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The Farm

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Foultry raisers who has sunereü loss, from that dread disease, the Gapes, will be inlerested in reading tho following Erom tke Country Gentleman : It is mucli easier to avoid than to cure a oase. of the gapes. When it is first discovered, the patiënt is too tar gone for any assistance. The outward symptoms are an exteuding of the neck with wide open bilis, a gasp for breath, and when a chick does nothing else all day, it will surely die. People of the north have learned to dread this disease, for they have contended with it for years. It annually sweeps away the young ohicks at an alarming rate. Poultry-raisers have also in a measuro learned how to manage it. Early chicks are not so much afflicted by it, from the very reason of their having better food and care. Herein lies the secret. The strength is increased, the growth promoted, and the little things outgrow it. The distemper is always present at certain ages, but stimulaling, heat-producing food masters and keeps it down, and it is not discovered. The chkk has it, nRverthelesis.and nasses jut manifesting any sign, for the strength has been kept up. Wet, sloppy food is sure to reduce the ütrength, and the birds sicken of it, reEuse to eat, and the distemper has its course. ïhere is no romedy or cure after the fowl is reduced to this extent. There are methods by wkieh the worms diay bo taken from the throat, but the chick is likely to die under the operation, or beeonie a poor fowl, hardly worth the raising. Fowls have gizzards which grind their food. The sooner young chicks are put on whole grain, either wheat or buckwheat, the better. Young" chicks should not be allovved to run all day and reduce tlieir strength by fatigue, but should bo kept quiet, well fed and watered, dry and warm. Then they make rapid and strong growths, and distempers pass over and make no sign. The gapes are caused by clusters of worms in the windpipo of the chick. These worms are red and wiry. They float in a nest of bloody froth, and the fowl reeeives no damago whatever in their passage out of the body, if not reduced in strength, or eontracting a heavy cold, in which case the extraneous matter becomes hard and tough, heres to the waies ot the throat, anü cannot be passed or snapped out, although the fowl sneezes and coughs severoly. The worms gct there in the same way as worms get into the stomach and intestines of the human child. The food cannot créate them in the throat of the chick. The windpipe leads directly to the lungs. Through this tube the air is inhaled with every breath. Anything that impedes the progress of this breath endangers the life. These worms, I believe, are gathei ed from the impurities of the blood in the lungs; are thrown out through the windpipe, and finally disposed of through the intestines. Even the birds of the air are not exempt. It is-never made manifest or discovered until the fowl receives a check to the strength, by over-fatigue, scant, irregular or improper food, lack of suilicient drink, exposure to cold or dampness, and close breeding. In rapid growths this bad blood is discharged without injury to the strong chicks, and there are no signs of disease. This is all the remedy or cure for the gapes known to the fraternity. Early chicks receive no better care and food, and warmer quarters. Thoy are also kept from dampness, and more quiet. This is the grand secret of their escape, and the greater success of the raiser. Fruit for Home and Markot. The following appears in a recent number of the Country Gentleman: - An inquirer wishes to know why we rocorumend every owrrer of ground to raise fruit for home use, but only those who have specially favorably loealities to raise it for market. This is easily explained. The market fruit raiser does not get such good pay as the homo consunier, beeauso he must allow for additional expense of paeking, rail or steamer conveyance, agents' f ees, &c, besides the risk and occasional heavy loss of rotting and spoiling, and forcecl sales in overstocked markets. To meet all these costs and eontineneies, the fruit must bc raised cheaply nd in abundaace, and must be so fine that the drawbacks of being not quite ripe or of being more or loss bruisecl or injured by keeping, will not spoü its sale. The 'man who raises his own fruit and consumes it on his own table meets with none o: these difficulties, but pieks liis fruit fresh in his garden or orchard and conveys it at once to the mouths of the consumers. He ia not troubled with assorting and packing, or express charges and venders' commissions. He can therefore well afford to raise fruit for his own family, even if ho does not have heavy crops, and does not have it so perfect as to withstand hundreds of miles trundling by railway. The market man, it is true, has one great advantage. He studies his business woll, selects kinds that will give the finest crops, and learns what cultivation and management will bring the best results. But the home consumer may do nearly as well if he is willing to take, at least to somo extent, the same care. Let him know enough of fruits to make a good selection, procure his trees or plants from reliable sources, see that they are set out in the feest manner, and above all, and quito as important as all filse taken together, see that they are well and broadly cultivated while young, and mulched broadcast with. manur vvhen older and in bearing. He wil need to know what pruning may b required while trees are forming, anc how to kill the insects which will b sure to come for his fruit in time. Th insects are not going to conquer th fuit growers, but the same race of men who havo invented and brought int the world-wide use the steam-boat telegraph and reaper, will not be bafflec by fruit destroying insects, and already the nieans devised and brought into us are proving their efficiency andreducin many fold the labor of saving the fru; erop. A New Use For Sawdust. A writer to the Home and Farrn, Kentucky, makes ruention of the use of sawdust in planting potatoes, and asserts that the product where sawdust was used was twice as great as where none was used, and larger and smoother. It was not stated whether the sawdust had been used as an absorbentwas mixed with manure, er was used as it originally carne from the saw, which would make considerable differcnce. Neither was it stated how much was used in the MU, nor whether the sawdust was from hard or soft wood, all oí whioh are very important considerations. But it is hardly probable that l his article in its native state will be used very extensi7ely as a fertilizer until more is known about it, although if as stated, the yield of potatoes can be doubled by its use at the present time, when there are so many portable milis at work in the general destruction of the forosts of New England, and sawdust is accumulating in quantities, if it can be utilized a& profitebly, it cortainly should be done. Within a very few years farmers in Columbia, Conn., have been in the habit of carting from a permanent steam mili the sawdust accumulated, using it as an absorbent and for bedding purposes, but no claim has ever been made, nor has it been suggested, that of itself it possessed any agricultural raluo further than its absorbtive power, but that it exerted a remarkably beneflcial ical efleot upon the manuro with which it waa incorporated, so that it vcry much aided its disintegration or pulverization, a thiíjg that is always desirable. Sawdust is a substance that is useful to the farmer in the ofiice it performs as an absorbent and disintegrator, and also in the use that it so satisfactorily made of it for packing around the of an icehouse, bnt its further se has not yet been satisfaetorily proved.


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