Ann Arbor's educntional advantages do not, by any means, begin and end with the University. "YVere that institution located at Detroit or Jackson, or uiv where else, this city would still be known throughout the length and breadth of thiB land as an eduoational center. At no other place in the country, large or small, can be found a high school so well equipped and raanned as that which is located at Ann Arbor. With its able corps of teachers and advanced course of study, it ranks well irith many so-called universities and colleges. Xor are the ward schools by any means to be passed over. They are in every respect equal to the best in the land. Is it any wonder, then, that hundreds ofpeople settle in Ann Arbor for the sake of enjoying its educational advantages? Were these only better known, we doubt not but that the number of new corners would be still greater. Ann Arbor does not constitute a school district entirely by itself . A considerable portion of the township is inoluded, so that, while the population of Ann Arbor, according to the last census, was 9,461, that of the district was 9,896. Statistics relative to the enrollment, attendance, number of teachers, etc, are presentcd in brief form in the following table : _ g a 3 i f I P Enrollment, boys 344 292 426 1,062 " girls 354 254 366 974 Total 698 546 692 2,036 Average number belonging... 546 46? 680 1,694 " '■ daily attendance 52.' 452 649 1,626 Number of non-residents .... 341 41 37 419 Percent, of attendince 96 29 96.44 95.40 95.90 No. men teachers and Supt.... 9 10 No. women teachers 7 13 18 38 No. special teachers 3 Average days' attend. each pupil UI 16 162 158 No. oi pnpils to each teac!:e K 3( 3 86 The consummation and special prido of our school system is the fllg'h School. Circumstances partly growing out of looation have brought it into exceptional prominence. It is no longer merely the high school institution of the Ann Arbor city schools, but it is a preparatory and academie department, whose patronage extends all over the western states and territories and, to no smal] extent, over the middle states as well. In this connection, the history of the beginnings of the high school are of special interest. The University of Michigan, as is well known, began its career in about a dozen "branch" academie schools in various parts of the state, which were designed to be feederg of a large central school. But it was soon discovered that development could come to the University only by coneentration of its energies at the present establishment. As the " branches " began to retire, in 1845, seminaries, academies, institutos and colleges all ovre the state began to spring up and ask for charters. At the same time a few "unión" schools were born, which atI tracted a passing notice. In 1849 the state I superintendent thus speaks of them: "This class of institutions, which may I be made to constitute the connecting I ünk between the ordinary common I school and the state university, is fast I gaining upon the confidence of the pubI 'ie It was a race between the private I academy and the public high school for I 4e possession of the rield of secondary I education in Michigan, and the high I Khool won." Historically, then, the high school I 88 au invention to take the place of I 'üseontinued branches of the University. I Thisduty it'has performed in a masterI ')' way, But for the masses it has also I ileveloped into something better and I pander. The high school is in reality I 'te people's college. It may be found almost at every man's I loor. It is no exaggeration to say that I the high educational rank of our own I state has been, in a great measure, due I 'o the superior character of its graded I and high schools. ORIGIN AND GROWTH. The origin of our own high school was I mewhat unique. It was not an acciI 'ent; it was scarcely a growth from beI Previous to its organization in I w, the schools of the town had been I oducted in two districts, which were I ísolidated by a close vote after a I "itter contest. The victory was at once I "tilized. A central building was begun I 1855 and occupied the following year Hhe newly organized city schools, surI "Kmnted by a strong high school. I The future career of the high school I "M clearly seen by some of its distin■ !J'shed abettors, such as Prof. (Pres.) I ■ 0. Haven, Prof. H. S. Frieze and IJfners connected with the University. I nsiderable preparation for the UniH iers'ty liad previously been done in e town, but the high school seems to I e "een designed trom the first to supI Li tnese and become the preparatory lool of the University. ■ lat j lirst c'ass that was formally gradad (i86i) consisted of rifteen young I wVeleTen oI wtom entered the UniI jW The number of pupils enrolled I '"? time was 270. As showing the tl!6 of progress, we may state that at close of the first year of the present I TOfitendent's administraron, (1871) the high school enrollment was 275 and the tuition received was 81,809. In 1881 the attendance was 470 and the reported tuition receipts, 3ó,lGO. In 1891 the annual report shows an enrollment of 698 and receipts from tuition of 87,793. THE INSTRUCTION. All schools must rest for their reputation upon the character of their work. The high school has not always had a fine building and abundant apparatus, but it has always had good teachers. lts good name seems to have been mainly acquired through the high character of the instruction it bas f urnished. Differing in its history from most of the high schools of the state, the Ann Arbor high school has always maintained a strong classical course. lts teachers have always been the best that could be obtained. Among them have been Professors Pattengill, D'Ooge and Demmon, of the University, Judge C. B. Grant, of the Michigan supreme court, and Prof. S. R. AVinchell, of the Champaign, 111., university. The present instructor of Greek and Latin, J. G. Pattengill, also principal of the school, has been not less successf ui than those we have mentioned. Originally each modern language formed a special complete course of itself, and was taught by a native teacher. Although the languages have been incorporated into other courses and are no longer taught by native teachers, they have in no respect been lessened in excellence. Any pupil who has passed through the course in Germán or French may be relied upon for a thorough elementary knowledge of the language. In mathematics the high school has always had a high standing. The instruction is kept up toa somewhat severe tensión, and a greater or less number of the seniors yearly fail to pass the final examinations in mathematics. Perhaps this is owing to the fact that the requirements for admission to the University in this branch are more severe than those in most of the eastern qolleges. The sciences were made much of in the early years of the high school. Book and detinition methods prevailed. But when the scientific epoch began, a few years ago, to dawn upon the world, the Ann Arbor high school was one of the first academie institutions to feel the beating of the scientific pulse. Immediately the teaching of science in the high school began to assume a more inductive and educational spirit. Believing physics to be the central science, and in value ranking above any of the others, the school authorities set about giving it superior advantages. The apparatus for illustrating its laws and principios was considerably increased, and a room was equipped for pupils' laboratory practice and experimentation. These facilities have been added to and perfected until it is probable that no high school in the west would claim tobe ite equal, so far as facilities in the teaching of physics are concerned. The laboratory work is done in accordance with a book on the subject published by the instructor, H. N. Chute. In astronomy there ís not only first class instruetion but, by the use of a good four-inch telescope, which is mounted in a separate building, good opportunities for practical observation are afforded. In botany students have the use of a well-equipped laboratory, and thescience is thereby taking a higher place and possessing a higher value in the curriculum. The history of the United States should not pass unnoticed, for it is handled and taught in a masterly way. The same may be said of English Literature and, in fact, of all the other literary courses. THE COMMERCIAL, DEPARTMENT. Instruction in business methods and principies is becoming more and more a feature of modern high schools, and, in this respect, Ann Arbor is not behind other cities. A large room on the third floor is devoted to this department. All necessary appliances are found there. Desks and counters, similar to those found in banks and in offices, help to give the student a good idea of how actual business is carried on. The work is under the direction of Prof. J. C. McClenahan, and the course of study includes book-keeping by single and doublé entry, penmanship, business forms, commercial law, civil government, political economy and the common English branches. Large numbers of pupils who take the course succeed in obtaining good situations after graduation. MUSICAL INSTRUCTION. The fine arts are not entirely neglected. One of these, at least, occupies a prominent place in the curriculum. "We refer to the course in music. This is carried on during four years. It includes a vocal and a piano course. In the former voice culture and singing with choral practice are taught. Harmony is studied during the last year. For admission to the latter course the equivalent of three years of piano studies are required. After four years of study the pupil is expected to be able to perform compositions equal to Le Couppey, op. 25, Czerny, op. 299, books I. II., and the like. Choral music, harmony and enseble playing are also taught in this course. A USBFUIi SUMMARY. A good idea of the range of work done in the high school, a3 well as its general character, may be gained from the following table : STLDIE8. BOYS GIELS TOTAL Latin Ï65 Ï6Ï 376 Greek _ 37 21 58 Germán _ 71 73 144 French 9 22 31 EiiRlish Literature 33 24 57 Rhetorie 26 26 52 American Literature 5 14 19 General English 220 22 449 Conversational Germán 27 40 67 English Grammar 66 10S 171 Composition 63 82 145 Etymology 4 14 18 Physics 90 62 153 Astronomy 40 36 76 Botany 94 104 198 Physiology 43 38 81 Geornetry 74 59 133 Trigonometry 13 0 13 Alitebra 163 181 344 Arithmetic 81 102 1S3 Civil Government 2f 18 46 English History 27 15 42 General History 101 95 196 United States History 105 77 182 Political Economy 14 23 37 Roman History 2t 32 B8 Greek History 17 13 30 Pnysieal Geography 15 18 33 Chemistry 55 42 97 Book keeping 68 28 96 Commercial Law 19 14 33 Sixteen teachers are employed, every one of whom has been selected after careful examination. Their names, studies and salaries are as follows: W. S. Perry, sup't $2,200 J. G. Pattengill. principal- Greek and Latiu, 1,800 H. N. Chute, Physics 1,700 L. D. VViues, higher mathematics 1.4' 0 Alice Porter. Latin 700 Mary E. Hunt, natural science 700 Mary E. Dickie. Germán 800 Fred C. Clark, history and political economy 900 L. P. Jocelyn, mathematics 800 Auna H. Adams. French and Latn 5(0 v. v. Eagan, grammar and English 60 Callie H. Ttueblood. elocution 19J J. C. McClenahan, book keeping and commercial law ',200 Grace Taylor, rhetorie and English Literature 700 Sarah Whedon, general English 550 Jatxz Montgomery, chemistry and astronomy 1.C00 Nellie S. Loving, librarían I 0 Total salaries Sis.240 Taken all in all, the Ann Arbor high school is about as complete in its appointments, its courses of study and its teaching corps, as it can well be made. ïhere is nothing in the academie or preparatory line that cannot be had for the asking. Pour distinct courses, Arts, Science, Philosophy and Letters lead to corresponding courses in the University. One of the most servioeable appliances of the high school is the library. It contains about 4,000 volumes, nearly all oí whioh wero selected with reference to their use in connection with some one or other of the branches studied. The treasures of the great university library are also freely used. MAN'.U.K.UENT OF THE SCHOOL. In respect to its patronage, the school is decidedly unique. About half of its pupils are non-residents, coming here solely for the advantages offered by the school. The larger portion are members of the higher classes. Under such circumstances it must needs be that large numbers of these pupils come to the high school f rom schools having a different order of studies, so that, with respect to the high school course of study, their scholastic attainments are all awry- a misflt. No little skill and experienee are required to put these pupils on the shortest route to a diploma or to a certiticate for admission to the University. But it is right here, in the adjustments of these cases of irregular classification, that the high school prides itself on its skillful administraron. Pupils are never unnecessarily detained in the high school. Every one may expect a generous, fair treatment. The management of the school regards more the welfare of the pupils and the teachings of common sense than the observance of arbitrary rules or the bonds of precedent. lts good order comes more from the loyalty of its students than froni the enforcement of rulee. The high school does not teach religión in any of its forms or doctrines, but a religioua atmosphere pervades its management and a religious spirit, both deep and impulsive, dwells in the hearts of all the teachers. One of the most highly prized institutions, indirectly connected with the high school, is the Students' Christian Association. It has enjoyed an unbroken and vigorous exiátence for the past iif teen years. It has always been a center of good influences and has held up conspicuously before the school a noble Christian life as the kind of manhood and womanhood all should aim at. Last year there were over 300 nonresident pupils, many of them far from the reBtraining inrluence of home and friendly eyes. It is no wonder that parents are sometimes anxious to know whether their children are being cared for and guarded from evil. There are no dormitorios under the control of the high school authorities, but a etrict watch is kept upon the habits of every pupil. It is not often one goes far astray without being tioned and advised as to his duties. If it transpires that a pupil is getting beyond the control of his teachers, his parents are immediately notified and the whole truth about the pupil is reported. If they do not receive letters from the superintendent, parents may feel easy concerning their children. The Wnril School. The public schools of Ann Arbor are organized according to the method employed by most city schools of the country. ïhere are twelve grades or years' work in the complete course. These are grouped in three sections, called departments, each of which includes four grades. The departments are termed Primary, Grammar and íligh School. The course of study is very carefully graded and adapted to the en1 larging powers of the pupil, so that, in passing from grade to grade, and from department to department, the pupil is at no point subject to any special jar or strain of the mental faculties. The pupil's course is by no means a holiday pleasure, for his powers are tested at ! every point, but so gradually that even this at last becomes a pleasure. Let him i only take his place in the attractive rooms of Grade One, stick to his post and perform his allotted tasks, and in a few years he will be safely and gently landed in the University of Michigan. The first two years of the primary department constitute more especially the beginning of the pupil's educational career. Here he tinds himself in the midst of plays and songs and pictures and colors and all the other features of kindergarten methods. Our schools in these grades are now employing Froebel's Kindergarten "Gifts" intelligently and as far as they can profltably be used in public schools. The excellence of the specimens of claymodeling, stick-laying, paper-patching, cutting, perforating, sewing, etc, that were on exhibition in the superintendent's room during June last, was a surprise to many. How could such work be done by children? Simply for the reason that it excites a child's interest and is adapted to his capabilities. It is in these exercises that the child's faculties begin to grow and strengthen. Thus he prepares for the more severe efïorts which are demanded as he advances farther along in the curriculum. PTUMAIiY AND OBAMMAB. The Primary and Grammar ments have ahvays rankod among the best in the state. In oppositionto tiiem private schools have never gained much of a foothold. Our citizens have ahvays feit a just pride in these departments and have unhesitatingly entrusted their children to the teachers for instruction. Some features of these lower grades are especially worthy of note. More elementary sc-ience has been put into their course of study than will be found in most of the city schools in the state. The sciences include Leaf and Plower (one term), Physiology (two terms), Geology (two terms) and l'hysics (from one to two terms) Muoh instruction is given orally in the various branches. The special work in drawing and singing has been excellent for a dozen years or more. In these grades a superior class of teachers are employed. The board have aimed to make tirst class appointruents, from year to year, and the teachers have wrought in their several positions with the impression that it is tlior business to improve with every succeeding term. THE CADET SYSTEM. The board have devised a unique method of providing teachers. Several " cadets " are appointed at the opening of each year to serve as assistants in rooms where they may be of the most service and learn the most of the art of teaching. These cadets attend all teachers' meetings and take up all the studies and many of the duties of the older teachers, so that, at the end of the year, if they have the aptitude for jteaching, they are good candidates for appointments to permanent positions. SCHOOL, FACIL.ITIKS. After a pupil has completed the work of the eight grades belonging to the primary[and grammar departments, he is sure to have a first class common school education. That the work is thoroughly done is proven by the fact that nearly all of the pupils, at the end of the yoar, succeed in passing the promotion exiuninations. The following table givos some interesting statistics relative to the movement of pupils over the grades : S 3 I 3 6 V ? No. iu clarees at close ofyear 8SS 588 971 No. imperfectly classifled 48 3 51 No. prometed unconditionally 287 479 766 No. promoted conditlonally 26 48 69 Extra promotion; [ekipped a grade] 12 6 18 No. returned to lower grade 18 12 80 Failel to pass from irregular attend anee 10 15 25 (Continued on page 10.) OUR GREAT ACADEMY. (Cmtinuedrom page 9.) The work of the primary and grammar departments is carried on in six fine school buildings, situated in the six Beveral wards of the city. These buildings all have comely exteriora and convenient, attractive interiora. The total estimated value of all school property, including the high school building, is $205,000. This comprises real estáte, furniture, school libraries, apparatus, etc. Ann Arbor surely is a wealthy city, so far as school property is concerned. Many of the rooms are not only beautiful in themselves but are tastefully decorated with pictures, brie a brac, etc. Cleanliness is one of the chief virtues of these schools, as the attending janitors very well know. Two of the buildings are heated and ventilated by the Smead system, and the ventilation in all of them is carefully attended to. Parents in these times may well rejoice over the care that is taken of and for their children during their school Ufe. Bvery convenience, such as globes, maps, reference books, apparatus, material, etc., is cheerfully supplied by the school board. Maiinifemoiií of tti" Schools. The Ann Arbor schools are under the direction of a board of education comprising nine directors. They are chosen for a term of three years each at a general election held on the first Monday of September. Only tax-payers, including women, have the right to vote. As a result,only the best men are elected, and politics do not enter into the matter at all. The present incumbents are Philip Bach, Evart H. Scott, John V. Sheehan, Junius E. Beal, Christian Mack, William W. Whedon, Leonhard Gruner, Joseph T. Jacobs, Willard B. Smith. Mr. Bach has served continuously since the board was organized, over thirty years ago. KECEIPTS AND EXPENSES. Although the schools of Ann Arbor are run as economically as possible, they annually oost a smaïl fortune. The receipts during the year ending September 7 were $48,465.90, of which 85,285.98 was primary school fine money, 67. ■ 1 tii 81 tuition, 82,075.02 township tax and 'X344.00 city tax. The remainder came from various sources. It will be seen, however, that Ann Arbor itself bears scarcely twothirds of the expenses. The expenditures included S30,08'2.2r,, salaries; 84,000, payment of bond; ?1,865.KÍ, fuel; 81,798 50, janitors, etc, etc. Teachers' salaries below the high school range from 8350 to $500 a year. Vithin the past few years an expensive addition to the high school building was erected and bonds were issued in part payment. Only 820,000 of these remain due. They constitute the entire indebtedness of.the Bchools. Siipci iiitciiilcnt l'erry. Walter S. Perry, the efficiënt superintendent of the Ann Arbor. public schools, was bom in Otsego County, N. Y. He entered the Michigan Normal school at an early age and graduated from that institution in 1850. During the succeeding two years he taught at mouth and Hastings. He entered the University in 1858, and graduated therefrom after three years' study. He was elected superintendent of the Marshall city schools, and held that position for three years. He then removed to Coldwater, where he remained in charge of the schools until 1867. He was chosen superintendent of the Branch County schools, but soon resigned that position in order to accept the principalsbip of the Toledo high school. After one year's work there he was called to the college at Prairie Du Chien, Wis., of which institution he remained in charge until 1870, when the city of Ann Arbor was fortúnate enough to secure his services. For twenty-one years Mr. Perry has devoted his entire attention to the upbuilding of our public schools, andmuch of the success they have attained is due to his work. He has frequently been asked to accept other positions, but has invariably declined, preferring to remain in Ann Arbor. Although Mr. Perry's work has not been of an ostentatious character, it lias, in a quiet way, exerted beneflcial influence over thousands of lives. Many young teachers come to hiin every year for advice and guidance, and text-book publishers have again and again asked him to review and criticize their publications. In Michigan no educator is better known than Mr. Perry. He is an active metnber of the State Teachers' A ssociation and was at one time its president. He has also been president of the University Alumni Association. rarochinl Schools. In every city will be found hundreds of parents who desire their children to have a distinctly religious and theological training, along with the instruction in ordinary branches. By these parochial schools are maintained. Ann Arbor has but three. The largest is ST. THOMi' SCHOOL, which is conducted under the auspices of the Roman Catholic church. The school is under the direct supervisión of Eev. Father Kelly and is taught by the Sisters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary - women whose lives are devoted to the cause of Catholic education. Besides the ordinary branches, usually taught in public and parochial schools, music and singing are studied. For the latter no extra charge is made. Lessons are given on the piano, guitar, banjo, harp, etc. The musical course is knowledged to be an excellent one. The echool building stands on the J brow of the hill which overlooks the Michigan Central depot and the Huron river. It is a large and beautiful , ture. THE BETHLEHF.M SCHOOL. On First-st stands a building which . serves as a home for the parochial ! school which is maintained in connection with the Germán Evangelical Bethlehem church. It is in charge of Prederick Fisher, a thoroughly tent teacher. About fifty pupils, on an i average, are in attendance. Good instruction is given in the Germán language, as well as the common branches which are generally taught in public schools. ZION'S IiUTHEKAN SCHOOT,. This school occupies a frame building ' next to the Zion church. Sessious are i held during the whole year. Ij. Poes, a ; thoroughly competent teacher, has charge of the instruction. The number of pupils is about seventy. The branches ; taught are those usually found in a publio school. Training in the Germán language and in religious subjects is also given. The School of Sliortlmncl. The School of Shorthand was established, in the f all of 1884, by S. A. Moran, who was then a student in the University. There had been a number of sons who had given instruction in shorthand and typewriting in Ann Arbor previous to the above date, but none of them, however, had met with a sufficient j amount of success to warrant the estabI lishment of a permanent school of this kind. It was not Mr. Moran's idea of doing anything more than to carry on a j school of this kind while taking a course in the University, and in this way pay his school expenses. The attendance upon his classes, and his success as a teacher during the school year of 188185, clearly demonstrated that there was a strong demand, at this great educational centre, for the establishment of a permanent school for instruction in both i shorthand writing and in operating the typewriter. This was probably in part i due to the fact that Mr. Moran did not limit himself to what local patronage i might be obtained, but at once began to reach out all over the state by judipious advertising. He was led to do this by the belief that students who wished to take up either or both of these branches would rather come to Ann Arbor for the purpose of doing so than go to any other city. This belief has been verified by the large number of both young men and women who have come here especially to take the courses offered by the school. Students have come to attend the school from a score of different states, coming from as far east as Xew Hampshire, and west from Colorado. Since the school wasorganized it has enrolled over 1,000 students. lts representativos may be found in every large city in the country, where they are holding lucrativo positions as stenographic clerks or court reporters. From Mr'. Moran's teaching a few hours each week, as he did in the start, while doing his college work, the school has grown so that it wil! open up this fall with flve teachers and instructora, besides Mr. Moran himself, who still reniains in full charge of the school. He does not, however, at the present time give much time to the work, that being left to competent assistants. The school has commodious and well furnished quarters in the new Sager building, on South State-st, where at any time full information may be had in regard to courses in both shorthand and typewriting. It vvould be well to say in connection with the account of this school that a large number of the students who have come liere with the idea of taking only a business course, have caught wbat might be well termed the " Ann Arbor fever," and have remained here and taken a full course either in the literary or in one of the profession a departments. In this way the school has served as a valuable feeder to the University, having been the means of bringing a great many more students here than many of the high schools, the diplomas of which admit to the institution. This is only another proof of the argument which 'has been urged, time and time again, that the more schools of all kinds which may be established here, the better it will be for the University, and for the city, too.