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Facts For The Million

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The foilowing is the result of an interview between a reporter of the Washington Posl and Hou. Joseph C. S. Blackburn, of Kontucky, in review of the charges and misreprestntations allcged to havo been made by Senator Wiudom, in the interest of the Repnblican party, and by which that gentleman has endeavorod to broak tin f orce of the economy of Democratie rnle, a established by the records of the Government. Reporter - Have yon read the so-called " Windom Interview," circnlatsd by the Oorham-Halo oommittee '! Mr. Bïac'ibnrn- Yes, carofully. It is of a pieoe viith tiimilar campaign misrepresentations witli wbioh the ltepnblican Congresnional Committee aro trying to dtceive the peoplo. Rsportt r- What action, if any, will tlio Congressional Democratie Committee take in refereneo to Una and simüar efforts of tho Kepubiicius tociy down the rcputition of the Democratie party f or economy V Mr. Blackburn- Senator Windom is only fo!lowing out a plan adopted by bis party in its death-strugglo to break the force of the savïngs actually effected by the Democratie House, and he, like bis co-laborers, endeavors to misiead the uninitiated in various way. For o j ampie, he refuses to take note of the actual decrease of exponditures under Democratie rule, and, whilst he cannot deny also tlie great reductions in the appropriations which the Dcmocralij House ba-í cffected, he endeavors to explain it away by eaying that these reductions were made " by denying sppropriations indispem-able to the public service ; bv poetpaiiing necessary public works ; by repudiating uational obligations ; by withholding large suius for defleiency billa." All these charges are known to be entiroly untrue, but it seems to be an uuderstood thing all along the Republican line that soniething must be done to cxplain away Democratie economy. Heporter - What is the comparativo record of the Democratie and ltepnblican partios as to econoray in conducting the Government ? Mr. Biackburn - The official figures wiU verify what has bcejme a matter of household knowledge, tbat the record of the Democratie party is one of economy, and the record of the ïtepublican party is one of extravagance and corrnption. Economy with the Democratie parly is of no recent origiu, aud, as was to be expected, as soon as the Democracy obtained control of the nouso of Kepresentatives, it forced upon the Ropubliean adminiátration aud Senate reductions of great magnitude, both in appropriations acd expenditures. Bofore discassing receut savings effected by the Democratie House, let us examine the actnal expenditures from the commencement of our Government down to the last year when the Republican pirty had control of both houses of Congress. Tho net ordinary expenditures of the Government, exclusive of the public debt - principal, premiums acd interest - and exclusive also of pensions - being only expenses for the army, navy, Indians and miscellaneous civil, from the firfcal year 1789 to the fiscal vear eued 1876, can be easily found in the reports of the Secretary of tho Treasnry: For the war period from the fiscal year ended Jane 30, 1862, to the fiscal year ended June 30, 18C6, both inclusive, more than one year af eer the close of the war, eovtring a period of fivo years, the net Crdinaty expenditures above named amounted to $3,530,929,581.61. Now, in order to make a comparison which even tho Hepublicau Chairman of a Senate committee caunot with all his acquired knowltdge of figures sucjesïfully refute, we wil] elimínate tlns war period from' our calcnlation. This bting done, wo fiad that, from the commencement of the Government to the beginning of the war, that ia, from the fiscal year onded March 4, 1789, down ín and includiüg the fiscal yoar ended Jane 30, 1861, both inclusive, coveriiig a period of more than seventythree years, the net ordinary expenditures of the Government for the purposes above stated amounted to $1,506,720,151.15. Now, the net ordinary oxpenditures of tho Government for tho same purposes, for the last ten years of unbroken llepublican ruie, bc-Rinning with the fiscal year ended June 30, 1867, mofe than ene year after the war, and including tho fiecal yesr ended June 30, 1876. amounted to $1,528,917,137.87, thus showing an excesa of expendí tures of $22,190,991). 72 against the Republicau party. Or. to state it plainly, the net ordinarv expenditures of the Government, exclusive oí the public debt, principal, premiums and interest, and exclusive also of pensions, for aperiod of ten years, beginning moro than one year after the conclusión cf the war, wero morethau $22,000,000 in excess of tha expendituros of the Government for eeventy-three years next antedating the accession of the Republiean larty to power. How do the ten yoars of Democratie rule uefcre the war compare with ten years of Republican rule since the war? Mr. B - If we take the ten yoars of Democratie conservativo rule, beginning with the fiscal year ondel Jooe 31, 1852, up to the fiscal year ended June 30, 1861, both inclu-ive. wo Ii:ii the net ordinary expenditures of the Government to have been $572,872,200.52 as against $1,528,917,137.87 for the same purposes for ten years of mie during peice, namely, from the fisea! year endeci June 3Í), 1.-M7, to the fitfcil year ended June 30, 1876, both inclusive, giving an excoss of Hepublican expenditures over the expenditures under Democratie conservative rule of $956,044,877,Ï5, being an increase of net ordinary expenditures under Republican rnle of about 170 per cent. The average net ordinary expcaditurcH ler annum for the ten years of Ïtepublican rulo was $150,672,614 11, wbüo the net ordinary xpeuditures for the ton yoars of Democratie rule above named were only $57,287,226.05, shuwing tint the net ordinary exoonditures under Kepublicsn rnle during a decade of peace were nearly three times au large as for the decade of Democratie rule immediately preeeding the war. If ït shall be objected that there is at least ouo element of unfairness in ! tuis presentation of oflicial data, upon tho score of an mercase of population, it is inswered that, takiug as a basis of this calculation the oensus of 1860, we flnd that the oost per capita for the ten years next provious to the war, f or net oidiuaiy expenditures, with whieh e. alone are now 'dealing, was $18 26, whilst, taking the census of 1870 as the basis of the calculation, we find that the cofet per capita for the ten yearü of Kapublican rule daring a time of peace, beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1867, was $39.65, boing an exeess against tbc Hopublican party of about 117 por cent., eothat it scems difficuft to fiad tho ground upon wbich any Bepublican Btatesman may defend his parly from the charge of excessive expenditnres when considered either ia bnlk or upon tho per-capita calculation, and we eertaiuly feel that we deal fairly in selecting that decade of Democratie rule Immediately precediug the war, and eonüastirg it witii a like period of Ropublican rule beginning more than one year after the war hadclosed, and coming down to the last fiscal year in which the Hepublicans held control of both houses of Congress. For your use, if yon desiro it, I here hand yon a tabulated statement, an cxanünation of which nill Khow the particular branches of tho service in which these heavy discrepancies occar. Take, for instauce, the expendilures iu the matter of the regular army (it being rernembered that tho regular army was more than doabled after the conclueion of the war, for wliat purpose it is dillicult to teil, unless it ba for tho accomplishment of political or party advantage. in aid of which it has been eo bnxily and efficiently employcd, untii an American Congress, bv solemn act, was forced at our iiist sesBion to incorriorate into the Army Appropriaticm bilí a restrictiou that absolutely prohibited such use of that arm of the Government in future , and we liad that the aggregato expenditurc for this purpose during this time were over .tü'J3,O0O,OOO, as againet $109,000,000 sppropriated for the same pnrpose under the ten years of Democratie adminisiralion next preeeding the war; leaving a difference against the Rcpnblican party oí moro than $424,000,000. So iu the uavy we find that it coet -i 234, 000, 000 for tho niaint. 'Manee of the navy cluring tbeae ten years of ltepubhcan rulo, as against Ï123. 000,000 during tho eaid ten yoars of Demccratic rule, showing a differeuco of $110,000,000 in thirt brarcli of tho service asainst th9 Bepublican party. T,ike the Indian Bureau and we tind that there was over $62.600,000 expended in this behftlf, as against I $32,000,000 expended for tbo fíame purpoee uiHlCr JDemocratio rule, leaving a balance of inore than $30.000,000 in thia regard ohargetl to tho Republic'an acoonnt. TaKe the oxpdndltuves for civil mlsCeJlnueous pnrpooa, and we find that iu thia decade of Itt-pabHcan administration we l!avo ovor $(138.000,000, as against $247,000,000 expended durjijg this Demooratio clocado, leaving a balance of ncarly $31)1,000,000 to be aceounted for by the Re": publican party as an excoss of expendituren I upon tbeir part. Tha exact tlgnros can be found Ín tne table furnishcd yon iitirked "A." Incfeieed coet per cent, of ten years of Radloal rule, 167.611 ; average per annvni of ten years of Iladicil rule. $152,891,713.78. Averago per annum of ten years of Democratie rule, $57,U87,'22(.05. Cost par cap.ta of ten vear of Iiidicil rulo, Coat ]er capita of ten yearo of Democratie tule, $1M.26. Kep. - Senator Windom said in hls interview (hat the Kopubliuanshadgraduallyroduied tho expenditures of the Qoveruinont sinco the war. la this true y Mr. B. - I answer cniphatically, no ! l'or exalnple, let us oxamiue Uie expeóáitnxea of thc OoveiDinent. beginning wilh the fi-03,1 year 1871, and ending witb hS7(;, the last tisoal year a Republican Congrcss controlled the appropriations, embraoiog net ordinary esponditnres only, and excludiog the public Íebt, principal, interest and premiums, and excluding also pensious. Here theyare: For the fteeal )ear'l71 $123 139.B32.0O Kor ILe üscal yr 1872 l'Jl llttH 4.W.43 For üic li.ical jear 18"3 15l.l2l, For tLe llacai jear 18H iñüM ifiWM Poi the fl80í ytar im'ü !4J ri73,632.C5 For the flaoayíar 1876 i;!C,6nü.4l7.C7 This show the gradual increaso for 1870, tho last necai year tüe ltcpnbiieans controliea both Houses, of 13,4G0,485.G7, over the cxpenditurcs for 1871, and au increase of expenditureR for 1871, au compared with 1871, of $41,940,638.34. These figures show a positivo inereaso of appropriations for the expeuditures oí tho Governnient under lladical rule as we i ecede from the wir period, for wliich no justifieition can be pload. When wc consider, too, thatthe purchasing power of the dollar haa greatlyaugmented since 1871, these euormous increasesof public expenditares appear still uioro inexcusable and criminal. liep. - How does this record of Itopublican extravagacce coatrast with the record madeby the Democratie Housen of the Forty-fourth and Forty-tif th Congresos ? Mr. 13. - If wo tako thu expenditures of tho Government for the fiscal years 1877 aud 1878, being tho years appropriated for by the Fortyfourth Conyross, tho first year sinco the war when tho Demócrata controlïed tho Houbo of Rcpresentatives, we fiud a vei-y heavy deerease of expenditures ai compared with any two years since tho Radicáis carne iuto ■ power. The actual net ordinary expenditures, exclusive of the public debt, principal, premiums and interest, aud oxnlurive aleo of pensions appropriated for by the Forty-third CoDgress and the Forty-fonrth Congrcss, are as follows : BêpUbUean Fm 'y-tiiiru Fortufttirth CongrE6t Congret. Dèmocratir. House. 1875 $42,073 032 05 1877 $116,246,211.01 1876 136,600,117.61 1878 , 107,055,370 68 Total. . . .$278,674,049.7 Total . . . .$228,801,581.69 Here, then, we have Etated for each fiscal year the actual net ordinary expendituree for the years 1875 and 1876 under the appropriations made by a ltepublican Congrtss, agaiust which we place the expenditnres for tfce same purposes for tho years 1877 and 1878, under the ialluence of a Democratie House, showing an actual saving of $55,372,463.03, made uuder the greatest dil'noultio placod iu the way of retreuchmeat by a Iiepublican Senate aud a Bepublican admimetratiou. Kop. - Wero not the reductions in the eleven great Appropriation bilis, exclusivo of tho Pension bill, passed by tho Forty-fourth Congres under the same bilis passed by tho Fortythitd Congress greater thau 'he reduction of $55,000,000 on the expendituree secnred by the Demooratio House in the Forty-fourth Congress ? Mr. B. - Undoubtedly they were. The reductions in the so billa secured by the House, after repeated struggles with tho Republican Sonate, foot up $61,983.615.63; but even this great saving would have been largely increased had uot the Democratie House beeu thwarted at every stop in the diroction of retrenchment and reform by Bepublican Senate and Repubiican officials. Bep. - IIow do the appronriations for tho fiscal years 1871, 1875 and 1876, when the IlepubUcauB controlïed both houses, oompare with the appropriatioiH for 1877, 1878 and 1879, when the Demócrata had control of the House of Representatives '! Mr. B.- Id the eleven great bilis for the support of the Government, the approuri&tions for 1877, 1878 aud 1879 show an attempted saving by the House of over $114,000,000, and an actual saving of more than $88,000,000. as compared with the similar billa passed by a Republican Congress for 1874, 1875 and 1876. Tho actual appropriations for these eleven I bilis, includingpoDsions, is as follows : 1874 $181,P87,U.r4.61 1877 $146,997,956.72 187f 177,fi79,473.77 187K 140,581606.96 1876 172,000 2(0.53 1879 157,'2!3,933.77 Tota!. . . .$531,800,733.91 Total. . . .ÏH3,.l90,4l7.44 Thi snows an actual reduction pecured by the untiring efforls of the Democratie Houses in tbe Forty-fourth and Forty-fif th Congresses of $88,270,236.47. But, great as this reduction was for a period of three years, it does not represent all that was sought to be accomplished, for itshould be borne in niind thatthe reductions above shown are uot as great as were denianded by the Democratie House, but only represent the conoessions that the House was able to secure frora a protestiiig Republican Senate, whose Committce on Appropriations, continnously straggling for an increase of appropiiatious, xnd thwarting the Honse at every step in its honost efforts at roduction, was presided over thon, as now, by the gentlütnau whose interview you havo called attention to; so that if thora be anything in this record of retrenchment for which that Senator may justly claim credit, it id his partially auccesöful but persistent efforts to resist every attempt of a Democratie House to reduce the current expenses of the Government. It must be recollected also that the Democracy havo not, as vet, secured control of boih branches of Conirrtss, and cin hardly be mado fairly responsible for such failure of roductious as tho Senate may have refused to accede to. There can certaiuly be no injuttice in incorporating just hero a record of the reductiom proposed by the Democratie houses of tho Forly-fourthand Forty-fif th Cüngresnes for the fiscal yoars 1877, 1878 and 1879, and conpling therewith a statement of additions insisted upon or ecured by a Republican Senate. Kxaniining in detail the history of tho eleven great Appropriation bilis, namely, for the military aca'domy, f ortifications, aalar and diplomatic, navy, postom'se, Indians, I army, legislativo, executive and judicial, sundry civil, river aud harbor, aud pension, wo fiud tlio followiag : For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1877 : Estimates of departnient $200,375,553.78 I AppropilatioDsa8i)58ocl tbc House.. 138,US0,85ö.CI Appropriations as Increased by the Senate 157,419,767.36 Appropriaüona as rednoed by the llou.-e 145,997,950.72 For the fiscal year ended June 30, 1878 : Estimatps of departmentu $184,182,005.14 Appropriatioub as pased tho House . . 131,3;j9,307.37 A]jpropriatlons as Increased by the Senate 148,988,(85.75 I Approprlatlone i reduccd by tho Houbo 140,381,600.95 Fot the riscal year ended June 30, 1879: Estimatcs of departuioutd $17fi 306,884.81 Appropriatioos ad papued tho IIouso. . 117,EK7,73J.91 Appropriationn as increaeed by the Krimtp 161 ,852,2611.41 Appropriations as rsdnood by the j Houec '. 157,213,83177 It might here be remarked that in this year's appropriations is to be found an item of L5,500,000 for tho payment of the fishery award, whioh is in no sense fairly ombraced iu the net ordina'y expeuditures of the üovornment, but which is, novortheless, includei in the above statement. Taking the I aggregate for the thrce yesrs 1877, 1878 and ' 1879, we find that the Democratie House, as it originally passed these biils, made the followiDg rednetions, namely : If the bilis had becomc lawü as they pasêêd tho House, thore would havo been a" aaviug of .143,706,003.21 under the amounts estinnitcd as necessary by j the Republican Secretarles, while there would ' have been also a saving of Í114 788,829.92 for the three fiscal years 1877, 187H and 1879, under the three fiscal years 1874, 1875 and i 1876. But this is not all, for while these unquestioned facts, from ofiici&l sourcef, show j attempted savings by the Democratie Honse of over ono hividred and fourteen millions for a like period of Ropublican rulo, it also shows that a ReDublican Senate added $51,183,018.53 to these eleven appropriation bilis against the oarnest protest of tho Democratie Hüiibc. Now, taking theso same bilis as they finally passed both houses for the years 1877, 1878 and 187!), we find tho following leductions, namely: The saving tecured by tho Democratie Houko under tho department estimates was L117,187,409.79, and under the appropriations for 1874, 1875 and 1876 it aggregated $88,270,287.47, as before stated, while the increase secured by the Kepnblican Sonate over tho bilis & passed the House, after a most desperate struggle, was $2G,518,593.45, se that the very pertinent .question roniains for tbe diütinguished Senator, the Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations, to auswer, how do his professions of eoonomy tally with the etubborn figuren, which provo him and hit) Ropublican associntee on the floor of the Senate and of the House oí Keprescntatives to have laborod oarnestly to fusten more than $51,000,000 upon Democratie Houso bilis, and who succeeded in increasing them over $26,000,000 V In some of tho statements heregiven to you I havo dealt in round nuinliers, leaving off' tho fractions, uut', should you desiro it, you aro at liborty to use the talmlattd tstatements from which theso estimatss have been taken and, in tbat conuection, I may assuro you that the sourees of Information from which lliose tables have boen made are not tobequentioned, as they are, so fr as they relate to expenditnres, taken from the oftieial reports of the TreftBury Department, and, so fat as tby relate to appropriations, arcobtained f rom tlie records of tno Appropriation Committeo. Rep. - What forcc ík thero then in the point the ltepul ilicaiiH aro tfylng tö maho ftgainst th? Democracy Upon the score of deflciency, whlOfa, it ia ibarged, are largor in tho piOscnt lit i'al year than hcrctofore t Mr. 1). - Nu more than tliorc p iu auv other of tho campaign misreprestntations that are being manufacüirod by their Campaign (Jomitlittee anti sent 1iroadca;t throtighollt the country: Tile approprüU. ma madti by Oongrcss conslitute the law by which the eeveral departments of tilo Governrtient arö to be cauductod. No deflciency can occur so long au the law is objerml. The appearanee of a deficiency is generally proof conclusivo that tho officer charged witD the administration of the department in which tho same appears bas passed ont of and violatei the law. It must be re_uctnbered that tho execntiou of all i laws during tbose years has been intrusted to Itepublii'an hand.", and that tt is Bepulilicnn Secretarie and llopnblicau officials that have iiianufactured the deficiencias that a Üemocratic House haB been forced to cdnfront. We believed at the time that these appropriations were made, aiid do still balievö. that it is susceptible of proof that the appropriations as made. notwithstandiDg the heavy reductions, were more than sufticient, with proper adminiatration of tbe xeveral departmonts, to have provided for all ihe necessities of the Govtrnment. Now, however, we are eharged with any laxity of adininistration that may, dnrmg ! the last eighteen years, have crept into and estabiished iteelf in the management of the Government in tho hand." of the RepUblicau party, and thu8 they seelt to dotract irom tbe great savings secured by a Democratie House by charging against t the millions illegally expended by Republican Secretarles. But beyond this it is to be said that a very largo proportiou of the snms fonnd uecesa&ry to bo providod for by deticiency billa ante-date the advont of tho Democratie party into power in the House, reacbing back to the fiscal year 1H7C and years pricr thereto. For example, by way of illuslrating the character of thee debts for which appropriations were made in tiloso deíiciency bilis, tako the case of the late administration of tho navy, which bequeathed to na a a legacy a debt ot nearly $10,000,000, tho greater portion, if not all, of wtiich had beeu croated ouUide of and without any warrant of law, tio 0110 denying that under the head of de ficieucies for 1876 and prior 5 eam, and those growiug out of misaripr priation of fund in tho Navy Department, of (hu whole amouut of $5,559,000, about $1,500,000 of it was for deficieucy of pay of the navy, produccd by an illegal diversion oí funds that had alreadv been appropriated for that purpose, and the rem:iiuder, nearly $4,OO0,0ÜU, being for the liquidation of contracta mado without any warrant of law, and ïnany of them covered with suspicion at least, if not tainted by fraud, so that bnt little jnstice can be diBCOvered iu thoeffort of the Itepublicau leaders to mako us responsible for these sums of deficiency which their own officials unlawfully creatcd and left to rest as an iucnbuü pon some succeodiug Congres. Indeed it was a matter of grave doubt in the miiids of many whether this vast debt, created without semblance of law, and much 0 it the product of fraud, should have been diacharged without searching investigation or judicial inquiry. But, to avoid the semblauce of repndiation on the part of tho Government, even of obligations entered iato by f ithless oilisials, it was deemod best to próvido paymer.t for such snnaj as inight not be avoidod, recogniziug in this ono of the many penalties imposed by Itepublican rule. Again, I might say, by way of illustration, you will fiud one item in the ghape of an advauced appropriatiou on the next year of throe hundred and odd thouaand dollars, for subsistence to the army, which mm wasineerted in a deficiency bill, and deducted from tho Army bill, upon the suggeotion of the 8ecretary of War. Aud so you might go through tbe lists. Thore is nothing in this point of substantial trulh or force, aud it is only made use of by the Repubhcans bocause the very title of the deficieucy bill aflordrf them a pretext for the conf utfion of facts. So that, view it as we will, no oni) can dony that during the laat three years, with the control of the Houeo in Democratie hands, tho appropriations havo beeu smaller, even as loaded down by Republican Senatorial liberality, than for auy like period of time unI der complete Repnblicau rule: and howevcr much or little importance may be attached to the Democrstic policy of ecoñomy, as evinced by tho work of reduciug appropriations. the country is yet confronted by the fact that on the score of actual expenditures there is no period of Republican domination that does -not suffer grievously in comparison with the two years now last past, wherein the hand of the Democratie party, ihrongh its control of tho House, has beeu iirmly fastened upon the pursc-strings of tfic country. Is it unrair, then, to assume that, with an extravagant Rrpublican Sonate displaced by a Democratie majority in sympathy with the poliey thus illi'stratcd by every Democratie House, supported by an Executive in acerd I with the efforts thus inaugurated, that thiü grateful proce88 of diminution of expenditures and Iightening of burdens will go happily forward to that oonsummation which tne people have a right to demand, and did demand in uo uncertain tono in their verdict of November, 1K7? The desperate efforts of Republican leaders, like Senator Windoin and Mr. Foatei and others, to torture official ligurea into a cloak for their party's extravagance aud corruption, whilst not to bo justilied is probably not to be wouuderod at. iiut the uncandid attempt of tbes ) gentlemen in taking the offeusive. aud j tberaby seeking to show before an intelligent people that the chargeof extravagance belougs to us, will only suftice to Ilústrate the audacity of au effort made necesEary by the dasperatiou of thoir cause.


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