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President's Message

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Felfow Cii hens nf the Señale, and House of Representativos :In resuming your labors in the service of the people, it is a subject of congrntulntion that ( thero has been no period n our past hittory, , when all the elementa óf national prosperity ( have been so fully developed. Sinee your last ( Ecssion no afilicting dispensation has visi;ed our ( country- general gjod heahh hns prevailed- ( nbundance has crowned the toil of the ( man, and labor in all ite branches is receiving f an ampie reward, while education, ecience and art are rapidly enlarging the means of social hap . pincsa. Tbe'progress of our country in her . reer of g-eatness, not only in ihc vast extensión ( of our territorial limits ond the rapiil increase of , our population, but in rosources and wealth, and ( jn.the happy conditton of our people. is without ex'ample in the history of nations. As the : dom, strength and beneficencc of our free ( tuw-jns are unfolded. every day addt fresh ( tivea to comentment, and fresh ncontives ( rioiism. Ourdevout and sincere ( ments are due to the gracious Governor of all good for the numberless blessings which our be ] loved country enjoys. It is a fourco of high satislactton, to know thnt . the relations of the United States wi'.h all oiher , nations, wiih o single exception. are of the most nmicablc character. Sincerely attachcd to lhe policy of peaco, early adopted ond steadily pursued, by this government, Í hsve cnxiously de , sired to cultívate and cherish friendship nnd com merce wtth every foreign power. The habits of the American people are favorable to the maintenance of such international barmony. In adhering to this wise policy, a preliminar}' and paramount Jury obviously consists in the protecüon of our national interests from encroachmenú or sacrifiee, and our national honor froin rcproach. Thoae musí be maintained at any hazard. Thoy admit of no compromiso or neglect, and must be carefully and conetamly guarded, In thcir vigilant vindication. collision and conflict With foreign power m3y sometimes become unavoid;ii;l?. Such has been our adherenco to dictstc of justice in nll our foreign intercourse, that tho' stcadily and rapidly advancing in prosnerity nnd power, wc have given no just cause for complaint to any nation. and hire enjoyed the blcssiogs of peace for more than thirty ycars. From o policy sj sacred to humanity, and so salutary in its effect upon our poliucal system, we Bhould never bo threatencd voluntarily 10 deparr. The existing war with Mexico was neiihar deeïred nor provoked by the United States. On the contrary. all honorable means wcre reeoned to, to avert it. After years of endurance of aggravated and unredressed wrongs on our pari Mexico in violation of solemn treaty stïpulations, and of every principie of justice recognized by civilized nations. commenced hogtilitiee, and thus, by her own act, foreed the war upon us. Long before the advance of our army to the left bsnk of the Rio Grande, we had ampie causa of waragainst Mexico, and had the United Statas reaoried to this extremity, wc might have oppealed to '.he whole civilized world for the justice of our cause. 1 deern it to be niy duty to present to you on the present occasion, a condefised review of the injuries we had sustained, of the causes vvbich led to :he war, and of hsprogres3 since its commencement. This is rendered the more necescary because of the misapprehension which to come extentprevaiU as tu its origin and true character. The war ha? been represented as unjust and unnecesaary, and as one of aggression on our part upon a weak and injured enemy. Such erroneous viewa, though entertained by but few, have been widely and extensively circuiated, not only at home, but have been spread throughout Mexico, and the who'.e world. A more eiTectual means could not have ben devised to encourage the enemy, and protract the war, than to advo cate and adhere to this course,and thus give them aid &, comfort. It is a source of natioual pride and exultation that the great body of our people have thrown no such obstacles in the way of he government, in prosecnting the war success.'ully. but have shown themselves to be eminently patnotic, and ready to vindícate their country'e honor at any 6acrifice. Scarcely had Mexico achieved her independ ence, which the United Siaies wcre among the first to acknowleage, when she commenced the eystem of insult and spoüation, which she has ever since pursued. Our citizens, engaged in lawful commerce, were imprisoned - their vessels Eeized, and our flag insulted in their ports. Il raoney was wantcd, the lawless seizureand confiscation of oui merchant vessels and their cnrgoes was a rcady rosource. And if to accomplish their purposes, it becomes nccessary to imptison the owners. cnptains and crevvs. it wns done. Rulers superceded rulers in Mexico. - The government of ihe United States made repeated reclamations on behalf of its citizens, but these were answered by the perpetration of rew outrage9. Promises of redress made by Mexico in the most solenin form, wcre postponed or evaded. The alacrity and promptness M-iih which our volunteer forces ruehed tn the field on the country's cali, proves, not onlj their patriotiiin, bui their deep conviction that our cause is just.- Tho wrongB wliich we havs suflered rom Mexico, alm06t ever since she became an independent power, and tho patiënt endurance wiih whïcli vc have borne ihcrn, are without paralle' in the hs:ory of modern civilized naiions. - There is no rcason, howcver, that these wrongs thould bcallowed to pass with impunity. v,-h;ch almost neceesarily encourased the perpetration of othcre, until, at last, Mexico seemed to atirióme to weakness and indecisión on our part, forbearance, which was the ofispring of niagnanimity, and a desire to preserve frtendly relations between the two república. Tho files and records of the Department of Btate contain conclusiva proofs of wrongs perpetrted upon the property and persons of our citizens by Mexico, and of wanton insults to our national flag. The interposition of our gn-ernment toobtain redress wasagnin &again invoked ander circums anees which no naiion ought to isregard. It was hoped that these outrages would cca8e , and that Mexico would be reBtratped by the laws which regúlate the conduc of civilized naticn8, in their intercourse with each other, after the treaty of amiiy, commerce and navigation of tho 5th of April, 1831, wns concluded between the two república. But ibis hope soon proved to be vain. But tho course of eizure and corfiscation of the -property of our citizens - the violation of their persons anJ the insults toour flug perpetrated by Mexico, previum to thit time, waa scarce]j lUipendc'J for even a btief period, akhough th tretty sa ck.lf defired h; i huleges of tho respective paai s. Urn il is inipos ililo 10 misundeistnnd or mistnko ihem. In less han seven years nf'er the conclusión of the treay, our grievanee had become so intolerable, hi n the opinión of President Jackson, tliey could iet longer be endurcd. In iliis message lo Congress of Feb. "7, he iresented ihem to the cor.siderntion of that body. ind dedared that 4i the length of time since ome of the injuries Iiuve been cominitteï, tli epeated and unav&iling application for redress. he wanlon characterof some of the omrages upin ihe property and persons of our citizens, :ind jpon the oflicers and flag of the U. S., indcDendent of recent insulta to the gover nnient and jeoplc by the lato Extraordinary Mexican Mins:er. would justify, in t!ic eyes of all nations. mmediate war." In a spirit of Uindness and 'orbearancc. howcver, lic reco.iimendcd reprisals is a milder mode of redress. He declared that A-ar should nol be used as a remedy by jtisi and jenerous nations, confiding in their sirength for njuries commitled, if it can be honorabíy avoid;.■, and added, ' it has occurred to me, consid ïring the present embarrasscd condition of that :ountry, we should act with both wisdom and ■eeolution, by giving to Mexico one more opjortunity to atone for tho past, befora vo take ■edress into our ovn hands. To avoidall misconception on the part ofMexct, as well as lo pro'.ect our national character "rom reproach, this opportunity should be given with the avowed design and full preparation to take immediate satisfaction, if it should not be ibtained on a repetítion of the demand for it. - To this end I recommend that nn act be pnssed suiliorizing reprisals and the use of the Nav.i (orce of the U. S. by the Execulive against Mexico, to enforco them in case of the rcfusal of tho Mczican government to come to nn araicable adjustment of the matter between us upon another demand thereof, made from on board one of our vessela of war on tho coast of Mexico " Committee8 of both houses of Congrcsa to which ihig message wos roferrcd, fully sustained his views of the character of the tvronga which wc have suff red from Mexico. and recommendod that another demand for redress shonl 1 bc made beforeauthorizing wnr or reprimís. The committec on Foreign re!nion6 of the Señale, in (hcir report say : " Sach a dorna pd, shoukl prompt justico be rcfusetl by the Mexican Government, vrill enuble us to dgpéal lo all nations not only for the equity and moderation with which we .hall have acted towards a sister Rcpublic ; bui for the neecssity which mny then compel us to scek redress for our wrongs, either by actual war or repnsals. The subject will then bc presented before Congress at the commencement of the next session in a claar and distinct form, and the committee cannot doubt that such mensures will then be adopícd as may be neces-sary to vindícate the honor of the country, and ensure amplc repnration to our injurred citizens." The committee on Foreign AtTatrs in the House of Representatives; mado a recjmmondation. Jn their report :hey say they fully concur with the President, that " ampie causes exisis for taking redress inio ourown hnnds: that we should bejustifijJ in tlie opinión of other naions ;" but they are willing to try the experitnent of another demand, made in the most sol■mn form, upon the justiceof the Mexican Government, before any further proceedings are adop ed. No diíference of opinión on this subject is [elieved to have existed in Congress. The Kxjcutive and Legislr.iive departments concurrcd. jnd Buch has bfen onr forbearance and desire to preserve peace with Mexico, that the wrongs of which we then complained and which gave rise to these solemn proceedings, not only remain nnredressed to this day. but a-ldítional causes of jomplaint of an aggravaiing character. have ever jincc been accutnulating. Shortly aficr these proceedings, a special message was despatched to Mexico, to make a final demand for redresa, and on the 20ih July 1S37, the demand was made. The reply of the Mexicart governmenl bears date the 29th of the same month, and contains assuranceo oftheanxious wish of the Mexican government not to delay the "moment of the final aud equitable adjustment which was to terminals the existing diffioultiea between he two government8 ; that outhlng shall be Ieft undone which may contribute to the most speedy and equitable adjustment of the subjects which have so seriously engaged ihe attention of the American government. That the Mexican government would adopl as the only guide for conduci the plainest principies of public right, the sacred obligations mpi'sed by international law, and the reügious faith of tmaties. and ihat whatevcr reason and juslice may díctate respecting cacli case will bc done. The assurance was furthci given that the división of the Mexican government upon each case of complaint, for which. rcdress has been. should be communioated to the government of ihe United States by the Mexican minister at AVnshington. The Eolenin assurnnces in answer to our de mands tbr redress wcre disregarded. In mnking these, howevcr, Mexico obtained fnrther delay. President Van Buren in his annual message to Congres3 on the 5th December. J837, tstates " that although tho larger in number of our demands for redres3, and inany of the aggravatid cases of personal wrongs, had been now for ycars before the Mexican government, and somtof the cases of national complaint, and ihosc ol the most ofl'ensive character, admittcd of immndiate. simple and satisfnetory replies, it is only within a few days past that any specific cotninunication in answer to our last demanda made fivc tnonths ago. has been received from the Mexicnn Minister ; and that for not one of our public complainis, has satisfaction been gïvén or offer ed ; that but one of the cases ol petsonal wron has been favorably considero!, and that but Tour cases oí both tiescriptioris on: of all thoaeformer ly presenicd nnd carnoatly piessed, have as yei b'ecñ íecTded upon by ti.e government." t'fesidetu Van Euren. belicving that it would bc vain to make any inrilier atternpts to oblait? re dress by the ordinary mean within the power 01 the Executive, comniunica ed this opinión to Congress in the message referrcd to. in which he said, ; on carcful and liberal exaniination o! the contenta of the cortespondence with the Mex ican government, and considering the spirit manifested by the Mexican government. it has bccome my painful duty to return the subject na it now stands to Corgress, to whoin it belongs. to decide upon the manncr and means of redresï." Had the United States at the time, adoptcd compulsory mensures nnd mken ihe redress into their own hands, all our ditTiculties with Mexico would have been long since adjuMed, and the existing war would have been avoidcd. Magna nimity and moderation on our pan only liad the effect to complícate these difficultics, and render an amicable settlement of them the more enibarrassing. That such mensures of redress under similar provocatfons, coinmitted by any of the powerful nations of Europe, wouW have beenromptlresented by the Unitcr! States, is not to o doubted. Nfitioml honor and UiO preservaon of the nntional charncter tbroughuut the vorld. o well as our own self respect, nnd ihe rotcction due to our own citizens, would have cndered such a resort indispensable. The hisiory of no civilized nation of modern imes, has prescnted in so brief a periodao many vanton attneks upon the honor of its Mig aiH he persons and property of its citizens. as had aj hat time been borne by the U. S., from the Mexican authoritióe nnd pcoplo. But Mexico was n sister Republic, on ihe North American Coniinent, occupying a torriíory contiguous to our own, and was in a fee!)le, disiracted condiion, and these ronsiderations. it ia presumed. nduced Congress to forbear, still longer, instead of taUing redress into our own hands. A new negotintion was entered upon with fair promise. on the part of Mexico, but for the real purpose, is the event has proved. n( indefinitely postponng the repamtion which wat demanded, and which was so justly due. The negotintion, aficr more than a ycar'e deay. reauhed in the convention of the 11 ih A pril. 1839. for the adjustmem of claime of citizons of the United Siate3 of America upon the governivient of the Mexican Rt public. The joint board of Commissioners. creatod by the Convcmion, to examine and decide upon these claims, wns not organized until August, 1840. Under the terms of the Convention, tlity wcre to termínate their dut:es within eighteen months from that time Fourof the eighteen monilis were consutned in the preliminary disciissions on fiivolous and dilatory points, raised by tho Mexican Commissioners, and il was not until ihe month of December, 1840, that they commenced the cxamination of the claims of our citizer.s upon Mexico. Fourtecn months only remained to examine and decide upon thosc numerous c. J complicated cases. In the month of February. 1842. the lorm of the commission expired. leaving many claims undisposed of for want of timo. The claims which werc allowed by iho Board and by the umpire authorized by tho convention to de cide in cases of disagreement between the Mexioan and American comniÍ6soners, nmounied to $2.026,129 C3. There wore pending hefore thr umpire when the commission exp'red, nddiiional c!;iinis which had been examined and awarded liy ihe American commissioners, ainounting to $208. G27 87, upon which lic did not decide, allcdging that his authori'y had censed wilh the termination of ihe joint com.nission. Bi-sides these clnims, there werc others of American citizens, amounting to $3.336,637 05. which had been submitted to the bonrd, and upon which they had not time to decide before the final adjournment. The sum of $2,030.180 68. which had been awarded to the clainiants, was a Iiquidatcd and ascertained debt due from Mexico, about which there can be no dispute, and which she was bound to pny by the terma of the convention. Soon afier the final a warde of the amouni had beon made, the Mexican government asked a postponement of tho time for nuking payment, alledging thnt it would bc inconvenient to make the piyment at the time stipulated. In the spirit of forbearing kindness lowerds a sister Republic, which Mexico had so long abuscd, tho U. States promptly complied with her request. A second convention was accordingly concluded between the two govemmeius on the 2l)th ol Jan. 1843, which upon its face declares that this new arrangement is entered into for the accommoda'ion of Mexico. By the terms of this convention all the in'eresls dne on the awards which dad been made in favor of the claimants under the convention of the II tb of April, 1839, was to be paid to thern from the 30th of Apr'.l, 1843. and the principal of ihe awarda, and the interest nccruing thereon was stipulated to be paid in five years, in e]unl instnllments, every threo months. Notwithstanding this conveution was entered into at the request of Mexico, and for ihe purpose of relieving her of embarrassmen'. the claimants have only received the interest due from the 30th of April. 1840. and three of the 20 installments, although the payment of the sum hus liquidued and confessed due by Mexico to ourcilizens, an indemnity for acknowledgcd acts of outrage and wrongs, wa secured by treaty, ihe obligations of which are ever held sacred by 'ill just nations. Yet Mexico has violated her solemn engagement8 by failing nnd refusing to make ihe payments. The two insialments due in April and July. 1844, under the peculiar circumstanccs connccicd with them, have been assumed by the United States and discharged to the chtmants but ihey are still due by Mexico. But this is not all of which we have just cause of complaint. To provide a remedy for ihe claiiuants whose cases were not decided by the joint commissioners under the convention of April llth, 1839, it wa3 expressly stipulated by the 6th article of the convenlion of the 30th January, 1843, that a a new convention shall be entered into for the settlement of all claims of ihe government and citizens of the United States against the Republic of Mexico, which were not finally decided by tho commission which met i the city of Washington, and of all claim of the governmfint and citizens of Mexi co agninst the U. S." In conformity with this stipulatioi), third convention wus concluded and sign ed at the city of Mexico, on tho 20i Nov. 1843, by the plenipotentiaries o the two governments, by which provísío was made for ascertaining and payin these claims. In June, 1844, the con vention was ratificd by the Senate of th United States wilh two amendment which were manifestly reasonable in thei character. Upon a reference to th amendments proposed to the governmen by Mexico, the same rcasons, diflïculties and delays were interposed which hav so long marked the policy of that government towards the Uniled States. It has not even yet decided wbether it would or would not accede lo them, although the subject has been repeatedly pressed upon its consideraron. Mexico has thus violated, a second time, the faith of treaties, by failing or refusing lo carry into effect the 8th artiele of the Convention of June, 1843. Such is the history of the wrongs whiich we have sustained and patiently endured from Mexico through a long series of years, so fur from alTording reasonabla satisfaction ior the injuries andnsulls we have borne, a great aggravaon of them consists in the fact that while ie United States were anxious to preerve a good txnderstandinpr with Mexico, nd have been constantly but vainly emloyed in seeking redress from past vrongs, new outrages were constantly ccurring, which have continued to in;rease our cause of eomplaint, and to well theamount of ourdemands. While he citizens of the United States were ïonduclinga lawful commerce with Mexco, under the guarantee of a treaty of imitycommerce and navigation, many Df them suffered all the injuries which would have resulted from open war. - This treaty, instead of afibrding protection to our citizens, has been the means ofinviting them into the ports of Mexico, that they might be, as they have been in numerous instances, plundered of their aroperty, and deprived of their personal iberty if they dared to insist on their rights. Had the unlawful seizure of American property, and the violation of the personal liberty of our citizens, to say nothing of the insults to our fiag which haveoccurred in the ports of Mexico, taken place on the high seas they would of themselves long since have constiiuted a state of actual war between ihe two countries. In so long sufiering Mexico to viólate lier treaty obligations, plunder our cilizens of their property, to imprison their persons without afibrding them redress, we hive failed to perform one of the first and highest duties which every government owes to its citizens ; and the con?equence has been that many of them have been reduced from a state of affluence to bankruptcy. The proud name of American citizens, which ought to protect all who bear it, from insult and injury, throughout the world, has aflbrded no such proteciion to our citizens in Mexico. We have ampie cause of war with Mexico long before the breaking out of hostilities, but even then we forbore to take redress into our own hands, until Mexico herselt became the aggressor, by insulting our soil in hostile array, shedding the blood of our citizens. - These are the great causes of eomplaint on the part of the United States against Mexico ; causes which existed long before the annexation of Texas to the American Union. And yet, animated by the love of peace, and a magnanimous moderation, we would not adopt thosc measures of redress whioh under such circumstances are the justified resort of injured nntions. The annexation of Texas to the United States constituted no just cause of ofience to Mexico. The pretence that it did so, is wholly inconsistent and irreconcilable with well authenticated facts connected with the revolution by which Texas became independent of Mexico. That this may be the more manifest, it may be proper to advert to the causes and to the bistory of the principal events of that revolution. Texas constituted a portion of the ancient province of Louisiana, ceded to the Unued States by France in the year 1801. In the year 1819, the United States, by the Florida treaty, ceded to Spain all that part of Louisiana within the present limits of Texas and Mexico, by the revolution which separated her from Spain, and rendered her an independent nation, conceded to the rights of the mother country over the territory. - In the year 1824, Mexico established a Federal Constitution, under which the Republic was composed of Sovereign States, confederated together in a federal unión similar to our own. Each of these States had its Executive, legislature and judiciary, and for all except federal purposes, was independent of the general government and that of the other States, as are Pennsylvania or Virginia under our Constitution. Texas and Coahuila united and formed one of those Mexican states. The state constitution which they adopted and which was opposed by the Mexican confederacy, asserted that they were free and independent of the other Mexican United States, and of every other power and dominion whatsoever ; and proclaimed the great principies of human liberty, that the sovereignty of the state resides originally and essentially in the great mass of the individuals who compose it. To the government under this constitution, as well as that under the Federa] Constitution, the people of Texas owned allegiance. Emigrantsfrom foreign countries, including the United States, were inviied by the colonization laws of the state and the federal government, tosettle in Texas. Advantageous terms were oñered to induce them to leave their own country and bpcome Mexican citizens. This invitation was accepted bymany of our citizens, in the full faith that they would be governed by laws enacted by representatives elected by themselves, and that their Uves, liberty and property would beprotected by constilutional guáranteos, cimilar to those existing in the republic they had left. Under a government thus organized, they continucd until the year of 1835, when a military revolution broke out in the city of Mexico, which entirely subverted the federal and 8tato .constitution, and placed a militarydictator at the head of the govcrnmcnt. 3y a sweeping decree of a Congress subservicnt to the wil] of the Dictator, the several state constitutions were abolished, and the states themselvcs into mere dea rímente of the central governments. - The people of Texas were unwilling to submit to the usurpation. Resistance to such tyranny became a high duty. Texas was fully absovled from all allegiauce to the central government of Mexico, from the moment that government had abolishod her state constitution, and in its place established an arbitrary and des pot ie central government. Such were the principal catfses of the Texan revolution. The people of Texas at once determined jpon resistance, and flew toarms. In the midst of these important and exciting events, however, they did not omit to place their liberties ufton a secure and permanent foundation. They tlected members to a convention, who in the month of March, 1836, issued a formal declaration, that their political conHection with the Mexican nation, had forever ended, and the people of Texas do now constitute a free, sovereign, and independent republic, and are fully invested with all the rights and altributes which properly belong to independent nations. They also adopted for their government, a liberal republican constitution. About the same time, Santa Anna, then the Dictator of Mexico, invaded Texas with a numerous army, for the purpose ofsubduing her people, and enforcing obedience to his arbitrary and despotic government. On the 21st April, 1834, he was met by the Texan citizen soldiers, and on that day was achieved by them the memorable victory of St. Jacinto, by which they conquered their indepeudence. Consideruig the numbers engaged on the respective sides, history does not record a more brilliant achievement. Santa Anna himself was among the captives. In the month of May, 1846, Santa Anna acknowledged by a treaty with the Texan authorities, in the most solemn form, the full, entirc and perfect independence of the republic of Texas. It is true, he was then a prisoner of war but it is cqunlly true, that lie had failed lo reconquer Texas, and had met with signal defeat - that his authority had not been revoked, and that by virtue of this treaiy he obtained his personal release. By it hoslilities were suspended and the army which invaded Texas under his command, returnecl in pursuance of this arrangement unmolested to Mexico. From the day that the battle of San Jacinto was foughtuntil the present time, Mexico has never possessed the power to reconquer Texas. In the language of the Secreiary of State of the U. S., in a despatch to our Minister in Mexico, under date of 8th July, 1842, "Mexico may have chosen and may s!ill choose to consider Texas having been at all times, since 1835, and are still continuing a rebelious Province ; but the world has been obliged to take a different view of the matter." From the time of the battle of San Jacinto in 1834, to the present moment, Texas bas exhibiled the same external vigor of national independence as Mexico herself, and with quite as much stabilily of government. Practically fïee and independent, acknowleged as a political sovereignty by the principal powersofthe world - no hostile foot finding rest within her territory for six or seven years, and Mexico herself refraining for all that period from any furthcr attempts to rc-establish her authority over that territory, it cannot but be surprising to find Mr. De Bocancgra, the Secreta ry of foreign affairs of Mexico, complaining that for that whole Rfiriod citizens of the United States, or its ' government have been favoring the rebels of Texas, and supphingthem with vessds and money, as if the war for the reduction of Texas had been constantly prosecuted by Mexico. In the same dfspatch the Mexican secrelary of state affirms that since 1837, the United States have regarded Texas as nn independent sovereignty as much as Mexico, and that trade and commerce with citizens of a government at war wit!) Mexico, cannot on ihat account beregnrded as an intercourse by which assislauce and succor are given to Medican rebels. The whole current of Mr De Bocanegra's remarks were in the snme direction ns if ihe iudependence of Texas had not been acknowleciged. Ifit lias been acknowledjied - it was acknowledged in 1837 againstthe remonstrarice and protest of Mexico - and most of the acts of nny importance, of which De Bocnnegra complains, ilnw necessarily from that recognition. He speaks of Texas as being an integr.! part of the Mexican Republic. - But he cannot but understand that the United States do notso regard it. The renl cause of complaint of Mexico, therefore is neither more nor less than comploint ngainst the recognilion of Texas inHependence. It may be thought raiher late to repeat that complaint, and not quito just to confine it to the United State, to the exemption of ï)ngland, France, and Belgiun, unless the United States, having been the firsl to ncknowledge the independence of Mexico herselr', are to be blamed for setting an exarnple for the recognilion of that of Texas. And he added, that the Constitution, public treaties, and the laws, obligfid the President to regard Texns as an independent state, nnd its territory a part of Mexico. Texas hnd been an ihdopendent state, with an organized government, defyinglie power of Mexico lo overthrow or it ;nnquer her for more than ten years before 'I Uexico commenced complaints ngainst a he United States. '' Texas had given evidence of her abiliiy C o maintain herself os an independent 1 lower, and huving been formally b ïiced ns such, not only by the United v States, but by lhe principal powers oí i Europe. These powers had entered into b reaties of amity, commerce and d ion with her. They had received and o ïccredited her ministers and diplomatic I ïgcnts at thcir respectivo courls, and they v ïad commissioned ministersand diplomatic igents on their part to the government ot" c IVxas. r lf Mexico, notwithslanding a:l this, r ind her utter inability to subdue or t nquer Texas,stubbornly refuse to c nize her as an independent nation, she t was none the less so on that account. - e Mexico herself had been recognized as 1 an independent nation by the United i States, r:nd byother powers, many years 1 before Spain, of which, before her lution, she had been ft colony, would agree to recognize her as such, and yet 1 Mexico was, at that time, in the i tion ofthe civtlized world, and in fact, e none the less an independent power t bccause Spain still claimed her as a r colony. If Spain had continued until the t ent period to assert that Mexico was one t of her colonies in rcbellion against her, this Would not havo made her so, or J changed the fact of her independent i tence. Texas, at the period of her an , nexation to the United States, bore the ( same relatioTï to Mexico, that Mexico had borne to Spain for many years before ( Spain had acknowledged her L dence, with this important difFerence - that before the annexalion of Texns to , the Uniled States was consumated, Mex 1 ico herself, by a formal act of her government had acknowledged the independence '' of Texas as a nation. It is true, that i in lhe act of recognition she prescribid a condition which she had no power or authority to impose, that Texas should not annex herself to any other Power, but this could not detract in any degree from the recognition which Mexico then miuleof her actual independence. Upon ihis plain statement of facts, it is absurd for Mexico lo allege as a pretext for commencing hostilities against United States Texas is sti'l a part of her territory. But t!. ere arethnse who, conceding all this tobe true, assume ihe ground ihat the western boundary of Texas is the Nueces, instead of the Rio Grande ; and that, therefore, in marching our army to the east bank of the laller river, we passed the Texan line, and invaded the territory of Mexico. A simple statement of facts, known to exist, will conclusively refute such an assumption. Texns, ns ceded to the United States by France, in 1803, bas aïwaysbeen claimed as extending west to the Rio Grande or Rio Bravo. This fact. is estabüshed by the aulhority of our most eminent statcsmen at a period when the question was as well, if not better onderstond than it is at present. During Mr. JefFcrson's ndministrntion, Messrs. Monroe and Pinckney, who had boen sent on a special mission to Madrid, charged, among other things with the adjustment of boundary bet ween the tw counlries, in a note addressed to the Spanish minister of foreign aiïairs, under date of 26th Jan. 1805, assert that the boundaries of Louisiana, ceded to the U. S. by France, are the river Pedido on the east, and the river Bravo on the west; and they odd "the facts and principies which justify this conclusión are so satisfactory to our government as to convince it that the U. S. have not a beticr rightto theisland pf New Orleans, under the cession referred to, than they have to the whole district of territory which is above described." Down to the conclusión of the Florida treaty in February,1819,by which the territory was ceded to Spain, the Uniled States asserted and maintained their territorial rights to this extent. In the month of June, 1813, during Mr. Monroe's administration, information having been received that a number of foreign adventurers had landed at Glaveston, wilh the avowed purpose ofiorming asetilement in ihat vicinity, a special messenger was despatched by the Government of the U. States, with instructions from lhf Secretary of State to wam them lo desist. should they be found there " or any olher place north ofthe Rio Bravo, nnd within the territory claimed by the U. States." He was instructed should they be found in the country north of that river, to make known to them the "surprise with which the President has seen possessior. ïhus taken, without au:honty from the Uoited States, of a place within their territorial limits, and upon which no lawful settlemcnt can be made without their sanction." He wns instructed to cali upon them to "avow under what natiunal aulhority they professto act," and to give them due warning, "that the placéis within the Uniled States, who will suffer no permanent settlementto be made there under any authority olher than their own." As late as the eighth of July, 1842, the Secrelary of State ofthe U.S., in a nole addressed to our minister in Mexico mairiinins that by the Florida trenty of 1819, territory as far west as the Rio Grande wns confirmed to Spain. In that note he states that, by the treaty ef the 22d of February, 18Í9, between the U. States and Spain, the Sabine was adopted as the line of boundary between the two powers. Up to ihat period no considerable colonization had been effected in Texns ; but the territory between the Sabine and the Rio Grande being confirmcd to Spain by the treaty, applicalions were made to that Power for grants of lands,and such grants or permissions of settlement, were in fact made by the Spanish authorities in favor of citizens of the United States proposing to emigrate to Texas in numerous families, before the declaration of the independence of Mexico. The Texas which was ceded to Spain by the Florida treaty of 1819, embrnced all the country now claimed by the State of Texas between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. The republic of Texas always claimed this river as her western öoundary, and in her treaty made with Santa Anna in May 1836, he recognizedas such. By the constitution which 'exas ndopted in March, 1836, senatoriI and representativo districts wereorgan'.oii, extending west of the Neucés. The longress of Texas, on the 19lh oí" Dea, 830, passed " An act to define the oundaries of the Republlc nf Texas," in rhich they declared the Rio Grande rom its mouth to its source, to be their oundary, and by thesaid net, thcy extehed their civil and political iurisdictions ' ver the country vp to that boundnry. ■ )uring n period of more than nine years hich mteryêhed petween the adoption of ier constitution and her annexation aa me of the Stotes of our Union, Texas sserted and exercised many actsofsoveoignty and jurisdication over thé territory md inhnbitants west of the Nueces. She rganized and defined the limits of counies extending lo the Rio Grande. She ïstablished cotirts of justice and extended jer judicial system over the terriiory. - 3he established r custom house and co)ected duiies, ond also post offices nnd ost roads, in it. She established a land ince, and issued nurnerous grants for and, within iis limits. A and a opresentative residing within it were lected to the congress of the repoblé, ind served as such before the act of anlexation look place. In both the congress tnd convention of Texas wbich gavo Imir assent to the tenns of annexation to he U. S., proposed by our Congress vere representatives residing west of th& Cueces, who took part in the act of anlexation itself. This was the Texas which, by the act f our Congress of the twenty-ninth De:ember, 1845, was admitted as one of the tates of our Union. That the. Congress i the United States understood the state )f Texas which they admitted into the Union to extend beyond the Nueces is jpparent from the fact, thal on the tlnrtyfirst of December, 1845, only two days ifier the act of admission, they pnssed a law "to establish a collcction district in the State of Texas." by which they ereated a port of delivery at Corpus Christi, situated west of the Neuces. and beingthe same point at which tho Texas custom house, under the lawsofthat republic had been locatcd, and directed that a surveyor to collect the revenue sliould be appropriated for that port by the President, by and with theadvice of the Sen ate. A survoyor was accordingly nominated and confirmed by the Senate, and has been ever since in ihe performance of his duties. All these acts of the Republic of Texas, and of our Congress, preceded the orders for the advance of our army to tho east bank of the Rio Grande. Subsequently, Congress passed an act establishing certain " post routes," extejiding west of the Nueces. The country west of that river now constitutes a part of one of the Congrcssional Districts of Texas, and is ropresented n the House of Representativo--. The Senators from that state were chosen by a legislature in which the country west of that river was represenled. In view of all these fa ets, it isdifficult to conceive upon what ground it can be mainiained that, in occupying the country west of the Neuces with our army, with a view solely to its security and defence, we invaded the territory of Mexico. But it would have been still more difficult to justify the Executive, whose duly it was to see that the laws be faithfuily executed, ifin the face of all these proceedings, both of the Congress of Texas and of the United States, he had assumed thé responsibility cfyielding up the territory west of the Nueces lo Mexico, or refusing to protect and defend this territory and its inhabitants, including Corpus Christi, as well as the remainder of Texas, against the threatened Mexican invavasion. But Mexico herself has never placed the war which she has waged upon the ground that our army occupied the intermedíate territory between the Nueces and the Rio Grande. Her refuted pretensión that Texas wns not in fact an independent State, but a rebellious province, was obstinately persevered in : and her avo.wpd purposc in commencing a war with the United States was to reconquer Texas, and to restore Mexican authority over the whole territory - not to the Neuces only, but to the Sabine. In view of the proelaimd me naces of Mexico to this effect, I deemed it my duty, as a measure of precaution and defence, to order our army to occupy a position on our frontier as a military post, from which our troops could best resist and repel any attempted invasión which Mexico might make. Our army had occupied a posHion at Corpus Christi, west oi' the Neuces, as early as August, 1845, without complaint from any quarter. Had the Neuces been regarded as the true western boundary of Texas, that boundary had been passed by our army many inonths before it advanced to the eastern bank of the Rio Grande. In my annual message of December last, 1 infonned Congress that upon the invitation of both Congress and the convention of Texas, I had deemed it proper to order a strong squadron to the coasts of Mexico, and to concéntrate an efficiënt military force on the western frontiep of Texas, to protect and defend the inhabitants against the menaced invasión of Mexico. In the message I infonned - Congres3 that the moment the tenns of annexation offered by the United States were accepted by Texas, the latter became so far n part of our own country as to make it our duty to arTqrdsuch pro