Friday morning last, long before 10 o'clock a. m., the hour set therefor, the ehapel of the High School was crowded witli people to see the young men and young ladies receive their diplomas, and listen to the exercises on the program for the eveut, which is always an important one in this city. Upon the stage were seated the graduates, who were to orate or read, together with the usual array of teachers and magnates. The class colors, maze and wine, tastily adorned tlie room and walls, while the Greek motto of the class graced the front of the stage. Tlie exercises opened with Chequamegon znusic, followed with prayer by Rev. J. W. Bradshaw, and music again. DUTIES OP THE MIXORITY. The flrst speaker was David E, Carinan, of Berrieu Springs, who had for his subject " Duties of the -Uinoritv." In a republican form of government where the majority rules, it had been feared that the voice of t!ie few would reinain silent, and be unheard. ïhis was not true. The minórity has power. In all ages of the world the greát másses of the common people have confided in the few, and perwitted them to govern. To-day Eugiand is ruled by the wealthy minórity, and the same" is true to "a great extent in our country. In many places, the minórity hold the balance pf power, and can wield a great influence. Butithas strength in other ways. In legisiation, esijec-iallv, its power should be used to prevent the passage of improper bilis, and in preventing unwise acts from becoming law. It should have principies worth fighting for, and shoukl edúcate the people aright, and mould public sentiment, in fact it should inake up in knowldge and judgment what it hicks in nurnbers. It is a difficult thing to defeat a couscientious rninority. The great rnass of the people are conservative and look vith disfavor upon changes unless there is a pressiog need. Xenophin and his 10,000 Greeks were likened unto the handful of patriots who ' made anti-slavery cause a successful oue. A man who belongs to a minority does not throw away his vote, as is oï'ten said, uecause n is not cast lor a successful candidate, but he is planting seed for the future harvests, preparing the way for coming victory. Whittier's advice was: "Young man ally yourself vvith some righteous, unpopular cause," íor a genuine struggle for lofty principies develop the best there is in man. He thought it was not necessary to have the cause unpopular, but it should be a just one. íí you are only right you are invulnerable, and can never be overthrowu. 8IM0N SAYS " THUMBS UP." Miss Gertrude M. Case, of South Lyon, presented Simon in a new light. She said that the world's great couquerors, Hannibal, Julius Ciesar, Napoleon and Alexauder the Great were in no way to be conipared to Simon, for the world obeyed his slightest command. This great tyrant comuienced lus rule in France. At first he was scofi'ed at, and then became the master of the scotfers. Having subdued that country he crossed over the straits to England, subjugated the Anglo-Saxons there and theu swept with resistless force the American nent. In 1 ranee he is known as "la mode," in England aud America as "fashion." When Simon says thumbs up, people wül undergo any species of inconvenience and even torture but what thumbs will go up. This scène, pictured by the essayist, is worth producing entire : ' But notwithstanding his cruelty, Simon ofteu shows a sympathetic spirit. Ouce, a very longwhileago, he was seized with pity fora little street sweeper. Thinking upon the gnevauces of the urchins, he solifouuized thus: "These poor fellows get little pay for their labor ; ofteu uothing but kieks aud blows. n nat can I do to lighteu their burdeu' Ah ! I have Hl Iwill compel womeu to do the wo'rk Which these little feilows do. They shall wear aresses with trains upou the street. And the deed was done. What a pieture of cleauliness the walks were, and with what delight did the little street sweeper on the corner watch the trams go by, removing every partiële of dirt f rom the walk. ' The aiilleuium of originality aud freedom shall dawn wheu after inany struggles, ueoule have acquired more of that needed qualitv- common sense. Theu " Simple Simou " niuy shout in vttin from his deserted thrni,i' -lüuinbsup!' The thumbs do not go up." OUR MERCHANT MARISK. Burt L. Foster, of Scio, spoke upon this topic. lt was the liope of our forefathers to make this the greatest niaratime nation of the world, and until 1856, it bid fair to be such, and was the most formidable rival Eugland had upou the high seas. From that date it had gradually declined. During the war the United States lost many of her merchant vessels. One great cause of the decline was the revolution in marine architecture. This country developed tlie fact that iron and steel were the proper material for ship building, and tlien our cheap material and timber did not aid us .so much in ship building, and much of our commerce is carried on under other flags than our own. Another reason is the fact that England and other European countries encourages the estafelishment of great steaniship lines by paying bounties. Our congress will vote miiiions to further soiiie scheme for politica! advantage, but the shipping intereata so necessary for the defense of our country, are left to die out. When iron and steel become cheaper, and the govermnent iinds it necessary to foster our shippiug intevests the ship building interest will transferred from the Clyde to the Hudson, Delaware and Chèsapeake, and England's valuable trade will come to us. " ïhen from tliisnation, strengthed in cbaracter, trained in intellect and elevatedby tiiese great enterprises, may be expected a supremacy of ownership for all natious of the world." XATIONS AS SfOUND BüILDERS. "All nations are mound builders " contended Miss Theresa Grube, of Ann Arbor. We see the vast structures erected here, aud realize that they are not as lasting as the pyramids. To Kgypt we look for the earliest results of astronomy and the sciences. Phtenecia ongmated hterature, Judea developed trom the earliest religions tliat which is now the highest hope of even the wisest philosopher. It was the mission of Greece to show the world how to thiuk to advantage, and develop the intellect. In art her modela have been the ambition of the sculptors ever scince. Rome taught the world how to organize and carry on a government. The chivalry of France gave us the present state of society. The nations of the present are building. for the future, their impresa will be upon the life of the future. Our mission is to gather up all the good of the past and prepare ourselves i'or that which is to come. THE RELIGIÓN OP THE .ENEID, was the subject taken by -Miss Edith K. Ilitchcock, of Anu Arbo'r. ïliis essay was a review of the religious beiiefa of the ancients and a comparison of Virgil's works, with Homer'sllliad andOdyssey. The essayist sliowed considerable 'farníl iarity with these ancient authors, aud drew the conclusión that there was not much simüarity between the Romans and Greeks in the matter of religious beliefs. The Romans acknowledged au overruling providence while tire Greeks did not. Virgil's conception of the future life embraces all that was highest and best in beliefs at that time. He may well be called the herald of ehristianity, since he drew men's thoughts to a higher and purer atmosphere, and prepared their min ds for receiying the great truths of the Christian religión. OL'R PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Conrad Georghad an excellent oration upo'n the aboye subject. He is a good speaker and made hiniself thoroughiy understood in all parts of the house. "The governmeats of Europe," hesaid, are supported at the point of the bayonet, the govemment ot the United States is supported by a l'ree ballot, of i free people, and its foundation rests upon the granite rock of intelligence. All honor to the city of Ann Arbor for the interest taken in the pubbc schools, all reverenee to our forefathers who first proclaimed tne tact tnat euucation was the best means to shield the people from constant (langer. The ordinance of 1798 ought to be einblazoned on these walls with letof gold to shine out to future generations. A state of society into which every individual is a SQverien places upon ea-ch one a great responsibility. America has always opened' her gates to the people of the world, and its people are a cojnposite of European nations. But with this constant stream pouring in with racial prejudices, and foreign ways which must be assimilated, a great problem is tobe met. "How is it tobe done?" The public schools furnish the solution of the problem. A comuion school education is the heritage of every child in America, and the supreme functions of our schools is to infuse into the children patriotisin and love of country. XANTIPPE DEFENDED. Miss F. Mabelle Halleck of Ann Arbor, brought considerable menina to lipnr in proviug tliat Mrs. Xantippe, the wife oí Sócrates, who for centuries has been eontemptuously referred to as au example of a shrew and scold, has been all this time greatly maligned, and that reaüy she was a tnïe heroiue in disguise. Why did she scold ? She had reason to, probably. Her husband was a lazy, shiftless sort of a fellow, who Rip Van Winkle like, enjoyed loafing about the Btreets and in bar rooms, while poor abused Xantippe had to take boarders to keep the little Sócrates clothed and fed. The old fellow was so lazy that he would see his poor wife work bevond her strength and he not lift a hand to help her. In iustiflcation of lier views upon the subject. Miss Halleek read the follovring poem : "Xantippe. I know. was a terrible scold. But only one-haif of that story's been told ; For Xan had to worry. cut and coutrive, To keep half a dozen young ' soecies ' ali've, Whiie their slouchy old father, the wise Sócrates, Penniless, hatless, aud bare to the knees, Delighted all Athens with vrise saws and grave. But all the wise maxims which Sócrates said Ne'er earued for the youngsteis a morsel of bread. With never a shoe for hiraself or the boys What wonder the madam was given to ñoise? SIIAM. By Eunice A. Janes, of Aun Arbor, was an admirable paper, and took otf' the popular foibles and pretenses of the day excellently well. " Pretenses," she said, seern to satisfy the human mind, and exaggeration in comnion with the majority of the people. The lady of the house pretending to be delighted" with a caller whom she despises; the merchant pretending to sell his wares below cost, etc, etc, was it any wonder that little children carne to practice deceit in the ir childish sports? Shams were indulged in by both ladies and gentlemen, and all the world liked to be humbugged. NORSE MYTKOLOGY. Was talked about by Miss Emma C. Klais, of Ann Arbor. She found that in comparing the Norse mythology with the Grecian mythology that manyof the guua psssessed the same characteristics. Thor and Zeus were instaneed. The natural features of the two countries however, had impressed itself upon the myths. Xorway was majestic, mountainous, cloudy, dark, and grand, and the Gods partook of those characteristics. Greece was light, mild, blooming and beautifu), and so wem üie the Gods of the ancient Greeks. Tliere was this differenee however, the Xurse Gods were mortal, the Grecian Gods immortal. CHRONIC GRUMBLERS, by Miss Johanna K. Heumann, of Ann Arbor. This class of people are to be found everywhere, in tne liome, schools, churches, no place is witJiout them. ïliey cast a shadow over everythmg, They know how everything shonld be done, and woe to the'poor mortal who does not argee with them. They are not confined as a class to the old or young, to the men or woineu, and if anything goes wrong they are nut to blame, some one else is the cause of it. There were many good Iiits in the essay, but of course no one in the audience was hit. SOME DEFECTS IN OÜR PKESIDBSTUL SYSTEM As viewed by Edson E. Sunderland of Ann Arbor. We are at the beginning oí aaother presidential campaign. People do not ask if the past adminiatration of affairs have boen satisfaetorv. ïhe constitution requires an electiöu every tour years, no matter liow well the afFairs have been managed. ïhe uisruption ot business, and continuüus uproar is not only detrimental but the expenses are great, and corrupüon greater during a presidential canvass. Jvot only that but when an administration changes the entire policy of the country changes. It is the policy óf one party to reduce tlie tanff, the policy of the other to expand it. One destroys the other. Then the only way the president elected has to reward his friends is to place them in office, and soa complete change is made in the civil officers of tlie country. The only rernedy for this is to extend the term of office and make the president meligible to a second term. Make the term 8 or 10 years, and then a president would have a snfficient time to formúlate a policy and carry it out. As it is to-day the bnghtest men of the nation can not be chosen president. A man s selected because of bis avaüability. Au obscure uiau is taken, and oíten the more obscure the better. By making this cbíinge, the horde oí office seekers would lose their oceupation, party Unes would loosen, and the true statesraan be restored to bis place. LEADIKO. "ín every coinmunity," said Misa Charlotte K. Pickett, o"i Ann Arbor, tiiere are those who act as centers around whom people seem naturally to congrégate. What is it iu their characters that gives them control over their fellow-men? But few are leaders, the íiiajoríty not being strong enough, so they only follow. Éven aniong a group oí children it wiü be noticed that oue or two projjose all the games and take the Iead in them. This spirit of leadership tiiijg lij uim uirougn me, uut ït is diificult to teil just what gives them that faculty. Ambition and self-love do not fit people as leaders, they must be quick, active, enërgetie, and good judges of lininiin nature. ïlie people, caunot long be deceived, they see through the motives that prompt deeds. Popular favors are bestowed so eapriciously, that a slight thing will sometimes change the tide, for the atfection of the world is as fíckle as a spring day. Although we canuot all be leaders, there are uoue so insigniücant but what they have some iuiluence; they may be followers themselves, but they ia turn iiave Mtowers. We therefore sliould be ourselvea what we would lead others to beconie. NOT COMPLBTED. These two words formed the text for a most excellent essay by .Miss Bessie E. Stevens, of Aim Arüor. Lil'e's work is one of preparation. Xo matter what one's occupation or employment niay be, it never reaches the point where it can be said to be complete. Tlie career of Alexander the Great commenced at tvventy, and after hehadsubduedall the kiiown world he was still distsatisfied that there were no more worlds to conQuer. The red ribbon movement that swept through the country a few years ago left inuch work in that line incomplete. It was supposed that when the war was ended and the slaves made free that the question of human rights was settled. How is it in the south today ? The rightis of the oppressed race are not restored to them, the work is yet incomplete, and the race problem is a great question yet to be settled. We go on in life hoping and striving to obtam to-morrow what is bevond our reach today. The needie in the mariner's compass always poiuts to tlie north but never reaches the north pole. So with the work performed in the school. It does not iinish our education, but poims the way to greater avenues of learning. ADVANTAGES OF A BUSINESS EDUCATIOX. ïhe last speaker was Victor C. Willoughby, of Owosso. The business men have the greatest influence of auy class of people in the world to-day. Coinmerce is unlimited and rules the world. What is uieant by a business man is any one who has the care in raising, handling, shipping, nianufacturing, buying and selling any of the producís that enter into tlje traffic of the world, so the list ineludes a large majority of the people. What shall be tlie character of these men? Shall ignorance rule the world ? No. The masses must be educated, must be made acquainted with political economy,and receive a thorough practical education. The oration was a sensible plea for the raising of the human family by banishing iguorauce and diffusing knowledge everywhere to au men. After the presentation of 97 diplomas to the graduates by Prof. W. S. Perry, the exercises closed with a benediction. As a whole the efforts of the graduates were excellent, superior to the average, and most of the speakers attempted to speak loud enough to be heard.
Ann Arbor Courier