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Diphtheria image
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At a meeting of the Board of Health Last evcning, Health Officer Lindsley, in accordance viitii the suggestions ol1 the board at a previous meeting, fiubmitted the following paper. It will be printed in pamplilet form for generaJ circulation: Diphtheria is both a contagious and an infectious disease; it is, moreover, one of the class of filth diseases- that is, it occurs most frequently and in the most malignan t and fatal forni -where dampneps and dirt do most prevail. The means li protcction, therefore, obviously lie in avoidanoe of exposure to its presenoe and in the most scrupuloüs attention to cleanliness. Absolute isolation of the sick, the most rigid purity of surroundings, aided by dieinfection when required, would probably extermínate the disease. The veteran sanitarian, Dr. E. M. Snow, of Providence, saya that where there is abundant sunlight, dryness, cleanliness and pure air diphtheria cannot prevail. The same conditions -will protect almost as effectually from most other dangerous diseases. Such being the truth, neither als nor communities can afford to ignore the fact that tbey are in a great degree responsible for their own health. When a case occurs in any family, the sick person should be placed in a room apart irom the other inmates of the hous?, and should be nnrsed as f ar as possible by one person only. The sickchamber should be well warmed, well aired, and exposed to sunlight; its furniture should be such as can becleansed without injury, and all superfluous things, as vindow and table drapery, woolen carpets, and the like, should be removed. The iamily should not mingle -with other pcople. Visitors should be warned of the presence of a contagious disease, and children should not be admitted to the house. All clothing removed írom the patiënt should be at once placed in boiling water ; instead of handkerchiefs, softpieces of linen or cotton cloth should be used and immediately burned. Disinfectants should be placed in all the vessels which receive the expectoraron or other discharges from the patiënt. Disint'ectants should also be freely used in the sickroom. Those which destroy bad odors ■without causing others are best, such as solution of nitrate of lead and chloride of zinc. . The sick person should not mmgle witli others uutil fully recovered, and in case of scarlet fever until all roughness of the skin, due to the disease, has disappeared, because the exfoliated skin is especially infectious. The ciisinfection of the sick-room should be thorough. The walls should be dry-rubbed and the ciotiis usea burned without shaking, the eeiling should be scuped and lime-washed. The floor and woodwork should be washed with soap and water. Tlie clotlüng or bedding"used by the patiënt or nurse should be purifled by boilmg at least one hour, and should always be cleaned by themselves, and under no circumBtances should they be sent to a laundry. In case of death the body should be placed as early as practicable in the coffin, with disinfectants, and the coffin tightly closed. Children certainly, and in most cases adults, should nut attend a funeral frora a house in which a death fronidiphthena or scarlet fever has occurrea. But with suitable preoautions it is not necessary that the burial should be strictly private, provided that the corpse be not in any way exposed. Because children are especially liable to take and to spread these diseases, and because schools afford a free opportunity for this, evei-y child irom any family in which a case of either of these diseases has occurred should bo excluded irora school and be readmitted not sooner than one nionth irom the beginning of the disease, except upon the certifícate of some competent physician that it will be safe. All the abo-ve precautions concern the dangers of contagión. But the continued prevalence of these diseases m any eommumty is probable evidence of insanitary surroundings, and of sources of sickness, partially or wholly preventable. The most exemplary housewife, whose home is the very model of neatness and order, may have all her efforts defeated in a sanitary sense by a defective sink-trap or a leaky drain-pipe, or an overflowing cesspool, or an undrained cellar, or even by a heap of decaymg garbage in her neighbor's yard. Therefore, lookwell to the surroundings Abolish fililí, remove dampness and all sources of foul eiir, especially f rom living and sleeping rooms. Disinfect thorougliiy all suspected places m yards and neglected corners. The following disinfectant is both very cheap and efficiënt: Take of copperas (sulphateof iron) five pounds, and dissolve in three gallons of water. The Eftect of Low Tolls. The operations of the JBne canal auring the last year exhibit the -wisdom of the policy of low fares with an increase of service and an increase of revemie. The rate of tolls on the Erie canal was so heavy that the general shipment of merchandise to the West by that route had declined, and inmany lines of goods had absolutely ceasfd. At the opening of navigation 'in 1877 the canal tolls on Westorn-bound freight were reduced 50 per cent., and certain taxea on the boats were abolished, and the result has been that the total number of tons of merchandise shipped to the West from New York in the season of 1877 was 408,59b itgainst 106,180 tons in the vear previous. The tolls collected were $53,548 in 1877, against $42, 146 in 1 876. The pubhc had 408 000 tons of merchandise tranpported inÏ877for$53,5i8, while the ycar before they had to pay $42,146 tolls od 106,000 tons. Thecaualperformed four tiinès the servies tor the public at less than half the rate, and the State of New York received more revenue, and the bontmen earned more inoney. - t'luoago Tribune. A Filter to Purify Air. At a recent meeting of the New ïorfi Aofidemy of Useful Arts, ertteoüon -was called tó a simple inethod of filtenug the air of an apartment. The object is to free the flir from ilust, exoessive dampness, and possibly, froni the germs of ïralnria, The eontrivance consists essentially of a fibroas woven fabric, atrengthened by brass wire. lt is to be applied to -windows and ventilators, and tnay be of service on railway cara to exp'm'de dust. It has the merit oL checkmp; dranghts, while admitting air. lts general use might ttnd to prevent the spread of malarial disoasea. and modity tho dangöïB that dirty streete occasion to the faeaftb of oity residente. -iveyj roen Tri''


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