio power, aud boldly declared to Great Britain aud the world that the United Colouies were, and should be, from that timo forth, " free and independent States," that, assuming au equa) station atuoug the Nations of the Earth, they shoulil tbeuce forth " contract alli anees, establisl comnierce," próvido their own sovereigus aid enact their own laws; that the right of niau to govern hiraself was no" wild or fanatical chimera, but a truth for the maintenaneii of which they sledged their lives, their fortunes and ;heir sacred lionor. To coniincLeorate that of ent, the greatest, the grandest, the most mouientous in the politieal annals of the world, we are assembled to-day. Uut with the joy and congratularon which the occasion inspires, there is mingled the depresskg consciousnesB of portending evil ; amid he sounds oí rejoicing aro heard ihe discorilant notes of eivil stnfe ; the jrigtt sun of liberty is o'creast wilh the grim cloud of war; and while we would 'ain rejoice in the secure possession of .he transcendent biesaings wbieh wo have een wout to recoguize as the glorious jroduot of the day we celébrate, our oys are shaded, our hopes obscured and our pride humbled by the refleelion that those very blessings aro menaced WJtè destruction. The rebellion which we aave all oagerly hoped, would long ere this have been signaily suppressed, stili iresents a threatening aud formidable Vont; strengthentd and invigorated at all iis points and encouraged by a fuecess at once strunge and unantieipated, it is slill confident and defiant; titietching its swollen and hideous braak over six fair states, it hopefully disputes the possession of five others, and with its huge head resting npon the ramparts oí' Petersburg, breathes defiauce to the governiuent, and threateus the dostruction of our armies. ïhis is the fourlh anniversary of inde pendeuce since the outbreak of the re belliou, yet we assemble to-day amid runjors of battles nid visions of blond: at this very moment imineuse aruiies of our fellow citizens', numbered on either side bv hundreds of thousands confrout each other in battle array, madly eager for the horrid work of fnitricidal slauuh ter. The appalling list of killed and wounded, the seared fields of the South, their broken thorougbfares and ruined towns, and the crowded hospilals, the expanding cemeterieá and the darkened lii'arth etonesof the North, but too fearfully aud mournfully altet how fierce and rêlentless has thus far been the con flict. From the Ilapidan to Petersburg, as from Chattanooga to Atlanta, is presented or.e unbroken scehe of blaekened ruin and uuohristiau eepulcher, and yet tJie revolting wolk of devastation und death goeson; othcr armies are ueeded to complete it, and thousands of our fellow citizens aro bemg hurried from their peaceful homes to swell the list of com batants, while the material resources of the cnuntry, already depleted and hy potbecati-d to an alariuiug extent, tre threatoned with slill heavier burdens. m Under tueh oircumstances it would eem that the observances usual to thH occasion ; the demonstra! ions of joy and exullation, and the exliibitious of pomp aud parade with whici) we havo buen wont to grert it, would be ill timed aud inappropriate; it would indeed seem that all that is oow left to us is to iinpurt in sorrowful aceents our mutual condolence; and 'baOgiag our barps upou tl:e willow' as did the Hebrews w exile, awuit in sad and apprehensive silencc tho manifestation of Divine will. But I am not hore to counsel despair or suggest dishouor able peace. Peace with its inestimable blessings and heaveuly amenities is indeed a consuinniatiou devoutly to bc wished. Peace, honorable, completa and enduring peace is the longing aspirut.on of evury patriot heart. While uch is, in all siucerity and earnestncfB, my prayer, I have no syinpathy with those who would sucrifice the future security and prospority of the nat ion upon the uurighteous altar of thrift and ease, who, preferriug temporary iminiiniiy from the burdens and hardBhips of war, would purchase an evanrgcent and futile peaco at the cost of National integrity and honor. Thorougbly convinced that do enduring peace can be attained except through the complete and permanent j egtebliibejeBt o: tfce üc:od. eed., Mürnri ! ing wliiit must have long sinco been appareut to iiü, that the duy of reconciliation i p;tssed. and that notbing can be hoped froni paoific overtures or amicable conference, ( can sec no reoourse left us but ti fight, no alternativo but to urge on the war with reuewed and increased energy until we shall have at least rendered pence posible, by demonfetrating the indissoiubility of the Union and viudicating sigoally and triumphant ly the national dignily, authority, and power It wou'd seem almost supevfluo'is to state a propo.ition so Learly sel'-evident as the one just indicated,lh;tt therestotation of the Union is theonly practicable way to peace Tliose who persuade tliemselves that peace 'would be possible be tween tho severed, discordant, and euibitterod fragmenta of the Union, are guilty of a self deceptiou that can claim neither justificatiou nor excuse; they sin agniust the most glariuff light and the most eonvincing reason To niy iaind it is clüarly apparent that Union complete and unqualiliud is a conditiou precedent and indispensable to reliable and enduring peace. The natural couformation of our territory ; the great diversity and peculiar distribuí ion of its weahh and resources ; the extraordinary number and extent of its chaunels of commercial and social intercuurse; the common orin, history, character, habits, and aspirations cf our people; in sliort, all natural and adventitous causes and consideratiuns, wheiher physicul, social, coin mercial or political, conspire to reuder us ne Nation, a singlo people, with une country, oue goverument, and oue destiny. It is nevertheless supposed, or at least asserted, by sorne whoso opinions have hithert been entitled to respect, that a división of tho country might non' be agreed upon, and that the two cominuuities resultiiig from such división might, under the restraint of treaties and upon principies of public law, live together in peace, prosperity, and happiness. ïhis assertion so far as it involves the efficiency of treaties was long siuce refuted oot only by the opinious and arguments of our best and wisest statesmen, among whom was Washington, who expressly and emphatically warucd us against the delusive supposition that treaties might prove an adequate substituto for Union; but by the early experiouce of the country with the urticles of confederation, whicb, although possessing a somewhat highcr Bauotity tlian ordinary treaty stipulatious, signally lailed to secure ihal tranquility aud prosperity, which h:ive since been experienced uuder tho constitution, forming as its prcamblcs coutemplatedj a more perfect Uiüon, But the refleetion that the two com munities, as the división ia now autieipated or proposed, must neocssarily exiït, if at all, side by side, with au almost liinitk-ss boundiry fortified by no natural barrier, aud designated by animaginary line ; nierely with the sourees' of the Mississippi, the most important commercial oh au nel on eartli, in the posseasion of one and its outlet controlled by the other; with interests diverse aud conflioting ; with institutions naturally odious and offonsive; with uurestrieted trade on the oue side and home iudustry demanding protection on the other; with one 83'stem of labor South and unother North ; with natural jealousiea and animosities incessantly hightened and ntensified on either side by tbc remeuibrance of a war, wuicli, wbile it proved the superiority of neithor, demonstiatcd the ferocity inhumanity and bad faith of both ; the reflaction I say, or fact, that sucli must uecessarily be the condition of the two communities, is of itself sufficient, independent of all other consideration8, to demónstrate the utter absurdity of the snpposition or assertion that, peace would or could by possibility under auy conceivable restraint of treaty obligat 011 follow disunion. Indeed, to suppose that two nations thus circumstauced could live together otherwise tlian 11 the mo6t fierce, constant, and unrulcnling war, is to euppose what common seuse, reason, and all we know of man, declare to be wholly impossible. So far Uien from producing peace, separation would deferit indefiuitely and greatly intousify the war. Nor would the evil stop here, tuis would indeed bo but the comnienceinent of evil. Compromiso upon auy teitnsof a paration, however fair and honorable, to use an expreseion popular among peace men, would concede the right of sacessiou, woul 1 establish a precedent for segregation, aud authorize the people of auy sectiou of the country however small aud uuimportant, to abeolve themsel"es at wili from tho government, and to erect iu its etead a uew government of such cliiiractcr and foim, wliether liepublican or mo.iarchial as might bust suit them, and the inevitable elfect cf th s woald be to destroy at oucc the mora) (orce aud Banetity of coustiiutioual law, und ultimateij swecp from tho continent every vestige of free goverument. Secessiou once conceded and segregation once commeuced it would requiieuo txtraordinary prescience to forctell tbe result. Desiguiug men, bold intiiguing demagogues, like the arch leaders of the rcbellïou disuppointed in their hopes of political advaucement, would spring up everywhere, both North and South, aud seeking their owu aggraudizement at whatever cost to the country, would incite jealousies, stir up discontent, produce f'urther secession, aud detach other torritory in whioli to gratify tbeir mad ambition for plaoo and power. And thus the work of d8Íní.egrtiw,i and destruotion would go on, until this once great and gloriou3 Union qí KepubLean States, ehattered aud ruined, would be resolved iuto a dozen oc more iueignificant Ishmaelitish deLpotisiB8, each full of the most intense ealousy and hatred of all ihe otherf, j and waging eacb aaÏBSt the otbor, thé most fieree relentless and destructivo war. But even in this greatest of all conceivablo calamitiea which might affliot our country, we would not neccss:irily bo wholly without hope War like all things elao is g-ovenied by fixed and inexorable laws; its resulta are natural and therefore unavoidable, and when tbc petty governments should, in its unrestrained exeroise, boooine exhausted, if uot bofore, we might coufideutlv anticipóte reunión. Separation could not be permanent nor of long coutinuanee.- - Material interest demon.trated and etiforeed b y experience o f the evils of separation, wou'.d in Iítih re-unite and bind us together in bonds (if increased tenaoity and power. This in my humble judgment would be inevitable. As already remnrked, every cousideration of iuterest and happiness, whether commercial political or social, is against separation. Union is indeed the inmutable fi;it of nature, and no ffort to evade it can long succeed. Whut God has joined together no power on enrth eau radically sunder. Heneo, whatever may be the result of this unhappy war, however dark and portentnua may seum the clouds that euviron us, we may rest in the absolute cprlainty, the fixed and steadfast assurance of future Union, and herein is consolation, hope and iuspiraiíod, for in Union, come when it may, to day, next week or a decade henee, there is domestic peaoe, prosperity, anJ happiness, and UMtional security, progresa, ard glory. I repeat, separation could not be permanent, nor reunión very long deferred. We may break up the Uuion, but the dissevered fragmeuts, true to the laws of attraction and aggregaticn would in time re-unite, and could I persuade myself that upon consenting to separation, it would be possiblc to avoid the ealamities of general dNsolution and inteosified and protracted war, of which 1 have spoken. I would not hesitate to declare as my solemn couvictiou although at therisk of being denouuced asa"Copperhead" that it would be advisable, that it would in trutb, be eminently just, human, and politie to " let our erring sinters depart in peace," until they should, upon the huks of repentance, learn the va'ue of the Uuion, and be forced to seek under the aegis of the constitution ihat security, peace, and prosperity, which they would most sigually fail to fiud elsewhtre. Although there is over much iu the war to deplore; although, indeed, we stand aghast at the ruin and devastation it luis already wrought, and await iu treiubling apprehension its future woes, I see o rcuson why we should abaudon ourselves to despair. As in the physical realm no marked or radical advances have ever been made except through some extraordinary and protracted effort, or some fearfully grand and powerful convulsión of nature, eo politically and socially all the great events inarkiug the unnals of the world, whoreby the condition of mankind has been greatly advanced or permanently improved, havo been the result of extraordinary processes of disruption, toil, and pain. And the thoughtful observur, ie who haL by careful atteution to the facts and teachiugs of history leanied to trace events to their causes, is hopofully and therefore, so far happily enabled to lecognize in the disrnptions of the war ; in the universat breaking up of industrial, financial and sociitl order ; the switt recurring revolution of seniimeut and purpose; the sundering of afïcctional ties; the wild jealousies and fiorce animosities; "the torrent of passion and the flow of blood," which it lias produoed and engecdered, the measure by which an omuiscient God is evolving the regenerated futuro, the perfocted ultímate of a great Empire. In the tenors which surround and threalen to overwhelm us, he soes naught but b righteous discipline indispensable to our redemption from ovil aud error. It is ouo of uatures iuexorable decrees that man should labor to be blessed, that he should learn of experience, trial, and suffering to be "wiser and better." And the disrupting, crushing, iind fusmg processes are not inore indispensable to the success of him who seeks of ea. th her mineral wealth, than are the fieice and fiery processes of war to thu glorious achievements and beautous aiceuities of peace. War is but a rightous ordeal. a part of that 'wonderful ana fearful" yct uecessary "process" by which mankind aro progrepsed and devolopcd to ''a higlicr and a better lift." The history of the old world is replete with facts Huggestive of this philosopliy. And in tha tunáis of our o.wn times, and of our ovn hemisphere, are to bc found the most inarkccU and couviucing demonstrations of its truth. It will at once be admittod by the rofiectiug of history that the scone of' the inott iruirked n-.hieveinents of mankind, whelher in the direction of material development, intelleotiial, mora! und religioua culture, or politiuul and sooiul advancuiüent, huve ever been the theutro of the most severa and pntracti'd triule and st;fferins, and the avena of the most fierco and exhaustnr wars; and wherever the latter huve been absent or of but little mo inent, there hat been n corresponding íibscnoo or abaternent of progress and uchieveniunt. Irj püssiiiur, we will briefly notice ns strikiiigly iliustriitive of this proposition and is peouliarly fuggestive ol hope in this oui' day of deHpondonoy and gloom, uurly history of our own country. It wiis the triumph of the fiithers ol ibis Republio u ettiibli.-h indepeudunic; il wns their glory to inaugúrate a new era in the political und religiou history of the worid ; and to give birth to a new nation endowed with principies and capaoitie of governmont udeqnnte tö the tftsWisbcieDt acd maicteDacöa of n perfect mensure oí' civil and religions liberly. But thirt wii? only attained tbroiigh the agonizinj; throes ('f the rsvolution, bv se ven long ytjara of fiei'Ct) and relout lees war, maiutaired at the coi-t of ittdívidtisl fortuno und universal privution, smid toil and suffe' ing, wanl iind woe; attuinud ouly through caruage an blood, "Amid flame and smoko, And shuul, and groan, and sabré stroko. And daath shots lalling thick and last." JNor was thin all, independence witli its joys and bhfssings was not so oheaply purchased, it dernanded and received a Inr greater pi ico Ir.dependenco viewed in the Üght of a just histury was ihe recompense not merely of the war ol the revolnlion, but of a r.umber of ware; it was the coetly product not merely of a singlo Htrugglu. bnt of bd ahnost ind'efinjte seriea of struggles. A prepara! ion divinely ponc.t'ived exteuding throiigh uearly toefcuturiesof time, and inarkd by a 'iegree of toil and sufloring, saoriüce and sorrow, eeklom, if ever, pnralleled in the hisvory of mankind, educa'ted and öt ted thü American Gokratst" for the great drama which it was their deftiny to ennct. By a proceso of disuiplining trials, involving ufflietion and wunt, banishment and oppreasioo, alternations of peaee and war, reverses and victories, prosperity and adversity, hope aud despondeney, they were wisely and righteously yot painfullv adapted to tho i great issue imposed upon them, and rendered adequate to its responsibilities. By it they possessed that . liood, eirength of will, and power of endurance which a resolute aiiccstry alone could iropart, ar.d without which ( tliey never oould have Bucccsífally fought the battles of freedom. By it t h e v were inured to hurdships and toil , accustomed to Ihe.sucrifiees and miseries of war and taught tho value o' in dependenco and liberty. T-ike the ancient IsraelitcH they were eubjecled to protrauted and painful discipline, and carne tip to the possession of the ' ised land through niuch suñering and tiibnlati(Mi. The effect of tl.is long train of disei plining processes did uot cease witli the establishuicüt of udepeudei:co and peacc; its effeots have been geen in the glories of this Republic, iu its unexampled progres8 to wealth and power, and are to be seen to day in the stability, fortitude and enterpriso of the American pcople, in their arden love of liberty and justice, and their uncompromising hatred of op prea.-ion aud wrong. These trials, these liardships and afflictions, prepared the American people not cnly for the achievernent of liberty but for its rational eujoyaieut, not only for the colonization of the new world, but for the rapid aud successful development of its immense resources, and for the signal, aud as we yet hope, permanent establishment of its cousequtince and power. Ünlike the colonies of other titnes and other locauties, their destiny was to advanca the great interests of mankind, to evolve new principios of goveruineat, estublish i uew order of pojiticaj ethica, to givc birth and vigoroug life to a great nation, and become the light and examplars of the world. üroeee iu tho plenitude of hor power and pride sent forth her myriads of colonies; her overweening auibitiou plauteJ theiri in Ionia, in África and in india, upon the shores of tho Medi'er ranean, at the uiouth of the Nile, aud upon the banks of the Iudus; but their history wasreplele witli iiupotence, misfortune aud fuiluro. Rome, too, had her colonies, but they worc feeble dependencries; and, uotwitlistandivig the cons'ant solicitude and fostering care of their powerful protector, dwiudled into iusig nificance, aud most ingloiiousiy f;i iled to justifv her ambi'ious dream of universal Empire. Aud so, too, in modern times, eontemporane.iusly with the coloniztion of Virginia rd New Bnglar.d, Spain had her colonies, Portugal had hers, aud France hers. Uut they were never a eource of oither proíit or honor to their founders; they have niarked the annals of tbc world wi'.h no great achievenietits, aud conferred no enduiing bcneüts upon mankind, it eemed to be reserved to the Anglo-Saxon colonies to set the fti.-U example of stabüity, to exhibit to the world the first iustance of colonial perseverauca and success aud above all, to be the first to vindicuto tho riglit, aud demónstrate the abijity . of ïuaü to govern himself. It is ti'.úe, there have been Republics or quasi Kepublics in all ages of the world; but the eKperhnent of self-govcrument, the test of ltepubheau liuerty, was never to any maiked or even appitoiable extent, really, faiilv and sucjcssfully tried until cssayed by the people of the United States, tireeee chiimed to be republican,but she as soin fonn only ; her bonsted asaemblies of the peoplo, although nomiually coostituling the legislativa power, liad but little to do iu the enactment of laws or in directing aud controlüng tho aöairs of Slate: the Sonate, coiupoged of tho high bnrn and ; wealthy, first considercd all propositions intended for the people, and nothing hnwevei' uniu.portaüt or ti vial wns sub Kjitted to tin; llepublican assembli , until it was first approved by tho infalli blo Señalo of five hundred. Homo was nomitially republicau for noarly five ceuturiea, but her peo)le enjoyed less of iiberty duriug the wholo of that long period than they did, either under the oppressive tyranny of her kings, or the absolute power of her Euiperors. ïho atmor-phero of the old world lias never been congenial to liberty. She refused to be charmcd by the leirning, ' the rc8uotneut, the poetry aud luxury of Gn'ece; and turnee! a deaf car and an unciiptivated eye to t)ia a)lureuient and glories of Rome. Sbe sat not down amid the grandeur and digpity of the i Aoropolis, and tarried not ami,d the sci eptfe, tbe civilgitioD apJ impoeipg pomp of tlie Eternal City. In modern times Switzerlaud has wooed with ardor and truth but nut qu.to won her; while to France, admiriug and longing Frnnce, bLo hag ever proven too coy u dame to be taken by sunny ïmilcs aud polile blandi.sliiiient.-i. Jjike the taotaliah fruit of the Grcecian myth, she lias even been iuviiingly aud bewilderingly uoar, but never fully grasped. I have veiitured upon this teemine digreissiun, for a two-fold purpose. First, in ÜluBtruilOD of the proposition that Nations, like individuals, are educated and progressed to strengili and grealuess ovy tlirougli tlie most tryiug and protracted ordeals, aud that as au iufallible rule, the progress atid triumplis of a peoplo ai e strictly commonsurate with their trials. And, secoudly, to show vrhat will be aecepted b every candid liearer, that in the history of our country, froni the earliest period to the present, there is discernible, if not the direct and special interposition of Providence, evi deiice of the exercise 10 an extruordinary extpnt of tlie wisdom, beneficence and power of the Almighty God ; that if we havs not indeed been a ehosen people, we have been and still are a peculiar people; peculiar in our origin, peculiar iu the divtirsity and extent of' our experince, peculiar in our ohujarctsr and adaptations, and wonderfully and hopefully peculiar ia our manifest destinj. The annals of the world record no instanee of National growth which can at all compare with that of the United States. Emerging withiu less than threefourths of a century, from cotnparative weaknees and obscurity, she has gone on couque-ring every resistanee and over coming every obstruotion ij the way of her developuient and progross.until she h,,sbe come, in all the attributes of true greatüess, the foreniost Empire of Eui'th ; hilo ia the morniug of her career, the acknowledged cdossus of Niitions, the wonder aud admiratiou of the world. Youug América, indoinitable in will nnd purposes, dt.spirited by no obstaeles, however formidable, and awed by no difBculties however gigautic, bas pressed on the march of Empire, from the ahores of the Atlantic, over the Alleghauies, through the valley of the Mississippi, and still on over and beyond tha Koeky Mountains, until the linos of her enterprise, civilizLition and power, rest upoir tlie waters of the Pacific. By tbis iliustrious progress; by the unexampled incroase of her popuUtion, the wondtrful developuicnt ol her ciaterial recourees, and the energy, intelligenco, virtue and happincss of tier people, she has deraonstrated the potency and beiieficence of free institutions, and thereby become, alike, the exemjilar and hope of the op pressed of other niitions, and the cotifusiou and terror of monarchists and des pots throughout the world. Yot, with all this progress, these unpurallelud aciiivemcnts, and these glorious triumpiis, we have accomplished uot a titlie of our possible dt'8tiny ; but little inoro than a bt!ginuiiir li'is boen mado iu uafold'.ng our niig+ity resuroes aud vast capacities ; we have scarcely attaiued to no more than the iufancy of our growtli, we have but barely roached tlie vestibule of our greatoed. The perfjot p urpnses of the Almighty with ibis people and this coun try are uot yet aecomplished ; the history of the past; thu disruptious, terrors aud iffl.clioijs' of the present, and the absolute uuqualified uecessitii's of the future, all unite to conjirm us iu this conclusión. The Americrtn continent is too fresh and young: aüd hos discharged tqo few of its manifest obligaüons to itself and the world, to comineiice so suon by ïnany centuries the march of retrogression. Once dcctroy this Eepubiic, blot out the Iiistory of her progresa, pro-perity, and happiness, lot her grand experiiaent of ooiiítitutional government rail, let diuu ion and anarchy suceeéd to union aud good order, aud there will be an end to civil liberty here and elsewhcre throughout the world, an end alike to the hope of thoso who aro stnigglmg up egainst oppression aud the fear of those who wield the iron scepter. The necesity of inonarohial government, of potyutates, of nobility of titlcs, and all the hateful paraphci ualia of dospotistn will stnd confessed, and all reason'aöto hójie for the re establishment of free government will havo deprted for ages, if not forever. Can tuin be ? If it ,can, then is the cherished idea of niiin's Divine eapacity for self elevation, deve'.opmcnl aud progress, a delusive dream; aud the history of bis struggles aud trials, bis hopes and aspirations, an impotent tiintuliziiig farce. But this can not be 1 it would falsify tho teacl'iugs of bistory, ennfound uil iust pliilosophy, and, I had almost said, impoach the integnty and prove the im potency of Almighty God. Let us uot be d'iLhcartcued then ; tbero are, to iny miiid, uiany cousiderations to justify hope. Judgiug oí the presont by the past, and the future by its manifest necessiiief, the anxious patriot mny purromid hiuiÈülf with the lig'it of an iiispiriuup philoHophy, nnd triisting eon!i dently to that wise nnd Omniöcietit Power, wbich nover yet haa faltered or blundoind in its support ana guidance of thj American people, be cilm ond hopel'ul amid the storm of passion and the roar of bat.tle. To hiuj who is thus fortifled and thus sustained, the issue is already solved. He appily discerní, us with t lío presuipnee of a seer, a gloríous futurp for bis country; amid the terrors whicb surrnund him he dircets his gazo aloft, and there in bright liberty's firmament, hc joyfully bcholds his country 's stars, glowing with resplendent luster, over inereasing in brilliancy is the d:irkness deepens, none ever ubsent or obscured,and allinviting and attracting still I othfers, bythe beneficence aod gUrj of their radian Tt is usual on occasions like the present, to speak in extended and exhausting detail of the material wealth and poltièal plory of tlie country, and indulge ia fiattering anticipations of tg future opuleuce aud renown. Tuus f-.r I have iudulged in sü.eh a'íusions ou)y so far os seemed necessury ior the elucidatinn of themcs, which, altbough leas grateful, our present circumstances render more appropriate to the ocasión Further in thia direetion, I ehall not ask your attention. Dismisinw the past with its suggestions of pride and hope, our businesi is with the s'ern realities of the present. Acknowledgiug t?itb profound adiniration and gratitudü the wisdom and pati iotism of our iatbers, and confessing that they performed tbeir duty weil and nobly, our care aud effurt should be to discharge ours with equal fidelity to ourselves and to pósteritjr. It was vouohsafed to them to acbiere independence, and give life and form to constitutional freedom ; it becomes our duty to preserve them. Theirs was & glorious triuinph, ours, f we sucoeed, will be equally resplendent. An eloquent aud truthful sentiment, not long Hiuce uttered upon the floor of ibe United Statts denate, by a distinguished patriot aud statesman, the Hon. O. H. Browning, of Illinois, secms so happily and admirably conceived,aud so eminently in poiut here, that I can not forbear to quute it. " if," said the Senator, " wa rise to this occasion, grapple successfully with the roomentous cvents that are upon us, save the life of the Nution, re-unite it, and re-assert ils authority, and come frota the conflict, bringing the constitution unharinud with us, perfect u ita streugth, and in the barirpjiy and majesty of its proportions, the page which bears the record of the achievementi will be gilded with a brighter glory, will glow with a purer ray tLan auy ia the annals of our race." These are indeed words of eloquence and Uuth. But the question occurs here, how are we to achieve this elupeudous triumphs ? How shall we save the Nation 'i That we will save it presently or ultimately, I have but littlo or no doubt, But how shall we do it? I do nut perrnit layself to ask what is the possible way, but whioh is Ihe most speedy and practicable way. Iu npprouchiug, with, I trust, all becoming ruodesty, this mouientous question, I take the liberty to pvemise, that iu the very brief consideration which I will be able to give it, I shall be entirely frank, plain aad straight forward ; that while it will be my eudeavor to avoid, so far as possible, exciting or offeuding partisan predilections and prejudices, Í shall state my opiuions leurlessly aud without any equivoeation or reserve, should 1 do less ; 1 shouid feel that 1 was recreant to the demauds of this occasion, and tho trust which your partiality lms reposed in me. But to Uie question; what shall we do ? My first response to this inquiry is, without the slightest Lesitution or pre varicatiou, ComprOiiiise ; cnmpromise at thu first oppor'.unity ; this is peremptorily demuuded by every coasideration of policy and humauity. But do not misuuderstaud me. I would comproruisa upou bo ignoble or futilo lerm. I would youipromise upon no basis of separation. I would yiold not an inch of Federal jurisdictiou. I would as the gum total oí cúiiotíhsi'iii on our part reiissuru to the South the gift our fathers gave them : the constitution of our common country, ind demaud on tbeir part respect for its wanotity and obcdience to ita just requirenients. To demaud moro would be superfluous, to yield more would b buih usetesB and dishonorabla, Untii adjustiiicDt can be approaclied, aud until tho South can be oonvinced of the jusiice and pulicy of just nuch a couiproraise as I havo iudicated, we must prosecute the war, as already remarked; this is the only alternativa left us. Notwithstanding there are mauy considerations rclating to tho origiu of the war, which, to say tho least, are suggestive of doubt, md inay in time demund uxplanation ; and, slthough I d uot hejitate to declare to you my solaton oon viction that it bas been to a great exteDt, either wickedly or ignurantly pervej-tud From its legitímate purpoFes, whercby it bas been greatly inteuified aiid pvotrau ted, yet I am not of thoso wbo can see uo good in it. I havo do sympathy witlj thostí, vvho, forgetful of the faat that tha war bas been forucd upon us by tho act of the South, and blind to the mnmontous issues uvolved in its proecution, regard it as uttcrly uni ightoous, and in their madand profane resilingsdenouugti it as an accursed Lincolu war, con dcjuined of God aud huiuani y. Iu my humblo judgmetit, it is neither -the ons nor the other ; ueiiher an accursed war, nor Jjiiiooln's "ar. No war can be acr eursed which is cssaycd in good fait!) f'T the maintenance of consti'utional libaFerty. No war can bo otherwise than righteous which is waged for the prestrvation of so freo, so rational, and so bencliceut a govertunent as ours If ever tiiere was a cause whioh would justify war it is thut of constitutional fVeedom ; aud if tiiere ever wus a govemmeut iu thu history of the world whosa pieservntiou would justify the most persistent protrocted aud obstinate war, that government is ours; henee, we oonfiJentIji as-iert that the w;ir,viewod in referenoe to its true purposes, merits uo curses. And with the same couüiJenou sve assert thao it is uot Linoolu's war. It belongs to no man or party of men ; it belongs of right, as the o;iu.e for whioh if. sJwuld'be waged, wholly aud absoliitely to the people: and, in my opiniou, tha time is rapidly appioachiug vvben tha people will claim their owa, and divetng it of the odious excresenoe8 with wbi'eh ignorsnco nd fana'.iöism have iabafced it, and restoring it to its naripal and rigbfcüous funstiona, wage it, if aaod I Chat(Hud o föurth ptê. C'ntinvsd fromfirst piiff. be, witli unrclenting visor and irtenaoity uittil thost; in anus sgainst thogöveniment s-lnll he perwded thal peone' tccuniy, and prnsptrüy wnder thq constilution, ire prefeiuble to rtbellwn and disunion And if tho war must be oontjnued, if future oventw shall furiher pcwfpone the possiiiility of adjiiBtiBtnt, or il I shníl he ancer_ttiíned lliut tliu dny of grac in thlB respect h;is been wholly eiüried nwav, it nhould be prqseonted with vastly increaced wisdom uid vigor. The [xyWor ( tlit; rebels is really infignificaot cotiipared iiii thnt which inight bo nrrnyed against t licrn. An anny of siiiBciant nnigiriiudi to overwhelm and crush Iheiti ignülly and efl'oclually nhcresoévertbcy may discloso th(Mii?elvcs iu force, pIiduKI at once be laiscc! and liurled kgainst tlu'm siii)ult;itieoiir-Iy ut all points. Economy jirompts Ihis, ;nd honvttnity domiiiids it Item not bc 8aid thiit it is iinpractioable; notwithstiinding Ihci vast cxpumlilures of the Ihrea yc;irs uf war alréndy Busiained, our raquis yet initduclied, 'jolh f men and moncy, are iimple nnd vvould bo iorthcoininj; tipon prtiper ppliüutifm, fj'3t the gOyeritment unsert and u;?:ie a pnlioy sfricth' in :icu;rd;inctí wiih tho (undiiincMiUd !aiv uf is (u-guniztttton. - Lot tho admiiii.itratinn pi s.-ess i'self ol pufficiftlt moriil oouiage, fwrtitadc, wisdom nnd pn 1 1 intism, to retruca b'ildly and nobly its tnifortunate steps - ob Ijtorate the record of its tur.vise :uid extr;i const'tutional enactfirenia - eease I its arbitrary arrests- its interference with the libeit y of the pi'ess, and its parchtnentary fultninations against the looul institutions and laws oi the States, - let it, in short, [!;.:. t i'se'f firnily and mmovably np n tne costitu'i"nal pl.itfonn of locid sovoreignty, persoon! liboMy, fiee spueoh, and Free pross; and lot It be proclairned to the pooplo tüát thfiir glorieus heritatiu of free governirent is the grand issue in tfiis gre:4t conflict, ard that they liavo a principie to vindieala and an object to fiííht i'.ir autbenticated alik" by thcif on apprOTal and that of their fathê'ra and I will venture the prediction that the firos of patriolism, now so iihirmiqgjy re nressod bv exöcutive. leoi-ftutive. and 1 ' .T" ' military misrnaniement ivill :i;ii!i row witb an effectuid rla'iie, Bnd ttia'. there will spoedily r ; 1 1 y without ího aid itf cnnscription r any of the odióos appliances of despotism, a power moro thau sufficient tu avvaken the rebcllious parri cides frorn their m;id dream of disuniou, And in thks connecüon, i further response to the niomctuous inquiry, Whither i.s ihe way ? I wou!d in mi especial unanner comrnend to the aetk'e 6ympath3r and generous support oí the people of íhis country their patriot soldiery. They Intvegone froin onr midst; tbey are our neighbors and friends, partakers with us of the saine great j teresta, governcd by the sama motives, ' and actualed by the saine hopea and aspirations. STicnficitiir ev'ery private interest, gunderiüg the t ios of ÍVitíiidship and affection, and abandoning the com forts and pieasures, the j)_vs und amen ities of horno, thev huve promptlv rallied beneath tbe insulted lulds if ottr comnioii ftajr, and are to-ilay exhatisting their .treiith nticl periling their all foi tliB (leíenuo of our co'iimon rights and the preservaron of' our coramon country. Their patri itio sacrifices ; their manty virtutw.; their g-.ulantry and heroi n, tnorit more than a paasiug notiee, f ir uioru cncoiniuin than I am üble on ihis occasion to (jerítft.Wi It is our dnty, imposed upon us alike by the oiaiirin of jnslice and tho daniauds of (j,ttroii-iíi, to htiíd tlu-m unceasingly in grateful pwr.títnbranatí, and be ever roady to atte.-t promptly and eubstantially our aj.pj-e:atiou of their patiënt and penions cft'orty in behall of the country. Let thenj noi amid the hardahips of tlio camp, the eshausting laboro of the mrch, or the owfnl perils oí the field, as ihev turn their eager thoughts toward their distant home and long fur ils jmys and comforts, feel that they nre denwd the eympathy of those for whose inimuoily they have rendered up every consideration of persons! interest ad hapjiin.-s, and for wbose welfme they are parfting theirlives: let not tiieir ardor be represssd and their hope and strength abated by any such chilling and withering refleotion; but ralner let thein be assured, und be insnired bv 'ihe ranee, that they have our undivided and unqualified eoopuralion and support ; that at home, as in the field, there is "a unión of hearts and a unión oí hands" for one greatand holy pnrpose ofsuving the country. To our loidlery, ior thé present at least, s eommitted the 8alTatioa of the natbn ; upon them alone can we reiy for pretservution ; to withhold from them, ti.on, n the slightestdegree, our eympathy and support is, to ernploy noharaherteriiis, unpatrioticand euicidal. The eoldiers oí the Union are no mercenane?, they are the unpur chased and wiliing ohampions of freedom, joint pivpnutors with 113 of a priceless horitage, and equally intorested wilh us in lts preaerVaiiori. They are of us and for us; and il we may not be of them, we should at least be foi thtm. We ov. e this under the rnowt soletnn sanction, not onlv lo them but to ourselveí, and to po.ncritv. Lastly, as a measurc indispensable to our slvatiaa, we shonld tstaud by the goveromnnt, fortify, upliold, strengtlieü and sustaiu it. 13y this proposilion Í do cot mean that tve sliould. tvitliout disorimiuation or critieism, yield a blind and uuquestioniug support to all the pro jects and measures of the admiiiistraiion. i3elioving that in thia lies one of the greateït of tho many perils that surrouud us, I would counsel far otherwise, Whüe I would discouutenanoe dl fae tious oppositiou to the acknowledged au-i thorities of the goverument, and even any captious or hjpercritieal discussion aDd coudemnatioD of their aeta and polioy, I would conjuro the people ol this Itepublic, as thoy wouid perserve from destrueUan their glorioushirth-right of ireedoin, tó watch with jtmlous care and resit vvitla the utmost tirmness the slightesl iiifraetion or inuovation of the constitution. I WOuld wam them that ' one iunovatiou, however slight, would ' but g'jrve as tho pretext for another, and ' that innoration onco comuienced will ' never cease umil that saercd iuwtruuiuut, ' the bond of Un;on md ihe pailadWuu oí ' pesee and Jïbcrty, with all it promises ' il !■■■ ■■■i ■ mu nj. - iiJiiiimii ■■II..MH j auil nll it securitio,shall liuve disapeared . lorever. And ín tbig eonnection, as pecuüurlj aud mpressivcly suggestive of the íK-oessity of vigilanco and caution in this . par day oí doubt, and trial, í would remitid them tbat our Saxon ancestors upou tbo epecious pretest of neèesMty, of mil itiii-y ncocssity, iu a tima of great public exigency, were induced to ronder up tlieir liberties upon the do1 ecase of Iheir King, and that they wcro only reoovered after more iban fivo centuries of constant, fearfu!, and costly stniL'glo. Uut in the proseeution of all coustitutioual ineasures essoyed in good faith for the suppression of the rebellion, and the rcstoration of the Union, the adiuiuistrationisentitled to our prompt, roservcd, aud unqualiSed co-oieration and support, and this vrhetber such measures acoprd with our individual concoptiona of wisdom and expediency, or noi. Individual ideas of expcdioncv in a time like this are too raried, too numerous, crude and aostable, to merit weighty cousiderntion, and abso lute defference, for the time being to the opiuionB of the constitutcd authorities of Üie government, on al] such miestions, is ■ the only measui e of safety. I would in brief then in rcferonce to all measures ( apportaining to the war, counsel unhesi! tating ready and effeeiive co-operation with tho administration, so lar as a careful coiiservauon of the constitution will permit. But as a guarantee of Union and a measure of peace, our fint and conshmt cffort should be to guard and preserve the constitution, -without which all elso were vain. And to these euds, we should be united amongst ourselvcs. - Among tho many dangers through which in these evil times we are compelled to grope our way, in doubt and darkness, not tho lenst íonnidüblo is the spirit of dissension and st.rife amongst ourselves; mutual jeakiueies, distrust, and ammosi ties have árown up in our midst, without check, until by theirmultiplicity and over ir.teusity they th reatan to órerwheïm and destroy us; theso, f we would save our country, sliould be at once and forevor suppressed aad eradicated. In tjiis rjghteous contest in bshalf of oivil and religious liberty we have no energies to waste in demoralizhig dissensions amongst ourselves. In this tremenduous and perüous conflict tor nacional ïutegnty and uational life, we have no means to spare and 110 time to spcnd in minor stri'es. Let us then for the sake of the sacred cause of constitutional freedom, tor the sake of the inillions who are struggling against oppression ia other lands, tbr the sake of the glorious memories of the past, and the transcendent possibilities of the future, for oursolves and for our posterity, become as oue people iu this grcat contesffj bound and cemented togethev by an unqualiSed Union of interest, motive, puipose aud actiou. Let us forget our differenees, bury our animosities, cast ofiF the tra mm els of party ttea and attach ments, dismiss our dovotion to party leaders, aud if need be, forepro even our party organizadora and designations. What I would aak, should we net be willing to do, tj save our country. What oitght we not do, withiu the. eonstitution, for so sacred, so righteous a purpose ? What are the vauuted opinior.s, the pettv interests and vain aggrandwenients of individuáis or parttes, that they should bo preferred to the illust-ious principies and the overwhelmingnational interest glory and renown, involved and imperiled in this inomentmis conflict. Before the great issue of national life, all other is sues, all other oonsideratious, whother of personal or party interest, are dwarfed into insignificance, and merit if not our eontempt, neither attention nor thought. But I ara adm;)L'i,slii.'d that I aiu excaed i lig thu limits appropria o and usua! to íin ddress like this, and will ton to a conclusión. A few briaf aud hurried rernarks and I wil1 be dono. To us as a people hs been confided the richest bona e'ër vouohsafed to man on earth, By its efficacy aud polier we have become the most prospemus, the most happy, aud thu most adinired Na lion on the globe. Posseasiriga governinent, defíned by a coustitutiouso perfect that an experienee of morv? thaij threefourths of a eentury liaa fsfled to show where or how a single letter, word or ' syllable could be either added or subtrac ted without marring ita symmetrv and complétenos ; anl securiug to aii the ! most perfect freedom aud th e amplest protectiou and ata cost so light that ït was scarcely feit; witli well developod agricultural and nmiufacturing onpucities; with aljnost exhauslless resom-ees of native wealth; with a rapidiy incroasiug, intelligotit, and industrious populatiou ; with a gi;mt coniii:cree, model inetitutians of learning, and ari untrammelod and prolifie press, tiic poople of the United Slates, were, indeed, happy, prosperous, and renowned. Have they fbrever coased to be prospercus :md renowned ? Such is the momento'js mjtiiry addressed to the American pcople; and lliis iuquiry wiilperwit neither evasión, nor po.tponeuicut,it mustbe ansvvered uncquivoeully, aud now. No contest on eart!i ever involvod 80 much of interest to us and tha world, as does this. Every thing of temporal value to us and to our posterity is staked upon tho issue. Wo iiave every tliing to inspire us, the memories of the past, the valuu of the present, and the hope of the future. Lut un arise theo to a full realiiatiou of the exigenoies of the hour; and, as wc reveré tho naines of our forefathers, and cherish tho memory of their selfsaeriiicing aud heroiu deeds; as we love liberly and our own hüppiness; as we love our children and venérate our God let usmost Bolenmly rcsolv-e to discharge, in this trying ordeal, faithfully aud unswervingly, and su lar us pussible, wiáely, owduty as Americun freemen, holding the guardianship of tho liberties and destiny of our country. Let us tnake a new covenaut with trutli, jus!iee,fra:eniity and patriotism, and upon the s.icrod altar of tho constitution and the Union re-dovote ourselves to the principieel of' Republiean liberty, and the salvatioti of oureounlry. If the American people w'rll but do this insinccriiy and firmaass, and if the (iovernmeut will discharge its duty, will be true to the constitution and true to itself, we will socn, in ghdfiiss, exutlation and joy, behold our heloved ciuntrj emerge trom the dark clouda nhteh environ ker, and erect in the digaity and majesty of regenerated power, lift aloft tlio heavy burdens imposod upon her,and move on to the aecompliih ment of her perfect destitiy : lbo Em! pire of the continent and tho enfranchiseiaentof the world.