Horetofore nertain persons and classes have evjcy'eil i tnonoply of governI ment favors, that 8, " for a valuable oonsideration " have been liceried to pursue certáii) avocations or professons. But, hereaiter, there uro to bo oo licensed aristocrats looking down upon their more democratie -neighbors, and flaunting any exclusive governinental parcbmeiit in their faces. The 37th Oongress conferred titles of nobility, by special license, upon la w vers pliysiciins, bankers, brokurs, holesalerg, retaüei-N, claim agen Ui, hotel keepers, distillers, brewers, &o., &c, but left the mass of the people to pursue unliceneed and nnhonored lines of business. But the 38th Congresa disco v ered the gross inequality, the slight that was put upon the nnfortunate "poor but honest"- unlicensed classes, and discovering the injustice applied the remedy. Wt quote fioin the '■ New National Tas L,'' approved June 30th, 1861. Sec. 79- Par. A'LIX. " A license "fee of ten dollars shall be required of "every persoi), finn, or corporatioD, en. "g"g'l in any ousinr.it, (rade or pro"frsiion whatsnever, fur whieh no other "license is herein required, whose eroea "tinnual receipts therefmni exceed the "Biim of oue tbousund dollars per an"num." This is i regular flank movement, and tahes n about "oveiy man and bis wife," provided the groes earnings of their " trade, business or profession " exceed one thousand dollars, regardlesa of their profits. The President- Abk Lincoln - uniting in the personage of "the government," the " business " of a " cabinet maker," the "pmfession" of a '; joker," uud the " trade " in wool - eolored - and getting a salary " exceeding one thousand dollars " will be called apon to pny a Hconse oí $10. Seward, and Stanton, and Wklls, and Blaik, and Fjsssendfn, and Eatks foreign correspondent, chief of the armed pólice, buildor of monitorg and tubs mail carrier, currency maker, and counsellor whose counsels are never taken and general inuss-makers, in roceipt of $8,000 a year each, and "stealinga in," will each have to pay a license of $10. Members of Congress, of late engaged in írannaeting gome mighty mean "busiMÜM," from which tbev realize to 1 cced ono thousand dollars," muet be ' licensed at $10 a hem}. Jndgos, nud Governors, and National, Hute, and County officero, whose " business " t is to get offices and kep thein, onlt-sa ihev can " trade" them ff ibr óoes, must now be licensed at $10 a head, provided always iheir "gross" receipts - and sotno ut them are gross enough - "exceed ono tliouwand dollars." Ministers of the gospel by " profession," but whose " business " too f're quently ennwutu in prenching politicw aüd war, must be licensed at $10 each, providod tbeir cotigregatious think their labora rtoith over $1,000 per annum, and do not cheut them out of their pay. Prpsidents and professors in colleges, and teachers in schools, clerks, mechanics, &c, &c, must tüke out a license er ask to have their salarles reduced to 1 11,000 or under. And then cotr.es tho universal class of lüriuerc, Lerotoioro rivi]t;r;d to cultívate their lauds without let or bindrance. They are in for a license this time. and if the gross receipts from their farms exceed $1,000 per year, must not venture to plow and sow, or reap-and mow, uutil they have paid their little $10. Great is tho tas galherer, and no re' specter of persons. Who says all do not now eojrvy one privilige alike the privilege to be " licensed." Nono need iiow engage n an iilega! businesá. - Sinco the alove was in type wc have seen sume publishod extracta from the instructions issued by the Commissioners to Assessors. Ho says Paragraph XLIX, qnoted above "is a very general aud sweeping provisión." And so we thought. Ha euumerates soree of the persons liable under t, as fo! lows: "Among those who may be liable to tuke Ikenee under this panigraph may be euumerated thu following, as cxatnples, to-wit : Clergymen, teachers, farmers, artista, boardioghou8e keepers, keepers, gardeners, uurserymen, expressmen, teamsters, truokmeu, brick layers, bank tellers, presidents and cashiers oí banks, substitute bmkers ; puintera and blacksmiths, (when not rnanufucturers ) persous earrying on eaw milis, clover, grist or othër milis, (when tidt manufacturers ;) superintendente, managers, agente or officers of cotnpanies or oorpor:tions ; firms cotnpauies or corporutions organized i'or any business not rrquinng any other license, such as ntilroad aud insurauce cotnpanies, etc , etc He unaccouutably oniits office holders by "trade, business, and profesfion,'1 who no doubt should be required to takelioense equally nith the " outs." - We hope the assessors will not let them off so easy. A friend at our elbow suggosta that a Brigadier General or other army officer whose salary exceeds $1000, fights illegally and will be liable to prosecution, perhape for murder, f he has not procured his license. Cp The country was gratitiod with tho announcemunt ou Suoday morning last, that the Union offioers held prisoners at Charleston, and placed under fire of our lluet, had been exehangod, and were en route JN'orth. The exchange took place on Wednesday, August 3d, aud the released officeis were saluted by the fleet, and entertained by Admiral Dahlgren prior to sailing for home. Mnj. John ë. Ci.akk, of the 5th Michigan Cavaliy, one of the released prisnnere, arrived at his home in this city yesterday morning, and we have had the pleasure of taking him by the hand, and of congratulating both him and his estimable lady on their retinion. Maj. Clakk waa eaptured Ootobor 19th, 1863, üud ivas confined in Libby prihnn, Eichmoad, until the night after the battle of the Wïiderness. Frora Libby he was takon, with Lis cornrades to Danville, and wnen the Daoville Koad was reported cut, was removed to Macon, Georgi i, and fioin that to Charloston. where he arrived June I2th. He reports that they have fared well at Charleston, They wora quartered iu a large and well furoished mansión, had the privilege of a commodious yard and of the etreet for exercice, wi'.h access to balhiug accomiiKidtitions. Iu fact, Ihodgh nominally gnarded, and by tbeir own request to keep oft iutniders, they were really at liberty on parol. With enoufih to eat, good air, plenty of exercise, and the sea breeze, they recuperated, and look back to Charleston as a bright spot comparad with Riohmond, and consequeutly the Major is looking wel!, much better than we expected to see bim. About the "under fire," he snys they exporieuced no danger until the day beiore they were exchanged, wben two shells carne a little too near íor sport. Our interview witb tho Major was brief, and we, from neeessity, give a briefer synopBis of our conversa tiou. SP Geus. Meade and Euknside are at loggerhendg, each charging upon the other the recent dísgraceíul f uilure at Petersburg. A court of inquiry bas been oidered. It is reported that Gen. Graxt bas aeked tho reir.ova! of both these Joffieers, Li ut that bis re'j'ics' bsg btic refused. i Í3P The St'cretary of tho Treasury has again determined to ask another loan directly from the pcoplo. The ordinary procese is to bqrrow tho people'n money of Liie bankers, but as the bankers do not now seem disposed to make such lertus as meet the wishes of government, the people are called upon to !oan to the government instond of deportiting their money in the hands i bunkers, and thu enablingthe latter tfl ranke hacd terrns. Full informalifin as to tlio nature of the loau asked and the c-eouritics oflered, wil] be fonnd iu the addcees of Secretary Fessknden ia another ooiuinn ; aud au advertisement hended " U. S. 7-30 Loan " tells the reader where to leave his mouey. There is uo doubt that this is a good investment, as good at least as any thing save long time mortgages on real est-. te, and muuh better than railway or olher eorporation stocks. The interest for threo yenrs ie 7.3 per cent, or just two cents per dny on eaoh hundred dollars, payablo semi-annually.- At maturity, f tho holder d'siree, the notes may be converted into 6 per cent gold hearing bonds, redeemable af ter five and payablo Uenty years from August 15, 1867, at the option of the governmont. The loan is, fre aro not surprised to learn, being rapidly taken, and wo advise those having a surplus of greenbacks to invest. III III jL5"ST The correspondent of the New York -the special orgaD of Lincoln in the metropolis - charges that the recent sad failure End slaughter of our troops at Petersburg was tho result of gross mismanagement. He says that the selcction of troops for the post of danger and honor wlib made by lot, and that it feli upon the poorcst división (comruanded by the poorest Geiicral) of the poorcst corps in the anny. The Boston Iraveler, Republiean, intiinates that tho negro troops were seleoted to mako tbo assault, becauso the white troops in both the rebel and federal armies have given their commanders to understand that they are done being sacrificed by being thrown against fortifieatious. If either reason is true it shows a siugular state of discipline in the army. KST Messrs. R F.' Wade aud H. Wintkr D.avis have published an address " ïo the supporters of the Government," criticising the proclauiatiou of the Presideot decliuitg eitler to sign or veto the rcconstruction bill passed at the recent session of Cougress, aud pro testiug against arbitrary assumption of powers belonging to Congress aloue. It sayssome sharp things, thiugs which had they been said by any but loyal Republicaas would have raised a huge huo and cry of " Copperheads " about their ears. It is a scathing document, and gives evidence thut the " most loyal " are beginniug to believe that the President - we raeant " the govermnent " - can err. We shall give it to our readers in full in our net issue. fsL" Some of our citizena vvill be interested in the fullowing paragraph cut from the reeent nstructions of the Comuiissiouer of lnternal Revenue to Asses Eors : Lawyers, conveyaneers, claim agctits, phjsicians, surgeon-s, deotists, cattle Isrokera, horse dealers, and peddlers un der the new law, though associated in business, must take license individually, and cannot be liconsed as a firm. WLere persons beiongin to either class have taken license as a firm, such license, with the Hpproval of the collector, tnay be transferred to a metuber of the firm, and the otl-ers must take a new license.