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Foreign Correspondence

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Vexiue, Octobar 20, 1872. Mt Deae Poxd : Leaving Innsbruck was almost liko a departuro from the homo of frienda. - Some f'ricnds in fact we did flnd there, and we sliall not soon forget tliom. Pursuing tho oíd practico whicli wo have found to bo mest convenient, we packod our luggage with a view to having it sent f'orward over tho Italian roads as f'reiglit, for thcy allow no exemption oxcept that which is carried in the hand. Aa the allowanco on the Brenner road iu Austria is fifty pounds to each passenger besides hand baggage, we would have but small charges to pay - scarcely more than the freight would be, and it is always rathor more convenient to have luggage go along as fast as ourselves. The train started at 9 A. ., and wo had our tickets to Bozen, on tho Italian sido of tho Alps but still in the Tyrol and Austria. As we glided from the depot ono familiar object after another carne into view and then passed away, probably forever, to ua. Ainras castlo and its tourhey-ground, the rich Abbey of tho giants, whose small round chapel quite near the road is supposed to havo the most ancient origin of all the churches ; lselberg, ever to bo associated with tho harp crack of the rifle ; the foaming falls of the Sili---and then all is darkness, for the first tunnol, 700 yards long, is entered as soon as we leavo the valley. Wo soou emerge into the beautiful intervalo beyond, and can see tho Dragon's hole where the giaut Haiman and the Dragon lian their terrible enoounter before tho building of the Abbey could progress; and il ow for about twenty miles the railroad, Sill river.and Brenner highway run side by side through the Sillthal, the two great roads gradually ascending in ordor to overeóme in this distance the culminating point (over 2600 feet above Innsbruck) of the Alpine pass.. The valley is a narrow oue, and tho soenery very wild and grand ; mountains are towering high on either hand; glimpses are had into the sido valleys and of their shining glaciers ; tho abyss of the impetuous rivor, always open to receive us in case of accident, is ever close to the track, and villages are seen picturesquely perelied on some higher eminence, orfar down in the smiling valley whorever it expands a liti of ir.teresting surprises, scarcoly needing the eight of the beautiful castle of Trant3ou, and of several otherd more or less in ruins to occasion the most agreeable enjoymen,t. Just before reaching tho station at Brenner we passed a small but very beautiful lake, refleoting tho deepest green color, and, lying so mach below us, eould be seen iu every part. It was calJed the Brennersee. None of tho viltages thus far were Ut much size, and at Bronner thcro was nothing whatever to interest a stnmge.r aaide from the assooiations connocted with it as the pass over which some of the oldest Alpine routes have for long conturies crossed thu natural barrier between Northern and Southern Europe, and the fact that all the streams we have reoeatly met tended toward the Danube or the Black soa, while henceforward all wend their courses for tho Adriatic. The Sill, whosp wild valloy has oponed the way to this pass, rises near and flows northward into tho lnn. The Eisack, also starting in this vieinity at, the head of the valley wo are to follow for some seventy-five miles, runs southward and uniting with tho Etsch beyond Bozen becomes the Adigo, emptying into the gulf of Venice a few miles beyond that city. From this point we begin to leave behind us the regions of the misty North, and rapidly glide into thesunny South, though the transformation is scarcoly noticeable for uiany miles. Leaving Brenner the wild scenery of this Alpine región is seldom uninteresting and ofteu very grand indeed. Tho Otzthal group being on one side and the Zillerthal on the other; far some distance almost insurmountablo obstacles have been overeóme by the skillful engineers of this road. At one point we enter a curved tunnel, 800 yards long, from tho east and emerge again totearás the east, having at the same time desceuded to a level ïnuch lower. At another point it was found easier to ïnonopoliie tho entire bed of the Eisack, and a new channel was made for the stream, including a tunnel through an intervening mountain preoipjee, presenting a singularly beautiful appearunce where the torrent carne rusiiirig forth into the sunlight. The roads now led us for severnl miles through the most wild and romantic fconery - the mountain sides becoming more bare and precipitous as well as higher. Perched upon the suminit of one of tho lower but abrupt eruinences was tho ruincd castle of Roifenstoin.and near" ly opposite, west of the road, the remains oí' Sjirechenstein, and i few miles further the diiapidated walls and towors of Welfenstein, whose great antiquity was written upon the very stones. The valley then became very narrow, and just bof ore opening into the moro expanded región beyond, at tho mcuth of the defllo, very formidable fortifications and defences havo been construoted, and seem to present an impregnable biirrier against any approach. The works are of beautiful out stone in pondorous blocka. Wo had a fine view up thepicturesquePusterthal, wliieh is one of tho longest valleys of the Tyrol. At its entrance are the sornewhat extensivo dependeneies of the old monastery of Neustift, founded in 1442. Wo now bey;:i.n to notico the ohestnut. wi'h its round top bi-istling with prickly burrs. Brixen, once an important place as an ecclesiastical center, appearod to bo of very limited pretensión at the present time: Agaitl the valley becamo narrow, and long bofore it is rcached we seo in the most pictitrosque atid inaccessiblo positioii; high upott a pointed roei; óf which It seeined but a continuation, the Benedictino monastery of Heben; The buildings aro very oitensive( appeáring to cover the whölo suintnit to the very brow of the precipice, and aro itl excellent condition, though samo portions are extremely ancient. It is r.aid to havo been once a Shetian fortress, then á Éoman castle, then, during tlio middlo ages, tho residence of a knightly Baron, and linally becaine tho property cf the BonedictineSi who still possess it. It ia tnuny hundred foet higher than the valley and the road, but occüpying au isolated cliff as it does, is visible for miles up and down the Eisach valley. Upon the face óf the tower nest thn road ia painted a gigantic crucifix, in menaory, it is said, of a nun who, to escape a ruffian Frenehman in 1809, preoipitated herself from tho tower at this point, and was dashed to pieees upon the rooks hundreds of feot bolow. No castle that we have before seen has seemed to occupy a sito so romantically picturesque. But a few miles further on, upon a projection from the ruountain side üpon our lei't, in. statoly pride stood the castle Trostburg, now kept up and oceupied at times by Count "Wolkenstein. This valley is extremely full of interest to the lover of fine scenory, and to the trátele! for the first timo approaohing the south ; and when tho train leaves tho narrow passage through the un willing mountains and almost suddenly emerges into a plain of considerable width, and the chestnuts cover the hillsides, and the vine begins to appoar, until finally all bocomes one vast vineyard, there is an almoat exuberant enjoymont feit in tho great contrast between what 0110 sees and what was left but a fow brief hours before. - Surrounded by this vineyard covering all the hills and all tho plain, is the stirring littlo city of Bozen, whero wo stopped. The grapes are not more than half gathered yet. We found Bozen aplace of about 12,000 inhabitants, and with tokens everywhere apparent of their great dependenco upon tlio vine, culture, though figs are grown abundantly, and lemons to some extent. Huge wine casks, eight feet long and of proportionate size othorwise, wero constantly being trundled bj' - casks open at one end, noarly a3 capacious, fitted with a inovable cover, filled with grapes or empty, were overywhere seen ; and in same of thoso the grapes wero being cru: hed with wooden pounders - not with the i'uefc so far as we síj,.. Paila, uibs and all sorts of wooden vossels stained with grape-juico were at the little stroams which traverse many of tho streets, for cleansing. Tho odor of acid grapes poured from the area3 and alleys as we passed, and grapes were piled on all the fruit stands. The only erop of any oxtent to be seen was buckwheat, which is quite extensively grown among the grapes whero open. spaces occurred, and in the fiolds not devoted to vinoyards. - These fields are not generally very large. Tho mode of training the grape . sally piacticed is quite attractive to the oye when when looking over a largo vineyard. Stakes about eight feet high are firmly set in tho ground ; about ten feet from these another row, and so on. - Traii9versely across these rows are fastened poles, at a height of about four foet and also near tho top. The vinesare trained up to the first transverso polo and then bent forward upon other poles sloping upward and resting upon tho upper transverso pole of the second row. The samo course is follswod over the entiro field, or as far as desired, and the whole resembles a constant succession of long rows of loafy sheds, generally sloping from tho sun. The situation of the city is very fiue, and castles look down trom many of the hills or mouutain sides. Tho cathedral church is the only one offering much attraction to strangors. Ita tall, perforated tower is very beautiful, and dates from 1519. Tho west portal is guarded by two largo lions of reddish marble, but each has suffered much from hard usage about the head and face. The principal beauty of the interior is the grand altar, which stands forward from the choir and is formed of fino marbles throughout, with beautiful mosaio floor and railing. We wimt up to Calvanenburg, a pilgriinage church upon a high elovation overlooking tho whole valloy for miles, and well repaying the ascent. The stations along tho path cootuiued the most siugularly repulsivo groups of life-size figures which it has yet been our fortune tosee; and how a work of this sort should bo recoived and preserved as an appropriate incentive to a devout inind by a civilized community it is difficnlt to conceive. Having dispatched our trunks from Bozen as freight to Venice, we took seats the noxt day at 4 P. M. in the diligencio for Moran, 16 railes distant. By engaging two seats in tho coupe and two iuimediately forward, we could slido the intevvening window, and could not bo annoyed by unpleasant eompanions as if occupying the rear and larger división of tho ponderous vehiolo. The seats wo thus reserved only contained' throe sittings each, aud wo were fortúnate in having respectable copartners. Butoighteen passengersand a hugolumbfiringoarriage with a top covorod with baggage is a pretty good load for two horses, and before thcy were changcd they showed signs of much fatigue. Tho ride from Bozen to Moran was very pleasaut, though the weather was not bright butthreatening rain. The road leacl through a Cuiitinuous vineyard most of the way, and frequont small villages wero p.tssed, and wo wore seldoin out of eijrlit of sorue ono or moro of the fino oíd ruins which lend a pieturesquo charm to so much of the scenery of this part of tho Tyrol. At Porlan, one of the villages we passed, we had our first siglit of a leaning towef: It is evidontly cansed by the scttling of tho ground nnil foundations in such a gradual and regular mannor as not to diaturb thejintegrity of the of tho staucture, though thö ificlinatiori is as much as threo or four feet from the vertical. It vrus dark when wa roached Meran, but we had nico rooms and a good supfier at the Graf Meran, and next morning sallied forth on a tour of inspection. ít is rriuch more pleitsant in appearance than Ko2en, though vtot Só largë. Tho whole country for miles aroiind is devotBd to grape. But the particular claim it has upou public patronago arises froin its süpp(i3ecl greater salübrity of cliaxate than inost of fhe places nc'ar, and the advantnges it offers for invalids who wish to try the so-callod grape-curo in autumn, or the whey-curo iti spring. - Thia haa made it quite a resoït for thöse sufferiiig froin pulmonary cömplaihts, and the numerous boarding houses and pensiona that have been erected, generally in the attructivo Swiss style, form a marked feature of tho place. The promenades along the madly dashing Passayr are very well laicl out, and decorated with fino shrubbery. The atttndance this season is much less than usual, being thtls fftl only about 1,500 in all. We oould not learn that any especial sucoess attonded the peculiar treatment here adopted. Upon tho promenade we met tnany of tho invalids, and generally they did not appcar to have delayed the Wörk of trying to battle with the disease. Very few seemed to be greatly reduced, and there wore moro males than feniales trying the cure. Though all may bo invain at least it is sonle alleViatioh to a iilalady so insidioüa to bo surroundcd with beautiful scenery, a genial cliruate and the comforts that may ba Compassed in a placo to somo extent devoted to the purpose. While so near we could not resisi the opportunity thus afforded to visit castle Tyrol, which is nearly 1,200 feet higher than tho city, is approached by a tunnel 350 feet long, and in foriner times was the residenco of the Counts of Tyrol, and from it the Tyrol derived its namo. It was first orected about the third contury, and is formed of two parts widely separated by a deep ravine, but connected by subterranean passages. One portion is entirely in ruins, but a small part of the walls remaining. A large part of the larger and principal castle ia untenable, and the other portion is only occupied by a so-called " castellan," by whom tho castlo is exhibited. There is but little now to see. The queen's room - that in which royal personages are received - is a pleasu:it room, with v'ory littla fariiurc and pictures of the prosent king of Austria, hú father and grandfuther. Tha queon of Austria had been thero the day before ourselves. From the balcony in front of this room a magnificent view is obtained of tho Ortler Alps, the highest group in the Tyrol. The Ortler peak, after which the wholo group is named, lifts upward its colli, stony pointed head 12,812 feet, and for a long time held tho secend position among all the mountains of Europe, Mont Blano standing first. The glaciers are sometimes quite destructivo in their descent from this range. Tho falls of the Etsch, as they are called, though remarkable aa a rapid, having a descent of 800 feet in about three miles, do not any whero present any striking perpendicular fall. Meran was tho capital of the Tyrol until Frederick the "empty pockets '' transferred it to Innsbruck, and bo oame the center around which gatherod the stern old knights of those medioval times, each of whom had his castle on aome eminence uot far off. This has made tho viciuity a rare place for those who are futid of these grand old relies of the buried past. Schloss Durnstein, covered with Ivy ; Castle Lobenberg, still well preserved and occupied Schonna, 1,400 feet above the plain, in u beautiful situa tion, is the residence of the Count of Meran ; and Fragsburg, Bruunenburg and Zensburg, of which broken walls and dilapidatod, ivy-clad towers only remain. Theso are some of the interesüng objects in this vicinity, noarly all of which, together with the far-spreading vinoyardi covering valley and hill, wero commanded from Schloss Tyrol. The old chapel, in which nobles and royalty have so oft assembled, is very unpretending. The rudoly sculptured figures upon the stone portals of the chapel are interesting only from their great antiquity. Inside tho 'very small ohancel still stands tho plain, rickety old wooden chair or stall in which Margaret Maultasch always sat when present at the services, Sho it was, who, after ruling for fourteen days, transferred the Tyrol to Austria, but upon ternis whieh protected tho constitutional rights of her people. Her own castle, in ruins, is close upon tho road between Bozen and Meran. Much botter ploased with tho latter than the former place, wo returned on the morning of tho second day and onco more took the train, this time for the memorable city of Trent. Now everything rapidly takes on the Italian look.and the Germán language is disuppearing. Tho porphyry and oastellated dolomito rocks, bare of vegotation, uscend on either hand to immense heights. Upon tho naked faco of one of theso cliffs, threg or four hundred feet high, ippears, perched liko a. swallows' nest, the crumbling walls of an ancient castle. How it was reached - unless by a balloon - we could not discover. Ploasant villages, old monasterios, pilgrimage chapéis, and roaiantic ruins constantly made the ride to Trent too varied and interesting to wcary, though the latter part of tho way was soinewhat too low, and even at times marahy. We arrived about 6. P. M., and the stir and confusión of an important station was rendered still more peeplexing becauso Italiun had hore quite superseded the German, and it was with difficulty any one could bo found through whom our wishes oould be made known. Loaving our vnlises at tho proper office, tor which checks wore given, we wended our wuy into the city close at hand, stopping at the Hotel de Villc. Trent ia a vory ancient city, and is frcquenlly mentioned in the Latin Classics. In lator timos it occupied the first position in wealth and prominentie in the Tyrol, but is somowhat in tho rear Of late. Having only 1G,000 inhabitants, ït presents an unusual number of old palaces, towers aud other evidencea of substantial prosperity üt soino period of its existettce. The site is rendered ihteresting by the precipitous walli v?hich face tho uiountam sides, upon s everal of whioh frown grjiy old castles. Tho old cathedral of 1212, with ifs t'vo towers, is not impressive in its exterior appearance. - Two buttered liona aro coüchod at one of the portals, and tho interior is so spacioua that in the diirt light of evening service it was at tirst diüicult to discover from whence the voices of the pviosts proceeded. Tho Manta Maria Muggiore, whero the celebrated Council held its sessiona, frorn 1545 to 156.'3, is of very moderate siie aud au unpreteuding brick structure, notable only on account of it historical associations. In tho spaoo near tho rear end ot' tha church stands a coluuin of reddish colored stono about '25 feet high, surmounted by a Madonna. It was erected on the 3O()th nnniversary of tho festival established in honor of tho Oodncil. Tho neit day wö took seats for Verona, having made our last stop on Austrian. 8oil. From Trent everything put on an Italian aspect. Tho valley was braad and fertile, and the gripes, instead ot' boing trained upoa trolliaes as further north, vrero left to wander at will over small trees, planted at suitable distancesj and otten wore gracefully trainod in sweeping curves from tree to tree, presenting a beautiíul appearance indeed. Owing to the warm sun the shade of tho trees did not at all intorfero with tho proper maturing oí' the grapes, and the soil was often thus inade to produeo grapes, and fruit upon the trees, and some other erop bctwoun the rows. Several splendid waterfalls wero seen tumbling from tha mouutusu sides, gcuerally of small streama but of ten of great height We did not stop at Boverido, though our introductions to one or two of the largest silk manut'acturers would doubtlesshave mada a brief inBpection of tho operation of silk making intcrestong. At Peri, the first Italian station, baggage is formally examined, but apparently for nothing but tobáceo and cigars. A traveler may have 24 cigars, but not 5, under penalty of Ccnfiscation. Passing then through the celebrated Chinsa di Verona, a very narrow defile noted for its ancieut battles, as Kivoli on the bank above is for lts moro recent struggles in Napoleon's time, we arrived at Veroaa. at ó p. il. Yours ever,


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