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The Census And The Distribution Bill

The Census And The Distribution Bill image The Census And The Distribution Bill image
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The whole representaron by federal - umbera is 251, viz: 154 for tlie free, and 7 for ihe Slave States. Were none but. ree inhabitanta represented, the whola umber would be 227, viz: J54 for the ree States, and 73 for the slave States. - By the last apportionment they were 242, iz: 142 for the free, and 100 for the slave tutes. By the growth of the country,thc lave Statea wíl] have 38.6 per cent of tho . ederal power; by the last apporlionment ïey had 41 per cent. This disproportiotk vill doubtless be greatly increased in ten years. The slave State xvill have 24 reresentatives on account of their slaves,or ïearly one tenth of the whole. Were ony the free represented, the 6lave State vould have but 32 per cent. of the whole. The correction of the census, since tho eturn putflished last winter, has added six cpresentatives - all to the slave States. - i'hat is curious, and ought to be Iooked ino by a committee of Congress, before the apporliomnent is made. Nearly the whole addition is in the number of slaves. Tho 'correction" has also taken one represenative from the free State of Illinois. Thia 'correction," as it is cailed, just about sup)lies the deficiency, also, in the number of ihe slaves, about which the abolitionista were beginning to make a hue and cry. - t is certainly a nio&t opportune correction and must be regarded by slaveholders as a special interposition of Providence - or somebody else! With regard to the distribution, it wil! )e borne in mimi, that the slaves receiva none of ita benefits, cither directly or indirectly, but the whole bonus goes to the free inhabitants, and consequently, that which is givon to the slave States on account of their slave population, is, in fact, a douceur to the free inhabitants, on account of their being the possessors of slave properiy. It is also to be borne in mind that there is no other species of property, ihe h'aving of wjiich is regarded as a reason why government favors should be increased to the possessor. It mightnapa, be difficult even for Mr. Webster to. give a reason whj ibis kind of property öliould be regarded so peculiarly as "evU dence of merit." It will tiien be seen from the table, tbafc by adopting the Federal numbers, ñatead of the free population, as the basis of disr iribution, ihe slave States receive $190,. 490 more, and the free States $173,644 loes than equity allows, making a difference of $364,140. By taking this propeily basis, Maryland receives, first, a gratuity of one Representativo in Congre8srfc and then a furiher gratuity of $3,260 year ly in money frora the national treasury.- The two adjuining States of Indiana and Kentucky are now equal in polítlcal potr-er - butufthis public donation eack free inhabitant of Kentucky will receive 22.& cents, and each free inhabitant of Indiana but 18.8 cents. Perhaps it is a concededpoint in all the West, that 100 Kentuckians are equai in merit to 118 Hoosiers. Illinois and South Carolina are now oqual in power, i. e. the 267 ,360 free peopie in South Carolina weigh aB much i national iníluencc as 475,852 in Illinois; about in the proportioo of two Caroünians three IHinoisians. And when it comes lo receiving money, each free person in Illinoia divides 18.8 cents, and each free person in South Carolina, 32.6 cents, or in the proportionof $1,00 to a Carolinian, ag often as the Ilünoisian receives57 centa. Ohio equals in representation the foujr States of Georgia, Alabama, Mississippr, and Louisiana; she having a free popula-, tion of l,519,464,and they only 1,107.463, lesa by 412.001 or nearly one third, anct by the same rule are entitled to only 17 members of Congress. And besides having surplud representatives for their slavo jroperty, they receive a correspond ing portion oí the public bounty - each. free person in Ohio receiving 1S.S cents, and each free person in those four State averaging 28 cents. Michigan and Arkansas carne into the Union together, and now a free cilizen of Michigan receives 18.8 cents, and a fres citizeu of Arkansas 22 cents. Pennsylvania and Maryland lie side by side, and are both needy , it is said, of tha benefíts of this distribulion, on account of their fíaancial embarrassmeats - Pennsylvania havjng just quadruple the representation of Muryland, and its indebeedness nearly in the same proportion. Now Pena sylvaniii would receive, on the free basii $355,137; but by the present bilí she will receive but $3251 i3, while Maryland now receives 81,485 whereas her free population eniitlea her but to $78,225- while at the same time, Maryland considera her slave population, on account of which she receives yeaily $3,260 from the government, as a part of her taxabl weulth, and the sale of them or their ncrëttse, to the South west as a part of the resources ot' her cilizens to pay tbe debímcurred by her public works. New Jersey has ufree population groa ter by une tonth than that of Ahubanaayat