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President's Message

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( Conduded. ) The annual report of the Secretar of the Treasury will exhibit in detail the condiiion oí the fi dances. Tho importa for the fiscul year endinj on the thirtieth of June last, were of the valuo of nne hundred and tweniy-one inillion six hundred and ninetyone thouaand sevcn hundred and ninety-sevcn dolíais : of which the imount exponed was eleven million t'iree hundred and forf'ilx thousind six hundred and uventy-tluee dollars: leavmg the am unt ïctaned in the country for domestic consumption one hundred and ten inillion three uindred and Jorïy-five thoudand one hundred and aeventy-four dolíais. The value or the exporta (er ilio same period was one hundred and t'iirteen inillion lour hundred and eig!u -eight thuusmd five hundred andsixteen c'ollars : ol which $102, 141, 893 dollars consisted of domestic productions, and 1 1,34G.C2 1 of fordgn ameles. The recpipts inio thetrenaury fof the same ye-ir were $29.499,247 06: of which there was derived from cusioms $26, 712,667 87: from aales of public landu $2.C9 1,132 48: and f ro in incidental and miscellaneous sourcea $92,126 71. The expenditures for the saine period were $24.031,1 14 2.) and the balance in the treasury on the fiist day nf July last was $9.126.439 08 The amount of the public debt, including treasury notes on the first of ihe present month was $24.250.494 06: of which the sum of $17, 7c8,7U9 62 wns outstanding on tjio 4Mi ol Match, IS45. leaving the amount incurred since that time$6,-;Cr.G94 98. ín order to prosecute the war with Mexico with vigor and energy, as the bost means o( bringing it to a peedy and honorable torininatioii, a fur'her ioan will be neccesary to meel the expenditures for the present and the neact fiscal year, and if the war should be continued muil the 3 th of June, I848, being the end of the next fiscal year - is estmated that an additional loun of twenty-threc in Ilions of dollars will be requirec. Tliis estitnaie is made upan the as sumption thut it will be ncccssnry to retain constu.'itly iu the treasury four millions of dollars to guard against contingencics. If such sur)lus were not n-quired lo be retained, then a loan ol iiineteen tnillions of dollars wi u!d bc sufneient. Il', however, Cunjiess should. at the present session, impose a revenue upon the principal articlett now embraced in the l'rec list, it is estimated that ah ndditional auuti'il levcnue of aboui two niillon6 and a half. ainountmg. it is estimnted, on the 3)ih of Jane, lt'4-?, to four niillion8of(i.jar8. wouj.l be derived from that source, and the Ioan required would be rcdutcd by that ann unt. il 6 estimaicd, alo. that shouM Congress sraduate and reduce the price of such of ihe public Inmls as have been long in the market. the adili'ion;)! reveuüe dt;ricd from ilmi dource wou ld be annualiy, for several yi;a;s to come, bu bpjtween Iiu-Ta mi.liun S. a niiüion of dollars, nnd :hc loan requircd may be reduced by tlintamount alao. Shúuld the:-e mensures beadop:ed. the loan required woultl noi probatly exseed nineiueu niillions of dollars - leavinij n ihc treasury a constant surplus of four miiiions of dollars. The !oan proposed, t ia estimaied, will be sufiiciorit to cover the necessary expenditures, bolh for the wiirand for all othor purposes, up to ihe 30ih oí June 1848; and un nmount oMhis loan, nut ex ce'edjfij or.e half, mny be ïcquirud during the present liscal ycar. and ihe greater paVt of iht reinainder dunng ibe Hrsl half of ilic ilacal year ttucceeding. In order lliñt tiniely höticö may be given, nnd proper mcasures taken to effect the loon, or such portipn of it as nay bo required. t a uiporiani ihat the au;l.ority of Conress to make it, be given trt an eariy period of your present session. It is nugjcstcd that the Io.iü should be conti'acted íor ni lci.Bt a period of '20 yems, wiih üuihoiity to purchase the stock and pay it oñ'. ut an earlicr period, at iis market value, out of any surplus which mny at any time be in the ireasury. .pplicablo to that nup se. Afterihe estniiliohiiient of peace with Mexico, it is suppseti that a consulevtible surplus will ex8t, and lii.-ii ihe deh.t may bu eziingüUhed in o mud) sliorter period ihon that for which it mny 'e contracted. Thé period of iwenty yea-s. as that for which the proposed loan inny be Contracted, in proference lo a shorter perió' atiggeated, becnuse nll experience. bo:h at home and ahroad. has shown that loans are eiiectt'd upon much better terms upon lon ;ime, than wlieti thcy are reimlur8aole at short dates. Neccssary as this mensure is, to susfain the honor and the inierests of the country, engnged in a foreign war, it is notdoubted but that Congres will prompt lv aulhorize it.Ti: e balance in the treasury on the [st of July last excoeded nine millions of dollars, notwithstanding considerable expenditures had been made for the wo during the months of May and June pre ceding. But for the war, the whole pub 'ie debt could have been extinguishec within a short period ; and it was a par of my setlied policy to do so, and thu relieve the people frora its burden, an( place the government in a position whic wouldenable it to reduce the public e penditures to that economical standurd which is most consistent with the general welfare, and the pure and wholesome progress of our instilutions. Among our just causes of complaint againsl Mexico, arising out of her refusal to treat for peace, as well beforeas since the war so unjustly commenced on her part, are the extrnordinary expenditures in which we have been invoived. Justice to own people will make it proper that Mexico should be held responsible for these expenditures. Economy in tho public expenditures is at all times a high duty which all public functionuries of the government owe to the people. The duties become the moieimperative in a periodo!' war, wher large and extraordinary expenditures be come unavoidablc. During the existenciof the war with Mexico, all our resources should be liusbanded, and no apprcpriaions made except such as are absolutely necessary for its vigorous prosecution and the due admini-stration of the government. Objecisof appropriation, which n peace may be deemed useful or proper, jut which are no' indispensable for the jublic service, may, when the country is ngoged in a foreign war, be well post)oned toa future period. By theobservnce of thispolicy at your present sesion, large amounts may be saved to the reasury, and be applied to objects of ressitig and urgent necessity, and thus ie creation of a corresponding amouni f public dcbt mny beavoided. It is not rneant to recommend tliat the rdinary and necessarr nppropriations for ie support of the government should be 'ithheld, but il is well known that every ession of Congress appropriations are roposed for numerous objects which may r may not be made, without materialr affeeting the public interests; and íese it is recommended should not be ranted. The acts passed at our last session, reducing the duties on imports " noi aving gone into operaiion until the first f the present month, there has not been me for its practical efFeci upon the revnue, and the business of the country, to e developed. It is not doubted, howevr, that the just policy which it adopts vill add largely to our foreign trade, and romote the general prosperity. Aliough it cannot be certainly foreseen vhat arnount of revenue it will yield, it s est imated that it will exceed that prouced by the act of 1842, which it super-" eded. The leading principies eslablishd by itare, to levy taxes with a view to aise revenue, and mpose them upon the rticles imported according to their acual value. The act of 1842, by the excessive rates f duty which it imposed on many artiles, either actually excluded them from mportation,or greaily reduced the arnount mported, and thus diminished instead of roducing revcnue. By it ihe laxes were mposed not for the legitímate purpose of raising revenue, but to nfïbrd advantages to favorcd classes, at the expense of a large majority of their fellow citizens. rhoso employed in agriculture, mechancal pursuits, commerce and navigation, vere compelled to contribute from their substance to swell the profitá and overjrown weolth of the comparatively few vho have invested their capital in manuact u res.The taxes were not levied in proporon to the value of the articles upon vhich they were imposed, but, widely sepurating from this just rule, the lighter taxes were n many cases, levied upon articles of luxury and high price, and the ïeavy taxes on those of necessity and low irice, consumed by the great inass of the Deople. It was a system, the inevitable e(Tect of w'.ich was to relieve favored classes and the wealthy few from contributing their just proporlion forthesup)Ort of government, and to lay the burden on the labor of the many, engaged in other pursuits than manufactures. A system so unequal and unjust has jeen superseded by the existing law, which imposes duties not for the benefit or injury of classes or pursuits, but distributes, and as lar as practicable, equalizes the public burdens among all classes and occupations. The favored classes, who, under the unequal and unjust system which has been repealed, have heietofore realiz.d large profits ; and many of them nmassed large fort unes at the expense of the many who have been made tributary to them, t ill have nD reason to complain if they shail be required to bear ihoir just proportion of the taxes necessary for the support of government. So far from il, it will be perceived, by an examination of the existing law, thaf discriminationsin the rates of duty imposed, wjthin the revenue principie, have been retained in their favor. The incidental aid against foreign competition which theystill enjoy, give them an advnntage which no other pursuit possesses ; but of this none others will complain, because the duties levied are nec1 essary for revenue. These revenue duties including f rei glit and charges , which the importer must pay before he can come R competition with the home man ufacturer in our markets, amount on neari ly allour leading branches of manufac■ ture ; to more than one-third of the value of the imported articles, and in somé'ca ses to almost one-half its value. With ■ such advantages, it is notdoubted that our domestic manufactures will continue to 3 prosper, realizing in well conducted es■ tablishments even greater profits than can 3 be derived from any olher regular busiB ness. Indeed, so far fróm requiring the n protection of even incidental revenue du'■ ties, our manufacturers in several lading e branches are extendipx thflix business,giving evidence of great ingenuity and skill, and of their ability lo compete wilh increased prospect of success, for the open market of the world. Domestic manufactures to the value of several milliors of dollars, which cannot lind a market at home, are annually exportpd in foreign countries. With such rats of duty as ihose esiablished by the exisüng law, the system will probably be permanent ; and capitalisis, who have made or shall hereafter make their investments in manufactures, will know upon what to rely. The country will be satisfied with these rates because the advantages which the manufacturers will enjoy, rcsult necessarily from the collection of revenue for 'the 3iipport of government. High protectiveduties, from their unjust oparation upan the masses of the people, cannot fail to give rise to extensive dissatisfaction md complaint, and to consiant efforts to ' ;hange or repeal them, rendering all ! estmentsin manufactures uncertain and jrecarious. Lower and more permanent rates of duty at the same time that they ' ivill yield to ihe manufacturer fair and ' remuneraüng profits, will secure him ' against the danger of frequent changes in ihe system which cannot fail to ruinously affect lus interests. Simuhancously with the relaxation of the restrictive policy by the U. S., Great Britain, from whose example we derived tlio system, has relaxed hers. She has tnodified her corn laws, and roduced many other dutiea to moderate revenue rate9. Afier ages of experience, thestntesinen of ihnt country have been constrained by a sicrn nece9siiy, and by a public op;nion having its deep foundation in the utïerings and wants cf impoveriaheJ millions, lo abandon a system the effect of wliich was to build up immense fonunts in the hands of the few. and to reduce the lahoring millions to paupepsm and miscry. Neaily in the same ratio ihat lubor was depressed, capinl was increasea and concentraled by the British proiective policy. Tte cvils of the system n Greot Britain were at lengih rendered intolerable nnd it has been ■ibafrttned, but not without a severe struggle on the part of the protected nnd f ivored classes to retain the unjusl ndvnntngcs which they have so long enjoyed. It was tobe expccied that u similar siruggle would be mode by the sanie class es in the United States, whrnevcr nn uttempt was made to modily or ubolish the same unjust system here. The proicciive policy had been 19 opcration in the United Siates for a much sliurter period, and iis pernicious efleots were not. theiefore, so clearlyperceivud and lelt. Kñougli, however, waa kuwn of these tffjets to inaute lis repeal. It would bo strnnge f in the face of the example of Great B.-itain, our principal foreign cusioincr, and of the evils of a sysiem rendered manifest in (bat country by long and painful experience. nnd in the face of the immense advan ages, which, under n more liberal commercial policy we are already derivinp, nnd must co.tinue to derive, by supplying her starvïng popuJalion with food, the United States should restore n po.'icy which she has been compellcd to abandon, and tliiis diminish her abiliiy to purcha6e from ns the ood and other anieles which she so much needs, and wo so much deaire to sëli.By ilie simultaneous abandonment of the ' tective policy by Great Brit.nn and ihe Uniled Statce, new and important markets have airen dy ' been opened fr our ngriculturaj and oiher ' Jucis, conunerce and nnvigntion have received a ' new impulse ; Inbor and trude !iave been releaed from the artificial trammels which have s long fettered ;hetn ; and to 1 great extent reciprocity, in the exchange of commi.-dities, has heen introducedat ilie saine time by 1I13 prcssure of circunistnnces at home, abandon a policy whr'ch has been uplield for ages, and to open her markets for 'he immense surplus of breadstufls ; nnd it is confidfiiuly believed that oiher powers ■ f Europe will ultinmtely seo the wisdom, if they be n.u compellod by the panperism and suf lering of thuir crowded populution, to puisuc a similar policy. Our fnrmera nro more dceply intcrested :n maintaining the just and liberal policy of the existing law thnn any oüier clnss of our citizens. - They consiitutea large mnj.irity of our populo tion ; and it is wcll knovn tha'. when they pros per, all othcr pursuits prosper alsj. They have heretofore not only reeeived none of tl)3 bounlies or ."avors of government, bnt, b) the unequnl o;icrations of the protecttvc policy, hnve been made to bear the burdens of taxnion which Invc been imposed to contributo to the bounties which have cnriched others. When a foreign as well as homo niarkct is opened to tlicm, they must receive as they are now receiving. inercased prices for ihcir producís. They will fi xl a readier sale and better prices, fortheir wheat, flour, rice, índinn corn. beef, pork, lard, butler, cheese, and oiher articlcs. which they produce. The home inarkei alone is inadequnto to en.-ible them to dispose ol the immense surplus of lood and oiher articlps which they are capiblc of producing. even at the most red-iced prices, for the inonifvst reason (hal ihey cannot be consumcd in the counCry. The Urited States can, from their immense surplus supply not only the home demand, but ihc deficienciel of food required by the whole world. That the redtired produc.ion of soinc of the chief anieles of food of Great Brilaln, an-J other paris of Europo, may have conlributed 10 increase the demand for our breadstuffs and provisions, is not doubted ; but that the great and efficiënt cause oí this increased demanJ, and of inercased prices, consists in the removnl ol artificinl restrictions heretoforo impoasd, is doemed to be nqu'illy ceriain. That our exports of food. already incrensed nnd increasing beyond formar example, under the more liberal policy which hss been adopted, will be stül vastly eularged. unless they be checked orprevented ly n res:ora tion of the proteciive policy, cannot be doubted. Thnt our commercial and navigning intereste will be enlarged in a corresponding ratio with the inercase of our trade, is equaüiy certain ; while our manufacturinü intercale will etill belavored intérest a of the country, nnd receive the incidental pro t cc í on offurdud tliem by ievcnue duties : and more than this they canuot just'y demand. In iny annu.-il messige of December )nst, a tiriíí of revenue duiics, bused upon the princrples of the existing law, wls recommended and I have seon no rason to cliange the opinior s tlicn expressed. Ju view of the probable bemficiiil effiets of thii law, I recommended ihat the policy cstablished by t bo maintamod, It haf. ut just commenced to opérale ; nnd to abnndon dr modify it withoul giving it a fuir triol, would be inexpcdieiit and unwise. Should delects in any of iis details be aacertnined by actual experirnce to exist. these may bo hereafter corrected ; but u'ntil such defecti shull become manifest, the aci nhould be fairiy tested. It ia submitied for your consideraron whether t may nol be proper, as a wir measure, to inipose revenue duties onsome of tlie anieles now enibr3ced in the ree list, should it be dtemed iroper lo mpoje such duiies svi h a view to raise evenuc to meet the expenses of the war wuti Mexico, or 10 avoid to thnt extent the creaion of a public dobt, thai mny be repealed wlien he emergency whic'i g ive rise to thern shall cease o exist, and constituteno part of the permanenl ïolicy of the country. The aci of the Cih of August last, " 10 provide for the better orgaKiz.ition of the trensury. ind for the colleciion, sale ket-ping, transfer and disbursement of the public revende." lns been uarried into executiuii as rapidly as the delay neeessarily arising out of the appointment of new olficers, tcking aud appoving iheir boiH-i. and preparing and s.curing places for ihe safe-keepingofihe public nionty, would permiu It is not propasad to depart in any respect from the principies or policy or. which this great tneasute is founded. There are, however, dcfects in the details of '.he measurc, developed by is practical opcraiion, which are fuliy set forth in iho rrpori of ihe Secretary ofvhe Treasury, to which the atteniion of Congress is inviled These defecis woud impair to some extent the succesaful operation ol the law at all tiims. but are especially embarrassing when the country isengaged in a war, when he cxpendiiurcs are greatly nercased, when loansarc to be eflecied, and the (fibiirsc.uentA ure to be mude at puin ts mnny hundred miles dibiant, in some cases, from any depository. and a large portion of them in a foreign country. - The modificiitions suggested in the report of ihe Sccretnry of the Treasury are recotnmendcd 10 your favorable consideration. In connection wuh this subject I invite your nttention to ihe importunce of establiehing a branch mint of the U. Statesat New York. Two iliirds of tho revenue dei i ved from cusioms being colcet-d at that point, the demand for specie to pay the duties will bc lurge : a branch mint, where foreign coin and bullion could be imine'dialely converied inio American coin, would greatly facilitato the transaction of the public business, enlarge the circulation of gold and iilver. and be at tito sanie lime, a safu depository of the public money. The importance of graduating and reducing the pricc of such of the public lands as have been long ofFered in the market, at a minimum rate authorized by existing lau's, and remain unsold, induces me again to recomm nd the subject to your favorable consideraron. Manymillions of acres have been oflered in the market for more than thirty years, and larger quantities for more than twenty years; nnd being of an inferior qualitythey must remuin unsealeable for an ndefinite period, unless the price at which they may be purohased shall be rcduced. To place a price upon them above their real valué isnot oniy to prevent their sale, nnd thereby deprive the Treasury from any income f rom from that sou ree, but is unjust to the stntes in which they lie, because it retards their growth and increase of population, and because they have no power tolevy a tax upon them as upon other lands within their limits, held by other proprietors than the United Slaies, for the support of their local governments. The beneficia! cfiects of ihe gradúation principie have been realized by some of the sta tes owning the land within their limits in which it has been nc'opted. They have been demonstrated also by ihe United States acting ns the Trustee of the Chickasaw trihc of Indians in ihe sale of iheir lands lying within the states of Mississippi and Ala'unma. The Chickasaw landa which would not command in the market the minimum price established by the laws of the U. States for the snle of their lands, werr, in pursuanceofthe treaty of 1824 wiih that tribe, subsequently offered for sale at graduated and rcduced rates for limitec periods. The ïèsult was, that large qunntities of these lands we re purchasec which would otherwise have remainet unsold. The lands ware diposed of at their real valué, and many persons of limitec means were enabled to purchase smal tracts, upon which they havo souled witl their families. That similar results wouk be produced by the adoplion of the g-ad uation policy of the United States, in al the states in which they are the owner of large boJies of lanas which have been long in the market, cannot be doubted. It cannot be a sound policy to wilhhold large quantities of the public land from the use and occupation of uur citizens, by fixing upon them prlces which experience has shown they will not command. Or the contrary, it is a wise policy to aÜbrc ; facilities lo our citiens to become th owners, at low and moderat ratea, ofreeholdsof their own, instend of being lennnis and dependents of olhers. Ifit t be apprehended that these lands if c duced in price, wojld be secured in large , quantities by speculators and capitalisis, ihe sales might be restrifHed, in 1 miled v qtiantities, to actual seitlère or persons e purchasing for cultiv.ition. v In my last annual mes age, 1 l( ed fur consideraiion of Uongress .he tt iresent systcm of managing tho mineral n ands of the Uniied Simes, anu tc nenóed that they sbould be brought into 0 narket, and sold, upon such terms and , mder such rostrictions as Congress tnight tc rescribe. By the aci of the llth of uly last, " the reserved lead mines and ontiguous lands in the states of Illinois, nd Arkansas, and territories of s in and lown, were authorized to be sold. o ?he act is confined in its operation, to sj 1 lead mines and contiguous lands." (e A large port ion of the public lands tj lining copper and other ores is p, enled to be very valuable, and l jr tiend that provisions be mado auihorzing the salo of these lands, upon such D, erms and conditions as their supposed r( alue may, in the judgment of Congress, e deemed advisable, having due regard S( o the interest of such of our citizens as S( Tiay be located upou them. r It will be imponant, during your , 2nt session, to establisli a territorial ■ 3rnment, and to extend the jurisdiciion , and laws of the United Siates over the j' Territory of Oregon. Our laws t, lating trade and intercourse with the t dian tribes east of the Rocky mountains . should be extended to the Pacific ocean ; . and for the purpose of executing them and preserving friendly relations within our limits, an addilionnl number of Indian agencies will be required, and should be authorized by law. The eotablisihment 1 of cuslom-houses, and of post offices and , post roads, a-d provisión for the ' j tation of the mail on such routs as the public convenienco will suggest, require legislative authority. lt will be proper, also, to establish a surveyor general's oflTice in that Territory, and to make the necessary provisión fur thesurveying the public lands and bringing them into inarket. As our ciiizens who now reside in that distant region have been subject ed to many hardships, privations and sacrifices in their emigration, and by their irnprovements have enhanced the value of the public lands in the neighborhood of their settlements, it is recommended that liberal grants be made to thm of such portions of these lands as they nmy occupy, and that similar grants or righls of pro-emption be made to all who may emigrate thither within a limited period, to be prescribed by law. The report of the Secretary of War contains dctailed information relative to the several branches of the public service connected with that depaitment. The operationsof t'nearmy have been of a satisfactory and highly gratifying character. I recommend to your early and favorable consideration the measures proposed by the Secretary of War for speedily filling up the rank and file of the regular army, for its greater efficiency in the field, and for raising an additional force to serve during the war with Mexico.Ernbnrassment is likely to arise for want of legal provisión authorizing compensation to be made to the agents employcd in the several states and territorios to pay the revolutionary and other pensioners the amounts allowed them by law. Your attention is invited to the recom mendation of the Secrctary of War on this subject. These agents incur heavy responsibilities and perform important duties, and no reason exists why they should not be placed on the same fuoting, as to compensation, with other disbursting officers. Our relations wi.h the various Indian tribes continue to be of a pacific character. The unhappy dissensions which have existed among the Cherokecs for inany years past have been healed. - Since iny lnst annual message, important treaties have been negntiated with some of the tribes, by which the Indian title to large tracts of valuable land, witbJh the limits of the States and Territories, has been extinguished,and arrangemenis made for removing them to the country west of the Botween tliree and four thousand of different tribes, have been removed tb the country provided for them by treaty stipulations, and arrnngcments have been mado for others to fullow. - In our intercoursc with the several I tribes, particular aitention has been given to the important subject of educaiion. - The number of schöol-s eslablished among i them hos been increased, and nddkional i menns provided, not only for teaching 1 them the rudiments of education, but for mstructing them in agricultura and the f mechanic arts.I refer you to the report of the Secreary of the Navy for a satisfactory view )f the operationsof the department under lis charge during the past year. It is jratifying to pcrceive that while the war rith Mexico lias rendered it necessary to mply nn unusual number of our ai'med cssels on her coast, the protection duO j our commerce in other quarters of tho 'orld has not proved insufficient. No ïeans will be spared to give efficiency ) the jiaval service in the prosecution f the war ; and I am happy to know ïat the officers and men anxiously desire ) devote themselves to the service of ïeir country in any enteprise, however flicullof execution. I recommend to your favorable conideration the proposition to add to each fourforeign squadrons an efficiënt sea leanier, and as especially demanding at ;n:ion, the establishment at Pensacola of )e necessary mcans of repairing and retting the vessels of the navy employed ihe Gulf of Mexico. There are other suggestions in the re 01 1 which deserve, and Í doubt not, will sceive your consideration. The progress and condition of the mail srvice, for the past year, are fully presnted in the report of the Posimaster ïeneral. The revenue for the year end ïg 13th June last, amounted to 83,487, 90, which is eight hundred and two tiousand six hnndred and forty-two dolars and fifty-five cents less than that of he preceeding year. The payment for hat department during the same time, ïmounted to fuur millions eighty-four thousand two hundred and ninety-seven Jollars and twenty-two cents. Of this sum ave hundred and ainety;even thousand and ninety-seveu dollars and eighty cents, have been drawn frora the treasury. The disbursements for the year were two hundred and thirty-six Lhousand four hundred and thiity-four dollars and seventy-seven cents less than :hose of the preceding year. VVhile t!ie disbursements have been thua ïïminished the mail facilities have been 2nlarged by new mail routes, of five thouar.d seven hundred and thirty-nine miles ; an iricrease of transportaron one milliou ?even hundred and sixty-four thousand one hundred and forty-five miles, and the establishment of four hundred and eighteen new post offices. Contractors, poslmasters, and others engaged in this branch of the service, have performed their duües with energy and faithfulness deserving comrnendation. For many intei'esting details connected with the opera tions of this establishment, you are referred to the report of the Postmaster General : and his suggestions forimproving iis revenues are recommended lo your favorable consideration. Í repeat the opinión expressed in my last annual message, that the business of this deparlment should be so regulated, that the revenues derived from it should be made to equal the expenditures and it is believed that this may be done by proper modifications of the present laws, assuggested in the report of the Post Master General, without changing the present rates of pos'age. With full reliance upon the wisdom and patriotism of your deliberations, it will ba my duty, as it will be my anxious desire, to co-operate with you in every constitutional eifort :o proinoto the welfare and maintaii: the honor of our common country.