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UMS Concert Program, May 19, 1894: The "manzoni" Requiem -- G. Verdi

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Season: 1893-1894
Concert: SEVENTH
Complete Series: XXX
University Hall

Francis W. Kelsey, Ph. D.. President. Albert A. Stanley, A. M., Director.
Fifth Season. (No. XXX, Pull Series.)
University Hall, Saturday, flay 19, 1894,
AT 7:30 P. M.
(250 Voices), Assisted by
The "Manzoni" Requiem,
Q. Verdi,
Miss Emma Juch, Soprano.
Miss Gertrude Mat Stein, Mezzo Soprano.
Mr. Max Heinrich, Baritone.
Mr. Edward C. Towne, Tenor.
And the Boston Festival Orchestra.
Mr. Emil Mollenhaner, Concertmeister. AIJ5ERT A. Stanley, Conductor.
Prof. P. E. de Pont, President. Prof. A. A. Stanley, Director.
Prof, L. D. Wines, Treasurer.
Mr. 0. P. Haseldean,
Mb. F. II. Bacon, Librarians.
Mrs. Wm. K. Chiids, Miss Lucy K. Cole. Miss Emma G. MOAlhsier,
Mb. Prank A. Beach, Mr. Ralph A. Powell, Dr. Odables B. Nancrede Mr. John Bendinger.
The "Manzoni" Requiem.
This work, one of the greatest compositions in a religious vein for which the musical world stands indebted to the genius of Italy, is a modern setting of that solemn office of the Catholic liturgy which has in the past inspired the greatest musicians. The work is divided into the usual numbers and is written for solo, chorus and orchestra. The use made of these factors shows us that Verdi as a dramatist seized upon the dramatic aspects of the text, and the musical setting is precisely what might have been expected under the circumstances.
The Introduction (A minor) to the "Requiem e Ktkie" (Grant them rest) gives us a quiet and mournful theme, developed entirely by the strings. In this portion of the work the chorus is purely an accompaniment to the melody played by the violins, but at the words "Te decet hymnus"-(There shall be singing) it is supreme. After this division, (F major) sung a capella) the introductory theme reappears. At its conclusion the solo parts come into prominence (A major) and the rest of the number is a finely conceived and elaborately executed eight voiced setting of the words Kyrie eleison.
The Dies Ira (Day of Anger) is divided into nine parts, for solo, chorus and orchestra. The first of these divisions the "Dies Ira" is a very dramatic setting of the text. It is in the key of G minor and introduces vocal and orchestral efforts which are startling in their intensity. The second division "Tuba Mirum" (Harkl the trumpet) (A Hat minor) is preceded by a dramatic treatment of the orchestra in which the trumpet calls in the orchestra are answered in the distance--until a magnificent climax is reached by the Jf chords for the full brass, leading into a great unison passage for male voices, accompanied by all the power of the full orchestra. In quick succession follows No 3, solos for Bass and Mezzo Soprano. The words "Mors stupebit" (Death with wonder is enchained,) (D minor) and "Liber scriptus properetur" (Now'the record shall be cited) indicate a change of treatment. An abridged version of the first division follows, to be succeeded in turn by a beautiful trio for Tenor, Mezzo and Bass, (Q minor). Hex tremendoe majestatis1' (King of Glory) (C minor). The next division is written for solo and chorus. The solo parts to the word "Salve me fons pietatis," (Save me Lord with mercy flowing), introduce a melody entirely distinct from that of the chorus, and the ingenious contrasts of the two leading up to the final blending of both in the "Salve me" are intensely interesting and effective.
, .sixth lUJiber, a duet for Soprano and Mezzo-(F major), is thoroughly Italian in spirit, is bi-auiifully written for the voices, and carries out most perfectly the spirit of the words ; Kecordare, " (Ah! remember). The Tenor and Bass Solors which now follow the "Ingemisco." (Sadly Groaning) (£1 flat major.) and "Confutatis." (E major), in the opinion of many critics contain the finest music in the whole work. Be this as it may, this portion is very interesting, and to the musician presents technical points of importance. The "Dies Irte," as a whole, ends with the "Lacrymosa," (Ah! what weeping). (A flat minor.) a tender setting of these words. A wonderful crescendo on the word, Amen, is to he noted.
No. S. The Solo Quartet (A flat major), "Domine Jesu Christe, (O Lord God, Lord Jesus Christ) is very beautiful, but presents no special points of interest.
No. 4, the Sanotus (F major) is an exalted inspiration of genius. With its glorious double fugue, its triumphal antiphonal effects at the close leading into a soul uplifting climax, it would, of itself, make the reputation of a lesser composer.
No. 5. If the Sanctus is sublime in its grandeur, no less so in its pathos isthe Agnus Dei, "Lamb of God," (U major), written for solo voices (Soprano and Mezzo) and chorus. A simple melody with three different settings is the basis of this important number, and in originality and effectiveness it is not at all inferior to the inspired Sanctus which precedes it.
The "Lux asterna," (Light eternal) (B flat) calls for no extended notice. It is written for three solo voices in the style which we find in Verdi's later works.
The closing number, (7) "Libera Me," (C minor) begins with a recitative (Soprano) "Libera me Domine, de morte seterna," (Lord deliver my soul from eternal death) interrupted by the chorus which chants these words, and introducing a fugue of stupendous difficulty, gives as a repetition of the beautiful introduction to the whole work, (B flat minor) and ends with the repeeition of the recitative, while the chorus holds out a sustained chord (0 major) ppp. In the repetition of the introduction to first chorus just alluded to, the solo voice (Soprano) takes the melody originally played by the violins, while the chorus accompany a capella. The ending of the work is very dramatic. Everything seems to be hushed while the awful significance of the words is impressed upon the mind with irresistible force.
The whole work reveals Verdi at the maturity of his genius--shows the mastery of vocal resources characteristic of Italian composers, with a control of the possibilities of the orchestra in which he stand alone among the composers of Italy. The work is genuinely Italian in spirit, but it shows on every page the imprint of genius, and genius knows Up national boundaries.
I. Requeim e Kyrie.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Bomine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
To decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion, et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem.
Exaudi orationem meam, ad te omnis caro veniet. Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison.
Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them.
Thou, O God, art praised in Zion, and unto Thee shall the vow be performed in Jerusalem.
Hear my prayer, unto Thee shall all flesh come.
Lord have mercy ! Christ have mercy.
II. Dies Iras.
Dies irse, dies ilia, Solvet SEEclum in favilla, Teste David cnm Sibylla
Quantus tremor est futurus, Quando Judex est venturus. Ouncta stricte discussurus.
Day of vengeance, lo! that morning, On the earth in ashes dawning, David with the Sibyl warning!
Ah! what terror is impending, When the Judge is seen descending, And each secret veil is rending!
Tuba mieum spargens sonum, Per sepulchra regionum, Coget omnes ante thronum.
To the Thbone, the trumpet sounding,
Through the sepulchres resounding, Summons all with voice astounding.
Bass Solo.--Mr. Heinbich.
Mobs stupebit et natura, Cum resurget creatura, Judicanti responsura.
Death and Nature, maz'd are quaking,
When the grave's deep slumber breaking.
Man to judgment is awaking.
Mezzo Sopkano.--(Miss Stein) and Chorus.
Liber scriptus proferetur, In quo totum continetur, Unde mundus judicetur.
Now the written book containing Record to all time pertaining, Opens for the world's arraigning.
Judex ergo, cum sedebit, Quidquid latet apparebit, Nil inultum remanebit.
See the Judge, his seat attaining, Darkest mysteries explaining, Nothing unavenged remaining!
Trio.--Miss Juch, Miss Stein, Mb. Towne.
Quid sum miser tune dicturus, Quern patronum rogaturus, Cum vix Justus sit seourus
What shall I then say unfriended,
By what advocate attended,
When the just are scarce defended
Rbx tremende majestatis, Qui salvandos salvas gratis, Salva me, fons pietatis.
King of Majesty tremendous, By thy saving grace defend us; Fount of piety, safety send us.
Dtjet.--Miss .Tuch and Miss Stein.
Rbcordarb, Jesu pie, Quod sum causa tuas vice; Ne me pei-das ilia die.
Quaarens me sedisti lassua, Redemisti cruoem passus, Tantus labor non sit cassus.
Juste judex ultionis, Donum fac remissionis, Ante diem rationis.
Jesus, think of thy wayfaring,
For my sins the death-crown wearing;
Save me in that day despairing.
Worn and weary thou has sought me, By Thy cross and passion bought me, Spare the hope Thy labors brought me.
Righteous Judge of retribution. Give, O give me absolution, Ere that day of dissolution.
Tbnob Solo.--Mr. Towne.
Ingbmisco tanquam reus, Culpa rubet vultus meus, Supplicanti parce Deus.
Qui Mariam absolvisti, Et latronem exandisti, Mihi quoque spem dedisti.
Preces mete non sunt dignfe, Sed tu bonus fac benigne, No perenni cremer igne.
Inter oves locum praasta, Et ab hoedis me sequestra, Statuens in parte dextra.
As a guilty culprit groaning, Flushed my face, my errors owning, Spare, O God, Thy suppliant moaning.
Thou to Mary gav'st remission, Heard'st the dying thief's petition, Bad'st me hope in my contrition.
In my prayers no worth discerning Yet on me Thy favor turning, Save me from Thy endless burning!
Give me, when Thy sheep confiding Thou art from the goats dividing, On Thy right a place abiding.
Bass Solo.--Mb. Heinrich.
Confdtatis maledictis, Flammis acribus addictis, Voca me cum benedictjs,
When the wicked are rejected, And to bitter flames subjected, Call me fortli with thine elected.
Oro supplex et acclinis, Cor contritum quasi cinis, Gere curam mei finis.
Low in supplication bending,
Heart as though with ashes blending,
Care for me when all is ending.
Lacrymosa dies ilia, Qua resurget ex favilla, Judicandus homo re us
Huic ergo parce Deus.
Pie Jesu Domine,
Dona eis requiem. Amen.
When on that dread day of weeping, Guilty man in ashes sleeping, Wakes to his adjudication,
Save him, God, from condemnation. Lord Jesus, all-pitying, Graut them rest. Amen.
III. Domine Jesu.
Domine Jbstj Oheiste, Rex Gloria;, libera animas omnium fldelium defunctorum de pcenis inferni et de prof undo lacu :
Libera eas de ore leonis, ne absorbeat eas Tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum; sed signifer sanctus Michael reprsesentet eas in lucem sanctam ; quam olim Abrahffi promisisti et semini ejus.
Hostias et preces tibi, Domine, laudis offerimus; tu suscipe pro animabus illis, quarum hodie memoriam facimus. Faceos, Domine, de morte transire ad bitam, quam olim AbrahEE promisisti et semini ejus.
Lord Jesus Christ, King of Glory, deliver the souls of all the faithful dead from the punishment of hell, and from the deep lake:
Deliver them from the lion's mouth ; let not hell swallow them, let them not fall into darkness ; but let Saint Michael, the standard bearer, bring them into the holy light which once thou didst promise to Abraham and his seed.
Offerings of prayer and praise we bring Thee, O Lord; receive them for those souls whom to-day we commemorate. Let them go from death to that life which once thou didst promise to Abraham and his seed.
IV. Sanctus.
Sanctus, sanotus, sanctus, Dominus Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria; tuas. Osanna in excelsia.
Benedictus, qui venit in nomine Domini. Osanna in excelsis.
Holt, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts! Heaven and earth are full ot Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest!
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest!
V. Agnus Dei.
Miss Juch, Miss Stein and Chokus.
Agnus Del, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem. Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem sempiternam.
Lame of God, that taketh away the sins of the world, grant them rest, Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world, Grant them rest everlasting.
VI. Lux 4Eterna.
Miss Stein, Mb. Towne, Mb. Heinrich.
Lux feterna luceat eis, Domine, cum sanctis tuis in ieternam, quia pius es.
Requiem ajternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Let perpetual light shine on them O Lord, with thy saints forever, for thou art Gracious.
Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them.
VII. Libera Me.
Solo for Soprano, (Miss Jtjch), Chorus and Final Fugue.
Libkra me, Domine, de morte seterna, in die ilia tremenda, quando cceli movendi sunt et terra, dum veneris judicare seculum per ignem.
Tremens factus sum ego et timeo, dum discussio venerit atque ventura ira, quando cceli movendi sunt et terra.
Dies iris, dies ilia, calamatatis, et miseries, dies magna et amara valde.
Requiem reternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Deliver me, O Lord, from eternal death, in that dread day when the heavens and the earth shall be moved, when thou shalt come to judge the world by fire.
I am full of terror and fear at the judgment that shall come and at the coming of thy wrath, when the heavens and the earth shall be moved.
Day of wrath, dread day of calamity and misery, dread day of bitter sorrow.
Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them.

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