To the Board of Education of the City of Aun. Arbor : Gentlemen - üerewith I subinit i'or your considoration my Kighth Annual Report of the Public Schools of this city. Keinembering that nothing is of groater moment to us as familie and as a uominunity than the right education of our cLildron, it is always with some 8olicitudo that we take oui annual reckouing and colloct the yearly liistory of our schools. But it is with much siitisfaotion at this time that w present to you the following faots and reflections concerning tho operations of the schools during tho year just olosod. In the statistics the financial itoins cover the whole year to date. 1. Equalized valuatton rf district proporty $l,27o,(Vx.oo 2. Cash vuluatHin of school property, 130,000.00 3. B&laocc on hand from precedin$i yi-ar, $93-9 4. Amoiint rccoivi'd l'roni priinilry school fund ".. 1,155.50 5. Ainount FCcived froni local taxation, I two-mill tax 2,541.20 "1 voted on property, n90LAO 6. Amount reixivcd from tuition - ( non-rcsidimts, 4,519.30 1 residente 70,5 7. Anionnt received l'roni all olher MUI HLS,. 09-79 Total recelpts. %xi2l5-Oi) S. Cost of superkitendence and instruction, Siy.T'-i 9. Cost o!' incidcnlals, 4f94&.95 10. Am't paid tor honds and inleivsl, 7,o-o 11. Amount paid lor permanent improvemcnts _',ïl -''s ia. Popidation ot" district (estimated), . 7,500 13. Census of school age 2,311 5 . . % i " : 1 .1 5 5 L S 14. Kiirollmcnt oí pupils not Including transfers, 479 513 949 1941 15. Average numbur of pupils belooging, 336 P3 7.V 4$o 16. Averag-e Guury attendance, 325 397 (yS 1430 17. Per cent. of attendance,. . 90.72 90.12 954S 95.9 iS. N'i. ui men teachers, not Special) 3-4 -4 4 lo. No. of women teachers, not speeUl, 5.6 9.6 [4 29 20. Ño, of special teachers, . . 3 1. Xo, of pupils to each teacher, 37 41 52 44 22. Average attendance of pupils in days, 135 150 146 146 23. Averajye ajju of highest class pFomoted, 19.1 14.7 10.6 4. No. non-resident pupils,.. 2S9 45 27 361 35. Cost of education per capita lor instruction, $0.35 12.53 7.S3 12.02 26. Cost of education per cap Ita for incidentals ,3-34 3-34 3-34 334 . Xotftl and average cost of education pur capita,. ,. 23.69 15.87 11.17 15.36 The following items are often called for: No. of pupils ander 6 years of agc 'oo No. of pupüs betweeii ó and 16 years of .age, . . . 1443 No. of pupils over 16 ycurs of ac 39$ Xo. ot pupils over 20 years of age 100 COMPARATIVE TABLE. The following table is a comparativo exhibit of the most important items of school attendance during past ole ven years : 1 II 1 jj Is í -s c, 1 vEAR, I I U j I w % &ë i ZÍ L 1S67-S, 1,999 M.io 92 '3 ï2i $1,950 1S6S-9, i,86t l,oi 93 121 125 1,077 1S60-70, i,So4 1,182 94 120 135 2,025 1S70-1, 1,749 i,i$2 94 132 14S i,So9 1S71-2, 1,'S.fo 1,206 95 13 166 2,774 1S7J-3, 1,788 1,200 95 134 200 3,336 ■873 1. '.77O 1,254 95 142 225 3,890 1S71 5. 1.7'H '' 95X 142 24" 4. 'N7ï '. '7O9 '9S 95 146 246 4,101 1S76-7. "i1 1.337 9SH '4.1 w9 4.597 1S77-S, 1,941 i,4i .i) 140 jfi 5,290 The increasö in the enrollinent over last year was 77, of which uumbor all but fivo were non-residents. The steady increase of non-resideut attondanco nul tuition recoipts in these tirues of tinancial depression will be as gratifying as it is surprising. The cost of instruction in the schools is $12.0Ü per capita, caleulated on tho Dumber belonging, but it we subtract the tuition receipts from the aggregate cost, it reduces the cost per capita to 18.48. I venture to say that no first clas gradüd school in the State can present a more economical showing. These facts are not given here to close the mouths of those who habitually decry the cost of the schools, but rathor to show our patrons that the moneys used in the support of the schools are jtidiciously expended. Tbo per cent. of attendance is the highest ever reported in our schools ; indeed it is as high as we ougbt to expect, or perhaps desire. Some of the schools, by reason of the scarlot fever fright, show a low per cent., or irregular attendance, but this was woll counterbalanced by the steadiness of others, especially the High School. The influx of children into the first grade at the opening of the Spring term is always a source of embarrass ment in classification and a detriment to the progresa of classes in that grade. I again urge upon the Board tho propriety of prohibiting admissions to the primary grade, after the first term, of sucli childron as can not be accommodated ia existing classes. Such a rule would wrong no one and benefit many. Those pupils who have maintained a perfect attendance during tho year are admitted into the following roll of honor : Hioii School - Almeda Arrastrong, Martha A. Wheeler. (iiiAMMAit Schooi.- Charles Allmand, Ourrie W. Frazer, Fuiime L. Gwinner, Arthur MuraiDory, Lizzie Mummery, William R. Prico, Paul V. Ferry, Adeila Whitney, Phcbe Wliitney. Kor f our years- Ada. S. Üpaou. Fikst Ward School- Arthur Tagge, Willie Tolchard, Nellie Shtrley, Lutie lióse, Dora Ulber. For tico years - Gartie Hose, Frank Hallock, Newton lJholps. For thrce years - Hiland Thatcher. Second Ward ScnooL - Fred Bierman, Víctor ilogk, Daniel O'liourk, Fred Uoehin, Ida 'ibit.ul, Amelia Gwinner, Susie GrafT, Mary Sohaeberle, Willard Schwab, Bertha Bonnien, John Bonnien. For iwo years - Mary Hom, E111ÍI3' Jonter, Itobert Gwinner. For three years - Bertha Kuebler, Amanda Byer. Thibd Wahd School- Louise Wurater. For twoyears - lid ward Seyler. Foubth Wahd School- Louis Weinman, Wellington ïate, Uscnr Frank, Allie Dodsley. Fifth Wakd School - For three years - Katie Bello Lovejoy. Without giving names wo also havo : Not absent or t;irdy for two tcrins, 115 " ' " " " one term, 217 In this connoction it may not be amiss to make an item on the punctuality of teachers. There have been 17 cases of tardiuess of teachers during the year, in the several schools, asfollows: First ward, 5 ; Third ward, 2 ; Fourth ward, 10. Some of these I am sure were inexcusable. As a whole the teachers have been faithful in the discharge of tbeir duties, but there have been atnong them varied degrees of succoss. Some seem to have a genius for teaching ; they generally have an enthusiasm for it, study its philosophy, read with eagerness and to a purpose, make the most of the machinery in tbeir hands, are on the alert, experiment as eagerly as Fiilton did with Ntciuii, and of course are frequently working out now and succesaful processes of instruction or management. Other teachers plod ; they expect to be furnished with uiothods ; they mean to carry out suggeslions faithfully, but do it too mechanically ; they provide themsolves with tho needed helps slowly, if at all, do not see the possibilities of what they have in hand, nevor become thoroughly aroused with their work, and I half suspect dismiss it from their minds as quickly as possible after four o'clock. Pupils under such teachers are dull, reluctant, and uninterested. Probably at do great additional cost, and with a decisivo policy respecting efficiency, the fornior class of teachers üould bo placed in all our schools. It is a matter, it seenis to me, of oonsideration by the Board and the patrous of the Bchool. Por comparison and reference, I give liere the number in each study of the course below the High School. üoys. Girls. Total. U'riting-, 677 5SS 1265 Xumbers, 401 - 32 725 Aritlnnctic, 405 $51 761 Geoirraphy yii 4S9 1050 Oral Language 362 33 '''S Drawing 470 387 S57 Staging 77' '7Ml! Primary Botany, 22S 163 421 I&Cadlng and Spelling, 793 6yj ïjSj GRAMMAK SCHOOI. FXCI.USIVKI.V. Boys. (iirls. Total, liook-Keeping 57 40 97 Enlish CTrammar, 173 ii 315 United Sl;itcs History, 50 52 10S Scivnce of Government, 34 31 65 Ebmentary ChmisUiYf 3 .V 6ö KtcMH-iit:try l'hysics,... 23 25 4S A comparison of the above table with a similar one of last year shows that the number in writing tliis year has increased 265. This comes maiuly from our lato practico of putting pupils to writing farther down in the grados - alraost, indeed, from their entrance into school. Childron are allowod to print now but very littlo, in some uases not at all. Wö find that many children at six years of age can learn to write quite roadily and thus effect quito a saving of time. Soveral other studies, as Botany, Language, and Singing have also beon taught lower down in tho coursa, as the increased numbers in them indícate. We still believe that Drawiug, if rightly directed, will prove to be one of the most valuable of the primary studies. Besidos its sthetic advantagus it is helpful lo the pupil in his studies, educating the eye, and sharpening the mental fauulties for a more ready acquiremeut of other kuowledge. The ditch digger, the carpen ter, the blacksmith, and the marble cuttur will do better work for baving had the beuefits of it, and will probably be sotnething more than a day laborer. The girls who pursuo it, will be more skillfnl housekeepers, and souiu of them will eveutually find employment as carvers, ungravers, designers of ornament, and decoraters of pottery. From a broad survey of the activities of the world, it is also evident that our commercial and manufacturing prospority is to hinge in no small degreo upon industrial art manufactures. The 5th, tith, and Tth grades are now tolerably well grounded in the elementary principies of industrial drawing and decorativo designing, as set forth in the manuals of W. Smith. We have been accustomed to stop the class work in Drawing at the end of the Tth grade, but it seems to me tbat in order to reap the best fruit of what we have already done, the study ought to bo oarried . through the 8th grade, and perhaps into the High School. If this can not be done I reoommend that pupils be permitted to elect Drawing in the Sth grade in place of one of the presenbed studies. We are unfortunate in losing the services of Miss O'Hara, who has built up our Drawing on its present basis. Miss Lily Chase, who takes hur place, bas just onjoyed the benefits of a course of instruction at the Normal Art School, Woithington, Ohio, and we have every reason to expect that she will successfiilly meet the requirements of the position. The resignation of tho special toacher of music oaused us some apprehension in regard to that important part of our grada instruction, but I umi happy to say that, under the management of Miss Perkins the work hss gono i'orward with niarked success and thoroughness. It is coming to be pretty well understood that tho best service which can be rendered a child is to develope his taste for good reading and thon gratify it liberally. If his reading is lirnitnd to his Second, Third, or Fourth Reader, no amount of school instruction will malee liiui a ready, intelligent reader, or give him tho proper pabulum for a broad and well grounded sebolarship. In the lowor grades we have feit an increasing need of more reading matter than the courge of study furnishes. To supply this want we tiied the use of vanóos periodicals. Of tho Nursery, Monthly Reader, Wide Awake and Youth's Couipanion, tho various schools have used about 150 copies. The oxperiment has been exceedingly gratifying, awakening a fresh interest in tho reading exercise at a time when it is most likely to buconio irksome. Kxtending the above idea.it is high ly probable that we ought to do more than we are doing in the Oranimar and High School Departments to edúcate and direct the taste of our pupils in reading. There is more educativo powor in a well managed library than in any other agency of society at tho samo cost. But to make tho library a power for good iu tho school, the children must be taught what to read and how to read. Here is a field for teachers to work in, which has yet boon but poorly occupied. The District Library is woll selected, is well patronized by tho pupils, and is doing much good, but it is smal) - only about 600 volumes of readable books. We are enabled to make somo additions to it each year from fine uioneys received - last year the amount was $59.60. If the Board could appropiiate about $100 per year to its enlargement, it would keep pace with the growing wants of the school and finally become a credit to the city. Tho usiiiil examinatiou of the Sth grade, at the close of the spring term, resulted in the admisaion of 45 to the High School. The average age of the class was 14.7 years. Thoso standing 95 por cent or over u theirfinal examinations were Alice Cochrau, Fannie Downer, Annie Fischer, Carrie Frazei.Satia Hyde, Jennie Polheinus, May Whedon. mon school. This department has had another year of prosperity, exceeding even our expectations. The enrollment was 479, an excess of 62 over the previous year. Th whole amount of tuition received in all tho schools -but nniinly in the High School - was $5,290, an excess of $603 over receipls of the previous year. The gain in two years has boen 106 pnpils and $1,198. The Detroit school authorities have recently made some investigatious and comparativo estimates of the cost of High Schools which are especially ineresting to us. From sufficient data, tho cost of tuition for a singlo month (February) iu most of the High Schools in the State, wus found to be as folio ws : Albion, $2.02: Flint,$2.44; Battle Creek, $2.23; East Saginaw, $2.16;örand Rapids, $2.16; Poiitiac, $2.07 ; Coldwater, $2.41 : Niles, $1.88; Jackson, $2.65; üorunna, $2.61 ; Kalamazoo, $2.01 ; Lansing, $2.34 ; Detroit, $2 08 ; Ann Arbor, $1.80. In 29 other High Schools of the lurger class of.cities in different parts of the country, the cost ranged from $2 65 to $8.04. If now we subtract the tuition receipts paid in the High School from the aggregate cost of instruction and then calcúlate the oost to resident pupils, we find it $1.35 per month. If the value of ñon-resident population to the city were admitted into the account it would be easy to show that the High School is at least self-snpporting. I nmki! thest) presentations that we tnay open our oyes to the fact that we have upon our hands a school of largo proportions, wido reputation, and peculiar composition, and that its management is noslight responsibility; and, second, to show that wo can afford to treat it more liberally tban we havo yët done. I slmll hero Stiy nothing of the imporative neeessity ot' employing tor it none but first-class teachers. That bas boon woll attended to. lint it is a fact tb at in aoniö branches we are vory meagerly supplied with illu8trative appuratus and specimens. Iu Botany, Physiology, and Zoology we have nothing at all, and in Goology but a small collection poorly cared for. What we firat neod is a room, and a few cases and cabinets for preserving and displaying material. With these, spociuions will come in front varioii9 sources - a nuraber havo already been offorod us - and we slmll soon have a respuctablo beginning of a much needed museum of Natural History. Sonio valuable additions were made during tho yoar to the Physical appaiii tus, auiong which may bo meutioned a Magneto-Klectric Machine and a Spectroscope. The lattor was i ui portod for us by Ritchie, of Boston. As indicationa are increasing that the Metric System will soon be introduced as a branch of elementary instruction in the public schools, we have obtained a fow pioces of apparatus, sufficient to illustrate its main features. The eimplicity and practical valuo of the system ought to basten its general adoption. The late modification of requiroments for admission to the Univeiüity has neces8itated some changos in our coursos of study. Cheruistry, Astronomy and one year of Latin have been added to the Scientific Course, and the Freneh diminishod by two torms. Tho English course, without modificatiou, is preparatory to the now courso of "Letters" estublished in tho University. These changes have brought tho University into complete counection with the High School aloug the whole line of its literary work, and I regard them of much consequence to the prospects of the school. They will probably resuue the English course frora threatened desuotude and place it alongside the other courses in value and popularity; but they will render a larger number of High Schools iu tho Stato preparatory to the University, and ao will be likely to diminish the nou-resident patronage of our owu. At the close of the school yoar important action was taken by the Board in ranking awarded diplomas. Three ranks were established, the requirements for each of which may bo briefly atated thus : For rank A, all tbe prescribed work of a course, or its equivalent, with superior scholarship throughout, especially the last half of the course ; for rank B, sufticient work and thoroughness for admission to the University ; for rank C, good scholarship in fundamental branches, but some studies may be omittod or accepted with less thoroughne8s. We have long deplored the lack of some means of recognizing different degrees of scholarship in the High School, and have no doubt that tho effect of this action will be stimulating and salutary upon the pupils. The variety and quantity of work done in the High School may be seon iu the table below, which gives the branches taught, and the number of pupils in each. Stuoiks. Boys. (lirK Total. Latín, 1Í3 6S 231 Greek, 54 12 66 Kruncli 51 45 -O" Germán, 15 20 35 ELhctoiic 2 16 40 Analysis, 13 2 37 Compositfon 45 35 00 (iratnmar, 70 40 1 10 EngHsh Lite-rature, z 17 41 Btyniology 7 10 .ï Keadinfr, , 16 2 40 Geornetry, 75 12 107 Atoebrá, 177 111 2SS Anthmetic, 55 55 no Book-Keepinjf, 79 .V m Geometrical Drawing, .. 10 6 U. S. History, 46 50 96 General History, 33 37 70 Román History 30 26 56 Grecian History, i 17 39 English History, ,1 y Astronomy , 7 10 Cliemistrv, 11 4 15 Naturel 'Phllosophy, .... m ï t Zoology is ij t.i Physiology 11 27 js Botany ,ii .w 70 Physical Geography, .... $q go s (itiO(raphv, ü 51 loliti al Economy, S f u Civil Govemment, ,n . 23 50 An additional teacher was needed and omployed a part of the year, viz.: A. S. Bennett during the winter term and W. L. Jonks tho spring term. The graduating exercises of the senior cías closed the yoar's work June 21, in the hall of the Central building. The entertainment consisted of six essays and nine orations by mombors of the class, selected 011 the basis of seholarfihip. The musiu wus by Bishop's band of Detoit. Fifty-six diplomas were awardeJ in tho several courses as follows : Clas.su-iii Course, 14 Iitiu " - - - - 12 Scientific " ■ - - ■ 26 Bnglish " - - - - -'3 CoinmerciAl " .... 1 Two diplomas have been grantod since the exercises took place. Of the above number, 41 were recommended to tho Univorsity. The class was a strong ono in quality, and I think will give a good ancount of itself in collogo. Several pupils who did not gradúate have been admitted to the University, by exainination. The adoption by tho Board of a rule prohibiting secret societies in the High School is both tiraely and important. Tbero may be some harmless and even good features in such societies, but thoy havo raroly failod in our school to lower the scholarship of pupils who have joined them. Parents, and I believe most of our pupils, will regard tho rule with much 8atÍ8faction. SCHOOL ACC0MM0DATI0N8. The constant growth of the High School has made moro room for its operations an absolute necessity. During a large part of last yoar chapel services were omitted and the chapel was used for recitations, two classes frequeutly occupying it at the same time - by no meaus a comfortable arrangement. Moreover, for two years we have rented a small, unsuitable room on South Fifth street for a primary school. The want of more room in that part of tho city is likely to be permanent, and the Board have therofore erocted an additiou of two rooms to the First ward building. For the coming year it bas been decided to place at the disposal of tho High School 0110 of the rooms heretofore occupied by tho Orammar School and to accommodate a portion of the sixth grade, thereby displaced, in one of the new rooms of the First ward building. Considoring convenience of position and management, and the relief this measure will givo to tho High School, the expedient of the Boaid must commend itsolf to every ono who examines it. It should bo observed by our patrons that the Orammar Department íb composed of the öth, (ith, and 8th grades, that each ward school bas, at least, one - tho öth - of these grades, and that, by the expansión of the High School, the bigher grades of the Grammar School are likely to be relegated to the ward schools. The teachers and their positions for tho coming year will he as follows : V. s. l'riijtv, Superintendent. HIGH SCHOOL. J. (i. Pattenglll, Principal, Grcek mul Iitin. 11. N. Chute, Hiffher Matttematics and Physics. I-ucy A. Chiticiulin, Gcrtnan and Hilur Kntili.sli. Snr;ili '. Pease, Freneh. BUen Hc-al, Asststani in Latin. IJ. E. Nicliols, ' Commercial Dcpai tnii-nl. Adeline B. Ladd, llistory and Arithmetlc. Cynthia A. S;ijii, Natural Science. Colby, Algebra and Bngllsh, GRAMMAR SCHOOL. Clara L. Conovcr, Principal, Kihth Grade. Abblc A. Pninl, Seventh (iraile. Addie H. Morey, Sixth and Sevcnth Grades. Eli.a Lodd, Antatant (Readinjr) FIRST WARD SCHOOI.. Ruthette Kcrr, Principal, Sixth Grade. Helen Buzard, Sixth and Fifth Grades. Plora 1. llnll, Fourtb Grade, Bvnily 1. Eldritlge, Third Grade. Allee rorter, Second Grade. Maggie McDivitt, Kirst Grade. SECOND WARD SCHOOL. MaryMulholland, Principal, Sixth ind FifthCii.nl. ■-. Krank 5. I.arned, Konrlh and Third Grades, lilla S. Wright, Second Grade. Susie SKXr, First Grade. THIRD WARD SCHOOL. Marian Itrmvn, Principal, Sixth and Fifth Grades. josephine Armstronfr, Fourüi andThird Gradea Ncttic I'. Ames, Second and Plrat Grades FOURTH WARD SCHOOI.. Uli.a Botsford, Principal, Sixlh and I'ifth Grades Kanny H, Kcllogtf, Fourth and Third Grades Kitiina R. Chapín, Second Grade. Hattle L. Taylor, Kirst Grade. FIFTH WARD SCHOOL. Mury I.. Marlyn, Principal, Fifth, Kcnirth, anc Third Grades Lida Canwell, ■ Second and First (irades SPECIAL TEACHERS. lï. IC. Nichols, Penmansbtp Kucliit' M. Perkins, Music. ï.ily Chase, Drawin With a grateful upprecintion of your fnvors and many kind offices, this report is Rospectfully subinitted, W. S. PERRY, Supt. Ann Au kok, Aug. '2G, 1878. . . - - - The üemocracy of Lenawee couuty, so far as we have heard, are giviog Hou. Ira H. Care a wurm support. We have the utmost confideuce iu hia Democracy and his alnlity, auc ho wil L luaku vigorous campaign. Klsewhere wo giro commeuts of papers ot the district We are uot authorizod to apeale for him ou hls fluancial views, but we have always umlorstood him to support the Ohio idea, and thinlc the Arous ruisrepieseuts him. He is said to be nu excellent speaker, aud no doubt our people will mioii hear his views trom his owi lip?. We bolieve bis electiou is a foregoue conclusión. - Adrián Presi. In response to which we uxtraot froiu a letter received f rom the Hon. Ira B Card, under date of Aug. 12: "Allow me to thttnk you for your favorable notice of iu y nominatiou as Democratie can dldute for Congross ia this district, in your papar of the 9th inst. Your statomouts regarding my pusition on the flnaucial questiou are correct. I endorse fully the iMn;lm,'iu plattoini 'mi. Iu by the Democracy at Lansiug on the lOih of July last." Mr. Card does not "curry water on botli shoulders," and has no disposition to go back on his record aud eat dir1 to curry favor with suuh voters as are disposed to let themselves out as wetuurses to the "rag baby." Tuomas II. BENTON wa8Certainly one ot' the truest Demócrata and wisest statesinen of his day. And this is what Thomas H. Benton said in the interest of the workingnian, - the same workinginan whom the modern financia] doctor haa inoculated with the greenback disease : "Gold and il ver is the best currency for a republic. It snits the men of niiddle property and the working people best, and if I was going to estabiisb. a workingman's party, it uhould be on the basis of hard mouey, a hard money party against a paper uioney party." The workingman who imagines that the ills and evüs brought upon the country by a destructivo war and au overissue of paper promises - miscalled money - can be cured and banished by an inilation of the same currency, should ponder the words of Toni Benton. The Republioans of the First Congressional District (Wayne County) have nominated John S. Newberry, lawyer, munufacturor, aud capitalist, as thcir Crtiididate. Mr. Newberry has one hobby, if no more, which would maku him acceptable to Moses W. Field, but a poor representative of the interests of the district : that is a protective tarift'. Ho is as ultra a proteutionist as Moses hiinwilf. THE Hvening Newa is n't exiictly pleased because Zack Chandler is the hero of a lost opportunity : tht is beoaueo he did n't show a blooming Chrü.tian spirit nd have bis rival, ex-Gov ei nor Bagley, nominated for Congress I'ka.sk II i ■ ui), Democratie candidate for Congress in the Toledo (Ohio) district, has mortally offonded Gen. Stoadmmi, and that consistent DemooraticGreenbacker or Qreeuback-Democrat won't support Hurd. The Demócrata of Genesee County have nominatod Hon. E. II. Thompson for Senator. A good choice. In the new North Carolina Legislature the Demócrata have a majority of 32 on joint ballot.