Press enter after choosing selection

America Vs. England

America Vs. England image
Parent Issue
Public Domain
OCR Text

A paánstaking eontributor to the Am ir lean Exchange and Review presentfl some interesting statistics compiled from tho censuses of the United Otates (1870) and England mul Wales (1871), shówing the comparativo intellectual, sooi&l and industrial "oondition of the iicujili of the two counirie. 'L'liougli it ík more than four yeais ranee dale oí the British oensus, it is only within a few months tliat the returns relating to oceupationa have been aooossible ob tliis sido f tho water. Tho schedules of oooupationa have been differently framed by the Oensus Supervisors of the two counfcries, and comparisons in sorne instárteos aro impossiblo, but in otkers they are and may be taken advantage i' by the statiatician. It raay be romiirkod generally that t lic British sckedule is more systemaücally and mmu'tely digested than the Amenoan, and. that ibe census returns havo beeu more closely collectod. From tho articlo. rcfci'ivd lo, which is somewhat (-labórate, tlio feilcfwiag summary of the satient points is prefaced. All ocoupations in England and Wales are reducod to six grimd divisions, as follóos : P&re&na. 1. Professional ('.;overnninil. ollicials, army and navy, learned prof essions) . . . . 684,102 2. Dojiirwtic (wlves and othera engaged iu liousoholtl ilittica, HovvantH) 5,905,171 ;t. (lonniHTcial (penosu wlui bny and se]] ; oenona engaged in conveyanco of men audROorln) Rlr.,-124 4. Hgricultnral 1,657,138 5. Industrial (persona ongaged in niiiiiníí, nianufacturoe) 5,137,725 G. Indefinito and non-prnduotive (scholars, persons of rank and properiy, iïeucral laborcrs, and all otliers) 8,512,700 Total 22,712,200 The labor of oomparing these oocupations with those of tho population of thci United States is diflieult on account of the ililFerences in elassiñeation , but the compiler bas been able, after sifting and rearranging, to present tbc following, which may relied upon as correct : United Staties 5ïi Class. _, 5 Per g p. Jfumber. cent. ;r ' ■ S.S' ProfeaBiona), except frtndent 450,53a 1.17 2.11 Stiidonts "1 , .„ Dolnoatlo, Indeflnlte and V 28,101,549 73.11 ■,.,,,„ non-prodnctlve j (.I'J-4? Connnertnal (trade and trausportation) 1 ,03(),cfiS 2.K1 3.5!) Agricultura] 5,22,471 15.S6 7.:io Iuduatrial íniauni'actnrcímocbanical and mining). 2,003,160 7.53 22.03 Totals 38,558.371 100.00 100.00 It will be obsorvcd tbat the number of professional people in England is twice tliat of the United States ; that tbis is the greater agricultural oonntry by 100 per cent., and that England is tho greater mechanical, mining and manufacturing country by 200 per cent. In the proportion of persons supported by agrioulture Franco is much more like I tlio United States than like England and Wales. The proportion of the population engaged iu agricultura in the several Europcan States is said to be as folj lows : Itussia, 8G per cent. ; Italy, 77 ; Sweden, 71 ; Belgium, 51 ; Trance, 50 ; Prussia, 45 ; Austria, 25 ; Spain, 25 ; Holland, 16. If tho domestic and iudefiuite jiopulation of England and Wales is distribnted among thoso engngcd in agrioulture in the same proportion as in other occupations, it will give about 20 per cent. of tbeir populatioii as dependent upon agriculture. A noteworthy feature of the British census of 1871 is that tho proportion of persons employod in agriculture in England and Wales, as to the genend population, has gradually deolined sinco 1851, Í tho ratios bang : 1851, 10.71 ; 1861, i 9.27 ; 1871, 7.30. Some figures oomparing the social condition of several countries are extremely interesting and curious. For example, the proportion of lawyers and their aasistants to the whole population in these countries is as follows : Engiaod and Walop. ouo to eaoh 0.":i United Si i f os, one I" i ach 04 ( Frauoe, one to eacb 1.070 Belgium, one lo each. 2,700 PtnsBia, ono to eacb 12,uoo Litigation is, therefore, comparativoly I unknown among the Germans, while among the Engliah-apeaking people it is a great (oud expenaive) institution. ]t may be renaarkod that onr Germán population readily Ml into American customs in tliis respect as soon as tliey settle down among us. Tho returns show the following proportion of clergymen to population : United States, one to Mota 870 Kiiíílainl and Wales, one to eaofa 71 lin.ssij, one to each '2) France, one to each '2:ir ! Italj-, ono tocaeh 143 Spa i n, one to each Si The vast disproportion of persons in religious orders between the Catholio and Protestant bonntriea iu the actiro list is immediately notioeable. An interesting ; fact is, tliat the Dissenters are iocreasillg ' very much more rapidly in England j tlian members of the Established Olmrch. The per cent. of increase of Dissenters from 1851 to 1871 was 44. G , and of comI municants in the State Church 19.5. Th(! proportion of physicians (includ: ing ohetaiflts and druggists) in England and Wales is ono in each C61 of the inhabitants, and in the United States elusivo oí aruggistsj one 111 encli bl. The comparison is imperfoct for obvious reasons. Thore are more physicians in both countriea ílian members of any other one of tlie loamed professions. Of dentista England and Wales liavo one in 9,210 pcople, and the United States one in 4,919 people, which is nielan choly e vidence of superior adaptability of Americana to toothacho aud falso " sets." In England and Wales tliero are 29 papila to eaoh teaoher, on the average, aud in the United States 33. Of persona engaged in administeriug the general Government, thore are 53,874 in England and Waíes, and 67,882 in the United States. As the population of tliis country is nearly twiee that of England and Wales, it will be seen that, in spite of English critieism on American place-lmnting, our cousins are as badly aíllicted. The difíerence in thoir favor is that their ollioials hold oílioe during good behavior, while ours depend pon tho uncortain tenure of a politieal party. In the Unitedtates there 2,050 membërs of the theatrical profession, of bom ono-third are womsri, and in ÉngLmd and Wales there &re :5,5í2, of whom (inc-half ars women, showing the greater prosperifcy of the bu.siness in the oíd country thari (his, owinfí, undoubtedly, to the greater density oi (he popnlation. The following figures are taken trom the cansuses of the two oountries. In obsetvjng the differenoes it should be remejrïbèred that the population of England and Wales is 22,717,266, and of the ünitèd States, 88,655,083, acoording to the respective censases of 1871 and 1870: Enyland United Occvpations. umi Wales, tSUUe. In&keepera 8i,50d 61,S79 Cuiiirii.Ti-ial travolera 17,923 7,-Jli-J Poddlera 44,r17 lfi,97B dmiOiiinu and oartora 1 14,203 120,7fifl Merühant Beamen 179,138 56,663 FarmcrB 249,907 2,984,299 Printen I4.HI4 39.880 Watchand üo6kfiu&era 'Jl,27;i 3,396 Architects 5,897 2,017 Oarpentera 2OB,833 844, Í96 Dricklaytra and ajaoofl 196,147 89,710 Millim .is and drossmiikere 301,109 92,084 ü.iot :unl Bhoanaakers 223,365 171,127 Dntchera 75,847 44,364 Uakera 59,060 27,680 ■ 111,1(14 74,410 lihti-lcsiintliK 112,471 141,774 The large number of dressmakers, millinera and bakers, in the small populatiori of England and Wales may bs aooonnted for by the propositídn that) in Ihis country nnicli (.1 the WOrk ei fchoSO trivdes ia done by housewives. Sta : iow Unit paupeiistn is nvpidly tlesreftBinR ia Londou;


Old News
Michigan Argus