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Tlie bilí to rai-e, for a litnlted timp, an additional military force, was read a third time. The question being on the passage of the bill, Mr. HALE - feeüi g compelía from my convictions of du'.v to take a course in reforence t this bill in whioh I am ware very few Souaiors will enliraly coinciie, I have thought, humble as is thsh!rE n wliicli I inuve, that it was due to those who placed me in tire position I occupy, to let my vote upon the bill go out acompanied writh the rea-ons which have indijced me to iak? the course , whioh I am about 10 takp. I wou'd have been glaH if olJer and a'jier Semtors had favored the Sen-ite w th their views in opposition to this bill. I would have been glnd if tlie aciion of the Senate up- on the bill hnd been delayed un!il the doouments com'ng fnm the several depnrtmetits, and Wiiich we are well ii'gh gitting, had been placed befjre us, so thit we might hnve nll the liglit that cm!d be tltrown upon thnt, wn'ch in my mind, i n dark suhject nt the Ightest ; but seeing that the bili is ükeiv to go tlimugh the fortns of legislation, and become a law without having those liglus bpfure w, I hnvo thouglit it neces.-ary to Irespass briefly upnn the time of the SénatA, in order to expressthe views vvhich I en;ertained. It may be said :h;it I do not stand much in neod of light, beciue I have a!ready declared that l stand bare preitaied to vote ngainsi the war in all ils ftrms , ngainst nny measurps for the supply of troopp, either regular or volunters, (and )f iliere are any o:hfr kindí, I gonga'ns: them, because I stand prppareii ti vtp againt the appropi intion of n single Jo'lar beyond tlie simple nmonnt - I have before suggesieJ - which vll bfisuffi.-ient to bring homo your troops by tlie est and chenpest route. Entcitiining these views, befre euiering upon the discussion of the bill, I want to say a word in regard to a sentiment ivhieh I hae heard avowed here, nnd tlsewliere, Rnd it in - that when the country isengngei ín wnr we lose all dicretion, wa have nothing to do but grnnt the supplies tha' are demanded of us - an appeal being made to our patriotism - pairioiism cfn only find riglitful nction in a support of the war - that there ia no pniriotisn anywhere else, and tnnt the adminitration, which has been s foriur.nte or unforiun-iie a to plunge tha country into a war, Ins only to appeil to the country, and expeet te rceive no otlicr response excpi hearty and unantnoii support. Ana this doctrine hns been carried so fir, and in such high places, rliitthe President oCthe United Statrs hns denonr.ced ns trraíon, the opposition of Congreso, although his moda oí nroeculing the war üd not nccord with their conv;ciiins. I recollect butone incident in my readingof history which is analogous. It is stated by an English historinn, iliai when Queen Elizabeth had summmed her Parüame-nt, and they wsre nbout 10 oraanizí for businesi, she sent her mes-engpr to them with this royal mándate; she to]d ihem to be very careful that they did not meddle with nflfairs of State, "because," said she, 'sucli things are altogether bevond the :mpas of your nnrrow understunding." Wel], our rojal Presidenl did not lol ov exadly n the foolsieps of Elizibelli - Me did not question the understaniing of Congres', hut their patriotitn. Now, Iet ■is sec where thi.i doctrine wilt carry us. Let ussee to what it will Suppose von should have na exceedingly bad nnd corrupt adini'iNtrntion - mind, I do not say that this issuch nn Administraron, orihat we are ever likelv to have such an ■nr. But snnpose ihat such a tliing were possiblo, and tht the njcnsures of th President had beeomeexceedingly riJious, opressvp, bárdenseme nnd intnlerable, ard thnt notPs of dj.sapprobní'ofl wecc Iieginnitip to be heard frota the poo,le assemlilen in their primary meet:r'g ; 'hat the mnes oí indignatmn at last pene:r;iic the walls of the pnlace, and the President, (indipg tliat be cou'd riot stand agninst ihe unied will of an njured eol'lc, what ba-i e to do? Ought he to rlesist in liii coune of wrong-doing, or tn retrocó hU steps? No, sir; íhis snot tlte pa'h to pooataVity ; ncsording to his neiv school of elhies and moral-, he has only lo go on and plunge the countrv into war, and, if lie can mnmgfi so skilfullv as to inv ]ve the country nto two wnrs nt onre, so mucli the - so much the more glory for him; a popularity greater than t lint of Washington or a Jackson. This is the nfierence, the plain and unmistikable infei-pnce. VVa1-, instead of being, as it s snid to be bv al] writeraon ethics or poülics, the dire: calamitv whieh fleaven in ts wmlh can send upon a nation, is converted ly ihis aloliemv into n heuling Belhesd.n, in which j cal pruflig-icy and corruption ofthe darkest hue m.iy wash t-e!f and be olean. Sir, I utierlv deny the soundness of this doctrinp, that Congress ougln have no viúce bpyond granting the nupjlps. If 'hpie ever s a time wlipn 0posiiion shoald ba vigilnnt, scrupulous, watchful, notictng pvery thing tiial is wrong, it 'u at a linie vlien, Uirough the acis of the Administran'oi), the country is bunheiied wiih an unnecesary ar ; when ihe frtiiis of indus'ry are cnsmned (Sr tho support of sur.n wnr.and when we nre surrounded bv a!l the horrors wlii h war brmgi in its irain. If tliere ever is n time thnt hou'd püt ninn iipnri !he r individüil judgme.'it, reflici'ifi nnd rponibilrty, it is such n time ; ani such is our poyition now, and wc nre tliere by iho U'iaJvise I, s'itutiona!, and ülegal acts of the President. I propere, I ay, to do what I m y, :"ee'ble ns it rnny be, to pi ics the country rijjht. I huve never !e,irn-d in ihat school nf moral r politica I sciencp, that hy persevering inan unoonstitutiona] nnd wrong course, we shall ever come out And, sir, ther'a is another vew that i s'ms limes tnkm, whk-h certninlv does not acford witli my own convictors, nnd upon wliich I wish to aiy a word or twu nt lilis lime, (and 1 do it witli deferencc 10 the opinión of abler mer. nbout m?,) nnd whicii reliies tu liie course wjiicfa ihose shoiild '.ake who be!it-ve ilrfe war tü be wrong, rariically wrong. Why, I think l have heard an idea someihing like tliis: - The country isengiged in a war which is ui.jus!ifiab'e--ve c w.fess it is wrong to go on ; wa see clearly it is wrong - nevertlielpss we are nuw t war, anl the President f-aüs on ns f ir suppliéa of men inJ money, niid Seo.-itois siy tljey will voto men and money, hut bv some son of a proceso which escupas rrly cdnprehension, they imaginp tliey arë going to ihrow the ïesponsibiüty fin the P. esident. I c mfess I do not undrstand how they are to ftwag9 'rorn ''le'r ue s''2re ofrespon.sibüity ; tlley riust shrue the responsil) lity priih the Prrsi ent, let the chriracler of the í!l be wliat il rriiy. if i!ie war be wrong, put nn rr] t t at once. I nave no d ïubt the President wi!l be exc?eJingly pratifie) with oo-iton of this kind. Yu will iipar nolhing abo: n fuctinns np;usiiion in the orgm-of the AdintiiNtr.-i;i n. Tne President would care the ip isjtton ofthe wlnle world, ifit were .in opnsition of ihis kind. It is inry VVeller, w!v happened ti fin I hinisslf in pri.son, nnd a peivson whom he met was bcwniling he misfor'une ol' having a thonsnnd tounds left lo him by w II, u-hTch ciroumitaice had ben the occasion of ti is imprionmerit. "I wish," p.xcíained Sara, "all mv enemies wou.J try to ruin me in t' way." Just so with the President. You te!l liim he is wrong, uhile nt the same time you vote íim all the men and miiiey that he asks you for. Beüaving lint the causa of this war is radien lly, 1 hold 1 lo lio the frsr, the p'airifsi, nnd the simple-t duty oHhose who thlnk as ld., to v t!ihld sti,.i]ies, and cmpel thé Presido it to do whai wp belie.vo to be rig'it. Bfliovin ihore is a strict an .' pe tino )t nnalogy between the course to bo pursued by Coagress, and that which is taken by the British ment. I coníider thal the curse ofthose who ihink the war wrong, is plain nnd clear. nnd admits of no mistake. Upon a queslion ofvoling Sipplies, I think the vr.ry first thing lo Ir itiquirei uto by Congrrss is, w liether the o'ject for wh'icll 'lie suppiies are demanded is a cprrècl and legitímate oljei;t. Ifit be de!orminei that tlte object isa proper one, lol the suppiies be g anieH; if otheiw5p,iihho]d thein. Tbis is mv understantfing of the nature oCour Consiit ilion. I havehenrd our Governmont spoken of ns n sovernment of rechs and balnnoe, hut when you speak of ilie President having the power lo mnke war uncortitutionnlly and illegally, I cannct understabil the cause or propriely nfthat course of con(Jucl whif-h would sustnin liim in his unconstffiitio'hal net. B' lieving, tlion, Ihnt tlie questin of tliis war is a qufstion which ought to hc (ifscussed ; that il lies nt 'he vr-ry bottom of the quesiion of suppi'es, I will jirocfied to give my views to the Senate nnd o the country, of this w;ir. And, as I suggested ihe other d.iy, in ihe few remarks which I had the honor to submit, I believe that the cnuse of the war lies a , litile deeper Iban nny thnt has leei av sigr.pd by those wh hnvt expressed their opinions upon the sul'ject. I believethnt the qnestion, whe'her it nrose froni the march of Taylor to the Rio Grande, or whetl er any of those incirfentnl nnd temporary movpment were the immediate caine of the wnr, is rntirelv irrelevant. Tlie cnuse, sir, lies r!eeppr thiin any of these ; and when l speak of 1I16 cause of ihe war, prmit me to say, that 1 do it wilh no desire to introdut e cxciiing or angry di-scussion, or to nvouso uiipleasant feflings ; but having a duty t perHirm her?, I must do it fearles'y - I must do my duty as an Arrer'. cmi Senator, as it mny be. Atid when we speak of' the causes of this war, I muit avow my conviction, beyoni a cavil or n doubt, to be, that t lies in ihe avnwed policy of ihe American Gevernmtnt - r policy wliich waa ai'owei four years ago - to make the extensión of humnn slavery ono ofitspiiraary niotives "f action. Aid wiicn t soy lilis, et me t)0 understood. 1 refer 10 the princip!e avovved in the dipliimilic corresp'indence which preceded i lie nnnexaiioti of Texa to the United Suites. And pprmit mf to say, thnl n npproncliing ihis que-tion, I do il witli a (etico and disprisition to do ful] justice to the officers of iliis government who vee engaged in t'iat correspondpnce. I will do iherii th'o j 'Stice to say, thit wiru they did, thry did tnanfully nnd a')ve board. Thfie wad no conc-ealment. They cnme out bildly. Their course was very different fïom thnt of n set of men we havo among ns, cnlleJ Nortïiorn men wilh Southern principios - men who pro ess ;o be ngaiost slavery, but whonre nevertht-ltss enlisied in ihe s!nvehi!din interest, rerHy to do slnvers's bidding. was cot the case ith the irien to whom i In ve referid. Tliev carne nut boldl y nd avowerl ihe oljeet at uhicl) they aimeii, nnd ihe menn.s by which they propused to nttaln it. Let this be ever sairi to lh. ir credit. In tliat correspondonce ths objecia of th'a govei-nment are evidently as mucli bèyoiid coniroversy ns aimhingcan poss bly lie. Ko, sir! If the fingprs of n li.-inü were sent from the thionfc "f Eternal 1 gh', to write this upon the wnll over yo'ur heiid, it would nol flash cubviction more readily to ihe minrl ihan in done bv a penisal of that c.irreáponJcnc-". I will not go throngh the whule of V, but will content my.elf witii sending to the clyik andaskinghim to read ari extract l'rum this letter : Department of State. ) Washington, August 8. 1848. $ Sia : - A privnte letier fiom a citizen in Marylatid, then 11 Londuti, contains the fullowing passngè : "I leun, f rom a sourcn enlitlfd to the fullsst eonfidence, ihat iheie is ion here a Mr. Andiews, deputed by ihe ab' lilion. 'um ot' Texas to neg.niae ili the Briiish Government ; tliai he lins spen Lord AherJoTi, and sulmit!e:l lii project lor tM ïbolition of slavery in Texas ; whit-h is, ilmt Hiere hall be organizad n cnmpiinv in lingland who sliall udiam-e a sum xufiuieul lo pay for ih s!avps tmw in Texas, nnd lecoive in paymtat Txas londa ; thnt the sum thus uoianced shall !e pnid ovrr a an inHemniiy !br tho nbolilion of slneiy ; and l am auihoi-ized ly ;lie Textil minieer to &y lú yui, 1 lint Lord Aberdeen, h: agr.'ed that tlie Brtiíih Governir)pnt will gunrantee 1 he yment of tho inic e-t on this Ionn, opon condition that iho Tp.xnri Govemment will nb ilibli slavery." This proposition, it wiïl be seen, wns exceedingly simple, ami önsy to be understood. It iinnounced, not ihat ;here was a schemo on fooi amor.gsl a bet of fanaiica! polilicians, to decoy nway tlie slavo--, nnt to Sical thcm - imihingof ihat sort - but a proposition had Leen enterta!ned, by which the governnnent and s!aveholders of Texas agrcd to abolish slnverj', and Tor ihis agreemenl on iheir pni", it was said that q co.ïi[iany had agreed to advarice n siipulated price. - What right hndour governmcnt lo nierfVro ? The Secrelnry t--ays, "a movemeni of this soit cannot bi contemplated n silence." ' I agree il should not ; hut what should every American heart havp said, when it was found thal n scheine of his kind was on foot f Slioiild they nol hnve burst out ri thankfuj nspirations to Alinighty God, that such a schetne of benevolenre as thnt, hnd even !eph thought of. I thinfc the Secrelary says well n saying that they could nol 1 ok on in silene?. The Secretary further snys : "Sncli nn allempt upon any neighbnrin couniiy would neressarilr be vieweH ly thw guvernment with very Jeep con ctn." Certninly, liey sliould have looked on wilh deep contern, as dsop ns that with which nffoction watclies by the side of dying ]ove, now gathering hope from he symptoir.s, that the sinile of healili will j agnin srnooth the cheek of love, and thon tremhling, 1c-;t the pall of despair should seltle on our hópeS. Again, de sys : "It cannot ! e nenniiled to siieceed witliout ihe most strenuou efforts on nur pari to nirest n c.ilamitv so serious to evcrv pirt of o:ir country." A c.ilamily So serious to every part of tlie country ; so seiious to Ñew Unmishire, to AWachusetis, nnd the other New England Stntos. And, sir, this bill wliich is no before you, is one of the mensure whioh ar to ba adopted to reHeem the plrdge thus made. In the same letter it s said : "The Cf-taMishment, in the very midsí of onr l.-iveh"l)ing Stnte. of on independent povernrnent, frl dding the exi:,t'nce of slavery, nn-l bv n peojil b rn for the mot pur, nmong us, reared up in nr habils, nnd Seaking our lnnguage, noiilH not fail li produce the most unhappy efleuts upon both partios." When I saw t formally nnnounced by the government that it cnuld nnt produce any bi t "unhappy efTeci.s." I tbmight thnt I wnsmisiüken n the reading. I ihought : ft-nm Kr. n ookUk " ■■-"■ Tnl-ir ; brt I found ihaf it was no mistake ; that the .nnouncement was re-dly made. Wh-ii a mislake then did the Pilgrnn Fnthevs mnke in coming tp fnuud a colony in tlifNew World, where lhy mtglit nvuid the consequences of slaverv. Had ihpy nol slavery enough nt home. thnt they bade furewell tü everything thnt bound their hearts to the lanl of their binh,- the Utid Vvhere the bones oi' their futhers re. posed, - nnd enne over and foundeH the institulion of AmeHcnn slavery ? Was i for this that ihe May-FIower sailed fiom 'he coast where slavery prevailed ' Was it for iliis thot tho-'e pntiiots wnndered Irom Englnnd to Holland, and t'rom Ho!Innd liere 1 In Heaven'a nnnie, w:s not Kngland opprpsive enough ? Ons more extract nnd I Inve the lener. "Few cnl.-imitipscould befall tbisrounirv more lo be deplored than the ës'ahüshment nf a preduniinant Brilish iiiflu(nee nnd the abolition of domestic slavery in Texas." Few calainities cóuld befall llie coun'ry like this ! I liad understood, up to the lime whn 1 rend tliis declaraiiorr, that ihe müitution of slavery, for good or bnd, was a State institution. I ïhi.-jght t was one wliich the gPliPrul governmenl had no right to touch. Evcnthing that I hnd ever heaid upon the sulject had tended :o tnke that iustitution from the cogn;z-ince of the grnecn! govprnment, and make it exclusivelv o subject ol" State policy. Hut here I Bnd it hnptizèri, and made ono of theGods t;efijre which the who!e peopla aio to bow down and worsfiip. From this caue, wheiher remote or immediate, this war proceeded. Can any rnnii rieny this 1 Vo mny have our doubts wl.eiher, it there had Leen mort caution and pnidence, this war would liae been prf-c'pitnied upon us ai soea'lv a period. Dut is t rmt evidpnt that thp whoie springs from thi.i ? Writ not annexation ite!f nn act of wart- Viic was exisiing beiween Mexico and Trxas at iIip timo. By ;he verv fact of nnnexing to oursehes one of fhe bellge rent naiionv, we inciirred the respcnsibility of fighiingl-pr bniiles. IT this, tlien, lie thp cuise -f :he iva-, I como nexl ■ tiio question hovv this wnr comrnonceil Well, sir, it may seem oxceedinglv sïrangs iliat nno should be found asking that quesuon at this time, hen the President hus t"ld us over nnd over ngain sr nianv limes liow it cnmmênced - thnt il c-ominpfjced by the net of Mexico. Said ihe President in his messngp to Congress orthe ïlth Mnv, 1846 : "In my mpssag nt the commenerment of the pre-ent sossion, 1 iníormed yon tha', upi.n the farnrst ppeal of ihe congress and convention of Texas, I had ordered on efficiënt military force lotikn n posilion 'between ilie Neuces and the Del Norle.' This h.-id become necessaiy, to meet n tfmatened nvnsinn of Texas by the Mexican torces, fnr which e.tensue military reru-ntions hád been niaHe. The invasión wns thrpa'ened solelv becauso Texas lind-determineH, in nccordance with a solemn resokition of the Congress of Ihe (Jtiited States, lo annex herself to our Union ; and, under these circumstnnces, it was plaiply our dúiy to extend our protection over lier citiens nnd soil. Th is forcé wns concent rated at Crpu= Christi, nnd remained there until after I had receivecl such iiifurrnntion from Mexico ás rendered t probnble, f not certain, thnt ilie Mexicnn government would refuso lo receive onr Fïnvov. Mrnwtime, Texas, by the final oetion of our Congress, had beeome an integral pnrt of our Union. The Congres of Tp.xh?, hy U act ol December 10, 1836, had declared the Hib cM Norte to he the boutidaiy cf tliat republic. lts jurisdic'on Imd been rxiendwl nr.d exercised bsyond tlie Nueces. Thfi country betwepn that river and the Del Norte had ben repreeented n the Congress and in ihecinvenlion of Texás ; had r) taken part in the net of annexation itself: and is now inrluied witliiti one f our Congressinnal district. Oiir own Congress hnd, nroreovpr. wiih greit unnnimity, by ihe pet fipprövéd December 31. 1846. recoguised the curitry beyond thp Nueces as a part of our lerrilory, ly iticluding it within our, own revenue system ; and a r(vonue ofTicer, to reside within ihat district, has heen pppointed, by and withthe! aiivice and rnnsent of the Senate. Ir cama, iherefore, ofurgent necesiity to j provide forihe defne oftha'. portion of country. Accord ngly, on ihfi 13th of Jnn.iary last, instrurtions wpre issued to the general in commatid of tliese troops 19 oi-cupy the left bank of the De! None." And in his nnnual message toCongress on the 8th of Decpmber, 1846, be repeats t!ie assertion, and ho not only repeals the deelaration thet wnr exista by the ncls ol Mexico, but he says everr honorable eflbrt has been moda bv me to prevent the war, but al] proved n vain, Rnd the war bas comp, notwithntanding he was so ecepdinglv oppused to i'. Now 1 desire to examine tliis matier. Tlie President snot atisfied with thus telling us tliat tbs war aroe from the act of MtlMi and that ha had used very honorable exertion to nvoid it. He comes rrwu-d in h-r-. mcttag tto ;.- „.,,J tells usfourteen limes disrinctly, and several times impliedly, ihnt it nrose from the net of Mexico. It srms a part of the President's religión, to nccompany 'lis moro solemn nc!s wilh the continual declnration that "ar exists by the neis of Mexico," ns it wan of the followers of Mahommed, to prefaoe their moresarious saying ivitli th'e o'fi-repeated avnwal that ihere w.t '-no God bnt Allah, ani Maliommed h:s )rophet." Now let ua examine this ; did it coramence by the net of Mexico? Suc-h is not my reaHing. The ttdcihg posession of Texwnsof iselfan aot of war. Sir, at the time of tho American Revólution, when Frnnce signpd a Trèaiy of Alliunce with us, GreatBritain was not long in find'ugi nut that thnt was arr act of war. But suppose that net was not one of war, whfit oüows Í One of the funnimental conditions of the Joint Rso!ui!oii For annexing Texas to the United States was war. "First, said Stnte to bo furmeil subject to the atljustinent by ibis government of all questions" of boundiiry." "Subject to the odjustment of nll queslior.s of boundary." Thai was th ' very condiiion which the American Congress fi.xed to the act of annexation. - Well, is it nece-snry for me to stand her tn-dny to teil the Ameiican penple, that if thtre is a question of boundary exuiing, and one party goes nnd ocfiiiiies theteriitnry lo the extreme verge "fihe claim - that is an act of war? - VVhy, I think the President hims. lf, in the course of ihe eonlrnversy wilh Gre-it Bntain, must have found that this was the cfe, nlihnughone uf ihe first acU of his Ádministrniion was to teil the people in his Inigural Address, that nur tille to Orrgon w:is clear and unquestionnblc. - 1 saw the President nmid ihe dripppingof lbo storm, smndiiig al the east front of ihis C;ipi:ol, rpininding iht ppople how young a man he wns, nnd yet he woulii have the whole of Oregon. 1 almos: expecied o hear liïm say-- 'ïou'd ►cnn-e expecl ono of niy ge, Tt ppeak in public on the a'.ige '' I know not whéther I wns most nmused n' the juvenil ity of the Presiden!, or hisdeierrrñnaUon tosoize upon the whole of Oiegon. lie would not even submit tlie question ío arbitration, beeause thíit would be admining thai Ornl Britain liad room -orí of litle there. Nothing short of the tfholè wojld sntisfy him. Whv, a man could hnrdly be rec.ognized as u Democrat in the Eatern State, unlet;s he was for cla'mingthe whole of Oregon. He muf-t go for 54 deg. 40 min., or he was no Democrnt; and one Stnte Legicature was so violent in the cause, that they were for claiming 54 49. Í der it occijrred to [he Prenden! to send our offieer.i and take possetsion of iho erritoy lip 10 hat line. W'hy d:d he not do this? Becaue he knetv, and everyboriy knew. il wouM bo an act of war. lift kncw it would be so considjred bv Gi-rat Britain, nnd resentpd by lier. - Wel!, so t wns hore. The sending of General T;iyior to the Rio Grande as. beyond al! controversy, nn act of war. But I propose to giveyou the President' own occount of it. In his Mesnge of May, 1846, lc sajs : He kepl the iróópsat Corpus Chirisli, until i was ren-Jeied certain llmt the Mexican governn.eDt had refused to re ceive Mr. SÜd'el!. Well, on the lOth d;ty of November this coinmission wns appoinled, and iiot being much i ed wilh maliersof diploinacv, I ofcoursej lake whni the Président said, as being I what lie m'eaiit. l' MB. SLTDEI.L's LETTER OP CEEDENCE. JAMKS K. POLK", President of the U. States of America. Great and Good Fritnd :- I have madechoiee of John Slidell, one ofour distinguished citizpne, to reside nenr the governnent of ilie Mexican republic i: the qualilv óf Rnovy Extraordinarv arid Minister Plen:poten'iiarv of the United States uf America. He is well informrd of ihe rpla'ive interest of the iwo cóüntries, nnd rif bur iïncerë dèsire to tpstore, cnliivate, nnd strengïhen friendhi) and good co.-ifspondence bel ween us ; and, from n knowledge of his fidelity and good conduct, I have entire confidencf tliat he will render hmelf accepf.ble to the Moxicdn government, by his con.iiant endeavors to preserve .md advance ihe interest and happinpss of botli nntions. 1 thérefore rp'quest your excellency io recpive hirh favorably, and :o give full credeiue 10 whattver hè shul! s8v on the part ofth Uniteii States. And'l pray God to have you in his safe and hol keen'Writtfn at the city of Washington the lOih diy of November, in the yenr of our Lord one thouand eight hundred snd foity-fiie, and of the indepndei.Cí rf the United Sra;es the seventie h. Your good friend JAMES K. POLK. By the PresirTenf: James FiccHANAy, Secretary of State. To his Exceüency Do.i Joe Junmm;, President of the Mexican Republic," "Aüd prny God lo fejoiin his holy care and keeping !" How pious ihe Pra-wdent i! Ele práys f ir hii enemies. Thií. was Written on the lOth of November. Now 1 wnnt to rend annther document, to show huw Mr. Polk wamáting his good Tiend on the 15ih of June preceding. In a corifideniial com munication fïom the Wnr Department dated June 15, 1845. to General Tavlor, I find the following : "The point of your ultirna'e destination is the western froniier of Texis, i whera jroü wil! selecMind occupy, od or neir the Rio Grnnde del Norte, iuch a site as 11 consisi wiih the health of the tronps, and will b bc-t adajiied to rpel invnsion. and tü proiert whnt, in llie evont of nunexaiion, will he our western border. Ynu will limit yourself to t!ie Hefence of the t;r. iturv of Texaunles' Mexico shüuld declare war ogainst the U. St.ves. Your movemrnt to tlie Gulfof Mexico, and yowr prepnr.'itions ti embaik for the wes ern fnntier of Texa, iré to be made without nny delay" Well, now, what dii you think of ihis pious President? On the 15th of June, ho ordered the troops to be ready to embark for the coast of Mexico; nnd five monthsafierv.'ard8, he send a messenger to Gcneeal Herrera, and by the hands of this messenger, n suppücation to Almighty God, " to have him in his safe and holy kf eping ;" lest this prayer should faü,he hnd taken the precaution to send General Taj lor with his army, five months before, 'o toke him in hL' care nnd keeping. VVpII, 1 will nol deiain the Senate long on this part of the matter It .-eems to me it is too piaiti f ir cnvil; nnd if 1 !:,d the issue tobe tried before twilve gaod men and true, the firt wilnes 1 would cali would b James K. Polk - for 1 nevor k.iew a witness who was conscious of telling the truth, who found it necssary In repeat o often the same ossertiun. Whv dops the Prenideht g' nto solong nnd labored nn effort to prove thnt we hnd good cause f wari It' this weio the case, nnd we had not cominenced it, instead of being to fiur credit, t would have been a ds grace to us. It would 'nave sliown us n pusillnnimou nstion. It is, ïhereiore. a felo de se of his argument. Because, if this were t!.e ease,:t shows that ve shon'd have done whát the President has labored to show wo h.ive nol done. The President muy conquer .Mexico, but he enn nfver succeed in cunquaring the truth. [Ie may direc' as many guns to bear upnn it as it would require to silence a Mexican battery, but ie wil! not be s i succrssful. We!!, if this was the caus of the war - if his was 'ha manner in which the war commeuced, whitare wecnrrving it on now ? U'hat d wf prcose f Wh;,tdowe want? Why, ti ihe message of il e President to Congres, n 1843, he tells us ilini it was not conquest i!i it he resiredj but in the message of this yenr hfl tnodifies italittle. f?ów the conquesl he disnvows, that e, he does not menn lo lake the whole of Mexico. I sufipose tint he rrfans to di vído,i( rery much ás Lord Aberdren divided Oregon wilh iiim, to take what he want, and leave the ret. Me snys : " It never was cohtemidated by ttie to make a permanent Conquesl of Mexico, or to desu-oy her nationnlity." Wel], sir, aciions spe-ik louder than words, and I neeti not admnnish gentlemen on this floor of this fact, for 1 have proofin my h.ind. Whnt doos the President teil youl 1 henrd it atened bv a Senator the other day, tlvit Senaoira votfd Tor the appropriaiion of the war under a protest. Tha; they dld it for nuthing else thnn to relieve Gen. Taylor from thecritic-al pósiticin in which he was placed. The President carne and made the thrilling announcement that American b].od hai been shed on Amtrican soil. And whila every henrt palpia ed at such an outinge, Senators,anxiou9 tJn lieve Gen. Taylor, were now wil], ing to vote fh supples reqüii-ed, even 'hough the bill for raising tliem was accnmpanied by tle declaration which, nt that lime, they beüeved to Ie untrun, that " war ëxisted by thnct of Mexico. " They gave their voi'es undèr iHe proie-t ihat it was expressly for the relief of Gen. Taylor. And what does ihe President now fny m thnse Senaiorè ? Whr, he says you did not mean any such ihing. You could nn ha%-fe meanl t. V.-u knew that ndemnity mus: be acquirad - Senator., wl:en you passei tliat vote.ynu II meant to get tcrriiory. The Pred--nt has said so. Ho is your ExecmivO offioer- surely lie ought lo fcnow ; and ihe President lias n rifclit to sa y t, i. causo act ons sjieak luuder than toarás.- - Vou voted him thn men anH the mony ; you gave h;m iha sword and the purw, and yru gave him unlimikd üei: e ï conduct the war as he pleased. iid novr ■'" m" f" ''s ''ü' - sUe '"'■" regimenis, of regular, nnd ajfterwírd twer.ty regiment of voluntèerS, nnd let him thus, accórding tö the Senator frötn Kentucky, increa.-e bii váiíable forc4 in Mexico tonineiy thousnnd, ar.d go on, u jugnting tlmt country, and whnt will he 'ell you nt the next sesion? He now tells you: " Cringrpgi rnuid not hne meant- vhen. in Alnv, 1846, ihey nppropriaiteá ten uülionH of dollars, 7. nd nutliontd th President to e'muloy t'ie miiitarv 8nd nnvn! torces orthe United St-.ffs and to ccept the services .,f fifiy thounr.H vol. nnteiF, to enabla Him tó proséeute ih wr; and when, nt iheir lsst .ession. and ifer .mr nrmy had invadod .Mexico, thev nadè addiiicnni aprroprintions, t au'hbrZ'o Iha rasing of more troop for l: same purp. se- bat no indemnitv wnsto he ohtaiiK-dj'rom Mexico .i,t the conclusión of the nr; & jet it wns oertnin that.if no Mexiran territnry ws acquired, no inJemniiv could be obtained. " It is funhpr manifest ihat Congres contemplfited torritorinl indemnity, from the fact, that ut thei'r last r'ession'an iet waspasseH, upon the Execuivi recommenJatin, iipproprinting three million ■ f dollars i!h tliat exprpss object. Thi nppropriaiion was made ' t(. rnabla the Président t èdntrlüd a t rea of peae, limiis and boundarie-i with the republia "f Mexico, to lie use i by (tira in the evei.t that s.iid trentj, when signet by author. izéd agenta of the two gnvpinmen s, and duly ratified bv Mexico, shall cali Por th expenrliture of the same, nr any part thereof.' The ol.joot of nskinK this nppmpriaiion was distinctly statpd in th seVeral messafte on the sjhject which l communicatpd tuCongrrss." X'ote him now the men and money f e now askp, and what will ha teil you at the next sessiont Wliv, that Congres intendedto overrun nll Mo.xico! He wül cay, - you rnean that 1 should carry dettruction throughout the whole of that coetitry - that "I !iold dip my rvntd n h!ooc!, snd vrrii m iioma On deioluted ln! iind c!tiv." And he wonld hnve 8 right to sny sof Vota h'm the mpti and mony he wants - M him have ninty thousnnd troopa there, and he will enac scènes, tlint perhaps vre little think of; and nt the next session, he will cm nnd iell ns, ihat thnt was hat we mennt, and lie wiH have n right to do so, becnuse (ictions speak !oudr !hnn words. VVp norainlv n giving our votps, must Le üupposprf 10 have sonie object in miaiR - tliat okjpc', t'iO President can conslrue for hirt■■rif In regml tn the amcndirirnt whicli ha been proposrd to this bilí, inslefttf of tnnkin? it beller,, it leí ves t more ohnoxious Mil!. It lfnv-ps it to thfi Prpsideni's discre'ion whether to rmbody these iroopg or not; hut tat is the very thing we onght not to dn. H,p has hw dicrgtion enongh. Was it no. nt his rjiscretioa mr trjDps were marched to the Rio le? lt pcems to me ihat tho true ■ is o take ll.e discreúon into our mu is, and make specific a;ipropriafor siiei'ific objeds. Then we know for wh;tt objeds tliey are i; the Piv8ilent siys no.v, he des n want the co.iquest of bn whole of ■ ico. but 'ih w.nnts indemnity nnd se.:-. Wel!, these nre words casily mncrd. Rut we hal a good old les■ ] N -w England, ivquirlng the oVon nf words l be given. Indemnity trhut ! - Set-uiity for whnt ?- I find j iiismnily he wanted, was not only uniiy for our claims, and for all the 'isps of the war ; but in addilion lo ! iH, he wanted W drive a bargain ihem - he wns not willing to make tinless they would sell dim n part irco'.nrry with its inhab.tar.ts, for I o the 6ih and 6th anieles of tin■ propoaeJ by our governaifnl to ■o, as fullows, viz : rt. 5. In consideration of ilie ex,im of ihe Umita ofilie United States, ■v ;ire dcfined by the precding ar, and by the stipu'alions which nre ■r cop'.ainrd in ArticleS, the United . abandon forever against the United r:aii Stiltes all reclamaron, on acf the cols of this wnr; and.besidrs, to pny to the United Mexican , in the city of Mexico, the sum Art. 6. In fu'l consideration of the .nions contaiied in Anieles 4 and 8 Mreiiys the United States ngree to e ;nd pav all sums at present due ■.iiniiit-, and those which mav re.ifter es'abüshed, according to inveniion concluJed bpiween the .epubÜcs, in the city nf Mexic", on Otii of January, 1843, to prmide ■ i nvniMit of whnt shrtll be decided ■orpfthe claimants, necording lo n ntion be'ween the United Staiesand exicSri Repuhüi, on the 1 1 lli of 1839. And the Unitei Swé Iv ngree to assume and par all rrtions of citizen.s of the United States ■t the Government of the United ;m Stalps, not prevtously decided, ijnount !ü)t exceeditig thrpe million; i(irs whinh have arisen prior to the f May, 1836, and which shall lie it to be due by a cominission esed by the Governnient of the States, whose decisión shn II l)e and co ïclusive : Provided, alI'hat in decidng on the validity of ■c saiJ detnnnds, the commi-sion shall .dfid and governed by the princind rules prescribed by the first and irficles of the unratified convention, lied in the 'city of Mexico on the ;if November, 1843, nnd in nocwe ley give judgm'jnt in l'avorofnny not emhrnced hy thsn principies iles. And the Unifpfl Sl.-iles, for i ent and the future, exonérale the ! ,'e Mevican States fi'oin nny of the mand.s hats'ievpr, which mny be fd or rejecled bysaid board ofcomr.u- ;ioners." lia requires payment ofour unliqui; ■ claims - he rrquires the expenses war, and in addition to ihese, he res that they shall í-ell him jn.-t ns ,. ch ienitory as lie sees fit to buy nt ' -v ti price - tliis s thft indemnity nnd iiy lie wants. Are Serintors pre' to nction íheí-e views t Can race tlic indignaron nf the world, liaving n&is'ed rvtt thfm? Heieis a '■vernmeiït eníep'olod - broten doivei - a ..; distrucied - having a natural n!nt to tlieli'-mes of tleir bírth - 1o I bencath which moulder the boaes . . falhers - nnd because they do not : to sell-their country nnd tlvemlie Prsidenl saya tlie war musí prosecuied and enrried inlo the vita! of Mexioo. Well now, Ihe course ihe President seems tome deciderily rjirelíOiisible. Perhnps I have commnnt; üpon tina manner not quite becomi g to this place - I hope not. Í oannot help remnrking injusüce to m, ttat he has not shown a disposition ■ war in all cases. I think in the man-pmrnt of the Oregon treaty he ex!ibd n Christian meekness toa Mirpttsing Buít fae did not inherit the of the meet. He (id not gpt :iid. He wouíd ffl-ot ubrni' lo artiatíon. Well, huwdid he settle it? Let Mr. Packeuhain, tt.e Briiish Minster, toll h's own story. 'Washington, Juno 13, 1946, My Lobd : In copformily ith whol 1 bad honor to slate io my de.ipatoh (No ft1) ofthe71l instant, the President sent ne sisge n Wpdnesday la-t to the Sen. , tiieg fat the opinión of that ..xlv, ihe dr.'ifl of n convention for thf nent of the OiPgoji quesiinn, which wfls iij.-lructed by your Lor.fsh'p's ■: -h (Nn. ld) of the lSlh Mny to irapose for tlic aewsptance of the Uuited 1 Aller a few liours dnliberation on [.f the three days, ( Wcinesday, h'.üsd-iy, and Friday,) the Senat by a nijoniy uf 33 votes to 12, siopted ye! vpnirig a rpsolutioii ndvising ihe il to accept theierms jropo.-edby i wpsty'sgovernmeiitt. The Pres;,-:,, t did not hesiiate to act on this tlvice, ind Mr, Buchacas üccording:v sent for me Ibis morning, and in,'irmed n e that the oondiiions otfered by :-ty's governmenl of the United ;!iout the addition or aliemution Ie word. "1 have tlte iionnr to R. PACKENHAM. ght Hon. tb E-ul of Aberreen." He :..l esit just exnctly as it wascookhim.very roueh as sick children :c i'itt led to óo whei they have an uni se of medicine to tajke- "sbul f-es nnd op,cn your cno.ut!i, and tb i"..:' Now 1 liave nat a word .. . , ni ihe KCt.t)RinBi gon queslion; but it seoms lo me that I would have read aliitle beller in liistory, if it Imd nol been proceded by eo mucli blunering nnd brngging. Ana it wns n little nmusiog, to spe the effect it had on our eatern Democracy. The man who did nut go Tor 54 deg. 40 min., wns n Fedemüs!, a Traitor ; and some were so Zfalous ihnt ihey even g't tip to 54 deg 49 min. Upot) them ihe treaty came like a thunderclap. and thcy liad to reverso the sleatn so suddenly llint i' carne nigh pruducing n fatal collopse in ihe pnrly. But, sir, the Pi evident i? not o entirely wnrlike in his rialure as bis conduct to Mexico would indícate, he has othrr and milder qunüties; he merely has nono of ihai fi-rocinus spirit, chaiacterizsd y the peot ns - 14 Tlit slorn j-iy wlnrh warrio'fl fca In roc ncn woriliy of lieir Bieel " It is a cohler country at 54 dg. 40 min. Now, il' righl in ihe position 1 have taken here, the question is, what is 'tlieduty of tlie American Senate? What are ihev to de! To go on and vote these ten regiinonts? The honorable Sonntor from Kentucky the other d.iy said he did not know why regulars were preft-rred to volunteers. I do nol know that Ido. But Yankees guess somelimes. War is tobe made, sir. n .t only np-m Mexico, but on ihe free laborera ufUi counliy, and the first onslnught is to be mude in the shnpe of a tnx on tea and coffee; and it is the patronage which the creatioa of these ten regiment is to give hun, which he thinks will enabla him to rflect it, and the President hns prubahly ome io the conclusión taught by the experience of the pnsi, that with the ;atronnge of tRii rpgiments nt his com mand, 'some things can be done as wel as oíhers." I think the Senator frtfm Kentucky, wiih ti ís gieat ncumen, if he looks ihro' his glassrs, may discover why the President prefers regular--. Well, why cannot Senators wlio think with me, ihat ïho war is wrong, rndically wrong, come ou1 and declare so fcy their votes? Why sit hcre denouncing the President, and then le guilly of tlie inconsistency - wiih all 'leiererce I say t - of voting mn and money to car.'y on the war? Why;it is said it would be unpopular to withhnld tlic supplies. Are we afrnid to trust the people with a great question ol right? Sir, I think tliose who aro afraid lo trust the peopie, underrate thein. Are men nfraid to do ihat which is right because it may not be popular? Sir, it is this ghost of the uuppulorir jjUii wr, which seems lo sitlike n higlitmare upon American statesmen. Sir, I think there was more truth than poetry in what was snid by a western man. He said he got caught by opposing the last war, and he did nol mean to get caught again - he iutendel now to go for war, pest ilence an-i lamine. And 1 ihink there is a good cJprtl o( that feeling in ihe country now. Men are afraid to tako a bolcl slacd. II is said the pcople have alrendy decide..' this maller; that they have sellled ilinl the wnrsha'l be prosecuieJ. I denv t enlirelv. 1 do Bol believe t. People haved seitled it ! I have never met among ihe peuple,one in ten, wlio thoughl the as riglil, er thouglit that it wou'.d be right farther to prosecule i'. I believe, sir, thnt the heart of this wliole people is sick of this misernb'e. lei porizing poücy, which is putling justice, and right, and truth out, in order thal expediency mav walk in and govern, centro!, and direct our actions. I sh that the experiment might bc tried by Congress of ncling nnil voiing on h matlff according to the convictior.s of llieir own underslanding as expresspd by tbemsplves, when tiiey speak o{ the character of thiswnr. 1 lislened, the tlier dny, wiih gieat plensure, lo the remarlaof the honornble Senntor from Smi'h Cnrolina. I irust I lieard with profitihe sugicstion which he ih-ew nut hen speakingon his rt-soltitions. But I confss ihat I was somewhnt aslonished that n min of hia gneal experience - his vat learning - his kef-n obervation - conlc really Iliink thnt there ciuild be nnv virlufi in the passngcuf these resolutions. - I would like, indeed, to see those resolutions passrd, not thnl I tliink their passnge would do any good in the world t the present emergency. But they might if adoptod, ferve as a sort of landmark shoing witl what rnpidty and wha proclivity we have Iravelled the road t ruin. Dut that there would be any vir iup in thern 1 have not ihe least idea. - Pass (hese rcolutiotis unanimnusly, in both branches ofCongreis, and let the President append to ihetn his dsualdec laration thal the war was commenccd bj Mexico; nay, you may go bevond that and wiih all the forms indsolemnities i with which you cnuld embody them, yoi may make them part of the writien funda mental Conrtitulion of tlie land, and wl,a ould they be worih? Not the paper up on whicl) they are wrilteu ; foi the very moment that they stood in the way of a popular majority ibey would bo ulterl set ai iKiuglit. {Ie ihat i not pursuaded of thal, fyae nol read, il teems lo me, the fir t primer of our l;i-tnry. j t hink, ihal the resolutions lliemselves contain much that s just and true, and thal the passage of thein m i h t be of some consequeiice in the way which 1 have suggested. Bul that tlieir passage woulii check the downwerJ Icndenuy of afFairs, is nltngelher out uf the question. I beüee, that the peoplc desire us to go righ', nnd that e have nol faiih enough in the peoplc. No:hing is more common (han to find aspirants for public favor fiattering the p oplr, and continunllv praUing llieir intelligoncc and patriotten), and every thing which gives va!ue and dignity ti) the human character. But you do ntt find the euologists of the public virtue nt all prepnred to venture n litile upon the ntellgence which ihey vaunt so much. There is failh in expodiency in policy, in every thing but justice, tiuth and righl. The present is, I believe, a crit'cal period in our history. I beüeve tiiat it is presiimpluous in us to affirm, as the President hns offirmed in ba rnessnge, ihat ilie grat question of the capabiüty of rnnn for self gnvernment hns been Eettled. lt is nol seilled, sir. We are now settling it. VVhether tlio manner in which we nre SPtlling t will fnvoraMyor unfavoiahlv affect the cond tion of mankind hfieafler, vet rpma:ns lo beseen in tiie future. We are settling the questi"n not only for ourselves, hut for all who are tocóme aftrr us. lf here the expiiincnt of self-g ivernment should foil, who can estímale the consequences n iur race? VVe are lo-ray writing our lislory. We are impressing that 1 i t :1e spnee which e occupy bptwepn the pnst ind the future, wi:h footstpps which will je ndelible. Whilhur ure those foosteps low tending ? Sliall those who are to succeed us, find that the course which we are now pursuing, led to llie broad ields of Hberty, of peace, and of proserity1 Orshall it be, that we are onlv erecting monuments marking the bypaths that lead lo the pitfalls of deslruction1? Tliese nre que-tions tbat must come home to the lieart of every man who loves bis country, and prizes its free inslitutions, and sees the dangers which now threrten them. Are we so blind, so fmaticil, so stupid, as to believe tbat the gi-ent las of ihe plns'cal and mo'al woild nieto be reverse:) in our favor? Are we emphaticilly the children of destiny ? Can we tnke our d.stiny in our bands, and control it ? - Nut so. It serras :o me, tliat iheie s a liglit slreaming down the pathway of agps illuminating ihe dest;ny of nalions, and tHvit ia -w-ritrcii - rrhpfnrin ofrnrcictrr - retribution. It is a law in operation all around us - in the physical, moral, and pol il cal word. It is true of nalions as of individuals: "whats-i" er a man sows,thnt shall he also reap." I would ask those disposed to look at this question in the ligbt of history, to go back, and by its aid, trace the long vista of ages ihat have elapsed. Let ihem go b.ick, if they wil). to the morning of creation when all the sons of God shcu'.id toget':er for joy, that the A lmig'ity Power had spoken a new ivorld irlo beirg; and they wil] not find il recorded in any page ol that hislorv, that any nation ever sowci the siedsof war and slavery, and reoped the fiuits of peace and liberty. Ne, that passage remains to be wrilten; and i requires no very great eflrt of tl e imaginatiën lo fancy that we cnn now I eir thp voire of aU nations of the [ast souniing nsolemn warning in our ears. us bewaie, lest tint fate which bas constintly foüowed such a ccurso of poücy mny not soon be ours. Bui I le.ive the suSject. ) (hink the Señale for tlie palienc, kiidness nnd candor iih which I l.ave been liBèrd. - It is not ngreealile t" tny feeling- to occupy the plftce of au Ishmie'ile her ■; my band being ag!iint eery man's, and cverv man's Jarid aga:n-t min?, lf any 'pmail:s have lallen ('rom me, offensive, to the feeling of a single Sena'or,of which I am whnlly unconscious, I eau assurc him from the botiom of my heart that they were nltogeiher tinimentional. 1 have endeavored lo denl with princijils and measurss, nol with men. i bdieve lh;it the intilii!ions of the country are pndangered. I believe ihal the cour.-e in which we are proceerting, unle-'S our cnret-r be aneled, vill most incvila'ih condnct us lo desuuction; nnri I have 'hniwn ui these suggetions, in ihp hope of bfiing KOinKhing, however feeble the attempt, in order to excite correct public sentiment on tliis all-v tal question.