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UMS Concert Program, May 10, 11, 12, 1906: Thirteenth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan -- The Choral Union

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Season: 1905-1906
Concert: TENTH
Complete Series: CL
University Hall, Ann Arbor

University of Michigan
University Hall, Ann Arbor
May 10, 11, 12, 1906
ann arbor, michigan
University School of Music
Paul R. B. de Pont Frederick A. Stock
Albert A. Stanley Ljllian French Read .
Glenn Hall Herbert Witherspoon Grace Munson Giuseppi Campanari Charlotte Maconda Brahm van den Berg Ellison van Hoose isabelle bouton William Howland Gwylim Miles
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The Choral Union
Mrs. E. H. Eberbach Miss Maud McFie Miss Carrik L. Dicken Miss Matj'de L. Durwn
E. Franklin Sholl Lawrence M. Marshall Dr. E. D. Brooks Chester S. Carney
List of Concerts and Soloists
Mrs. Lillian French Read, Soprano
Miss Grace Munson, Contralto Glenn Hall, Tenor Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass
The Choral Union
Mr. Frederick a. Stock, Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductors Mr. August Schmidt, Organist
Miss Grace Munson, Contralto Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
Mme. Charlotte Maconda, Soprano Signor Giuseppi Campanari, Baritone
Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
Mr. Brahm van den Berg, Pianist Mr. Glenn Hall, Tenot
Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
Verdi CAST
Alda, . Mmb. Charlotte Maconda Amneris, . Mjie. Isabelle Bouton High Priestess, Miss Frances Caspari Radames, Mr. Ellison van Hoose
Amonasro, . Mr. Gwilym Miles ; Ramphis, Mr. Herbert Witherspoon ; The King, Mr. William Howland The Messenger, Mr. Fred Killeen
Priests, Priestesses, soldiers, Ministers ana Captain's, l lie People, Slave Prisoners,
The Choral Union
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
The Theodore Thomas Orchestra
MEYER, G., Principal.
BECKEL, J., Principal. KXEMM, L. GLASS, R. OTTE, F.
The Theodore Thomas Orchestra will take part in all Festival Concerts.
First May Festival Concert
Mrs. Lillian French Read, Soprano
Miss Grace Munson, Contralto Mr. Glenn Hall, Tenor Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass
The Choral Union
Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductors Mr. August Schmidt, Organist
OVERTURE, "Euryanthe" VON Weber
" STABAT MATER," Op. 58 Dvorak
For Solo, Chords, and Orchestra
Quartet and Chorus--"Stabat Mater
Quartet--"Quis est Hotno." Chorus--"Eia Mater." Bass Soio and Chorus--' 'Fac ut ardeat
cor tneum."
Chorus--"Tui nati vulnerati." Tenor Soi,o and Chorus--"Facun vere
te cutnflere."
Chorus--" Virgo virginum prceclara."
Soprano and Tenor and Ddet--"Fac ut port em."
Contralto Solo--"Inflammatus et ac-census."
Quartet and Chorus--"Quando Corpus morietur."
OVERTURE, "Ignore," No. 3 Beethoven
"A PSALM OF VICTORY," Op. 8 A. A. Stanley
For Tenor Sou), Chorus, and Orchestra
Chorus--"7 King shall joy in thy strength, O Lord!"
Tenor S01.0 and Chorus-"For thou hast made him most blessed forever."
Chorus--"Thine hand shall find out."
Tenor Recitative--"Now know I that the Lord saveth his annointed.'"
Final Chorus--"Be thou exalted."
Second May Festival Concert
Miss Grace Munson, Contralto Me. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
SUITE, in D Bach
Overture, Air, Gavottes I and II, BotjrriSe, Gigue
ARIA, "Ah! rendimi" from "Mitrane" . Rossi
SYMPHONY, B minor, "Unfinished" Schubert
Allegro moderato; Andante con moto
part n SYMPHONY, No. 2, D Major, Op. 73 Brahms
Adagio non troppo ;
allegretto grazioso (quasi andantino); au.egro con spirito
Third May Festival Concert
Miscellaneous Concert
Mme. Charlotte Maconda, Sopraio
Signor Giuseppi Campanari, Baritone
Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Condzidor
OVERTURE, "Magic Flute" Mozart
ARIA, "Queen of the Night," from "Magic Flute" Mozart
Mme. Charlotte Maconda
SERENADE, for Wind Choir, Op. 7 R. Strauss
MONOLOGUE, from "Andrea Chenier" Giordano
Signor Giuseppi Campanari
part 11 OVERTURE, " Liebesfruhling" G.Schumann
RECITATIVE AND ARIA, "Ah! fors' elui" Verdi
Mme. Maconda ITALIAN SERENADE Hugo Wolf
ARIA, "Non piu Andrai," from "Marriage of Figaro" Mozart
Signor Campanari
RHAPSODIE, "Espanol" Chabrier
Fourth May Festival Concert
Miscellaneous Concert
Mr. Glenn Hall, Tenor Mr. Brahm van den Berg, Pianist Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
OVERTURE, "Bartered Bride" Smetana
alaegro moderato ; adagio ; allegro marcato Mr. Brahm van den Berg .
RECITATIVE AND ARIA, from "Eugen Onegin" Tschaikowsky
Mr. Glenn Hall
SYMPHONY No. 6, " Pathetique," B minor, Op. 74 Tschaikowsky Adagio-Ai,i,egro ;--Andante ;--Aiaegro vivo ; Allegro con grazia ;
Aiaegro moito vivace; Adagio lamentoso ;
The Piano used is a Smith & Nixon.
Fifth May Festival Concert
High Priestess
The King
The Messenger
An Opera in Four Acts by Verdi
Mme. Charlotte Maconda
Mme. Isabelle Bouton
Miss Frances Caspari
Mr. Ellison van Hoose
Mr. Gwylim Miles
Mr. Herbert Witherspoon
Mr. William Howland
Mr. Fred Killeen
Priests, Priestesses, Soldiers, Ministers and Captains, The People,
Slave Prisoners The Choral Union
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
Introduction (Ramphis).
Romanza (Radames).
Duet (Amncris and Radames).
Terzet (Amncris, Radames, A'ida).
Scene and Ensemble (The above with
the King, Ramphis, Messenger and
Battle-Hymn (The King, etc.) Scene (A'ida). Chorus of Priestesses. Dance of Priestesses. Prayer (Ramphis and Chorus).
Chorus of Women.
Dance of the Slaves.
Scene and Duet (A'ida, Amneris).
Finale and Chorus.
Egyptian March.
Chorus of Victory.
Scene, Ensemble, and Chorus.
Prayer (Chorus of Priests and Priestesses).
Romanza (A'ida, Amneris). Scene and Duet (A'ida, Amonasro). Duet (Radames, A'ida). Terzet (Radames, A'ida, Amonasro).
Scene (Amneris).
Duet (Amneris, Radames).
Judgment-Scene (Ramphis and Chorus;
Amneris). Scene and Duet (Radames, A'ida).
Descriptive Programs
Au Concerts Bbgin on Standard Time
Thursday Evening, May 10, 1906
OVERTURE, "Euryanthe," von Weber
Born at Eutin, December 18, 1786: died in London, June 5, 1826
From a purely musical point of view, "Euryanthe" may be considered von Weber's greatest opera. From the point of view of dramatic unity, however, it vies with Schumann's "Genoveva" in its. array of incongruities and absurdities. In many ways von Weber's music is prophetic of a greater than he. It is quite customary to speak of Act II of "Euryanthe" as the prophecy of "Tannhauser." There is more truth in this than we often find in such statements, for of fanciful comparisons, prophecies, analogies, etc., the literature of music contains its full share.
"Euryanthe" was first performed at the Kaernthnerthor Theater, Vienna, October 25, 1823. It is revived occasionally, and in spite of its dramatic weaknesses, its unique charm cannot be resisted by any lover of music. We have become so accustomed to music of more strenuous qualities that von Weber's gentler art is not always given its real value. In considering the dramatic inconsistencies, the flagrancy of which criticism has possibly unduly magnified, it must not be forgotten that the introduction of the "wondrous" element, as Wagner calls it, into the ordinary, or extraordinary, events of real life, has frequently resulted in situations that defy justification. Indeed were one to fearlessly expose, and insistently dwell upon, the dramatic lapses in many of the great operas, from the early days of the Venetian school up to the latest works of the present century--let us choose Strauss' "Salome,"--he would be called heretical. The criticism of "Euryanthe," as a whole, however well deserved it may be, cannot affect the overture, which is certainly one of the finest examples of a form that relied for its effect upon musical beauty rather than upon dramatic suggestion, or fitness. It is characterized by noble melody, buoyant rhythm, and displays variety without confusion, unity without monotony, and beautiful orchestration with no straining after unusual effects.
STAB AT MATER, for Soli, Chorus and Orchestra, Dvorak
ANTONIN DVORAK Born at Miihlhausen (Bohemia), September 8, 1841; died at Prague, May I, 1904
A comparative study of the various settings of the familiar Latin hymn from Nanini (1540-1607) to Verdi (1813-1901), involves the careful consideration of some of the most elusive problems of artistic expression, and a possible revision of certain well defined notions of the eternal fitness of things. Strangely enough the works rep14 Official Program Book.
resenting the chronological extremes have a great deal in common, when we take into consideration the inevitable differences in the forms of expression resulting from the progress of three centuries.
The keynote of each setting is simplicity; in each every note rings true; each is devout in essence; and each is thoroughly in keeping with its artistic environment. For the last reason they seem to be more widely separated than they really are.
The real and vital differences are seen in the works of a later period, for, between the works of Nanini and Verdi, we have many settings so widely separated in their general character and specific treatment, that they might have been written to different texts. The chaste "Stabat Mater" of Pergolese (1710-1736), and the theatrical score of Rossini (1792-1868), enforce this point very clearly. The first, based on the florid style of his period, has absolutely nothing in common with "La Serva Padrona," an opera in which Pergolese handed down to posterity a model of the best type of opera bnffa, the second, as distinctly theatric as any one of the operas written by the "Swan of Pesaro." The fact that Rossini from the date of the production of "Guillaume Tell" (1829) to his death wrote nothing for the operatic stage has remained a great mystery. On the testimony of his "Stabat Mater" one is justified in believing that it could not have been the result of any abatement of his power of invention.
The "narcotizing melodies" and "applause-producing" orchestral and choral effects in the "Stabat Mater" would have fitted almost any opera libretto better than this subject. But we must not forget that the composer of the first oratorio directed that it might close "with or without a dance." Again, some of Handel's wonderful facility may be largely accounted for by his ingenuous definitions, of m-ewn and tuuntt, and his artistic employment of the modern mechanical device of interchangeable parts. In the case of such a genius as Handel, these lapses are but minor incidents, and would not have been cited did they not illustrate the influence of the spirit of the age on genius, for, of all the composers of that epoch, Bach alone was blameless in these respects.
In explanation of the glaring incongruities apparent in the sacred works of dramatic composers of the Post-Palestrina Period, it must be remembered that the composers of his day and for several generations preceding him, worked along lines so clearly defined and so well established, that there could be no mistaking the general atmosphere of their works. They used themes taken from, or suggested by the Gregorian Tones; modal harmonies were employed; the contrapuntal styles developed by the Netherlanders and glorified by Palestrina conditioned the expression, while the forms were fugal. Bach's art rested very largely on the choral, as shown by his cantatas and greater religious works, and thus was given a distinct character by this employment of melodies, hallowed by usage and associated with the church.
The modern composer practically ignores the modal harmonies; the themes are born of the moment; and the forms, both sacred and secular, are derived from identical sources. Thus the dividing line between the expression of the sacred and secular ideas is lightly drawn. This may account for the fact that it is frequently crossed, in one direction only, it must be remembered.
To discuss the subject fully is manifestly impossible in this connection, but two facts may be urged as suggestive and pertinent: First, it is an open question whether the Latin races since Palestrina have produced a great composer in the sacred forms. At all events it is well night impossible to point to a sacred work since his death that is not marred to a greater or less degree by suggestions of the footlights. Even Verdi's glorious "Manzoni Requiem" is not above reproach in this respect. To
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emphasize this point, compare either of the two oratorios of Mendelssohn, the "German Requiem1' of Brahms, or the "Dream of Gerontius" by Elgar, with any sacred work which you may choose by an Italian, or French composer. Second, no composer has achieved equal success in both forms. Handel the opera composer has been forgotten but his oratorios are imperishable. Gounod's "Redemption" and "Mors et Vita" are practically dead. Bach, the greatest of them all. had no leaning whatever towards the type of dramatic music adapted to the stage. The composers of the Latin races are drawn to the operatic stage by a power few have been able to resist, and as yet there arc no signs of the possession on their part of a proper appreciation of the sacred style.
In dealing with the work on our program, it must be confessed at the outset that in many respects Dvorak's style is by no means lacking in sensuous qualities that mar rather than enhance his treatment of the text. In the main, however, the setting is worthy, dignified and devout. In his "Requiem," his fondness for chromatic harmonies and his ultra-modern treatment of the orchestra, were so clearly in evidence, as to seriously detract from its force, and, to the credit of the public be it said, its popularity. In the "Stabat Mater" he has kept himself well within the bounds imposed by the subject, and has held himself absolutely aloof from all that borders on the sensational and dramatic. One of the most individual of modern composers, and representing a race with a most pronounced style of musical expression, and unique traditional folk-music, he could not be natural, were he to attempt to divest himself of qualities that are the modern intensifications of early tendencies. The prevailing character of the work is rather sombre, and, taken as a whole, it is an admirable expression of the spirit of the text. Distinctly modern is the fact that while the work is polyphonic, it is not fugal. The polyphony is displayed through a richness of thematic development in the orchestra, and a melodious and independent leading of voices in the chorus, rather than in formal imitative1 fugal numbers. The solos make no such appeal to the popular ear as the "Cujus Animam," and the "Inflammatus" in Rossini's setting, but there is a unity in the whole that most composers who have essayed the text have missed. It was written and first performed in 1883. Since that date it has received many performances. It is on the whole superior to either the "Requiem" or the "St. Ludmilla," Dvorak's only oratorio.
Quartkt and Chorus. Stabat Mater dolorosa Juxta crucem lacrymosa, Dum pendebat Filius.
Citjus animam gementem Contristatam et dolentem Pertransivit gladius.
O quam tristis et afflicta Fuit ilia bene,dicta Mater Unigeniti.
Quk moerebat et dolebat Pia Mater, dum videbat Et tremebat, cum videbat Nati noenas incliti.
Quis est homo, qui non fleret, Matreni Christi si videret In tanto supplicio
Quis non posset contristari, Christi Matrem contemplari Dolentem cum Filio
Pro peccatis suas gentis, Vidit Jesum in tormentis, Et flagellis subditum.
Vidit suum dulcem Natum Moriendo desolatum, Dum emisit spiritum.
16 OMcial Program Book.
Eia Mater, fons amoris, Me sentire vim doloris, Fac, ut tecum lugeam.
Bass Solo and Chorus. Fac ut ardeat cor meum In amando Christum Deum, Ut sibi complaccam.
Sancta Mater, istud agas, Crucifixi fige plagas Cordi meo valide.
Tui Nati vulnerati,
Tam dignati pro me pati,
Poenas mecum divide.
Tenor Solo and Chorus. Fac me tecum pie flere, Crucifixo condolere Donee ego vixero.
Juxta crucem tecum stare, Et me tibi sociare In planctu desidero.
Virgo virginum prseclara, Mihi jam non sis amara, Fac me tecum plangere.
Soprano and Tenor Duet.
Fac ut portem Christi mortem, Passionis fac consortem, Et plagas recolere.
Fac me plagis vulnerari, Fac me cruce inebriari, Et cruore Filii.
Contralto Solo.
Inflammatus et accensus, Per te, Virgo, sim defensus In die judicii.
Fac me cruce custodiri Morte Christi prae munire Conforeri gratia.
Quartet and Chorus. Quando corpus morietur Fac ut animse donetur Paradisi gloria. Amen.
OVERTURE, "Ignore," No. 3, Beethoven
Born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.
The recent rehabilitation of the original unrevised "Lenore," Beethoven's only opera, and its inevitable comparison with "Fidelio," its condensed version, emphasizes the true greatness of Beethoven and the narrowness of the majority of the critical opinions of his contemporaries. It proves to be nearly everything his critics and friends said it was not.
Beethoven was a prophetic genius, one who looked far beyond the ken of any of his day, and although the overture known as "Lenore" No. 3, written for the performance of "Fidelio" in 1806, like its predecessors, followed established lines, and conformed to the general concept of the functions of the overture, Beethoven realized that it was an anti-climax. He saw that this massively ordered and vividly pictorial introduction dwarfed the opening scenes, which are pervaded by the atmosphere of Gemiithlichkeit. Inasmuch as these scenes are much more accentuated in the original version, and the general character of the three overtures is so similar, it is easy to discern why neither the first nor the second fully satisfied the composer. How effective the overture on our program becomes, when, played between the two acts of the present version, it so perfectly illustrates the Wagner concept of the form, and becomes at once a remembrance, and a prophecy! Our interest is so thoroughly aroused, and our sympathies are so completely enlisted by this time, that we look
First Concert. 17
forward to the opening scene of the Second Act with foreboding, yet with certainty of ultimate triumph. In the technical structure of the three overtures, as well as in their relation to the opera, there are many points of similarity, but when Beethoven in the fourth, or "Fidelio," overture gives the Stimmung of the opening scene, he draws nothing from the opera as a whole, and gives us a work as distinct in form and content from the others as possible.
The "Ivenore" No. 3 is symphonic in its breadth, and to call it a symphonic poem would not be far astray, although, judging from many recent examples of this much abused and long-suffering form, its coherence and lucidity might be urged against such a definition.
Beethoven did not compose with the facility for which Mozart was noted, but subjected his work to the severest criticism. Many of the themes which appear to have flown spontaneously from his pen were in reality the results of toil. Many examples might be cited of this fact, none more conclusive than the mass of rejected material one finds in the book of sketches for "Ignore." Thisl care i!s responsible for the fact that we have three overtures, the comparative study of which is so full of suggestion. The evolution from the first, through the second to the third, came through a change of values, that is to say, in the relative stress laid upon opposing dramatic elements, rather than in the purely musical treatment. The No. 3 is best adapted to the genius of the orchestra, hence more effective in performance, but we have seen that in spite of its sublimity of conception and style, Beethoven rejected it--as an introduction to the opera--for purely dramatic reasons, and, moreover, reasons that could not have been as thoroughly appreciated then as now.
That one cannot hope to find much that is helpful from contemporaneous criticism is shown by the following extract from a review of the No. 2:
"The most grotesque modulations--in truly ghastly harmony--follow one another throughout the piece; and the few trivial ideas that there are--which, however, are carefully guarded from anything like nobility, as for instance, a post-horn solo, doubtless referring to the arrival of the governor--complete the disagreeable and deafening impression."
One might take the general run of criticisms of Beethoven's greatest works, and substituting the name Wagner define the attitude of the critics of later decades. With minor differences in phraseology--the fashion changes in this as in clothes--the criticisms of the first decade of the century past, are again doing duty in deciding the value of the art of Richard Strauss. Shall we ever learn that fully one-half of the critical opinions of one generation are justly derided by the next!
A PSALM OF VICTORY, for Tenor Solo, Chorus and
Orchestra, A. A. Stanley
The text is made up from Psalm XXI and the 6th verse of Psalm XX. In the interests of .contrast and structural unity, and for purely musical reasons the sequence of verses has been somewhat changed, resulting in the division of the work into four distinct sections. The musical treatment is so distinctly modern, however, that this division involves no break in the formal structure.
The principal motives occur at the very beginning of the orchestral introduction; at the words "even length of days forever and ever," and "he shall not be moved,"
18 Official Program Book.
in the tenor solo; in the opening measure of the third section "Thine hand shall find out," and, somewhat later in this division, at the words "and the strings of thy bow." The second motive, the first strophe of "Old Hundred," suggests that the final chorus begins with a setting of this choral, sung by the basses with contrapuntal treatment in the other voices; that it is used in the development of the final fugue, and that the climax is brought about by a combination of the first and last strophes sung simultaneously, and the motive "and the strings of thy bow" in the orchestra, leading through a bold harmonic sequence to the motive "he shall not be moved."
The king shall joy in thy strength, O Lord; and in thy salvation how greatly
shall he rejoice! Thou hast given him his heart's desire, and hast not withholden the request of
his lips. His glory is great in thy salvation, honor and majesty hast thou laid upon him.
Tenor Solo and Chorus.
For thou hast made him most blessed forever; thou hast made1 him exceeding
glad with thy countenance, for thou preventest him with the blessings of
Thou settest a crown of pure gold upon his head. He asked life of thee and thou gavest it him, even length of days forever
and ever. For the king trusteth in the Lord and, through the mercy of the Most High,
he shall not be moved.
Thine hand shall find out all thine enemies; thy right hand shall find out all that
hate thee. Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger; the Lord shall
swallow them up in his wrath; and the fire shall devour them. Their fruit shalt thou destroy from the earth, and their seed from among the
children of men. For they intended evil against thee; they imagined a mischievous device which
they are not able to perform. Therefore shalt thou make them turn their backs, and the strings of thy bow
shalt thou make ready against them.
Tenor Recitative.
Now know I that the Lord saveth his anointed! he will hear him from his holy heaven with the saving strength of his right hand. He shall not be moved. Chorus.
Be thou exalted, Lord, in thine own strength; so will we sing and praise thy name. Amen.
Friday Afternoon, May 11, 1906
SUITE in D major Bach
Born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685. Died at Leipzig, July 28, 1750. Overture; Air; Gavottes I and II; Bourree; Gigue
Bach's Suite in D is an interesting example of this, one of the earliest cyclical forms, and enforces Emerson's saying: "The artist, in order to convey his enlarged sense to his fellow-men, must employ the symbols in use in his day and generation."
The suite as a form, with its combination of various popular dances, the severely formal overture or prelude, and the more elastic and expressive air, was a "symbol" in structure and expression. The typical single movements were conditioned by those imitative and polyphonic devices that were no less "symbols." The "enlarged sense" was an appreciation of pure beauty--possible in those days to but few, but possessed by Bach to an unusual degree--and an artistic insight that was prophetic.
As a youth Bach became acquainted with the French standards of composition and performance, and, although he did not come to any great degree under their influence, the conciseness, symmetry, and vivacity of the style developed by Lully appealed to him with force, and he adopted many of the formal improvements.
The French overture, with its combination of a slow introduction, followed by a lively fugal movement, was a natural evolution from the concertini of Allegri. In its crystallized form it was more artistic than the Venetian opera-sinfonie, in which the desire for variety led to the sacrifice of unity. It must be confessed that the suite was not, neither could it be, as dignified or artistic as the symphony. The variety was not of content, but solely in the expression through different dance rhythms; the unity, was that of key alone. There was no development of an underlying idea, no point of highest intensity, or climax, unless the gigue, as the last and liveliest dance in the combination might so serve.
The only real expressions of repose or calm were the purely formal opening measures of the overture,--and these were wanting in the prelude, which so often took its place--the air, and the sarabande. Thus all the great essentials of a serious form were lacking, for which reason it is unwise to attempt to invest it with hidden meaning, and look at it subjectively. Looked at objectively, and taken for just what it is, and no more, one finds in its literature, beauty of form, the unique charm of the imitative style, and crisp, impelling rhythmical schemes, which, dance-rhythms though they be, are absolutely devoid of vulgarity or inaninity.
The first movement of the Suite in D is in the form established by Lully. The solo passages for violin are interesting in suggestion, and recall the old concerto grosso--a more modern extended and varied version of the Allegri concertini.
The second number--Air--is the best known and most popular orchestral composition by Bach. It is full of beauty, perfectly adapted to the genius of the violin,
2Q Official Program Book.
and of emotional significance. Rhythmically, it corresponds to the type called by Aristoxenus the "quiet rhythm." The other numbers, the two Gavottes, the Bouree and Gigue, are based on the "agitated rhythm" as defined by the Greek master. The gavotte and bouree have formal correspondence, but are differentiated by the fact that the first is written in common time beginning on the third beat, the second in alia breve with the first note on the last quarter. Aside from this subtlety of rhythm, the movement of the first is rather dignified, while the second is extremely vivacious. This latter characteristic is accentuated in the gigue, which is always written in simple or compound triple time.
ARIA, "Ah! rendimi," from " Mitrane," Rossi
Miss Grace Munson.
Francesco Rossi was born at Bari, Italy, about the year 1645. The date of his death is uncertain. Although he was in orders and a prolific writer of sacred music, he contributed no small amount to the development of the opera.
"Mitrane," his fourth opera, was produced in Venice in 1689. The aria from this work on to-night's program is not only an excellent example of his style, but is also thoroughly representative of the nobler characteristics of the compositions of his day.
Ah! give me back that heart of thine, Give me back all that love divine, Give me back that heart I cherished, Give me back that love that perished, By thee awakened.
Ever the same were my thoughts and thine,
Ever the same were thy will and mine,
Now why so cruel, so cruel
Why hast thou from me departed
Oh, why hast thou from me departed
Left me sad hearted
Give me back that joy
Which in loving me thy love imparted;
Ah! give it back!
Give it back once more, That dear love of yore; Give it back, That I might unite My being with thine! Ah! give it back, That love divine!
English translation by Nathan Haskell Dole.
SYMPHONY, B minor, "Unfinished," Schubert
Born at L,ichtenthal, January 31, 1797; died at Vienna, Nov. 19, 1828.
The symphony known as the "Unfinished" is one of those rare works that disarm criticism and render explanation unnecessary. The melodic beauty of the themes, the
Second Concert. 21
simplicity of the harmonic structure, the clearness of the instrumentation leave little room for formal analysis, and, possibly for this reason, it occupies a place in the affections of the music lover accorded to but few works. The fact that it is incomplete adds to the charm, for one can but wonder as to the exact character of the succeeding movements, had they been written.
The opening measures of the first movement,--B minor, 3-4 time, Allegro mod-erato,--given out by the violoncellos and basses pp, immediately establish a mood which, enhanced by the somewhat restless figures beginning with the ninth measure
prepares us for the entrance of the following beautiful theme:
Where is there a more beautiful effect than that produced by the entrance of the second subject in the first movement of this symphony
Given these beautiful themes, how great the pleasure as the development exposes their infinite suggestion, and the recapitulation brings them again to our notice!
The two principal themes of the slow movement--E major, 3-8 time,--Andante con moto,--are full of the most beautiful characteristics of Schubert's style.
22 Official Program Book.
Is there anywhere a more beautiful touch than we find in the Andante, in the return to the principal subject Schumann said of Schubert: "He has strains for the most subtle thoughts and feelings, nay even for all the events and conditions of life; and innumerable as are the shades of human thought and action, so various is his music."
SYMPHONY, No. 2, D major, Op. 73, Brahms
Born May 7, 1833, at Hamburg; died April 3, 1897, at Vienna.
Allegro non troppo; Adagio non troppo; Allegretto grazioso (quasi andantino) ;
Allegro con spirito.
This symphony, first performed December 30, 1877, in Vienna, is of heroic mold, and displays the scholarly qualities which have been so persistently accentuated by a certain class of critics, that the emotional side of Brahm's art has been too largely ignored. The composer has thereby been placed in a false position. Again, Brahms has been obliged to live down, as it were, the extravagant praise of Schumann. His glowing words have led to a searching comparison of his work with those predictions. So the question is still asked--"did be justify Schumann's statement" It may occur to one that if his symphonies--thoroughly typical of his art--were nothing more than scholarly, they would not have maintained their position in the symphonic repertoire, and the fact that the question referred to has not yet been definitely answered, inclines one to the belief that the concensus of opinion cannot be in the negative. A work that has for its chief recommendation the fact that it is scholarly, may attract the student but it will repel an intelligent and discriminating public.
Second Concert. 23
The Second Symphony is met with very frequently in the best orchestral programs, and it may not be out of place to mention that the last program given by Theodore Thomas in University Hall, contained this work, which he selected because "such a masterpiece should satisfy a university audience." The heart of the great conductor was made happy because it received the most enthusiastic applause of any number on the program.
A modern symphony is so complex in structure, and its thematic inter-relationships are so extensive--ven when the ever-present tendency to extravagance has been held in check--that a formal analysis becomes so formidable an affair as to discourage any but the most reckless. It may be helpful, however, to emphasize certain characteristics of the symphony on our program, looking at the work as a whole, and thus make the consideration of details less confusing. At the risk of appearing to catalogue its virtues they may be enumerated as follows: The principal themes are immediately given out in an authoritative manner; the relationships of the themes in each movement are made apparent at once; the forms are clear cut and logical; the details are not confusing; the climaxes appear in forceful sequence; the instrumentation is a means, not an end; and finally, the movements are not indefinitely prolonged. If simplicity means the attainment of an end through the most direct and evident means, simplicity may be urged as one of the fundamental characteristics of this symphony. Not the simplicity of Haydn or Mozart,--judging from much of the criticism of their contemporaries their works were complex--but relative simplicity.
Let us examine the single movements and discover the bases for this judgment. The principal subject--D major, 3-4 time, Allegro non troppo--with its romantic atmosphere, enhanced by the orchestral color (horns, answered by the wood winds), and introduced by an unobtrusive one-measure figure leading to a sustained tone on which the principal theme is superimposed, enforces the simplicity urged above.
Allegro non troppo. Horns.
24 Official Program Book.
By reference to measures i, 5, and 9, in the quotation, it will be seen that this introductory theme for the violoncellos and basses becomes a structural feature. As a matter of fact in the process of development inherent in the symphonic treatment, by which we are led through reminiscences, contrasting episodes, and intensifications to a perfect exploitation of all the possibilities of the subject-matter involved, this figure is of great importance. This is seen in the course of the progress from the first to the second subject, notably in the strong episodes which occur just before the entrance of the following beautiful theme--a duet for violoncellos and violas--and later repeated by the woodwinds.
With the exploitation of this theme, which is as chaste and simple as the opening subject, the exposition ends, and is repeated.
For the benefit of those who are not acquainted with the structural characteristics of the sonata form, of which the symphony is the highest expression, it may be stated that a movement written in this form is divided into three sections, the first of which is generally repeated. In the first, the "exposition," we have two principal subjects, in different keys, which, through contrast with each other, secondary episodes, thematic development, and intensification, are clearly placed before us with suggestions of future possibilities, the revealing of which is the function of the second division, the "illustration" or "development." The processes in this second division are often so complex, and introduce so many transformations of the leading subjects, as well as extraneous matter, that herein lies the necessity for the repetition of the first section. The third division, the "recapitulation," gives us the various contrasts between the two most important subjects save that of key. The thematic material is treated in the light of the fuller insight gained through the other divisions. It must be borne in mind, however, that a symphony includes movements not written in the sonata form. As a matter of fact, in the majority of symphonies, the first movement is the only one in this specific form, although the principles of development, and to a certain extent the formal means of their application, may condition any or all of the remaining movements.
It will be seen from this, of necessity inadequate, explanation of the form, that acquaintance with the salient characteristics of the leading themes is a better preparation for the enjoyment of an unknown work, than the perusal of a tabulated description in quasi-technical language. Therefore suffice it to say, that the remaining sections of this movement are full of scholarly treatments of the thematic material which is drawn from or suggested by the quotations already given. It is scarcely necessary to dwell upon the beauty of a long horn solo, which, occurring near the close, leads to another exquisite episode, and final chords that emphasize the quiet beauty of the beginning of the movement.
The slow movement--B major, 4-4 time, Adagio non troppo--is one of the most beautiful to be found in the Post-Beethoven symphonic literature, and, granting that the soul of a composer is revealed in his slow movements, Brahms must have possessed great depth of emotion. The first theme
Second Concert. 25
Adagio non troppo. -"¦
is full of quiet dignity, suggesting in its poise and breadth the great Adagios of Beethoven, although quite unlike them. The second theme--12-8 time, L'istesso tempo, ma grazioso--in its texture and development makes a charming contrast to the opening theme.
Flutes and Oboes.
Its effectiveness is not lessened by the charming melody that appears in the strings.
Repetition of the first theme with genial and scholarly reminiscent treatments of the other themes quoted, lead to a conclusion, which, like that of the first movement, is calm andpeaceful.
Illustrative of the plasticity of the symphonic form is the unique third movement-G major, 3-4 time, Allegretto, grazioso, quasi andantino--a naive, melodious theme with variations, so arranged that they serve as the component parts of a scherzo with two trios. In this movement simplicity reigns. Its spontaneity of theme, its rythmical verve, and clear cut instrumentation, are so distinctly in evidence that we can see the reasons for its enthusiastic reception by the Viennese, who encored it at its first per26 Official Program Book.
formance. The effectiveness of such testimony is in inverse ratio to its frequency, and after nearly thirty years this fact still stands out by reason of its comparative isolation in lhat environment. The principal theme is as follows:
Allegretto grazioso. ="" "J"'
The mood shown in the third movement conditions the Finale--D major, 2-2 time, Allegro con spirito--which develops from a brilliant theme, given out by the strings
Allegro con spirito.
without any introduction, and followed, after the usual formal treatment, by a broadly conceived second subject beginning
This movement follows the formal structure of the first, with the principal subjects, and the related and contrasted material developed in accordance with the structural principles already stated. Allusions to the opening figure of the first movement which occur towards the end serve to emphasize the unity of the idea, which is after all the real end of the form. To introduce variety is not as difficult as to enforce unity. Possibly no other form so thoroughly satisfies this necessity as the symphony.
Although Hans von Billow's Musical Trinity--Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms-may not be accepted by all, in so far as. the third member is concerned, it would be difficult, in the field of absolute music, to choose a modern composer whose title could be so successfully defended.
Friday Evening, May 11, 1906
Born May 22, 1813, at Leipzic; died February 13, 1883, at Venice.
The "March of Homage" was composed in 1864, for the coronation of King Ludwig II., of Bavaria--to whom the score was dedicated.
The fate that overtakes most compositions written for special occasions has not befallen this, although no one can maintain that it represents Wagner at his best. On the other hand it does not show him at his worst, as does the bombastic march written for the Centennial Exposition of 1876. Wagner never completed its orchestration--the present version being partly the work of Joachim Raff--which would seem to indicate that he did not look upon with special favor. It was played--in a version for military band--at the laying of the corner-stone of the Wagner Theater at Bay-reuth on May 22, 1872, certainly one of the most important events in his life. Wagner was under such special obligation to his royal patron, however, that to choose it showed worldly wisdom, rather than a conviction of its great intrinsic value on his part. Still it richly deserves performance, especially under festival conditions, for which its brilliancy and general character make it eminently fitting.
OVERTURE, " Magic Flute," Mozart
Born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791.
On the 7th of March, 1791, Emanuel Schikaneder (1751-1812), a brother Freemason, brought to Mozart the book of a fairy opera in which were incorporated many of the mysteries of Freemasonry. As Schikaneder was in financial distress, Mozart, always too generous for his own good, gladly undertook its composition. Schikaneder did not redeem his promises, and proved himself so ungrateful that Mozart, who was ever charitable in his judgments, called him "Der Lump." It was first performed on September 30, 1791, in Vienna. The house program of that date shows the name of Emanuel Schikaneder in capitals at the top, while the name of Mozart, as the composer of the music and conductor, occurs in fine print at the bottom. It was successful, but the presumptuous Schikaneder stated at the time that "it would have been more successful had not Mozart spoiled it." The first twenty-four performances brought Schikaneder over 8,000 guldens, and Mozart--nothing. Future years, however, have brought Schikaneder a few lines in musical dictionaries and Mozart-immortality. To this immortality the beautiful overture on our program has contributed not a little.
28 Official Program Book.
How thoroughly modern musicians appreciate Mozart is shown by the following utterances of Felix Mottl, the great conductor:
"To say anything briefly regarding Mozart is a difficult, almost an impossible, task. As a musician he is equally universal with Goethe, the philosopher. Wherever Goethe soars by means of his philosophy (I speak of Goethe the thinker, not the poet) thither Mozart penetrates because he is so divinely unphilosophical. He was, so to speak, music's self. He needed neither to ponder nor to delve--the deepest mysteries were quickly unriddled before his sunny glance. He was the boldest of innovators, without being conscious of this fact. I always rage inwardly when the pigtail Philistines (Zopfphilister) of to-day speak of 'their' Mozart. Had they lived in his day they would have babbled about him the same nonsense that we could hear and read not very long ago about Richard Wagner. If through a monstrous cataclysm of nature the entire works of Mozart should be lost to us his influence would not vanish. He is for us the sap of life with which the wise gardener nourishes the plant he is bringing to perfection. And not only the single plant, but an entire plant system, is raised by this means to a higher plane. But we must not judge the greatness of Mozart by the views, of a single musician. We must know and love him as the lavish dispenser of light and life. And what Goethe said and taught that has Mozart as 'the guileless fool' fulfilled. Let us bear this in mind now, in a time that is only too likely to declare with Faust's associate, 'How magnificently we have progressed.' "
Richard Strauss, who by the way is an ideal Mozart interpreter, says: "Mozart is to me too sacred; too dear for me to say a light, thoughtless word regarding him. To pass an adequate estimate on Mozart's art would require the overwhelming eloquence of a Richard Wagner or a D'Annunzio. I can express my inmost feelings in notes, but not in words. I know my Mozart, I believe, better than the pigtails (Herren Zopfe), the classic-academic-conservatory teachers. I was brought up to reverence Mozart. My father had idolatrous love for him, and he has transmitted this love to me. But my nature must express its rapture over Mozart in another way than with words. I have already conducted an entire series of Mozart's works in Munich, and am soon to lead a great part of the Mozart cycle in the Royal Opera House at Berlin. It is by my deeds that I join the propaganda for Mozart's matchless art, and in the future I shall adhere to this plan." Poor Schikaneder! Arme Zopfe!
RECITATIVE and ARIA,''Queen of the Night,'' (Magic Flute), Mozart
Mme. Charlotte Maconda.
The "Magic Flute" contains many wonderful arias, none of more importance, from certain points of view, than the one to be sung this evening. It is of extreme difficulty, and calls for a voice of extraordinary range and unimpeachable vocal technique. It possesses great intrinsic value, and its significance in the opera justifies the employment of the brilliant devices which here, a means, in similar arias, are too often the end.
Gli angui d'inferno sentomi nel petto; Megaera, Alletto son d'intorno a me!
Svelga al fellon, svelga a Pamina il core, se il reo muore, figlia mia non e.
Ti lascio, t'abbandono, piu madre tua non sono, paventa il mio furore, se non osi esser
crudel. Ciel! Ciel! l'orrendo mio voto, ah! Ascolta, O ciel!
Third Concert. 29
SERENADE, E flat, Op. 7, for Wind Choir, Richard Strauss
Born June 11, 1864, in Munich; still living.
Richard Strauss was appointed court musical director at Meiningen in 1885 through the influence of von Billow. This particular piece must have been written at an early period in his career, as his first symphony bearing the opus number 12 was produced in 1881, and the Meiningen Orchestra had already brought the serenade into ' favorable notice.
It is interesting to compare this youthful work with his later efforts. No less interesting is a comparison of the form employed by him with that used by other composers. It consists of but one movement, instead of several, as is the general custom. It is scored for the full reed choir (including contra bassoon) and four horns, a combination of exquisite possibilities when each performer is an artist, but otherwise to be avoided.
MONOLOGUE, from "Andre Chenier," Giordano
Born at Foggia, August 27, 1863; still living. Signor Giuseppi Campanari
"Andre Chenier," a grand opera based on a story of the French Revolution, was first produced at La Scala, Milan, 1896. Luigi Torchi, one of the most competent critics to be found among his countrymen, speaks of Giordano as "an orchestral colorist and a musical scene painter." "Among the composers of his school," says Torchi, "he has no rival as a master of stage situations; he is not bitten by Mascagni's rage for modulation; his music is impassioned, but lacks originality, and is deficient in melody."
This judgment may be taken as fairly indicative of much of the work of the realistic school, to which Giordano belongs, and not inaptly characterizes the work of many who are greater than he. The "rage for modulation" is neither restricted to Mascagni nor to his school, for across the Alps, and beyond the Rhine, we find composers whose music lacks originality, though impassioned to a degree that often forbids clarity of utterance, symmetry of form, and artistic poise.
Nemico della patria!
E vecchia fiaba chc beatamente
Ancor la beve il popolo.
Nato a Constantinopoli
Studio a Saint Cyr
Soldato! Traditore!
Di Dumouriez un complice!
E poeta
Sovvertitor di cuori e di costume !
Un di m'era di gioja
Passar fragli odi e le vendette,
Puro, innocente e forte!
Gigante, mi credea!
Son sempre un servo!
Ho niutato padrone!
Un servo obbediente di violente passione!
Ah peggio! Uccido e tremo,
E mentre uccido io piango
Io della Redentrice figlio
Pel primo ho udito il grido suo pel mondo
Ed ho al suo il mio grido unito.
Or smarrita ho la fede
Nel sognato destino
Com' era irradiato di gloria el mio cammino!
La coscienza nei cuor
Riderstar de le genti!
Raccogliere Ie lagrime dei vinti e sofferenti!
Fare del mondo un Pantheon!
Gli uomini in dii mutare
E in un sol bacio, e abbraccio
Tutte le genti amar!
30 Official Program Book.
OVERTURE, "IyiebesfrUhling," Op. 28, G. Schumann
Born October 25, 1866, at Konigstein, Saxony.
Georg Schumann has written several compositions of such distinguished musical qualities, that he has come to be looked upon as one of the most promising of that group of German composers, who, though influenced by the present tendencies of the art, have not found it necessary to turn their backs on established forms in order to present fullness of content.
Thus this work, while throbbing with passionate intensity, and, from the nature of the subject indicated by the title, somewhat rhapsodical in thematic treatment, still keeps well within the bounds of the wholesome limitations imposed by form. The orchestration is distinctly modern and admirably adapted to give the romantic atmosphere of "Liebesfriihling." The composer is well versed in counterpoint, and is master of all the formal devices so essential to the well-balanced presentation of his ideas, but scholarship as such never obtrudes itself, and he refrains from needless complications. One critic, in speaking of this particular work, emphasizes its melodic features and points out that Schumann seems to possess the special gifts of one who should win success as a writer of great choral works.
All that such a statement implies may not be evident on the surface, but it presupposes the possession of melodic invention of a type that requires no recourse to startling methods to create a unified, dignified, and adequate setting of any mood or experience whose nature fits it for musical representation. Moreover, it lays stress on a certain naturalness and adaptability to vocal performance, the absence of which frequently detracts from the effect of choral works written by composers who, to use a somewhat hackneyed expression, "think through instruments."
RECITATIVE and ARIA, "Ah! fors' 6 lui," from ' 'La Traviata,'' Verdi
Mme. Ma'conda
This selection, from "La Traviata," is an admirable example of the best type of the conventional Italian opera aria, and shows the distinction between the Verdi of this period and the Verdi of "Aida." Distinct in many ways, yet the same in his wonderful gift of fluent melody, and absolute knowledge of the possibilities of the human voice. Even those who see in the later Verdi, fuller artistic maturity, and a devotion to higher ideals, cannot refuse admiration for the skill he displays in his vocal writing, and none can deny the real beauty of the music.
Recitative--E strano! in core scolpiti ho quegli accenti! Saria per me sventura un serio amore Che risolvi, turbata anima mia Null' uomo ancora t'accendeva, oh gioja ch'io non conobbi, esser amata amando! E sdegnar la poss' io per l'aride follie del viver mio
Aria--Oh, fors' e lui che l'anima solinga ne' tumulti, godea sovente pingere de' suoi colori occulti! Lui che, modesto e vigile, all' egre soglie ascese, e nuova febbre accese, destando mi all' amor!
Ah quell' amor quell' amor che e palpito dell' universo, dell' universo intero, misterioso, altero, croce e delizia, delizia, delizia al cor.
A me fanciulla un canido e trepido desire quest' effigio dolcissimo signor dell'
Third Concert. 31
avvenire, quando ne' cieli il raggio di sua belta verdea, e tutta me pascea di quell' divino error.
Sentia che amore! che amore e il palpito dell' universo, intero, misterioso, altero, croce, delizia al cor! Follie! delirio vano e questo! Povera donna, sola, abbandonata in questo populoso deserto che appelano Parigi, che spero or piu Che far degg' io gioire di volutta ne' vortici. Sempre libera degg' io folleggiare di gioja in gioja, vo' che scorra il viver mio pei sentieri del piacer. Nasca il giorno, o il giorno muoja sempre lieta ne' ritrovi, a dilletti sempre nuovi dee volare il mio pensier. Oh! oh amore! Follie! etc.
Born March 13, i860, at Windischgratz, Steiermark; died February 22, 1903, at Vienna.
Hugo Wolf is a composer who is known to American audiences chiefly through his songs, which are highly and originally imaginative. His career was a sad one, and his devotion to his art may be appreciated from the fact, that although he wrote over five hundred remarkable songs, a four-act opera, and several important orchestral works, the "total revenue from them all was 86 marks and 35 pfennigs ($21.584)." He was radical in his views on art, intolerant of advice, entirely without mental poise, but he was a genius. During his lifetime his music was derided; now that he is dead, Hugo Wolf societies are established all over Germany, the works that were held up to ridicule now find a place in the repertoire of the great orchestras, and a real Hugo Wolf cult has developed. The composition presented at this time was intended to form the first movement of a suite. The orchestration has been completed by Max Reger, who, being a musical "storm center" himself at present, seems to have been particularly fitted for the task.
ARIA, "Non piu Andrai," (Marriage of Figaro), Mozart
"The Marriage of Figaro" is the German comic opera, par excellence. It has delighted generations of opera-goers, and richly deserves the success that will surely follow it in the future. It abounds in sparkling wit, and among the amusing situations none are more aptly and vividly portrayed than the petty trials of Figaro, who can be safely trusted to get out of his various perplexities without exhausting his supply of excuses or lies. Although Mozart did not use the modern orchestra, with its dynamic resources and multiplicity of instruments, he understood the possibilities of his orchestra as few before or since, and in such an aria as this, it is alive with suggestions of its own bearing on the situation.
Play no more, boy, the part of a lover, Nor about beauty foolishly hover: In the wars you'll more pleasure discover, When your heart beats to glory and fame!
Now no longer in silks you'll be prancing, With your fiddling and piping and dancing, At the married ones wickedly glancing, While the husbands grow pale at your name.
32 Official Program Book.
Midst your brother heroes riding, Mighty whiskers taking pride in, Your cigaros grandly smoking, Sometimes swearing, sometimes joking, Collar stiffened, lace on shoulder, These will make the perfect soldier.
And, instead of waltzing gaily,
Marches nightly, marches daily,
Over mountains high and weary,
Thro' the valleys dark and dreary,
To the sound of cannon flashing,
And of sword 'gainst breast-plate clashing,
Altogether such a music,
It may well nigh make you deaf.
Now no more in satin prancing, There's an end to song and dancing, There's an end to ogling and glancing, Cherubino, on to glory: Go where honor calls you now.
RAPSODIE, "Espagnol," Chabrier
Chabrier has been represented on Festival programs quite frequently, and the selection given this evening has been heard before on a similar occasion. It is a brilliant fantasia on two Spanish dances, of a type that invites a quasi-rhapsodical formal treatment, and demands sharply-defined rhythmic effects, and characteristic orchestral color, rather than melodic distinction or depth of harmony.
The first, the Jota, is called by Grove "one of the most characteristic of the North Spanish national dances." It resembles the waltz, but in dancing the movement allows of more freedom. Every province in the North has its own Jota, the tune and style of which have existed from time immemorial. Thus there is a Jota Aragonesa and a Jota Navarra, quite different in melody and accompaniment, but always in three-time. The Jota is much played in the North of Spain, and wherever it is heard a dance is sure to be the instant result."
The second, the Malaguena, (or Fandango) is even more seductive, as may be seen from the following story given by Grove: "Soon after its first introduction, in the 17th century, it was condemned by the ecclesiastical authorities in Spain as a 'godless dance.' Just as the Consistory were about to prohibit it, one of the judges remarked that it was not fair to condemn any one unheard. Two celebrated dancers were accordingly introduced to perform the fandango before the Consistory. This they did with such effect, that, according to the old chronicler, 'every one joined in, and the hall of the consistorium was turned into a dancing saloon.' No more was heard of the condemnation of the fandango."
Whatever the opinion one may hold regarding the foregoing, no one can deny the piquancy and charm of Charbrier's music. The great success accorded the work on the occasion of its first performance--Paris, November 4, 1883--was well deserved, for, although from the point of view of the serious critic, it neither shows the power of "Gwendoline" nor the poetic fancy of the unfinished Briseis," it is one of the best compositions of a genre in which French composers have done much of their best work.
Saturday Afternoon, May 12, 1906
OVERTURE, " Bartered Bride," Smetana
Born March 2, 1824, at Leitomische. Died March 12, 1884, at Prague.
The Czech has reason to be proud of Smetana, whose works, national in spirit, and distinguished in form, compare favorably with those of his more widely known countryman, Antonin Dvorak. Included in his serious works are eight operas of more or less importance. In the judgment of the outside world, of these, the comic opera "Prodana Nevesta" (The Bartered Bride) is the most significant. The overture fairly sparkles with vivacity, and its rollicking humor has rightly earned for it the title "Lustspiel (Comedy) Overture," under which it frequently appears on concert programs. The real theme begins with the first note of the seventh measure of the quotation given. Evidently Smetana felt, as all must, that the jolly measures preceding this theme were too good to lose, for they appear frequently in the course of the work.
The treatment is fugal throughout with the exception of the sections dominated by the following theme--the second subject:
34 Official Program Book.
Bom June IS, 1843, at Bergen, Norway. Still living.
Allegro moderato; Adagio ; Allegro marcato. Mr. Van den Berg.
Among the comparatively few concertos that have retained their freshness and charm this work must be placed. First performed by its composer in 1879 at the Gewandhaus, Leipzig, it has consistently maintained its position in the repertoire. It possesses distinct originality, and the technical reasons for the existence of the concerto, as a form, do not obtrude themselves. Its unique northern flavor contributes very largely to its charm.
PETER IIvJlTSCH TSCHAIKOWSKY Born at Wotkinsk, May 7, 1840; died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893.
No composer of recent years has attained greater prominence than Tschaikowsky and his fame appears to be steadily increasing. Not only musicians--but the general public as well--feel and acknowledge his power. There are several reasons for this. While there can be no doubt that most of this success may be attributed to the fact that in the music he wrote we seem to hear the voice of a nation, and come near to the heart of the folk (which, as Wagner says, "is true"), still there is reason to feel that we appreciate more quickly, and feel more keenly, because we are part of a social organism, run at high pressure, and are peculiarly susceptible to the influence exerted by a genius who speaks with authority. Such a man was Tschaikowsky, from whose works two have been selected as representative of his power in quite distinct forms.
These selections not only complete the unity of a program devoted to works of composers who represent the races who have contributed to modern music virile elements of musical expression, but are also of great interest in that they reveal the wonderful development of Tschaikowsky's genius.
RECITATIVE and ARIA, from "Eugen Onegin,"
Mr. Hall.
The opera from which the excerpt on today's program is taken, was given its first representation in St. Petersburg, under its Russian name of "Jevgenjie Onegin," in 1879, and under its present title in Hamburg in 1892. It is one of ten operas written by Tschaikowsky. The qualities evident in his great orchestral works are displayed in this selection, which, as his operas are so little known, possesses the element of novelty. The following is a literal translation from the German :
"Where, O where are ye departed, O Youth--O Love's unfathomed Joy" Aria.
"What will the coming day disclose! My gaze the future can not pierce.
But why this futile questioning! Each must his destiny fulfill.
Fourth Concert. 35
If on the morrow I become the prey of Death--or if unscathed I leave the field of strife--rests now with God, with Him alone. The past--the present--e'en illumed by Him who giveth glorious day And shrouds with sombre hue the night; may they within my soul combine, The rosy dawn, the radiant day.
Or if perchance Death's darksome night--Oblivion's garment--o'er me falls, And e'en my name forgotten be--Alas! how soon the world forgets-Wilt thou, my loved one, think of me, when in the grave I rest disgraced In tears, lamenting, wilt thou come, and think how once my soul did live But in thy love Thy love! a ray of sunshine breaking through the cloud; A gleam of comfort driving care away--dispelling gloom and doubt. Ah, Olga! List! my heart doth cry aloud for thee, my Love, my Bride; Thy lover calls--give thou response, I wait for thee--O hasten--fly-Come quickly--quickly ere I die."
"Where, O where are ye departed, O Youth--O Love's unfathomed Joy"
-(Translation by A. A. S.)
SYMPHONY, No. 6, B minor, Op. 74, " Pathetique,"
Adagio-Allegro;--Andante;--Allegro vivo; Allegro con grazia; Allegro molto vivace; Adagio lamentoso.
This broadly conceived work--a real magnum opus--is carried out in a manner calculated to show at once the great virtues and the obvious faults of Tschaikowsky's style. It is full of brilliant lights and deep shadows. It is at once extensive and intensive. Suggestive of the semi-barbaric point of view of the Cossack, with equal justification it may be looked upon as a revelation of the despair of a strong, highly-cultured man, helpless before the hand of Fate. It exhibits a well nigh lawless indifference to established symphonic precedents, and unusual restraint where one would expect, from him at least, the most intense passion. In its opulence of color, vividness of contrast, and rhythmic fervor, it is the modern expression of the musical extravagances of the Eastern Church, which Eusebius mentioned as a source of danger to the music of the Western Church.
It acquires peculiar significance from the tragic death of the composer under conditions of mystery. This occurrence has turned a casual remark made by him-after the first and unsuccessful performance of the work on October 13, 1893, at St. Petersburg--into a prophecy. The shadows of the Fifth Symphony, illustrated by its opening theme, are intensified in this, but the lights are magnified as well. In the absence of any authoritative analysis, or program if you will, it seems unwise to read into this work definite and specific direction to what, after all, may be naught but the expression of general moods. The tendency to do this is accentuated by the fact that the majority of modern composers seem unwilling to rely upon the fantasy of the listener, but give us the most minute directions as to the management of our emotions. Whether this is a mark of progress, or of decadence, we may not now know, neither can we be sure that this symphony was the revelation of a life, his life--or life.
In her biography of Tschaikowsky, Mrs. Newman gives a vivid summing up of the characteristics of his symphonies, in which she shows that each is the expression of some denominating influence. The first, general; the second, national; the third, ecclesiastic; the fourth, humorous; the fifth, quasi-religious; the sixth, brooding.
36 Official Program Book.
While in general these characterizations are clever and justified, they cannot be accepted as final--as even one hearing of the work on this afternoon's program will prove. As no other work, the sixth displays warmth of imagination, vividness of color, virtuosity in polyphonic writing, and--as might occur for the sake of purely formal originality---a last movement which crowds into a condensed form the most poignant grief and despair. He gives us life in its varied aspects; he contrasts it with the shadow of death. Because it ends with a note of despair, it may and does justify its title, but what would have been the character of the next symphony had he lived to produce another A glance at the expression marks of the various movements will show the originality of the form in its entirety--as well as the reasons for its generally accepted purport.
Bearing in mind the exposition of the formal principles given elsewhere, the following condensed analysis may be helpful:
The introduction--B minor, 4-4 time, Adagio--displays the first theme stated by solo bassoon over a gloomy accompaniment by the contra-basses and violas (both divided) and 'cellos, foreshadowing the equally somber final measures of the last movement. From this develops the first movement proper, Allegro non troppo, in which the principal theme, intensified rhythmically, although still subdued in color-violas and violoncellos--gradually develops in power, and heightened in effect by
acceleration of tempo leads into a magnificent climax, from which it recedes, thus preparing for the entrance of the second theme, than which nothing more beautiful can be cited from any of his works.
Following this enters a new motive of idyllic charm, leading to a re-statement
of the second subject, which gradually dies away, to be succeeded by the powerful treatment of the development section, in which he exhibits all the resources of a master of symphonic routine. This in turn, through a most ingenious blending with the recapitulation section, leads to a wonderful coda, or closing section.
Fourth Concert. . 37
The usual scherzo is replaced by a movement--D major, 5-4 time, Allegro con grasia--with a most bewitching first subject in the violoncellos, a melody which, once heard, lingers in the memory.
After a development worthy of the theme comes tfie trio, in which we meet a new melody for flutes, first violins and violoncellos, over a persistent organ point, sustained by the basses and bassoons and enforced by the drums with their insistent accentuation of the rhythm.
The theme quoted above introduces the third movement which is full of the most daring and occasionally commonplace treatment of the orchestra, which oftentimes seems to have broken away from all restraint, until, introduced tentatively at first but gradually gaining ascendency, the second theme with its distinctive marchlike character appears.
Again appears the brilliant first subject, and in its development the orchestra is worked up to the most furious utterances, leading to a recapitulation of the march. Pompous, brilliant, well nigh barbaric in effect, it enhances the principal theme of the succeeding and final movement--B minor, 3-4 time, Adagio lamentoso--a haunting questioning motive whose impression is not disturbed but rather heightened by the expressive second theme, D major Andante.
Were it not for the motive heard in the basses, we might consider this a note of resignation, but the questioning is persistently maintained, and, as the principal motive of the second subject is stated more and more forcefully, it becomes more and more insistent until it must be answered. Then come reiterations of the first subject, and when as though exhausted the second subject appears in the minor, come the closing
38 Official Program Book.
measures in which the pulsating figure in the basses gradually loses its regularity and finally flutters and ceases. In its effect it resembles the ticking of the clock in the death chamber, in the opening measures of "Tod und Verklarung," by Richard Strauss. Even more effective, for its meaning has been forced upon us by the sombre chords of the trombones and the death knell of the tamtam; our kindled imagination, not the word of the poet, supplies the suggestion, and we justify it in the light of our own, not another's experience.
Whether the symphony would have been called "The Pathetic" had Tschaikowsky adhered to the traditional usage and placed the Adagio either second or third in order, is an open question, but as it is the title is fully justified, without our being obliged to look upon it as the last message of one contemplating suicide. The order can be understood if we consider it as an impassioned review of life in its varied aspects--and the conclusion that it is but vanity.
Saturday Evening, May 12. 1906
AIDA, an Opera in Four Acts, Verdi
AIDA, ------Mme. Charlotte Maconda
AMNERIS, -----Mme. Isabelle Bouton
HIGH PRIESTESS, Miss Frances Caspari
RADAMES, -----Mr. Ellison van Hoose
AMONASRO, ----Mr. Gwylim Miles
RAMPHIS, -----Mr. Herdert WiTherspoon
THE KING, Mr. William Howland
A MESSENGER, ----Mr. Fred Killeen
Ministers and Captains; Priests; Slave Prisoners;
Priestesses; The People
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
GUISEPPI VERDI Born in Roncole, October 9, 1813, died at Milan, January 17, 1901.
The career of Guiseppi Verdi is of greater interest than that of any Italian composer since Palestrina. Look at the life work of this great genius for a moment; think of the melodies that he has given to the world! Many of them are now hackneyed--but they are so partly because their very beauty has made them so popular, and partly because since the days of Verdi's early operas we have been gaining in appreciation of other elements than mere melody--for even a genius cannot prevent the onward movement of events. Composers may remain stationary as did Rossini, and not attempt to improve their art, or men, who, like Spontini, follow the lead of the public instead of "despising its decisions," as Schiller advised--may, like him, find themselves "embalmed alive," as Wagner said; but Verdi lived and moved with the times, and when he died, at the age of eighty-eight, he was the youngest man in Italy. Nor in the last compositions published in 1898--the "Quattro Pezzi Sacri"--do we see any dimunition in creative power, even though the work of one long past the allotted time of man's existence.
"Aida" was written for the Khedive of Egypt and was given its first performance in Cairo, December 24, 1871; in Milan, February 8, 1872. It was given in New York in 1873, three years before its first performance in Paris. Contemporary writers give
40 Official Program Book.
conflicting accounts of the general effect of the first performance, but of the character of the music, its dramatic power, its gorgeous instrumentation, its captivating melody, sonorous harmonies--there was no jarring note in the chorus of criticism. Nor has there been since--for even those who are worshippers at the shrine of what many of us love to think are really more exalted ideals--can but feel its originality and force. It has a most dramatic plot--full of action--giving opportunities for display of Oriental pomp and ceremony--for dancing and all the apparatus of the grand opera--while the deeper elements of dramatic power, as shown in the characters of Aida, Amneris, Radames and Ramphis, come to the front with a truthfulness and regard for dramatic consistency unknown to most operas of his countrymen. It is a story of love, war, and loyalty--contrasted with hatred, revenge, and intrigue--dominated by the influence of the cruel and arrogant Egyptian priesthood. It abounds in grand chorus effects, notably in Acts I. and II.--while from beginning to end there is not a moment when one feels there is any uncertainty in the mind of the composer, as to the effect he desires to produce, nor any lapse from sustained power of portrayal. There are certain Oriental characteristics displayed in some of the melodies and harmonies, as in the scene in which appears the High Priestess--in conjunction with the Priestesses and the Priests; while some of the dances have a barbaric quality in rhythm and color. Of "typical motives" in the ordinary acceptation of the word, we find no trace, but there are certain themes to which dramatic significance may be given.
But to use the typical motive as Wagner used it, was not Verdi's way of expressing himself, and the power of the work lies--as has been stated--in its naturalness. The verdict of one generation has sustained the judgment of those who heard it for the first time. And nowadays a generation means more than a century formerly.
Scene I.--Hall in the Palace of the King at Memphis. To the right and left a colonnade with statues and flotvering shrubs. At the back a grand gate, from which may be seen the temples and palaces of Memphis and the Pyramids.
('Radames and Ramphis in consultation.) Ramphis.--Yes, it is rumored that the
Ethiop dares
Once again our power, and the valley Of Nilus threatens, and Thebes as
well. The truth from messengers I soon
shall learn. Radames.--Hast thou consulted the will
of Isis Ramphis.--She hath declared who of
Egypt's renowned armies Shall be leader. Radames.--Oh happy mortal! Ramphis.--Young in years is he, and
The dread commandment I to the King shall take.
Radames.--What if 'tis I am chosen, and my dream
Be now accomplished! Of a glorious army I the chosen leader,
Mine glorious vict'ry, by Memphis received in triumph!
To thee returned, Aida, my brow entwin'd with laurel:
Tell thee, for thee I battled, for thee I conquer'd!
Heay'nly Aida, beauty resplendent,
Radiant flower, blooming and bright;
Queenly thou reignest o'er. me transcendent,
Bathing my spirit in beauty's light.
Would that, thy bright skies once more beholding.
Breathing the air of thy native land,
Round thy fair brow a diadem folding,
Thine were a throne by the sun to stand.
(Enter AmnEris.,7
Amneris.--In thy visage I trace a joy unwonted!
What martial ardor is beaming in thy noble glances!
Fifth Concert. 41
Ah me! how worthy were of all envy
the woman
Whose dearly wish'd for presence Could have power to kindle in thee
such rapture! Radames.--A dream of proud ambition
in my heart I was nursing: Isis this day has declar d by name the
warrior chief Appointed to lead to battle Egypt's
host! Ah! for this honor, say, what if I
were chosen Ameris.--Has not another vision, one
more sweet, More enchanting, found favor in your
heart Hast thou in Memphis no attraction
more charming Radames.---(aside.)--I!
(Fatal question. Has she the secret yearning
Divin'd within me burning) Amneris.--(aside.)--Ah. me! my love if
His heart to another were turning! Radames.--Have then mine eyes betray'd me,
And told Aida's name! Amneris.--Woe if hope should false
have play'd me, And all in vain my flame.
(Enter AidaJ
Radames (seeing AidaJ.--She here! Amneris (aside.)--He is troubled. Ah, what a gaze doth he turn on her! Aida ! Have I a rival Can it be she herself
(Turning to AidaJ Come hither, thou I dearly prize. Slave art thou none, nor menial; Here have I made by fondest ties Sister a name more genial. Weep'st
thou Oh, tell me wherefore thou ever art
Wherefore thy tears now flow. Aida.--Alas! the cry of war I hear. Vast hosts I see assemble; Therefore the country's fate I fear, For me, for all I tremble. Amneris.--And art thou sure no deeper woe now bids thy tears to flow Tremble! oh thou base vassal! Radames (aside, regarding AmnErisJ. Her glance with anger flashing Proclaims our love suspected. Amneris.---Yes, tremble, base vassal,
tremble, Lest thy secret stain detected.
Radames.--Woe! if my hopes all dashing
She mar the plans I've laid! Amnems.--All in vain thou wouldst dissemble,
By tear and blush betrayed! Aida (aside).--No! fate, o'er Egypt
Weighs down on my heart dejected, I wept that love thus was dooming To woe a hapless maid!
(Enter the King, preceded by his guards and followed by Ramphis, his Ministers, Priests, Captains, etc., etc., an officer of the Palace, and afterwards a Messenger.) The King.--Mighty the cause that
summons Round their King the faithful sons of
Egypt. Prom the Ethiop's land a messenger
this moment has reached us. Tidings of import brings he. Be
pleased to hear him. Now let the man come forward!
(To an officer.)
Messenger.--The sacred limits of. Egyptian soil are by Ethiops invaded. Our fertile fields lie all devastated,
destroy'd our harvest. EmboldenM by so easy a conquest, the
plund'ring horde On the Capital are marching. All.--Presumptuous daring! Messenger.--They are led by a warrior, undaunted, never conquered: Amonasro. All.--The King! Aida.--My father! Messenger.--All Thebes has arisen, and
from her hundred portals Has pour'd on the invader a torrent
Fraught with relentless carnage. The King.--Ay, death and battle be our
rallying cry!
Radames, Ramphis, Chorus of Priests, Chorus of Ministers and Captains. Battle! and carnage, war unrelenting!
The King (addressing Radames,). Isis, revered Goddess, already has appointed The warrior chief with pow'r supreme
invested. Radames! Aida, Amneris, Chorus of Ministers
and Captains.--Radames! Radames.--Ah! ye Gods, I thank you! My dearest wish is crown'd!
42 Official Program Book.
Amneris.--Our leader! Aida.--I tremble.
The King.--Now unto Vulcan's temple, chieftain, proceed, There to gird thee to vict'ry, donning
sacred armor.
On! of Nilus' sacred river Guard the shores, Egyptians brave, Unto death the foe deliver, Egypt they never, never shall enslave !
Ramphis.--Glory render, glory abiding, To our Gods, the warrior guiding; In their pow'r alone confiding, Their protection let us crave. Aida (aside).--Whom to weep for
Whom to pray for Ah! what pow'r to him now binds me! Yet I love, tho' all reminds me That I love my country's foe! Radames.--Glory's sacred thirst now
claims me,
Now 'tis war alone inflames me; On to vict'ry! Naught we stay for! Forward, and death to every foe! Amneris.--From my hand, thou warrior
Take thy stand, aye victorious; Let it ever lead thee onward To the foeman's overthrow. All.--Battle ! No quarter to any foe!
May laurels crown thy brow! Aida.--May laurels crown thy brow! What can my lips pronounce language
so impious!
Wish him victor o'er my father-O'er him who wages war but that I
may be restored to my country, To my kingdom, to the high station
I now perforce dissemble! Wish him conqu'ror o'er my brothers! E'en now I see him stain'd with their
blood so cherished,
'Mid the clam'rous triumph of Egyptian battalions! Behind his chariot a King, my father,
as a fetter'd captive! Ye Gods watching o'er me, Those words deem unspoken! A father restore me, his daughter
heart-broken, Oh, scatter their armies, forever crush
our foe!
Ah! what wild words do I utter Of my affection have I no recollection That sweet love that consol'd me, a
captive pining,
Like some bright, sunny ray on my sad lot shining
Shall I invoke destruction on the man
for whom in love I languish Ah! never yet on earth liv'd one whose
Was torn by wilder anguish! Those names so holy, of father, of
No more dare I now utter or e'en recall; Abashed and trembling, to heav'n fain
would hover My prayers for both, for both my
tears would fall. Ah! all my prayers seem transformed
to blaspheming,
To suffer is a crime, dark sin to sigh; Thro' darkest night i do wander as
dreaming, And so cruel my woe, I fain would
Merciful gods! look from on high! Pity these tears hopelessly shed. Love, fatal pow'r, mystic and dread, Break thou my heart, now let me die! Scene II.--Interior of the Temple of Vulcan at Memphis. A mysterious light from above. A long row of columns, one behind the other, vanishing in darkness. Statues of various deities. In the middle of the stage, above a platform covered with carpet, rises the altar, surmounted with sacred emblems. Golden tripods emitting the fumes of incense.
(Priests.--Ramphis at the foot of
the altar.) High Priestess (in the interior). Lo,
we invoke thee. Ramphis and Priests.--Thou who
mad'st ev'ry creature, Earth, water, air and fire, Lo, we invoke thee ! High Priestess.--Flame uncreated,
Fount of all light above, Hail! lo, we invoke love, Thee we invoke!
Ramphis and Priests.--Life giver, universal,
Source of unending love, Thee we invoke!
High Priestess and Priestesses.--Almighty Phtha!
(Sacred Dance of Priestesses.) Ramphis (to Radamesj.--Of gods the
favor'd mortal, To thee confided be the favor of
Thy weapon, temper'd by hand immortal,
Fifth Concert. . 43
In thy hand shall bring to the foe-man Alarm, agony, terror!
(Turning to the god.) Hear us, oh, guardian deity, Our sacred land protecting, Thy mighty hand extending, Danger from Egypt ward. Radames.--Hear us, each mortal destiny,
War's dreadful course directing, Aid unto Egypt sending, Keep o'er her children ward. Chorus of Priests.--Thy weapon, temper'd by hand immortal, etc. Chorus of Priestesses.--Almighty Phtha!
Scene I.--A hall in the apartments of Amneris. Amneris surrounded by female slaves who attire her for the triumphal feast. Tripods emitting perfumed vapors. Young Moorish slaves waving feather-fans. Chorus.--Our song his glory praising, Heavenward waft a name, Whose deeds the sun out-blazing, Out-shine his dazzling flame! Come, bind thy flowing tresses round With laurel and with flow'rs. While loud our songs of praise resound
To celebrate love's pow'rs. Amneris.-(Ah! come, love, with rapture fill me,
To joy my heart restore.) Chorus.--Ah ! where are now the foes
who dared
Egypt's brave sons attack As doves are by the eagle scar'd, Our warriors drove them back. Now wreaths of triumph glorious The victor's brow shall crown, And love, o'er him victorious, Shall smooth his war-like frown. Amneris.--Be silent! Aida hither now
advances, Child of the conquer'd, to me her grief
is sacred.
(At a sign from Amneris the slaves retire")
(Enter Aida.,) On her appearance, My soul again with doubt is tortur'd. It shall now be reveal'd, the fatal mystery !
(To Aida with feigned affection.) 'Neath the chances of battle succumb thy people,
Hapless Aida! The sorrows that afflict thee,
Be sure I feel as keenly. My heart tow'rds thee yearns fondly;
In vain naught shalt thou ask me:
Thou shalt be happy! Aida.--Ah! how can I be happy.
Far from my native country, where I can never know
What fate may befall my father,
Amneris.--Deeply you move me ! yet no human sorrow
Is lasting here below. Time will comfort
And heal your present anguish. Greater
Than time e'en the healing power of
love is.
Aida.--Oh, love, sweet power! oh, joy tormenting!
Rapturous madness bliss fraught with woes,
Thy pangs most cruel a life contenting.
Thy smiles enchanting bright heaven
Amneris.--Yon deadly pallor, her bosom panting,
Tell of love's passion, tell of love's woes.
Her heart to question, courage is
My bosom feels of her torture the throes.
(Eying her fixedly.)
Now say, what new emotion so doth sway my fair Aida
Thy secret thought reveal to me:
Come, trust securely, come,
Trust in my affection.
Among the warriors brave who
Fought fatally 'gainst thy country,
It may be that one has waken'd
In thee gentle thoughts of love Aida.--What mean'st thou Amneris.--The cruel fate of war not all alike embraces,
And then the dauntless warrior who
Leads the host may perish.
Yes ! Radames by thine is slaughter'd ;
And canst thou mourn him
The gods have wrought thee' vengeance.
Aida.--What dost thou tell me! wretched fate!
Forever my tears shall flow !
Celestial favor to me was ne'er extended. Amneris (breaking out with violence.)
Tremble! thou art discovered!
44 Official Program Book.
Thou lov'st him! Ne'er deny it!
Nay, to confound thee I need but a word.
Gaze on my visage; I told thee falsely;
Radames liveth! Aida (xvith rapture.) Liveth! gods, I
thank ye!
Amneris.--Dost hope still now deceive me
Yes, thou lov'st him!
But so do I; dost hear my words
Behold thy rival, here is a Pharaoh's
daughter. Aida (drawing herself up with pride.)
Thou my rival; what tho' it were so;
For I, I, too!
(Falling at Amneris' feet.)
Ah! heed not my words! oh, spare! forgive me!
Ah! on all my anguish sweet pity take;
'Tis true, for his love I all else forsake.
While thou art mighty, all joys thy dower,
Naught save my love now is left for
Amnekis.--Tremble, vile bond-maid! Dying heart-broken,
Soon shalt thou rue the love thou hast spoken.
Do I not hold these fast in my power,
Hatred and vengeance my heart owes
for thee!
Chorus of People.--On to Nilus' sacred river.
Guard the shores, Egyptians brave:
Unto death the foe deliver.
Egypt they never shall enslave. Amneris.--In the pageant now preparing
Shall a part by thee be taken;
While before me thou in dust art prone,
I shall share the royal throne! Aida.--Pray thee spare a heart despairing!
Life's to me a void forsaken;
Live and reign, thy anger blighting,
I shall no longer brave;
Soon this love, thy hate inviting,
Shall be buried in the grave.
Ah! then spare!
Amneris.--Come, now follow, I will show thee
Whether thou canst vie with me. Aida.--Powers above, pity my woe,
Hope have I none now here below;
Deign, ye Immortals, mercy to show;
Ye gods, ah spare! ah spare; ah
Scene II.--An avenue to the City of Thebes. In front, a dump of Palms. Right hand, a temple dedicated to Ammon. Left hand, a throne with a Irnrple canopy. At back, triumphal arch. The stage is crowded with people.
(Enter the King followed by Officials, Priests, Captains, Fanbear-ers, Standard-bearers. Aftenvards Amneris, with Aida and slaves. The King takes his seat on the throne. Amneris places herself at his left hand.) Chorus of People.--Glory to Isis, who
from all
Wardeth away disaster! To Egypt's royal master Raise we our festal song! Glory! Glory!
Glory, oh King! Chorus of Women.--The laurel with
the lotus bound
The victor's brows enwreathing! Let flow'rs sweet perfume breathing, Veil warlike arms from sight. Ye sons of Egypt dance around, And sing your mystic praises, As round the sun in mazes Dance all the stars in delight.
(The Egyptian Troops, preceded by trumpeters, defile before the King --the chariots of war follow the ensigns--the sacred vases and statues of the gods--troops of Dancing Girls who carrv the treasures of the defeated--and lastly RadamES, under a canopy borne by twelve officers.) (The King descends from the throne
to embrace RadamesJ Chorus of People.--Hither advance, oh
glorious band,
Mingle your joy with ours; Green bays and fragrant flowers, Scatter their path along. Chorus of Priests.--To powers war deciding Our glances raise we;
Thank we our gods and praise we, On this triumphant day. The King.--Savior brave of thy country, Egypt salutes thee! Hither now advance and on thy head My daughter will place the crown of
(TJadames bends before Amneris, who hands him the crown.)
Fifth Concert. 45
What boon thou askest, freely I'll
grant it. Naught can be denied thee on such
a day.
I swear it by the crown I am wearing,
By heav'n above us! Radames.--First deign to order that the
captives Be before you brought.
(Enter Ethiopian prisoners surrounded by guards, Amonasro last in the dress of an officer.) Ramphis and Priests.--Thank we our
gods! Aida.--What see I He here My
Aij,.--Her father! Amneris.--And in our power! Aida (embracing her father).--Thou !
captive made! Amonasro (whispering to Aida.)
Tell not my rank!
The King (to Amonasro).--Come forward-So then, thou art Amonasro.---Her father. I, too, have
fought, And we are conquer'd; death I vainly
(Pointing to the uniform he is wearing.)
This my garment has told you already That I fought to defend King and
Adi'erse fortune against us ran steady, Vainly sought we the fates to defy. At my feet in the dust lay extended Our King, countless wounds had
transpiere'd him; If to fight for the country that nurs'd
Make one guilty, we're ready to die! But, oh King, in thy power transcendent
Spare1 the lives on thy mercy dependent;
By fates though to-day overtaken, Ah! say, who can to-morrow's e'ent
Aida.--But, O King, in thy power transcendent, etc. Si,ave-prisoners. -We, on whom
heaven's anger is falling, Thee implore, on thy clemency calling;
May ye ne'er be by fortune forsaken, Nor thus in captivitv lie! Ramphis and Priests.--Death, oh King, be their just destination,
Close thy heart to all vain supplication, By the heavens they doom'd are to
We the heavens are bound to obey. People.--Holy priests, calm your anger
exceeding, Lend an ear to the conquer'd foe,
pleading. Mighty King, thou whose power we
In thy bosom let mercy have sway. Radames (fixing his eyes on Aida). See her cheek wan with weeping and
sorrow, From affliction new charm seems to
borrow; In my bosom love's flame seems new
lighted By each tear drop that flows from her
eyes. Amneris.---With what glances on her he
is gazing! Glowing passion within them is
blazing! She is lov'd, and my passion is
slighted Stern revenge in my breast loudly
cries! The King.--High in triumph since our
banners now are soaring, Let us spare those our mercy imploring:
By the gods mercy, aye, is requited, And of princes it strengthens the
Radames.---O King! by heav'n above us, And by the crown on thy brow thou
sworest, What'er I asked thee thou wouldst
grant it.
The King.---Say on. Radames.--Vouchsafe then, I pray freedom and life to freely grant Unto these Ethiop captives here. Amneris.--Free all, then! Priests.--Death be the doom of
Egypt's enemies.
People.--Compassion to the wretched! Ramphis.--Hear me, oh King! and
thou too, Dauntless young hero, lost to the
voice of prudence; They are foes, to battle hardened. Vengeance ne'er in them will die, Growing bolder if now pardoned,
They to arms once more will fly! Radames.--With Amonasro, their warrior King, All hopes of revenge have perish'd.
46 Official Program Book.
Ramphis.--At least, as earnest of safety
and of peace,
Keep we back then Aida's father. The King.--I yield me to thy counsel; Of safety now and peace a bond more
certain will I give you. Radames, to thee our debt is unbounded. Amneris, my daughter, shall be thy
guerdon. Thou shalt hereafter o'er Egypt with
her hold conjoint sway. Amneris (aside).--Now let yon bondmaid, now let her Rob me of my love she dare not! The King.--Glory to Egypt's gracious
Isis hath aye protected, With laurel and with lotus, Entwine proudly the victor's head. Ramphis and Priests.--Praise be to
Isis, goddess bland, Who hath our land protected, And pray that the favor's granted us, Ever be o'er us shed. Slave-prisoners.--Glory to Egypt's gracious land,
She hath revenge rejected, And liberty hath granted us Once more our soil to tread. Aida.--Alas! to me what hope is left He wed, a throne ascending, I left my loss to measure, To mourn a hopeless love. Radames.--Now heaven's bolt the clouds
has cleft,
Upon my head descending, Ah! no, all Egypt's treasure Weighs not Aida's love. Amneris.--Almost of every sense bereft, By joy my hopes transcending, Scarce I the triumph can measure Now crowning all mv love. Amonasro (to Aida.)--Take heart:
there yet some hope is left, Thy country's fate amending;
Soon shalt thou see with pleasure Revenge light from above. People.--Glory to Egypt's goddess
Who hath our land protected! With laurel and with lotus, Entwine proudly the victor's head.
Scene I.--Shores of the Nile. Granite rocks overgrozvn with palm-trees. On the summit of the rocks a temple dedicated to Isis, half hidden in foliage. Night; stars and a bright moon.
Chokus (in the Temple). Oh, thou who to Osiris art
Mother and consort immortal,
Goddess that mak'st the human heart
In fond emotion move,
Aid us who seek thy portal,
Parent of deathless love. High Priestess.--Aid us thy portal who
(From a boat which approaches the shore descend Amneris and Ram-phis, followed by some women closely veiled. Guards.) Ramphis (to Amneris).--Come to the fane of Isis: the eve
Before the day of thy bridal, to pray the goddess
Grant thee her favor. To Isis are the hearts
Of mortals open. In human hearts whatever
Is hidden, full well she knoweth. Amneris.--Aye; and I will pray that Radames
May give me truly his heart,
Truly as mine to him was ever devoted. Ramphis.--Now enter. Thou shalt pray
Till the daylight; I shall be near thee.
(All enter the Temple.)
(Aida enters cautiously veiled.)
Aida.--He will ere long be here ! What
would he tell me
I tremble! Ah! if thou comest to bid me,
Harsh man, farewell forever,
Then Nilus, thy dark and rushing stream
Shall soon o'erwhelm me; peace shall I find there,
And a long oblivion.
My native land no more, no more shall I behold!
O sky of azure hue, breezes softly blowing.
Whose smiling glances saw my young life unfold
Fair verdant hillsides, oh streamlets g-ently flowing,
Thee, oh, my country, no more shall I behold!
Yes, fragrant valleys, your sheltering bowers,
Once 'twas my dream, should love's abode hang o'er;
Perish'd those dreams now like winter-blighted flowers,
Land of my fathers, ne'er shall I see thee more!
(Enter Amonasro.)
Heav'n ! my father!
Fifth Concert. 4.7
Amonasro.--Grave cause leads me to seek thee here, Aida.
Naught escapes my attention.
For Radames thou'rt dying of love;
He loves thee, thou await'st him.
A daughter of the Pharaohs is thy rival,
Race accursed, race detested, to us
aye fatal! Aida.--And I am in her grasp!
I, Amonasro's daughter! Amonasro.--In her power thou ! No! if thou wishest,
Thy all-powerful rival thou shall vanquish,
Thy country, thy scepter, thy love, shall all be thine.
Once again shalt thou on our balmy forests,
Our verdant valleys, our golden temples gaze!
Aida.--Once again I shall on our balmy forests,
Our verdant valleys, our golden temple's gaze!
Amonasro.--The happy bride of thy heart's dearest treasure,
Delight unbounded there shalt thou
enj oy.
Aida (ivith transport).--One day alone of such enchanting pleasure,
Nay, but an hour of bliss so sweet,
then let me die!
Amonasro.--Yet recall how Egyptian hordes descended
On our homes, our temples, our altars dar'd profane!
Cast in bonds sisters, daughters undefended,
Mothers, graybeards, and helpless
children slain.
Aida.--Too well remember'd are those days of mourning!
All the keen anguish my poor heart that pierc'd!
Gods! grant in mercy, peace once more returning,
Once more the dawn soon of glad
days may burst.
Amonasro.--Remember! Lose not a moment.
Our people arm'd are panting
For the signal when to strike the blow.
Success is sure, only one thing is wanting:
That we know by what path will
march the foe. Aida.--Who that path will discover
Canst tell Amonasro.--Thyself will!
Amonasro.--Radames knows thou art
waiting. He loves thee, he commands the
Egyptians. Dost hear me Aida.--O horror! What wilt thou that
I do
No! Nevermore! Amonasro (zdth savage fury).--Up,
Egypt! fierce nation Our cities devoting To flames, and denoting With ruins your path. Spread wide devastation, Your fury unbridle, Resistance is idle, Give rein to your wrath. Aida.--Ah! Father! Amonasro (repulsing her.)--Dost call
thee my daughter Aida.--Nay hold! have mercy! Amonasro.--Torrents of blood shall
crimson flow,
Grimly the foe stands gloating. Seest thou from darkling gulfs below
Shades of the dead upfloating! Crying, as thee in scorn they show: "Thy country thou hast slain!" Aida.--Nay hold! ah hold! have mercy,
Amonasro.--One among those phantoms dark,
E'en now it stands before thee: Tremble! now stretchng o'er thee, Its bony hand I mark! Thy mother's hands, see there again Stretch'd out to curse thee. Aida (with the utmost terror.)
Ah! no! my father, spare thy child! Amonasro (repulsing her).--Thou'rt my
No, of the Pharaohs thou art a bondmaid ! Aida.--Oh spare thy child !
Father! no, their slave am I no
Ah, with thy curse do not appall me; Still thine own daughter thou mayest
call me,
Ne'er shall my country her child disdain.
Amonarso.--Think that thy race down-trampled by the conqu'ror, Thro' thee alone can their freedom
Aida.--Oh then my country has proved the stronger,
48 OMcial Program Book.
My country's cause than love is
stronger! Amonasro.--Have courage! he comes!
there! I'll remain. (Conceals himself among the palms.) Radames (with transport).--Again I
see thee, my own Aida. Aida.--Advance not! hence! what hopes
are thine Radames.--Love led me hither in hope
to meet thee. Aida.--Thou to another must thy hand
The Princess weds thee. Radames.--What sayest thou Thee only, Aida, e'er can I love. Be witness, heaven, thou art not forsaken. Aida.--Invoke not falsely the gods
above! True, thou wert lov'd; let not untruth
degrade thee! Radames.---Can of my love no more I
persuade thee Aida.--And how then hop'st thou to
baffle the love of the Princess. The King's high command, the desire
of the people,
The certain wrath of the priesthood Radames.--Hear me, Aida. Once more of deadly strife with hope
unfading The Ethiop has again lighted the
Already they our borders have invaded ;
All Egypt's armies I shall command. While shouts of triumph greet me victorious,
To our kind monarch my love disclosing,
I thee will claim as my guerdon glorious,
With thee live evermore in love reposing. Aida.--Nay, but dost thou not fear then
Amneris' fell revenge Her dreadful vengeance, like the lightning of heaven On me will fall, upon my father, my
Radames.--I will defend thee ! Aida.--In vain wouldst thou attempt it, Yet if thou lov'st me, There still offers a path for our escape.
Radames.--Name it! Aida.--To flee! Radames.--To flee hence
Aida.--Ah, flee from where these burning skies
Are all beneath them blighting;
Toward regions now we'll turn our eyes,
Our faithful love inviting.
There, where the virgin forests rise,
'Mid fragrance softly stealing,
Our loving bliss concealing,
The world we'll quite forget. Radames.--To distant countries ranging,
With thee thou bid'st me fly!
For other lands exchanging
All 'neath my native sky! The land these armies have guarded,
That first fame's crown awarded,
Where first I thee regarded,
How can I e'er forget Aida.--There, where the virgin forests rise,
'Mid fragrance softly stealing,
Our loving bliss concealing,
The world we'll quite forget. Radames.--Where first I thee regarded
How can I e'er forget Aida.--Beneath our skies more freely
To our hearts will love be yielded;
The gods thy youth that shielded,
Will not our love forget;
Ah, let us fly!
Radames (hesitating).--Aida. Aida.--Me thou lov'st not! Go ! Radames.--Not love thee
Ne'er yet in mortal bosom love's flame did burn
With ardor so devouring! Aida.--Go! go! yon awaits for thee
Radames.--All in vain. Aida.--In vain, thou sayest
Then fall the axe upon me',
And on my wretched father. Radames (zvith impassioned resolution).
Ah no ! we'll fly, then !
Yes, we'll fly these walls now hated,
In the desert hide our treasure,
Here the land to love seems fated,
There all seems to smile on me. Aida.--'Mid the valleys where nature greets thee,
We our bridal couch soon spreading,
Starry skies, their lustre shedding,
Be our lucid canopy.
Follow me, together flying,
Where all love doth still abide;
Thou art lov'd with love undying!
Come, and love our steps shall guide. (They are hasting aivay ivhen suddenly Aida pauses.)
Fifth Concert. 49
Aida.--But, tell me: by what path shall
we avoid
Alighting on the soldiers Radames.--By the path that we have
To fall on the Ethiops, 'Twill be freed until to-morrow. Aida.--Say, which is that Radames.--The gorges of Napata. Amonasro.--Of Napata the gorges !
There I will post my men! Radames.--Who has overheard us Amonasro.--Aida's father, Ethiopia's
Radames (overcome with surprise). Thou! Amonasro! thou! the King Heaven ! what say's thou No! it is false!
Surely this can be but dreaming! Aida.--Ah no! be calm, and list to me,
Trust! love thy footsteps guiding. Amonasro.--In her fond love confiding
A throne thy prize shall be. Radames.--My name forever branded !
For thee I've played the traitor! Aida.--Ah, calm thee! Amonasro.--No; blame can never fall
on thee,
It was by fate commanded. Come, where beyond the Nile arrayed, Warriors brave are waiting; There love each fond wish sating, Thou shalt be happy made. Come then. (Dragging Radamks.)
Amnisris (from the temple).--Traitor
Aida.--My rival here! Amonasro.--Dost thou come to mar my
proj ects! (Advancing with dagger toivards
Amneris.) Radames (rushing between them).
Desist thou madman! Amonasro.--Oh fury! Ramphis.--Soldiers, advance! Radames (to Aida and Amonasro)
Fly quick! delay not! Amonasro (dragging Aida).--Come
then, my daughter. Ramphis (to the guards).--Follow
Radames (to Ramphis).--Priest of Isis, I yield to thee.
Scene I.--A Hall in the King's palace. On the left a large portal leading to the subterranean hall of justice. A passage on the right, leading to the prison of Radames.
Amneris.--She, my rival detested, has
escaped me.
And from the priesthood Radames Awaits the sentence on a traitor. Yet a traitor he is not. Tho' he disclosed The weighty secrets of warfare, flight
was His true intention, and flight with her,
too. They are traitors all, then! deserving
to perish! What am I saying I love him still
I love him:
Yes, insane and desp'rate is the love My wretched life destroying. Ah! could he only love me ! I fain would save him. Yet can I One effort! Soldiers, Radames bring
(Enter Radames, led by guards.) Now to the hall the priests proceed, Whose judgment thou are waiting; Yet there is hope from this foul deed Thyself of disculpating; Once clear to gain thy pardon I at the throne's foot kneeling, For mercy dear appealing, Life will I render thee. Radames.--From me my judges ne'er
will hear
One word of exculpation; In sight of heaven I am clear, Nor fear its reprobation. My lips I kept no guard on. The secret I imparted, But guiltless and pure-hearted, From stain my honor's free. Amneris.--Then save thy life, and clear
Amneris.--Wouldst thou die Radames.--My life is hateful! Of all
For ever 'tis divested, Without hope's priceless treasure, 'Tis better far to die. Amneris.--Would'st die, then Ah!
thou for me shalt live! Live, of all my love assured; The keenest pangs that death can give, For thee have I endured! By love condemn'd to languish, Long vigils I've spent in anguish, My country, my power, existence, All I'd surrender for thee. Radames.--For her I too my country,
Honor and life surrendered! Amneris.--No more of her! Radames.--Dishonor awaits me.
5o Official Program Book.
Yet thou wilt save me Thou all my hope has shaken, Aida thou has taken; Haply thou has slain her, And yet offerest life to me Amneris.--I, on her life lay guilty
No! She is living! Radames.--Living. Amneris.--When routed fled the savage
To fate war's chances giving, Perish'd her father. Radames.--And she then Amneris.--Vanish'd, nor aught heard
we then further. Radames.--The gods her path guide
Safe to her home returning. Guard her, too, e'er from learning That I for her sake die! Amneris.--But if I save thee, wilt thou
Her sight e'er to resign Radames.--I cannot! Amneris.--Once more thy answer;
Wilt thou renounce her Radames.--No, never! Amneris.--Life's thread wouldst thou
then sever
Radames.--I am prepared to die. Amneris.--From the fate now hanging
o'er thee,
Who will save thee, wretched being She whose heart could once adore
Now is made thy mortal foe Heaven all my anguish seeing, Will avenge this cruel blow. Radames.--Void of terror death now
Since I die for her I cherish; In the hour when I perish, With delight my heart will glow; Wrath no more this bosom feareth. Scorn for thee alone I know. (Exit Radames attended by guards. Amneris, overcome, sinks on a chair.)
Amneris.--Ah me! 'tis death approaches !
Who now will save him He is now in their power, his sentence I have seal'd! Oh, how I curse thee, Jealousy, vile
Thou who hast doom'd him to death, And me to overlasting sorrow ! (The Priests cross and enter the subterranean hall.)
Now yonder come, remorseless, Relentless, his merciless judges. Ah! let me not behold those white
rob'd phantoms! He is now in their power; 'Twas I alone his fate that seal'd! Ramphis and Chorus. -Heavenly
spirit, in our hearts descending, Kindle of righteousness the flame,
Unto our sentence truth and righteousness lending. Amnems.--Pity, oh heav'n, this heart
so sorely wounded! His heart is guiltless, save him,
pow'rs supernal! For my sorrow is despairing, deep,
(Radames crosses with guards, and enters the subterraneous hail. She sees Radames, and exclaims.) Ah! who will save him I feel death approach! Ramphis (in the crypt).--Radames!
Radames! Radames! Thou hast betrayed of thy country
the secrets
To aid the foeman. Defend thyself! Chorus.--Defend thyself. Ramphis.--He is silent.
All.--Traitor vile! Amneris.--Mercy! spare him, ne'er was
he guilty; Ah, spare him, heaven, ah, spare his
Ramphis.--Radames ! Radames ! Radames ! Thou hast deserted the encampment
the very day
Before the combat. Defend thyself! Chorus.--Defend thyself! Ramphis.--He is silent. All.--Traitor vile! Amneris.--Mercy, spare him, save' him,
oh heav'n, Ah, spare him, heav'n, ah spare his
Ramphis.--Radames ! Radames ! Radames ! Hast broken faith as a traitor to
To King, to honor. Defend thyself! Chorus.--Defend thyself! Ramphis.--He is silent. All.--Traitor vile! Amneris.--Mercy, spare him, save him,
oh heav'n,
Ah heav'n, spare him, heav'n, spare his life!
Fifth Concert. 51
Ramphis and Priests.--Radames, we
thy fate have decided; Of a traitor the fate shall be thine: 'Neath the altar whose god thou'st
Thou a sepulchre living shall find. Amneris.--Find a sepulchre living! Oh,
ye wretches! Ever blood-thirsty, vengeful, and
blind, Yet who serve of kind heaven the
shrine! (The Priests re-enter out of the
Amneris (confronting the Priests). Priests of Isis, your sentence is
Tigers, ever exulting in slaughter! Of the earth and the gods all laws
ye outrage!
He is guiltless, whose death ye devise!
Ramphis and Priests.--He is condemned ! He dies! Amneris (to Ramphis).--Priest of Isis,
this man who you murder. Well ye know, in my heart I have
cherish'd: May the curse of a heart whose hope
has perish'd
Fall on him who mercy denies! Ramphis and Priests.--He is condemned ! He dies! (Exeunt Ramphis and Priests.) Amneris.--Impious priesthood! curses
light on ye all! On your heads heaven's vengeance
will fall!
Scene II.---The scene is divided into two floors. The upper floor represents the interior of the Temple of Vulcan, resplendent with gold and glittering light. The lower floor is a crypt. Long arcades vanishing in the gloom. Colossal statues of Osiris zvith crossed hands support the pillars of the vault. Radames is discovered in the crypt, on the steps of the stairs leading into the vault. ¦ Above, two Priests are in the act of letting down the stone which closes the subterranean apartment. Radames.--The fatal stone upon me
now is closing!
Now has the tomb engulf'd me. I never more shall light behold. Ne'er shall I see Aida, Aida, where now art thou
What'er befall me, may'st them be
happy, Ne'er may my frightful doom reach
thy ear.
What groan was that! "Tis a phantom, Some vision dread! No! sure that
form is human! Heav'n! Aida! Aida.--Tis I, love! Radames (in the utmost despair.)-Thou with me here buried Aida.--My heart foreboded this thy
dreadful sentence, And to this tomb, that shuts on thee
its portal,
I crept unseen by mortal. Here, far from all, where none can
more behold us, Clasp'd in thy arms 1 am resolved to
Radames.--To die! so pure and lovely! For me thyself so dooming, In all thy beauty blooming, Fade thus forever! Thou whom the heav'ns alone for
love created, But to destroy thee was my love then
Ah, no, those eyes so clear I prize, For death too lovely are! Aida (as in a trance).--Seest thou,
where death, in angel guise, In heav'nly radiance beaming, Would waft us to eternal joys, On golden wings above See, heaven's gates are open wide, Where tears are never streaming, Where only joy and bliss abide. And never fading love. Priestesses and Priests.--Almighty
Phtha, that wakest, In all things breathing life, Lo! we invoke thee. Aida.--Doleful chanting! Radames.--Of the Priests 'tis the invocation.
Aida.--It is our death chant resounding.
Radames (trying to displace the stone closing the vault).--Cannot my lusty sinews move from its place. A moment this fatal stone! Aida.--In vain! All, is over,
Hope on earth have we none. Radames (with sad resignation). I fear
it! I fear it! Aida and Radames.--Farewell, on
52 Official Program Book.
earth, farewell, thou vale of sorrow,
Brief dream of joy condemn'd to end in woe,
To us now opens the sky, an endless morrow
Unshadow'd there eternally shall glow.
Ah! now opens the sky.
(AmnEris appears habited in mourning, and throws herself oh the stone closing the vault.)
Amnkris (suffocating with emotion). Peace everlasting. Oh, my beloved, Isis relenting greet thee on high!
Priests.--Almighty Phtha!
Abbott, Blanche
Allmendinger, Ruth
Ashley, Orah
Avery, Marie
Bailey, Elizabeth Rosamond
Baker, Florence
Baker, May L,.
Bartlett, Mrs. George M.
Beekman, Mrs. Kathryn
Benedict, Mary R.
Berst, Lois
Bradley, Blanche
Brewster, Jean
Brewster, Katherine
Brown, Nellie M.
Brown, Inez E.
Bruce, Mary E.
Burritt, Mrs. Claude A.
Buss, Edna
Caldwell, Minnie B.
Campbell, Pearl
Carey, Eleanor J.
Caspari, Catherine
Caspari, Frances
Clark, Dorothy
Cline, Mrs. L. L.
Cobb, Inez E.
Cole, Mrs. N. H.
Collins, Mabel
Curtis, Mabel
Davis, Beulah B.
Davison, Nina M.
DePue, Winnifred
Eberbach, Mrs. Edward H.
Edwards, Marjory Edwards, Stella Taft Erb, Ethel L. Fischer, May B. Fischer, Natalie Goebel, Helen Groat, Ethel Gundert, Anna Harrison, Ruth E. Henderson, Zoraida Heywood, L. Mabel Hopkins, Genevieve Jeffrey, Aernes Johnson, Grace Keith, Mrs. E. A. Kitson, Mrs. A. J. Kleyn, Maude La Vigne, Daisy M. Lignian, Blanche Major, Birdie Marks, Mrs. Harriet Marshall, May McFie, Maud Merrill, Lena M. Miller, E. Lorene Miller, Ruth E. Mitchell, Ethel J. Morrisey, Evangeline Niggeman, Fanny B. Obetz, Jessie Phillips, Elvira Pond, Elizabeth Ptolemy, Helene Rankin, Josephine E.
Rorainger, Julia Rosenthal, Mina Rund, Emma Sailer, Antionette Schleede, Edith Scott, Florence L. Shields, Bessis Imogene Shuey, Bertha Slayton, Ethel Smith, Mattie M. Smith, M. Louise Soddy, Ella L. Sperry, Ora Starr, Rhoda M. Stewart, Madge A. Stimson, L,eda Sulz, Mattie Swezey, Helen Tarrant, Bertha Taylor, Helen I. Thayer, Laurel C. Tooke, Dorothy Tooke, Dot Wallace, Violet Weinman, Emma C. Weinman, Louise P. Whedon, Sara Whitman, Daisy Whitman, Lillian Wieber, Katherine Wilson, Agnes Wilson, Lena Walton, Florence Woods, Mrs. H. N.
Allmendinger, Marie Andrew, Mrs. F. E. Audette, Maeme E. Baur, Ruth B. Bandfield, Edna Bridgeman, Olga Carhart, Margaret S. Caspari, Cecelia Chaddock, Sara O. Clarken, Mary Ellen Clements, Florence Colwell, Lila M. -Cross, E. Elnora Crossman, La Verne. Cutler, Nell Darling, Mrs. C. G. Davis, Mrs. A. L. DeWitt, Mrs. O. P. DeWoIf, Mrs. R. A. Dicken, Carrie L,. Durlin, Maude M. Field, Nell M.
Forham, Maude Forsythe, Kate Hall, Gladys Hill, Hazel G. Hogan, Lillie L. Holtzinan, Vida L. Hutzel, Charlotte Jenkins, Mrs. Helen Kapp, Emma M. Koch, Melvina M. Lardie, Myrtle Mann, Jessie Marschke, Emily R. Mason, Leah McKee, Alice D. McManus, Mrs. M. B. Morris, Fannie S. Nisbett, Ada Olney, Anna Pfisterer, Matilda Phelps, Ora Pistorius, Elsa T.
Reed, Jessie D. Reeves, Mrs. M. C. Reid, Mabel M. Roberts, Frances B. Roy, Emma Smith, Marian Stanger, Irene M. Stanger, K. Louise Stark, Eva Taylor, Frances S. Townley, Margaret G. Vandewarker, Mrs. G. S. Vassom, Nina Vaughan, Estejle Votruba, Minnie Wahl, Ottilie A. Wahr, Caroline D. Wente, Elizabeth Wight, Estelle Wight, Mina C. Wood, Bess Yorker, Mary A.
54 The Choral Union.
Andrews, Frank E. Bradley, Glenn D. Brown, George h. Bush, Alden M. Butterfield, Leslie E. Carver, Gail L. Copley, Roy V. Cole, Harry N. Dahill, Edward S. DeWolf, Royal A. Dill, Lawrence L. Dockeray, Floyd C. Fralick, Robert G.
Fugita, Kanaye Gray, James B. Ham, Edward Harsher, John Hayes, E. Lewis Haythorn, Dr. Samuel R. Heath, Roy W. Kaufmann, Calvin H. Killeen, Fred Marshall, Lawrence M. McCormick, Peter F. Merker, Harvey Morris, Will W.
Olsen, Mahlon E. Otto, William Pardee, Ralph Pierce, Archie B. Saltsgiver, Clinton Shannon, William D. Shull, H. Franklin Stanger, Jonathan Stonecipher, David Urie, Frank D. Walker, Fred M. Zoelner, Karl
Allmendinger, Herman Ashley, June C. Banks, Harry P. Bartholomew, Rudolph A. Bartrem, Charles W. Bartlett, George M. Bliss, W. Edwin Briggs, Charles O. Brodie, Stuart E. Brooks, Dr. E. D. Brown, Leonard C. Burritt, Dr. Claude A. Burton, Russell C. Campbell, Robert T. Carney, Chester S. Carpenter, Dewey L. Church, Henry W. Coe, Herbert E. Cook, Nathan R. Cowell, Mark W. Coultrap, Floyd E. Davis, Rice B. De Bruyn, John W. DeShon, Charles G. DeWitt, Clyde A. Dunham, Fred S. Ehnis, Fred C. Erickson, Fred L.
Essery, Carl W. Foreman, Robert Ferris, George C. Frank, Emanuel Gass, Truman H. Gould, William C. Hall, Albert J. Hammond, Mark A. Harvey, Atherton G. Hovvell, Dr. Robert B. Kendrick, Warren F. Keys, Walter C. Killeen, Earle G. Koch, Eugene J. Layster, Carl E. Leet, Arthur W. Leland, Roscoe G. Lignian, Clarence J. Lowell, Alfred H. Markham, Kenneth S. McFarland, Russell McHugh, Michael B. Moody, Earl Nicholson. Victor Nye, Norman S. Oldach, Herman J. Pal en, Henry P. Partridge, Lloyd J.
Patterson, Harold A. Pinkard, Ralph R. Powers, James W. Roller, Clyde C. Rovelstad, Thotstence Sanford, Joseph Schug, Howard L,. Schwendener, Karl Seelye, Warren O. Seiler, James Shutz, Lawrence H. Simmons, Richards J. Simon, Carl J. Smith, Charles Verne Snell, W. Carter Stegath, Fred H. Traut, Carl E. Town, Frank E. Trueblood. Byram C. Welch, Roy Dickinson Whipple, Willis W. White, J. Arba Wilhelm, Alfred Wines, Levi D. Wood, Rex S. K. Worden, George G. Wright, Winthrop Young, Umberta
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A. M., Director.
Offers systematic Courses of Instruction in Piano, Organ, Voice Culture, Violin, Violoncello, Orchestral Instruments, Public School Music, Ensemble and Orchestral Playing, Harmony, Counterpoint, Canon Fugue, Composition and History of Music. The work is organized in seven distinct Departments.
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A.M., Director, (Leipsic, 1871-1875. Professor of Music in the University of Michigan),
Organ, Counterpoint, Orchestration, History of Music, and Musical Criticism.
ALBERT LOCKWOOD {Pupil of Zzdntschcr, Rcinecke, Buonamici, and Leschetissky, Head of Pianoforte Department,
WILLIAM A. HOWLAND (Pupil of F. B. Bristol, of New York, A. Randegger and Frederick Walker, of London), Head of Vocal Department,
Singing and Voice Culture.
HENRI ERN (Pupil of Rappoldi, Joachim, and Ysaye), Head of Orchestral Department, Violin and Ensemble Playing.
MARIE SCHADE (Pupil of Leschetissky), Pianoforte.
LLEWELLYN L. RENWICK (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of Albert A. Stanley and Charles M. Widor),
Pianoforte, Organ and Harmony.
ELSA G. STANLEY (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of Professor Hcinrich Barth),
MINNIE M. DAVIS (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of Harold Bauer), Pianoforte.
WALTER F. COLBY (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of Leschetissky), Pianoforte, Solfeggio and Harmony.
MRS. MABEL ROSS-RHEAD (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of Mosskoicski), Pianoforte.
NATALIE FISCHER (Graduate University School of Music),
LOIS C. BERST (Graduate University School of Music),
EARLE G. KILLEEN '(Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of F. B. Bristol of New York),
Singing and Voice Culture.
Absent on leave.
LEILA FARLIN {Graduate of University School of
Musk, Pupil of F. E. Bristol of Nezv York),
Singing and Voice Culture.
ELIZABETH CAMPBELL (Graduate of University School of Music, Pupil of F. E. Bristol of Neiv York),
Singing and Voice Culture.
MRS. JESSIE D. REED (Graduate of University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
NORA C. HUNT (Graduate of University. School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
FRANCES E. CASPARI (Graduate University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
FRED KILLEEN (Graduate University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
LEDA STIMSON (Graduate University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
LAUREL C. THAYER (Graduate University School of Music),
Singing and Voice Culture.
ABBA E. OWEN (Pupil of Henri Em), Violin.
AUGUST SCHMIDT (Graduate University School of Music),
Organ and Reed Instruments.
Public School Music Methods.
MARY E. BRUCE (Graduate University School of Music),
Dramatic Art.
Kindergarten Methods.
Mandolin and Guitar.
Brass Instruments.
Physical Culture.
Among the special advantages of the School are the following:
The privilege of membership in the Choral Union.--The Choral Union Series of Concerts, ten in number. --The Faculty Concerts, by members of the Faculty of the School of Music.--The Pupil's Recitals.--Practice in Orchestral Playing.--Use of University Library.--Lectures on Sound, History of Music, Music Analysis, ind other subjects. Opportunity to study the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments.--With the exception of the first two named above, these advantages ate free to members of the School.
Send for Special Announcement of Summer Session, From June 25 to August 3.
For further information address, CHARLES A. SINK, A. B., Secretary,
Ann Arbor, Michigan

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