In our commercial dcpartment will be fouud a table giving the new ratos o' tolls on tbc principal artiolea of Canal frcight, os estnblished for 1870, and also showing the" ralos ou the carne under the schedule of 18G9. It will be seen that the averagO rcduction is about 50 per cent. It is stated that the good work thus inaugurated "will not stop until the New York trunk caDals are oomparatively free, ar.d their cnpaeity sutlicient to ttoat vessela of 600 tons burthen." The eflect of this measure is shown by comparing the average freipht rates betwcen Chicago nnd New York during the month otMmj fora serie of yuars. The liuffalo Commercial statcs that last year the average by lake and ciinal was 19 7-10 cents per bushcl ; in the preceding year the average was the same ; in 18G7 the average of 17 7-10 cents was the lowest rate ever had; in 1866 the rato was 26 1-10, the highest since 1860; in 1865 it was i!2 cents: in 1864, 26 3-10 cents; in 1863, 23 3-10 cents; in 1862..20 3-10 cents; and in 1861, 21 cents.' Al the rcduoed rate of tolls, if the carrier is allowed the gaine aver age, over lolln, that de reoeived last year, the aggipgate cost of transporting a bushei of wheal from Chicago to New York, will bo 16 7-10 ceuts, or 3 oents lower thau last year. On a cargo r.f 25,000 bushcls :his differenco amounts to thestiug sura of S7ÓÜ. Add to that amount tlie (.iiffercnce in the clevating rntes at Buffalo, betweeu this year und last, and a snviiif: has bceu cfi'ected in the cost of moving a cargo of the dinienpions referred to, from Chicago to New York, of SI ,000, equivalent lo a proüt of bo mean proportioi s. Our Buffalo cotempor ry tnakes a very timely suguestion to all paities cnnnected with the transportation of produce, that on tliem, lsrgcly, uow rest.s the success of the polioy thus inauguratfd by the authoritk-s of that Stite. It has been charged by the enemiefl of low tolls that any reJnctiou made by the State in the tates of tolls would bc immediatoly taken adrantagc of, by increasing the f:tiglit charges. Itmatters not to the sliipper whether bis money goes to the State as tolls or to the bontmen as freight ; the effect is oue and the sumo to him. lf carriers will bo moderate in their demanda, the bulk of Eastward bounrl produce will reach tbe eeaboard by Canal hs surely as water fiuds its level. The present year will lo a great cxtent decide the futuro of our great State works. The nierii of the two systems - rail and water - will be thoroughly tcsteil. The advantago oí speed possessed by the former will be more than countei-balaucod by the cheapneí.8 of the lattcr. If, in oo-operation with this movement, steps could now be taken for eecuring a oyftem of through barges, from our Western Canals to New York City, without breaking bulk, the questiun of rail competitioii On heavy ireiglite would KOOji be decideiL Jftnt ■ i% ia mnhh now being tnado on the wattr lines. - Tolt do (Jotnmerdul.