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The Household

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A broker in dyes and dyestuffs sug gested to us the otaer duy that the tri umph of the electric liglit and its sub stitution for gas all over the workl would uot only bankrupt the gas com paniea but would destroy another great and Important industxy, viz : the trade in anlline dyes, which are made exdu sively from coa! tar obtained froni the waste piodiicts of gas works. There is probably very little danger of the de structíon of the aniline industry in the marmer referred to, but tlie siietrestioii win tiüTve to cali attention t the vast proportions which the industry has assmned witliin the past quarter of a een tury. The deniand fr varied and attmetive colorings in textile fabrica, papers, soaps, and many other articles, keepa the enemista of the world eonstantly busy in devising n w colora and providing names for them. A single New lingland Corporation engaged in the manufacture of eottou and woolen goods uses 11,000,000 worth of dyes and Chemicals per annum. The total value oí all the dyes, mordants, &c., used in the United States, per annum, is estimated at not less than $40,000,000, and of this imount fnlly one one-half are of aniline extraction. It is said that the whole quantity ot aniline dyes now consumed in the world is valued at not less than .f100,000,000 per annum. And yet, such a thing as aniline dye was unheard of 30 years ago. The most important step in the aniline discoveries was made in 1859, wlien coal +,ar yielded the valnable coloring agent now known as magenta, and sometimes as solferino, the biittles of Magenta and .Solferino ha ving oecurred aboutthe time of these discoveries. Three years jrevious thereto (in 1856) a dye known as mauveine (purple) had been obtalned to some exteut f rom coal tar and must consequently be givftn the flrst place on the list. "Rosaniline," (magenta,) however, is not only itself an económica!, beautiful, and easily-applied coloring matter, bat ït is the starting-point of a host of othcr dyes, such as yellows, blues, violéis, greeus, browns, Sas. Atiilineblue was discovered in 1860; green in 1801 and again by another proceas in 18G4 ; brown in 1863 ; ana in 1863 and 1864 aniline blacks were given to I the woild, thougli in an imperfect condition. By 1867 coal tar had been made to yield all the priuiary colors - red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet, and since that day there have entered into eommerce innumerable other hues. Soine of these dyes have naturally entered into competition with the coloring agente which were in use before their discovery. But for others, new uses have been found, and tliedyer, calieo-printer wool-manufacturer and papeivmaker, has found his means for varying and improving the ornamentation of his productions more than doubled. Jiew aniline dves and combinations are being discovered every day, and the rivalry between different mamifaoturers to secure tor their patrons tlie latest and most beautiful producte of the laborator? is intense. In Boston there are now as man y as a dozen agencies for the sale of aniline dyes of different European manufacturera. Nearly as many more are located in PMladelphia, and a sim greater number in Xew York. There is but one concern in the United States, loeated at Albany, N. Y., engaged in the manufacture of aniline, but there has recently been some talk of the establishment of aniline works in Xevv England. The industry lias sprung up so rapidly, and is still so largely in the hands of its orlginators, that there has )een but little opportunity for American manufacturera to engagein it. lint as coul-tar is now exported fron this country, and is brought back again in the form of dyes. it would seeni as Liiuugu ureio vrnie suincient niüucements for entering apon the domestic mauufacture of anilina Tlie lirst substance obtained froin coal-tar in the manufacture of these dyes is benzine, ar Denzo], as ifc is teehnically called. This is united witli nitrio acid to form nitro-benzol, which is then oonverted into aniline. One hundred pounds of eoal-tar yields from three to flve pounds of aniline. The aniline dyes in common use range all the way from f 1 2r to $16 a pound, but their ecoHomy as a dyeing agent consista in their ease of application, and the bright and beautiful colora which are obtained from theiii. A variety of Bubstitutes for otherand cheap coloring agents are also now obtained from coal-tar. A product of the madder plant, which was formerly an important article of export from Franoe to this country under the name of "al i arine," has now been almost entirely superseded by "artificial alizarine," ohtained froni coal-tar. In spite of the yast inorease whieh has ccurred in the use oí aniline colora as above nnted, there iias been no diminution in the use of wood dres. The quantity of dye-woods imported into the United States in 1880 was greater chan in any previous year excepting 1879, when the rising tendency of values drew to our sliores nnnecessarily large quantities of all kinds of merchandise, The quantity of dyewoods irnported into the United States per ahnuin is now about 1,750,000,000 pounds, and of this amount atiout oue-quarter is prepared here in Boston and vicinity. Logwood, the most important of wood-coloring agentn, is the basis of nearly all black dyes, and probably five times as mucb of this wood is used ts of all other dye-woods. The best logwood comes from Central America, and the poorest from Jamaica. Fustic, a wood obtained from the West Iridies Mexico, and the northern countries of South America, commands a little less price than the best logwood, and yields a yellow dye. A variety of woods, impcrted froni various quartera of the world under the names of Camwood, Brazil, bar, Lima, Brazilletto, red saunders, and sapan woods, all yield dyw of red or reddish hues. The geimine camwood is the highest-priced dye-wood in use. It yields a beautiful red color, which is used in textile fabrics and in red inks. The cheaper barwood froin África is largely mixed with camwood, or uaed in its place. Lima wood yields a purpleish red dye, and is sold as an extract under the name of "hypernic." Eted saunders wood, wliich is obtained in Ceylon and parts of India, yields the saine pigment that is found in wood. Sapan wood is obtained from another inferior species of the sume tree as camwood, growtag principan? however, in Japan. Pink and reddyes are largely obtained by the Chinese frotB sapan vrood, andaré useil n iniparting the brüliant colora to the Chinese and Japanese fans whieh are brouglitto this country. There are, of course, many other dyes made from bark, leaves, fruit, abc., vvhich wonld not be ineluded ander this headiiur -


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