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All Unknown Land--facts About Central Asia

All Unknown Land--facts About Central Asia image
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The publiéations of tlie Royai Geographicul Society ut' May, 1871, nave boen issued in volumo xi., mul give us vi ry intwcsting statistios fcom Central Asia. Mr. G. W. Hayward penetrated from Oasbndi t Si-)i, the capital of Ladak, and thsn crossed tho pass in the lümalaya range and fouiid a región elovatod froiu thirtoen to eighteen thousuTid toot abore soa, from which riso snowy ranges of iiiountaiiis whioh continue nortli into Rumian territory as far as lutitudo 65 lcg. His route was over aud on the east sido oí thia range. Baron Osten Sacken took his dcparture from Varnoe, on tho borders of Eussia and the Chinese Empire, crossed tho snowy Thian Shan range west of Lake Issek-kul, and surveyed to within twenty miles of the city of Kashgar, tho north limit of Mr. Ilayward's survoy. Mr. Fedchenko, of the Russian Scientific Corps, mado a topographical survey of Ihi; Zarafshan Valley and ltiver, whioh run to the west and pass Samarkand. ïhey determine Kbotnn to be in Jntituilo 37 8 N, and long. 79 55 E. Yarkund lo be in lat. 88" 21 N.. mul laag; J7" 28 E. Kadhgar to le ín lat. 3yu 25 N., uiul long. 7iiJ 11) K. Samarkand to bc in lat. 3U 40 N., and long. 67 E. These surveys fix definitely in our maps an unkiKiwn country, horetoforc known as Littlc liokhara, CJhinese Tartary and Eastern Turkistan, the waters from which run into the Oxus, Naryb Zarafshan rivers, to tho west, which ontor the Caspian and Ural seas, and to the Kashgar and Youkand rivers, which Sow iuto Lake Lob, in Central China. This range of mountains, which extentls from India to Kussian Siberia, is of groat hi'ight. Ilayward, in May, counted from a height ncar Kashgar sixty-three suowpeaks in sight at onu time ; and the streanis are mainly from the melting of snow in May, June, July and August, running through a country highly cultivatod, uuder the greatest system of irrigation of any part of the world, with an industrious, hardy pooplo, who live in great comfort. " The products of the country are various and abundant. Wheat of two descriptions is producod, one sown in September and one in April; rice, barley, Indian corn, four kinds of oil seeds in abundance, clover, turnips, carrots, onions. Cotton of a fair description is producud in largc quantities, and manufactured into ïnatoriul for nativo wear, or exported into Khokand aud llussia. Tho fruit crops consist of tho pear, apple, apricot, almönd, peach, walnut ; whilo tho vine is cultivated, the yield from which is excellent. The mulberry is everywhoro seon. The principal exports to India and Kashmir are feit cloths, silk, shawl-wood, &c. Khotan produces excellent carpets, silk in large quantities, &o. The animáis aro tiie hors(!, two-humped camel, ox, sheop, ass, and shawl-wool goat." Mr. Ilavward gives the names of six towns and villages : " Yarkand contuins 10,000 housüs - is the capital of Eastern Turkistan, is 3,380 feet above the level of the sea - 160 mosques, many schools, 12 caravansaries which aro always crowded with ïncn-liiints from all partsof Asia ; the city is snrrouuded with a fortifiod wall fromforty to forty-five feet in height and is entered by fivo gates. Easheai contatos 28,000 houses. Porgam cont:iins 16,000 houses. Karghalik contains 20,000 houses ; and the country coutains a population of 7,000,000. The people are Mohaiumedans cf the Tartar Uzbeg race, and governed by a military adventurer whoso title is Mohammed Yakoop 13eg, the Atalik (rhazee, and Ruler of Eastt1 rn Turkistau- who is now forty-five yettrs of nge. The Kussians have posscssion of the west oí the uiountains, includingSamarkand.


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Michigan Argus