Press enter after choosing selection

Foreign Correspondence

Foreign Correspondence image
Parent Issue
Day
6
Month
December
Year
1872
Copyright
Public Domain
OCR Text

Innsbruck ix Tybol, Austria, ? üctobcr 3, 1872. Deaii Foxd: Thero is here a notablo chango in the appearance of tho peasantry as compartid with tiloso ot Southern Bavaria. llevo thoy seem equally fittcd to enduranco and hardihood as there, but thero is ft grcater tidiness in thcir eycvy day costumo as wull as a moro vivacious manner. Tho pcasant tuisscs very genorally woar hats of blnnk straw or fult, having a etiff crown, flat on tho top, and rim five or six Dches in width projecting at an oxaot right anglo from tho crown, bending neithor up nor down, and sceuiing quito incapable of boing bent williout fracturo. Thoso made of feit weigh about two pounds, and a band or coid with heavy silk tasscis completes this most preoiso of lata. Drcssns gomewhat open upon tho 3houlders and bosora furnish uso for a gay colored korchiof which is worn beïcath tJio dross, dravvn closely to tho neck, and fastcned where it crossss in front with a hugu brooch of soiuo showy stylo. Slarkot womea uso small carts with two 'whools, which tlioy either push or draw. Ilere tho malo nativos almost universally wear souic kind ot feather oookade in tlio hut, it may bo largc or mail, of aiy color, from any kind of a )ird, single or in a clustor, ofton quito )rotty and expensivc, sometimos laughuly looking aud shabby. In tho how-windowa of liat stores is always to o seen a largo variety oí' theso nocossary ontingents. Ono of tho inose expensivo dnds cousists of ihrco or four fino 'eathers, arranged with a rosutte of ;hat much prized tuft of fino tur or hair f which a singlo tuit ouly ia fuund upon ;ho chaiuois, and which, except in its great soitness, resembles somowhat Iho hair hanging upon the broast of the turkey gobbler. Wc saw soino of the troops when tlicy came in from thcir cncaiuprjeut at Sterzing a few days ago, aud each had in hifi cup a singlo stiff quill, about ten inohes long, looking prim enough. Anothcr set, however, woro the cap nearly half covered with boautiful, glossy, jet black featbers of tho moorcock, which droop in graoeful curves over the crown and sway about with overy wind. A great variety of costuine is to bo mot occasionally in tho stroot3 ; but herc in the city tho genuino peasant's dross of the men is not in general uso. Ono order of thé llomanist clorgy hero wear knoo breeches, with long black silk or worsted hoso and low shoos ; anothor order wear boots with high tops, extending outside to the knees, and kept in a condition of brilliant polish ; anothcr, with tonsured . hcad and sindaled foet, with coarso. brown, loose coat and hood, girt about with white cord and tasscl, is at onco recognized as the Capuohin Friur ; anothcr with estremo fceatuess of appcarance, ■illy good-lookiug, hubitcd in long, jot black coat reaching to the heul?, drawn euugly about at tho waist, with blnek sash and pendant cross, remiuds us of tho now hardly pressed Jesuit fathors ; and another, still, appears in habiliments of white, tho reverse of the latter - thoy are from the i'ramonstratonsion Abboy in Wilten. But tl;o task would bo well mgh eudless if niention of all the execptional varieties of dress which are somotiincs to be seon hcre, wero attempted. The Abbej yif-t referred to was cele brated even in the middle ages, having had a very early origin and possessing immense wealth. The principal building consists of a ohapel, large as ordinary churchea, being extended back of tho chancol end (three stories in height) about ■ono hiiudred feet, and in a wing to.tho right three storios high and two hundrod feüt in longtli, capab'.e of accomiuodating several hundred inmates. Standing on either hand, in nichrs in tho recessed OTch i' tho ehapel, are the staiues oftwohuge giants, Haiman and Thyrsus, who, according to authentic tradition, founded tho Abboy. Xlie interior of tho I ia lathor proi'usely decorateil with piaster casts and gilt upon the walls and ceilhig, but the graad altar and tho six sido altars are oonstrncted of blaek or vory dark njarble with heavy columns and friede, and tho gold gilding being ptain and heavy, rather than tinselly, ■ i s :■, very rich effect inde 1 A tuarble tablet in the vestíbulo is in memory oi' Prince Hohenlohe, who dicd at the j in is 19. Tho statues.aro eaoh about ten feet high, with helmets and plumes and clothed in mail - ono resting hid arm upon a hugo knottod club, holding his other arm akimbo ; tho other, appirently in an easy attitude, resting his wrist in part upon his long, unsheathod sword. The features of both are vex'y heavy and stolid-looking. As tlio legend relates : theso giants fought, and Thyrsus feil by the superior strength of Haiman, when the latter, in expiation of his i bogan on this spot tho erection of tho church. Bat a dragon every night desI what ho built dui-ing tho day. - Finally Haiman discovered the dragon in a place called the dragon'a hole, and at'ter a desperate encounter overéame him, tore out his tongue and proserved it as a trophy, and then proceeded to complete the church in tho year 87ü, becoming a lay member thereof himself. Authcutic history is preaerved of the Abbey i'rom 1 128, and it Ihat early day ita posBessions embraced the wliole city on both sides of the Inn. Tho Ferdinándeum is & museum of curi ositiee and objecta of interest generally, but inore particularly designed to embrace tho flora, zoological and Lttineralogical specimens, the art and handieraft productions, the ancien t relies aud iu:il ri.in;iins which serve to ilhistiaie the ]■■ the Tyrol in i i, together with a library , einbracing but a very 1 Kin&ll oollectiou of English Uooks, stitute tho foundation of what is annually bccoming a vary important and valuably repository of objects of local and bistorical interest. Begun ty au associoiation of individuáis nbout lifty yeara ago, it bas novor been adoptsd as a public institution, but it has esöapod tho fato of manj' sudi eateiprises by its prudent management, and perhaps iu part by its Qg small opportunity for peenniary embezzlement. It has many good mens of wood carving by peasant artista, s iuo onrioua paintings on cobweb, well eiocuted by a singlo fumily in tho Tyrol, who for scveral gonerations havo proserved tho soerct of thcir art. Tho picture gttllery embraces many spocimenu of n itivo art, chiefly valuable from this fact. Tho pioturo of Speckbacker and bis son, oí' Philippina Wolscr interceding before Feidlnand I. for her husband, also ono ropresenting tho Arehduko on horseback when ho first saw bf r t tho window ; portraits of Hofor, Speckbackor, and Saspinger, tho throo héroes of 1809, of Angélica Kaufman, l'hilipina Welser and a few others are intcresting, both becauso of tho subjects and of the execu:ion. Tho BWord and riflo of Ilofer, as also his 6ilver cross and an amulet worn always next his heart througli tho war and at tho tioic of his murdorous execu;ion, aro proscrvod in oases : tho lattor is of paintcd metal, about two by four inch es in size, boaring a small picture of iha Virgin. Tho Radetzky Album is a colection of autographs of distinguished ersons in various couxitrios, contributod as a memorial of tlio distinguishod peron aftcr whorn it is namod. Among tho 'ow wo examiued, that óf Longfellow, with a oopy of ono of hia own stanzus 'rom ' Excelsior," was of most interest to us. A largo quantity of anoient bronze and earthen artioles for known and un-, cuown usos, Kouian ui"U3, inilo-stonen and ;ablots, weapons of peaco and war which lavo boon found in varioua parts of tho tyrol, aro licro arranged in oases ; and a numbor of tho heavy and awkward lookng guns of tho middlo agos. Besides tho oqucstrian statuo alroady mentioned tho only public nionuments to )o ?een are upon Noustadt f-trasse. In he center of the strcet, nearly opposito ,ho Austrian Hotel, is a column of tho eddish colored marblo of tho country, ibout 72 feet high, raised in 1706 to commemorato tho expulsión of the Bavariar.s and French. Itissunnountedby astatuo of tho Virgin, and standing upon the four orners of tho pedestal aro four figures nbloniatic of tho occasion, by Besneetti. Four angolio figures ornament tho ides. Furthor eouth, in tho strect just where the suburb of "Wilton b:' s a triamphal gatoway of one principal and two sido uvhes, erccted.in 17j."j in ïonor of tho occasion when the Euiperor iCopold II. intormarncd with tho Infautu Maria Ludovicu. ïho emblems of mariagc, and tho medallion heads of Francia .. and Maria Theresa tho Empress, and f the happy pair, appcar upon tho . sido .owards Wilton ; on tho other appear tho m ble ais of mourning aronnd tho head i.' Francis I., the Emperor, who had diod uring thocontinuanco of tho festivitics; lso, tho incdallion heads of Maria Thersa and of Fruncís II. At first viow tkis loso conjunction of such diverse decoraions is rathor puzzling to tho beholdor. Before lcaving tho city to describe sumo f tho surroundings and exeursions in he vioinity, it may bo statod gonerally ;hat ono of tho very noticeable conditions of thinjgs is tho great number and varity of the Itoinau Catholic religious orors, CLich of whom havo their owu char1, and oaoh havo onc or moro of the lar;er ohurches : Franciscaus, Jnsuits, Sorreteus, Capuohins, Benedictinos, Carmnltes, cc, soveral having vory extensivo QOnasteries; Xarsuliuos, Sisters of Jlerey, ?raying Ssters and othors, most of whom lave convenís and chapéis, whilo not a ingle Protestant denominatiou has yet een ablo to acquirc tho possession or ropiïetorship of a church odiiiee. The 'Inglish church sorvicos are regularly obervnd i;i a .small apartment of tho Ausirian Hotol, tho ofliciating ministei béng a chaplain provided by " tho Provinial and Continental English Churoh Asociation," and the Lutherans also hold hcir services in a similar private way. One of our first excursions was to casle Ambras, Whioh, bcsidus boiag distan t ess than nn houi's walk, was possessed oi' romantic interest as tho once favorito esidenco of Ferdinand the ArcHduke and 'bilippina Welser his loving wifo. The astlo stands conspicuously prominent, lbout 500 feet abovo tho plain - its light ■i valla ístrongly contrasting with the dark green back-ground of the monntain boyond. We tooic the pathway crossing the lowor bridgo of tho Sill, thi'ough the suburb of Pradt, und thence through the continuous corn fields for moro than a milo, and then began ascending the long, sloping path whioh in about anoth or mile bruugiit us to the gateway. Several uarringes wero in waiting i'ur visitors who had proceded UB, as no sti'anger ever [misbruck without seeing this famous jjIucc. Wo entered and found ourselvee ncar spacious tenement houses, otio on each sido, each within a walled enoloBure oi' its own. These cvidontly wre for attendants' quartors. l'iissiug boyond these and tho building for tho cpjrpentry and mechanical workshops, wo wero in tho court fioni which ascending steps led up tho wall perhapa ten feet higher to the narrow arca surrounding tho castle itsi.lt' and tho opon terraco. A good pull at tho bell-ropo hanging it tho principal portal brought onc of tho servitors now in oharge. Wo delivered to hiiu t!io cario or permit whioh had beon previously obtained at the palaoe in the city, our urnbrollas aud surplus shawls, and began tho tour of iuspection. ading a v.i !c staircase to the first floor, we were shown case after case of anoient armor, principally oí' medieval timos, tastefully arranged in high cup board ts somowlmt i-osumbling our niovablo clothes-presses. Therc were numberlcss swords of groat variety - gboct and long, sraight tnl cirved, light and heavy. Those whioh seeraed ourious were the huge, doublo-handed sword:; which. it would bothcr tho Oftrpet knighta of our day to handlo with mnch celei'ity. Somo of lbo ecabbards and hilts wero very riehly atudded with jeweled settings. The battle-axos soomed cqually numerous and various, and with their sharp points for ponctrating as well, furmed a very ugly-looking weapon to como in contact with. Thoro woro a largo j nuuiber of shields with coats of arms emblazoned on them ; lances with the staff and without ; guns of ovory 6Ort in use in thoso days, somo flint-locfc, some match, and somo rcsombling percussion. Tho pistola woro many of them most riohly mounted, and among them wo saw untnistakablo revolvers. Tho collection of spurs was full of novoltios to u", and the horse:; of thoso day must have wiauod often that they had been novelties then. Somo of them would protrudo eight inch03 from tbo heel, and with proportionatc points fijr inconaing tho horso. The coats of mail for men and horsc3 wore also numorous and i&teresting. A room in whifih saddlos and bridlcs wero exhibited had somo singularly curious speoimens, and tbey had ovidently been through some hard service in their time. There were sovcral momentoes of tho Archduko and his beautiful Fhilippina. Tho caskets and cabinets - tho dressing-casos and osOritoil - wero gonis of elaborato and most beautiful workmanship of mosaic, inluid woods, ivory and preoioua stones. Tho oscrüoir combinod also a piano o f fivo octaves, whicli must havo been played standing, or olse upon a mueh elevated soat. lts uotes wero sadly discordant. Throughout tho castlo thoro appeared hut littlo piaster ceiling: all tho halls and rooms wore finished in native woods, and tho panding overhead is very fine. Indeed the floors and ceüings throughout wero of tho best and tho color of the woods used remarkably bright, scarcely indicating its great antiquity. The littlo chapel room was porfectly exquisito in its proportions and beautiful completeness. A very fine chancel window of stained glass, an altar pioco finely oxecuted, the appurtenances and dncorations not ttiwdry; seate and kneellng-stools for about forty, with a, neat little gallory upoa the front of wiii ;h war, a Latín sentence, "AU ipraise the Lord." A movabio orgun stood uear the altar which was in very good tune yot. In ono room hung a beautiful arrangement of antlers of docr. stag and chamois. There was ono room in . various presents that luid ' vn. to Philippiua wero arranged witl.in glass cases: most delicate car vinga and fa:icy artioles, fans of Chinese and Japnncso workmanship, things for the toilette, &c, many of which were riohly set with j umi all of which wero of the most beautiful pattern and finish. Bverything, in iYict, which had in any manncr boen designed for tho personal U3e or atlornment of bis wife, Boemed to havo been eocurcd by the most lavish espendituro guided by tasto and affection. Among the curious things wo saw should bo mentioned an effigy of tho giant and of tho dwarf of tho duke, in the apparel they uscd to woar. A good collection of masks suoh as tho knights and dames of threo centuries ngo had actunlly worn at thoir social gatherings iu fue baila and rooms around us now so vacaut and still. Family portraits and portraits of distinguiahed persous occupied the walls. Among these, of courso wo lookod with ospeoial interest upon thoso of tho Archduke, hia wife, and their two beautiful boys, all of fulllength. Many as wero the objects of interest to bo seen ttill remaining, suoh was the oxtciit of tho building - four stories in hcight, oxclusivo of the towors and undorground rooms - that it constantly reminded one of " some banquet hall desei-ted." It is now royal property, and has not been occupied for several yeare, and only occasionally sinco tho timo of the Archduke Ferdinand. lts collections wero onco quite celebrated, but in 1806 the greator portion was taken away to enrich tho musoums of antiquity and art ut Yienna. lts outer wall, about twelve feet high, endosos somo iiftecn or twenty acres of ground, much varied on the sur face, and tastefully laid out with an cxtcn-ive not-work of walks and with fine shrubbery. 8oon aftor Charlemagno had divided the Tyrol into soveral districts, tho Counts of Audècha hold their court at Ambras, tho most poworful lords of this entire vioinity ; and in 1180 the wholo Tyrol was bestowod as a fiof upon Borthold, then Count of Audech. Always of-importance from its strength and situation in the riohest valley of the Tyrol, itspossossion and history changed and varisd with the iluctuatious in tïie history of tho province. (!ount flenry, in :ï, from motives oí polioy or gencrosity, liberated tho peasantry from aerfdom and secured to " them tho tree Bession of the land they tilled as well ris gome voico in diets convelió;! for local government. His daughtor Margaret of Multascb, from infolioity in marriage rclationsand the deathof het pnly son in 1361, gavo over her possessions to Austria, providing, however, tbr the preservation of tho free constitution of the country, which has evor sinco beon rospected. - Subseqncntly the Emperor Leopold VIT. bestowed ili; Tyrol upon bis third son, Frederiek, the ono who waa8urnamed"the empty purse," as an app.iuago or moan3 for his support. It was It who transferred the eourt froiu Merau in the South Tyrol to Innsbruok, which from that timo has continued to bo tbc capital. His son Sigismund, [having no de- mi , nnd being :ilso an empty and spêndthrift, with consent of the vinoial Stati over the Tyrol to the Emperor Maximilllan I., in' 1472, in con -idoration of an annual pension, and it thus ;ig:iu bccame unitcd to tho house of Austria. Maximillian v.a mucb attaöhod to this portion of his dominions, and particularly to this part of the ïnnthal .'uu! Lts marginal monntains. Fordinand L, who was the grandson of Maximillian and succeedod Charles V. as Emperor, resigned the Tyrol in löG-1 to lus second son, tlic Archduke Ferdinand, who as Cuunt of Tyrol, rostored and completed tho castlo Ambras as it now stands, in löTö, and gave it to liis bcautiful wife Philippina, making his Bnmmer residence thoro. ÏUe cruel injustice of e:i.to whioh prevonted tho bright ohildren of the Arohduke and Count of ïyrol, by his burgher wife, froto inheriting any dontain from their fathcr because ho wa3 a r of tho Imperial house of Austri, eaused tho Tyrol and castlu Ambras to levert onco more to tho empire. The Tyrol bad again ite o-.vn princes a short timo in tho next century, bat finally retunied to tho Imperial brarxoh in 1G6-3, and Uas over since remained in tho conditiou of a proviuco and ajfaithful adhc rent to tho fortunes of Austria. The Arohduke died in 1599; and his wife Philippina in 1520, the tomba of both beinjr in tho silver chapel of the üoffkirc'. heretoforo 3 Just west of tho castlo grounds a few rods, and upon a small plateau somewhat highor, is theoldtournamont ground, now called tho Tuminelplatz, whcre in chiva!" rous daj-.s tho gallant knights did their devoirs for lady-love. It is now sparsely covered with a growth of evergreen trees and has been appropriated to very diffürent uses. During tho wars from 1797 to ISOj the eastlo was usod as a mil itary hospital, and about 8,000 soldiers who f oll during that pcriod -wero 1 thero, as also somo who died from wotibdfe received in tho Italian campaign of 1839. The entiro spaco is covered with chapéis, crosses and shrines, and is much frequented by tho devout poasants, who havo do posited thero numborlcss offeritipcs in disoharge of their simple hearted vows - forming a curious study ín the l'rotestant traveler. Tho viow from the baloony of tho castlo and from tho raiséd tetraos is extremely iine, xrticul.arly ,so "at tho closo of day. Perhaps too much space has boen givon to tliis oastle, lut it is sejdom one of such interesting associations is presorved in its perfect condition and accessible ; and then there isa kind of Bympathy for its fortúnate and unfortunate mistress, whose portrait is Koun in all tho shop windows, that compels us to lingcr ovor tho spot aml ita story. Ever yours,

Article

Subjects
Old News
Michigan Argus