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Farmer's Institute At Berlin, Ottawa County

Farmer's Institute At Berlin, Ottawa County image
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The Instituto began on the af ternoon }f the 24th Jan., and opened with an iddie33 of welcome by Chairman Wm. EI. Kelley. John Preston read the first essay on Under Draining. This wis well written and showed that theauthor understood nis subject. There is a want of more general diffusion of accurate information on the need of drainage and the mode of aecomplishing it. The joints of the tile should fit well, and be laid at a true angle. Trof. Johnson was called on to explain the mode of 3tructing the outlet of thedrain to protect it from being injured. He said it is well to take pains and protect the outlet with a wall of masonry. The profesaor explained the object of drainage. The question was asked, "Do you still use June grass sods about the joints?" He replied that tarred paper was now mostly used for this purpose. In some places m England they now place tiles 2J feet deep, where they formerly thought they must be down four feet. The tiles are now placed nearer together than formerly. Mr. Preston had found straw a poor substance to place about the joints, as it rots and leaves a vacancy. Question : Why should tile be laid ieeper thas the f rost will go ? Thomas Wilde replied that if d rains are deep, thoy need not be so near together as whej laid shallow. Prof. Beal said that deep draining was also an advantage, as it permitted the roots of plants to descend deeper and feed over more ground. A board under a tile is objectionable, as it rots away, leaving the tile to settle. Water passes into the tile through the joints, and through the porus wall. Board drains will rot and fail to work after a time in most places, unless the water is coustantly present. Prof. Johnson next gave his lecture on Ensilage. The evening session opened with vocal music, which was followed by an essay by J. V. Kelley, entii-led, "Be master of your situation." This was f uil of sound senge, expressed in an oj ;sinal manner. The following extracta will give an idea of the paper : Keep your cattle where you want them. Keep well behaved stock, and behave well toward them. Do not be seen at one end of a rope and a cow at the other, each struggling to see which can pull the most. It is a waste of dignity and strength, and shows your neglect. It shows that you did nat train up that cow the way she should go when she was a calí1. Do you let the thrif ty sweet eider decórate your line fence ? Do you let the greedy burdock uestle in taeh corner ? Does the graceful milkweed stand unmolested in your fielcts and in the roadside? If so, your neighbors cannot say you never gave them anything. Do you invoke the moon to aid you in your f arrning operations ? I would not do it. I would not depend on the moon. lts pale, dreary and desolate orb cannot help you. It throws a little light, but that light is borrowed f rom the sun. A borrower never amounts to much anyway. The number of those who are guided by the moou in f arming are on the wane, while the number is increasing who are guided by the brain. One good set of brains for f arming purposes is worth 40 moons. At farming the moon has proved a perfect failure. Use good farm implements and keep them in good condition ; but if you buy tmng that purports to aiü the iarmer you will soon be surrounded with the skeletons of patented inventions, and your mmd will be haunted with the ghosts of wasted dollars paid to oilytongued agents. Is your door-yard f uil of trumpery, two Old wagons and a gocart ? Is yourhorse-rake under a tree? Is your plow in a last year's f urrow ? Is your mowing-machine where the stars of heaven can shine on it ? If so, I will bet you a cent you have a mortgage on your farm( and that mortgage is master of the situation. Prof. E. J. McEwan delivered a witty, pithy, and highly-entertaining lecture entitled Home. The following is an abstract : The converging point of all human activities is home. Here men and women are trained for the vast responsibilities and solemn duties of life. Men may argue away the B.ble account of creation, but they cannot the Bible notion of the sanctity of the home relations. Wherever is planted a trne home there is a bulwark of the state, and a conservator of the best interests of society. While the topic is an old one, the theme of discussion ever since Adam and Eve gave up gardening and engaged in general agricultura, yet few have any adequate notion of what home really is as an institution. It is more than a place to eat and sleep in. The animal man is not only to be tralned and cared for, but the glorious spirit within hiin is to receive its share of life and culture, and mature itself for its future destiny. Farmers are fortúnate in owning their homes. The ownership of real estáte confers dignity. Even little log houses may be the abode of rtflned people. There is more danger of houses benig too large than too small - instance, Tower of Babel, Solomon's j ple, and George Francis Train's Omaha farm. Let extravagance and ' tion yield to comfort. Furnish your homes for your family, not for visitors. But home enjoymet (Iemands good health, kind fellovvship, kind feeling and cultured manuers. The average American, in his haste to be rich, takes insuiHcient sleep, pays little attention to food or personal appearances, has no time for recreation or culture, and demands the same sacriflce of his iamily. More women are broken down by a lack of sleep than in any other way. Sleep is the great restorer. The bed and its surroundings should receive careful attention. This is item No. 1 for health. Energy, virtue and religión depend largely on the conditiou of the human stomach. Dyspepsia makes angels buil dogs, and the liver complaint turns seraphs into porcupines. Good digestión, good deeds. A well-fed man reasons better, loves more warmly, gives more generously, than a starving. Roast turkey wasn't designed wholly for sinners. On the farm let perfect physical manhood be encouraged by good, abundant and varied diet. Home happiness depends on personal habits. Cleanliness of body and soul is absolutely essential. Let smokers live in the barn. Men ought not to come into the house smeliing of the stall and stye, nor women appear in frouzled head and shabby attire. Neatness and tidiness will do much to keep the children on the farm. Seed time and harTest never fail ; banks do. Many homes are spoiled by needless worry and perpetual fret. Bury sorrow ; sad and disgusting things should go under ground. Home educatiou and attention to the flner amenities may make marvelous improvement in home life. Our boys need instruction in moral purity - respect for what is pure and sacred- in reverence for woman, and the schoolroom and pulpit. Our girls should be so taught at home that whether married or single, they will br courteous, efficiënt, useful and unselfïsh women. Ono of the evils of modern society is the excessive reliance on outside machinery to do the work of home, when it ought to be a delight to parents to exert, their talents in the domestic circle. Froin home instruction will come the language, manners and conversation of the family. The awkardness and debility of the English used by children can be remedied only at home in chaste conversation on topics of interest. Slang is a worse evil than weak English, and can be cured only by the same means. In homes lacking that culture which furnishes profita ?le topics and emulations, gossip is one of the worst evils.


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Ann Arbor Democrat