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Science Versus The Nebular Hypothesis

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eyeuing, at Aasociation Ilall, Dr. Bürr delivi )Ud an l concluding lectors on ï-Tho lAtesi Aitronomy and the Lutest Atheism," tho latest atheism Pel?S ' '1 byh doctrine of evolutioii, hijh, ia tira leoturer'a judgi it úf those wno ookeye 'that tha natural can be xp] .i:: l without Hm ai 1 oftha supé [ahw hst lectura Dr. Burr.cau.tended (lio motions, ufes, au 1 choinistry of tho mombon of the solar system eould not bo explained by tbe nebular hypothe818, and m tho secon] ha considered the Btellarsyatemsand the nebular in their relation to thia " latest phase of értheism." Ling to the nebnfar hypothesis a!l Har aysteins ara derivod frcmi one ftre-mist or nébula, from thia it follows that each shouM have a dominant oeatra] Btar greater than all the rest. 8o lar is this from the truth that it Ubu dom tile caee that saoh a central star existó, and sometimea the center or' thi tem b occupi.j.l hy a siiKill body, and sometiiiu'3 is vacant: Tha nébula in Hercules and tho ililky Way should liive Btíeh a center, ai4 41oyona should shino inoro bralhantly than the sun. ' Aocördiug t the hypothesis atellar systenja shuuld shine with a graduatod light, but Klmostall multiple sUra and Boattered i?roups wore ungraduated. The sizos ot' ra and their distances from each Othoi shüuld be greateat on the outskirts, but only a iW gtellar systems, molt ple stars and scattered groups conform to the hypothesis, and the raifky way directly oupoaea it, as Sir John HeracheÜ had shüwn that ita outer stars are tho smallésf and mÓ8t densoly paoked of all. Moreoyei the stara ot' thö same system whiohi if geuerated from an equutorial ring, hould move in the same plañe, never movethere; tho clusters in Hercules and Lyra seem to be globular, and their orbits to cross each otker ia all direetfons. If tho hypothesis wen; correct tho Milky Way should seem to us an intenaely brilliant band or belt in the heavenn. Tho logical deduction from the hypothesis would also be that the star.; of the atellar BVBteina should revolve in circles, as hardly any, probably nono of tho.j, do. Of about seven bundred doublé stars which have bean examined, all of tho órbita are ellipaes. [f throwu off trom one oen t ral üra-mist, tho stellar tysteins sho.uld show homical constituouts ; v the same group uiany doublé stars sliow different oolors, au i, when examined with tho sj. ., uve val-idus spectra. Alpha Orionia gires uo hydrogea line, and the sun noosygi q xhÁn Siriusgives a substanoy uuknown to chemista. All these f.icts aro directly opposed. to tho nebular hypothesis. The íecturer thcu callod attention to tho uiucsolved nebuluo vehioh the followers of Laplaco point to as truo fire-mists ; yet it is ouly u, part of tho truth to say th.jsc; giye a speotiuui showing thom to bo composed of gasopua matter, neaiiy all show n solid behiod the gas. The nebuia ia Orion was long sapposed to be g i -ons yet recent investigatious show that it is uot sa. JIoreovor, a mero rire-imst oould not ho .t suoh a ciiütuaoe, ;s is shown by the l'ict that comets are only visiblo when near their porihelioa. In order to remain luuiinous and in a stato of extremo subdivisión, Bbbuhe should bo iutensely 'noated. Isitrogon, which is fosad hcre, at a high temperature givea a riohly banded spectrum; aa thö hoat is reduoed me bands become Ie at, and at last are but strip of green. Tho spectrum of the ïieimhis giyea this stacip, sliowing that the nebuia is not intcuijfy hot. A üre-inist in Bpace should, by tha law of gravity, soon become apheriijal i; sh ipe; yot few aro so, and man y givo no sign of .i nuoleas. Tho fact that tho nobula remaiu unchanged in form can oiily bo aacounted for on tho suppositiou that each is a congeries of stars. Fire-mists could not reiuam long in un igtenseiy aot statu tnixounded ly spaco tho temperaturo of which is minus 130, and by their very mi turo i'iii.s and mista should euol so rapidly that we wxrnld seo themchange f rom day to day us we seo the clouda iil our atrnospherc ohabge from moment 'to momi'iit, and jret evon tbo annulur ncbuliu show no altoration froia ugo to age. Ii would lo dilficult to show how i mere iiio-uiist c:ui be sharply deflnedand show uniform brightness throughout, fot eaoh should appeardicD ftt theodge ;uul brighten iuv;ii.;.s the oetcr whefo there should be special ooodensation ;iü;1 lummosity ; :is a matter of toet many show uniforn 1 1 iiuss aud no especial center óf light. The weight ot' evideuee is tiiereforo asainst tho assertiou that unresolvod nebultB are fite-místíu The nébula froni which the Pleiade3 for example, should ako b.t iinm :ii Lf suuh íiebula is kuown, Nuuiüfoi) stanoes of tho daveloptusut ot' s) from fire-misfcs bhould bo soen ín tae heavens if tho hypothesis wero true. There shcj'Ud be ring-, l)roken rings, rins with nuclei, .Ve, but ih.'i i: are txone, for of the rumiar nebuho there ar i ooly ten, and these aro mere rings with dark inti 1iors. The hypothesis roqvrirea t.h:it gasootis uebuhi) siiould show the simo etieinieal aonstitoenta aa other p wtaof the uni7erse, yot thosuu's .spectrum isoro led by about two thousand Unes, w!ii!o tho sp otra of tho nobul;t) give but foui' or flve bright bands, most of them but three, and some aooe at ail. The lecturer he'il t dat tho hypothesis was bui, a priori, and f..iled alinost entirely to explain evon the geiirv ure of tho h utterly fauèd to explain miautias. At the close ot' tha lecture he roceived uiutih upplauso.


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