UMS Concert Program, May 19, 20, 21, 22, 1915: Twenty-second Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan -- The Choral Union
Complete Series: CCLXXXXV
Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Annual May Festival
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
TO BE HEI.D IN
HILL AUDITORIUM, ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
May 19, 20, 21, 22 1915
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
FRANCIS W. KELSEY, President LEVI D. WINES, Treasurer
ALBERT A. STANLEY, Director DURAND W. SPRINGER. Secretary
The Choral Union
THIRTY-SIXTH SEASON 1914-1915
ALBERT A. STANLEY
CHARLES A. SINK
FRANCES L. HAMILTON, Pianist
EARL V. MOORE, Organist
KENNETH L. WESTERMAN, Assistant Conductor
Frederick Stock ......
Albert A. Stanley.....
Â¦Clarence Whitehall .....
Wolf-Ferrari . . . .
Olive Kline .......
Theodore Harrison .....
Johannes Brahms .
John McCormack .....
Margaret Keyes . . . . '. Llewellyn L. Renwick . .
Lambert Murphy . . . . Ada Grace Johnson.....
'Frances L. Hamilton, Reuben Kempf, Earl V. Moore, Florence B. Potter Mrs. E. S. Sherrill, Kenneth N. Westerman
Facing page viii
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List of Concerts and Soloists
WEDNESDAY EVENING, MAY 19, 8:00 O'CLOCK
MmE. MakgakETE Ober, Contralto Mr. Clarence Whitehill, Baritone
The Choral Union Mr. Frederick A. Stock; Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductors
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 20, 8:00 O'CLOCK
THE NEW LIFE
Wolf-Ferrari MISCELLANEOUS PROGRAM
Miss Frieda Hempel, Soprano Miss Olive Kline, Soprano Mr. Theodore Harrison, Baritone
Choral Union Boys' Chorus
Mrs. Minnie Davis-Sherrill, Pianiste Mr. Earl V. Moore, Organist
Mr. Frederick A. Stock; Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductors
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 21, 2:30 O'CLOCK
Mr. Harold Bauer, Pianist Miss Margaret Keyes, ContraltoMr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
FRIDAY EVENING, MAY 21, 8:00 O'CLOCK
Mr. John McCormack, Tenor Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 22. 2:30 O'CLOCK
Mr. 'Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist Miss Margaret Keyes Mr. Theodore Harrison
SATURDAY EVENING, MAY 22, 8:00 O'CLOCK
"THE CHILDREN'S CRUSADE" A Musical Legend in Four Parts Pierne
Miss Leonora Allen, Mr. Lambert Murphy, Tenor
Miss Ada Grace Johnson, Y Sopranos Mr. Clarence Wjhitehill, Baritone
Miss Olive Kline,
The Choral Union A Children's Chorus
Mr. Aleert A. Stanley, Conductor
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1914-1915
THIRTY-SIXTH SEASON SIXTH CONCERT
No. OCLXXXX COMPLETE SERIES
First May Festival Concert
WEDNESDAY EVENING, MAY 19, 8:00 O'CLOCK SOLOISTS
Mme. Margarets Ober, Contralto Mr. Clarence Whitehill, Baritone
The University Choral Union
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductors
"AMERICA," by Chorus, Orchestra, Organ, and Audience Carey
OVERTURE to "Oberon" Weber
ARIA, from "Thais" (Alexandria) Massenet
Mr. Clarence Whitehill
SYMPHONIC POEM, "The Sirens" ARIA OF FIDES, from "The Prophet" Meyerbeer
Mme. Margarete Ober
OVERTURE--FANTASIA, "Hamlet." Opus 67 Tschaikowsky
ARIA OF KATHARINE from "The Taming of the Shrew" Goetz
"SIEGFRIED IN THE FOREST," from "Siegfried" Wagner
"WOTAN'S FAREWELL" AND "MAGIC FIRE SCENE," from
"Die Walkiire" Wagner
Mr. Whitehill v.
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1914-1915
THIRTY-SIXTH SEASON No. CCIyXXXXI
Second May Festival Concert
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 20, 8:00 O'CLOCK
Miss Frieda Hempel, Soprano Miss Olive Kline, Soprano Mr. Theodore Harrison, Baritone
The Choral Union
Boys' Chorus--St. Andrew's and Congregational Church Choirs Mrs. Minnie Davis-Sherrill, Pianiste
Mr. Earl V. Moore, Organist Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductors
CANTATA, "The New Life" (La Vita Nuova) Op. 9 Wolf-Ferrari For Soli, Chorus and Orchestra
Sou and Chorus.--"I am an angel fair." PART FIRST
Baritone Solo and Chorus.--"Sweet
rose of the morning." Orchestra.--"Dance of Angels." Baritone Solo.--"Ye ladies all, that
with love are acquainted." Baritone Solo.--"Within my lady's eyes
Love sits enthroned." Chorus.--"Lo! now an angel calleth 1" Orchestra.--Intermezzo.
Baritone Solo.--"Ye that the burden
bear of bitter sorrow." Female Chorus.--"Art thou, then, he"
Baritone Solo.--"So pure and fair and
Orchestra.--"The Death of Beatrice." Chorus.--"Quomodo sedet sola civitas."
"Beatrice hath departed." Baritone Solo.--"Weary, so weary of
infinite sighing." Soli and Chorus.--Finale.
OVERTURE--"Der Schauspiel direktor" ARIA--"Queen of the Night," from "Magic Flute"
Miss Frieda Hempel
"ON THE SHORES OF SORRENTO," from Op. 16 ARIA--"Ernani involami," from "Ernani"
OVERTURE--"Academic Festival." Op. 80
Steinway Piano Used VI.
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1914-1915
No. CCLXXXXII COMPLETE SERIES
Third May Festival Concert
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 21, 2:30 O'CLOCK SOLOISTS
Miss Margaret Keyes, Contralto
Mr. Harold Bauer, Pianist The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
OVERTURE--"Leonore," Opus 72, No. 3 ' Beethoven
ARIA--"Penelope Weaving a Garment," from "Odysseus" Bruch
Miss Margaret Keyes
CONCERTO for Pianoforte, A minor, Opus 57 Schumann
Allegro affettuoso; Intermezzo; Allegro vivace Mr. Harou Bauer
SYMPHONY NO. 1, C. minor, Opus 68 Brahms
Un poco sostenuto-Allegro; Andante sostenuto; Un poco allegretto e grazioso; Adagio-Piu andante;
Allegro non troppo ma con brio
Mason and Hamun Pianoforte Used vii.
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1914-1915
No. CCLXXXXIII COMPLETE SERIES
Fourth May Festival Concert
FRIDAY EVENING, MAY 21. 8:00 O'CLOCK
Mr. John McCormack, Tenor Mr. Edwin Schneider, Accompanist The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
OVERTURE--"In Spring Time," Opus 36
RECITATIVE AND ARIA, from "Mount of Olives" "Jehovah, Thou My Father" "In My Soul Dread Thoughts Awaken"
LARGO, from Symphony No. 5, E minor, Opus 95 (New "FLOWER SONG", from "Carmen"
(a) Rustic Dance
(b) "Ave Maria"
(c) "Oh! Thou billowy harvest field"
Mr. McCormack RHAPSODY "Italia"
The Piano Used is a Stbinway VIII.
World) Dvorak Bizet
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1914-1915
No. CCLXXXXIV COMPLETE SERIES
Fifth May Festival Concert
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 22, 2:30 O'CLOCK SOLOISTS
Mr. Llewetxyn L. Renwick, Organist
Miss Margaret Keyes, Contralto
Mr. Theodore Harrison, Baritone
Mrs. Minnie Davis-SherrilIv, Pianiste
PRAELUDIUM FUGA CROMATICA EVENING SONG PAVANE
SONATA No. 6
Allegro Moderato; Andantino Espressivo;
(b) Che fiero Costume
(c) Der Neugierige
Serenade; Musette; Solitude SCHERZO )
EVENING BELLS AND CRADLE SONG TOCCATA
Stbinway Piano Used
E. C. Bairstow
Filippo Capocci Theme and Variations
W. C. Macfarlane Faulkijs
CHORAL UNION SERIES, 1914-1915
No. CCLXXXXV COMPLETE SERIES
Sixth May Festival Concert
SATURDAY EVENING, MAY 22, 8:00 O'CLOCK
"THE CHILDREN'S CRUSADE"
Sou, Chorus, Children's Chorus, and Orchestra
ALLYS Miss Olive Kline, Soprano
ALAIN Miss Leonora Allen, Soprano
THE MOTHER Miss Ada Grace Johnson, Soprano
THE NARRATOR Mr. Lambert Murphy, Tenor A SAILOR )
THE VOICE FROM ON HIGH MrCiarEnce Whitehill, Baritone
Miss Ada Grace Johnson
T7HTTO wnwUM 1 Miss Maude KlEyn
FOUR WOMEN Miss AucE BuTQN
Miss Nora Hunt
Men and Women of Flanders; Chorus Seraphicus The Choral Union
Three Children's Choruses From Ann Arbor Public Schools
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
PART I--The Forth-Setting Prelude.
Four Women.--"Wake, awake." Chorus.--"What this marvel." Narrator.--"Thro all the folk are ruÂmors."
Children.--"O, hear ye not he voices" Allys, Alain and Children.--"There in
Mothers.--"Children dear, go not!" A Mother.--"At night I used to wake." Ensemble.--"O come to Jerusalem!" "O Children, think of us."
PART I--The Highway Prelude.
Children.--"Children three were we." Alain.--"Speak to me." Allys.--"Ah! how bright and fair the
year." The Children.--"To Mount Olivet we
go." Alain.--"O Lord help me to bear my
cross, that I am blind."
PART III--The Sea. Prelude.
Narrator.--"The sea, at last the sea." The Children.--"The sea! The sea!" Allys--"Noel! The sea." Chorus.--''Hallelujah 1" Allys, Alain and Children.--"Blest waters."
Sailors.--"Ahoy! sailor lads, ahoy!" Children.--"Look! See the stars on
the sea shore." A Sailor.--"Nay, the stars came from
the Holy Land." Narrator.--"No, the stars have never
Chorus.--"Jesus said', 'I am the Life.'" Sailors.--"Come aboard now!" Finale.--"The evening falls o'er the
PART IV.--The Saviour in the Storm
Narrator.--'The night has fallen on the
Sailors.--"Whirlwinds dark fill the air." Children. -"De profundis liberamos
Allys.--"Alain, I'm frightened!" Alain.--"Allys, I see such a radiance." Narrator, Children and Sailors.-"Eyes had they but they could not see.
'This child, though blind, sees the
Lord." Voice From on High.--"Suffer little
children to come unto me." Four Women.--"Children that were
Chorus Seraphicus.--"Ah, ye souls bapÂtized anew." Full Chorus.--"For all your sorrows on
earth are turned to joy in Heaven."
ALBERT A. STANLEY
by the University Musical Society 1915
Our patrons are invited to inspect the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments in the Foyer of the First Balcony and the adjoining room.
To study the evolution, it is only necessary to view the cases in their numerical order and remember that in the wall cases the evolution runs from right to left and from the top to the bottom, while the standard cases should always be approached on the left hand side.
The conductor of the choral concerts desires to express his great obligation to Miss Florence B. Potter, Supervisor of Music in the Ann Arbor Public Schools, and Mr. Reuben Kempf, Organist and Choir Master of St. Andrew's Church, for their valuable services in the preparation of the Children's and Boys' Choruses.
All Concerts Will Begin on Time
Wednesday Evening, May 19
NATIONAL HYMN "AMERICA"......Henry Carey
CHORUS, ORCHESTRA, ORGAN, AND AUDIENCE
Nothwithstanding the disputed origin of the tune, a controversy in which America can present neither a claim nor a protest, and certain hyper-critical statements as to the value of the text, it is true that this national hymn is the only one with which a large audience can successfully cope, provided the words are printed. It is significant that the tune has been claimed by so many countries, but as it is based on melodic formulae that had been common property long before Mr. Henry Carey sang it for the first time in 1740 this is not strange.
We trust that its inclusion in our Festival program will give joy to all, for there is a great inspiration in standing shoulder to shoulder and singing together. William Byrd (1538-1623) who, by his own statement, was "one of the Gent, of the Queene's Majestie's Royal Chappell," after summing up the advantages of singing, in the Preface to "Psalmes, Sonets, and Songs of Sadness and Pietie" ("It doth open the pipes"), ends by saying-"As singing is so good a thing I wish that all would learn to sing." The text:-My country! 'tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty,
Of thee I sing: Land where my fathers died! Land of the pilgrims' pride! From every mountain side Let freedom ring!
My native country, thee, Land of the noble, free,
Thy name I love; I love thy rocks and rills, Thy woods and templed hills: My heart with rapture thrills
Like that above.
34 Official Program Book
Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees
Sweet freedom's song: Let mortal tongues awake; Let all that breathe partake; Let rocks their silence break,
The sound prolong.
Our fathers' God! to thee, Author of liberty,
To thee we sing: Long may our land be bright With freedom's holy light; Protect us by thy might,
Great God, our King!
Carl Maria von Weber was born at Eutin, December 18, 1786; died in London, June 5, 1826.
Richard Wagner in his literary works constantly emphasized von Weber's imporÂtance, and, from the days of his youth, when he was thrilled by every glimpse of his idol, to the years of his maturity, he consistently urged the greatness of his personal indebtedness to this genial composer.
The story of von Weber's career has been an inspiration to many struggling comÂposers. Through his immortal "Der Freischiitz" he was revered and beloved by the whole German people because he gave expression to their yearning for freedom. He was never so fortunate in the choice of books for his operas as in this case, and, while lie rose to greater musical heights in "Euryanthe," its success was imperilled from the outset by the absurdities of its text. It contained (in unity of expression) more that was both undramatic and senseless than any book that was ever set--unless an excepÂtion be made in favor of Schumann's "Genoveva". Much the same criticism, though in a lesser degree, holds in the case of the subject matter of "Oberon." Moreover he was in a critical physical condition at the time of its composition, as the malady which resulted in his death (consumption) undoubtedly weakened his powers in other direcÂtions. Could a more beautiful swan song be conceived than this glorious overture, with its fairy-like introduction and its brilliant Allegro movement Like all of -von Weber's works the orchestration is superb and wonderfully delineative. "Oberon" received its first performance (London) on April 12, 1826, eight weeks before his death.
First Concert 15
ARIA--"Alexandria," from "Thais".......Massbnet
Mr. Clarence Whitehiij,.
Jules Emil Frederic Massenet was born at Monteaux, France, May 12, 1842; died at Paris, August 13, 1912.
No modern composer has displayed greater productive activity than Massenet. It is possibly due to this that it cannot be said that all of his operas maintain the high level attained by him when at his best. His style is sensuous, pictorial, at times really dramatic, but occasionally lapsing into mannerisms that give but surface indications of the possession of the latter quality. He was a master of orchestration and few understood better than he the management of voices, both in solo and ensemble.
Among his operas which still hold the attention of the opera-going public "Thais" (1894) is not the least. Its story is based on the experiences of a monk, Athanael, and a beautiful danseuse, Thais. Filled with desire to save souls the monk fails to fall a victim to her beauty, but on the contrary she succumbs to his fervent religious pleadÂings and renounces her sinful life. But in the meantime he falls desperately in love with her and endeavors to persuade her to renounce the vows she has taken. After many attempts to penetrate into the convent to which she has flown, he succeeds only to witness the passing of her soul.
The aria on our program occurs in the earlier part of Act I. when Athanael, lookÂing at Alexandria, is filled with repugnance, mixed with pity, for the beautiful city, his birthplace, which, from his point of view, reeks with vileness. .
Athanael:--"Voila done la terrible cite!
Ou je suis ne dans le peche; I,'air brillant ou j'ai respire l'affreux parfum de la
luxure. Voila la mer voluptueuse ou j'ecoutais chanter la Â¦
sirene aux yeux d'or! Oui, voila mon berceau selon la chair Alexandrie!
O ma patrie!
Mon berceau ma patrie! De ton amour j'ai detourne mon coeur,
Pour la richesse, je te hais! Pour ta science et ta beaute je te hais!
Et maintenant je te maudis comme un temple
hante par les esprits impurs! Venez! Anges du ciel! Souffles de Dieu Parfumez, du battement de vos ailes, l'air corrompu qui va m'environner!
16 Official Program Book
Athanael:--Behold now the dreadful city, Alexandria! Where I was born in sin; The clear air in which I have breathed the dangerous
perfume of luxury. Behold the rolling sea where I have listened
to the singing of the golden-eyed siren-Yes--there is my cradle,
Alexandria! My cradle, my native land! From thy love I have turned away my heart. As for riches--I hate them! As for your wisdom and beauty, I have no use
for them, I hate them! And now I curse you like a temple haunted by
Come--heavenly angels. Breaths of God, Perfume with the fluttering of your wings the
impure air which stirs about me.
SYMPHONIC POEM,--"The Sirens," Op. 33
Reinhold Moritzovitch Gliere was born at Kiev, Russia, January 11, 1875;
The student career of our composer, though brilliant, was uneventful, nor is there anything in his life to invite comment. Could we know all of the circumstances of that life, however, we might find something of interest, but the data is so restricted that we can offer nothing of any value bearing on his preparation for his work. This is to be regretted, for in the case of the composer mastery of counterpoint and musical form does not comprise the essential equipment--life alone can give it.
Although a comparatively young man, as we reckon now-a-days, Gliere can point to a large output of serious works among which this symphonic poem stands preemiÂnent. The fact that it received two performances in the Chicago Symphony Orchestra Series last season, speaks volumes for its popularity. "Les Sirenes" was performed for the first time in, what was then, St. Petersburg, in April, 1912. So it bears the stamp of modernity. This may mean much or nothing, but such a hall-mark appeals to many with irresistible force. It depicts five episodes in the classical legend, explicitly--"The Sea," "The Isle of the Sirens," "Approach of the Vessel," "The Song of the Sirens," and "The Shipwreck."
It is scored for three flutes, piccolo, three oboes, English horn, three clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, double bassoon, six horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, kettle-drums, cymbals, bells, celesta, harp and strings.
First Concert 17
This opulent orchestra is manipulated by him with the keen appreciation of inÂstrumental effects so characteristic of Russian composers. The orchestral score not being available, the following description of his adaption of this apparatus to his purÂpose is from the pen of Mr. Felix Borowski.
"It begins (Andante, F minor, 4-4 time) with material in the muted strings (organ-point in F in the basses and kettle-drum) which is intended to depict the sea. This occupies some twenty-eight pages of the score and is succeeded by a new section (Allegretto, 6-8 time) evidently intended to depict the Isle of the Sirens, and which brings forward--in the violoncellos, second violins and English horn--a subject of which much use is made. There is a second idea (Leggiero scherzando, 9-8 time) whose material is given out by the flute and celesta, and this is worked over in conÂjunction with the material of the preceding division.
Molto Tranquillo, A flat major, 4-4 time. Over an undulating figure in the strings the muted horns play a motive intended to suggest the approach of the vessel bearing the doomed sailors. The voices of the sirens are heard, luring the seamen to destrucÂtion. Their song is given to the violas and clarinet. The music becomes more agitated, the voices of the sirens more frenzied. A great climax is attained, and the music depicts the destruction of the ship as its hull grinds upon the rocks. After this there is a general subsidence of excitement, and the work comes to a pianissimo conclusion."
PRISON SCENE (Act V.) from "The Prophet"
Mme. Margarete Ober
Giacomo Meyerbeer (Jakob Liebmann Beer) was born at Berlin, September, S, 1791; died at Paris, May 2, 1864.
The limitations of space forbid either an adequate review of the work of Giacomo Meyerbeer or any attempt at a reconciliation of the radically opposing views of his detractors and admirers. Possibly Richard Wagner came nearer the truth than any when he stated that Meyerbeer's greatest fault was the desire "to produce an effect without an adequate cause." But he adds that "Sometimes he rises to great heights." In the selection on our program, the celebrated Fides aria from "Le Prophete," first produced in Paris in 1849--we have one of his most sublime inspirations. SchopenÂhauer said: "A man has a right to be represented by his best, instead of his worst," and no one can deny that this aria shows the composer at his best
Fides, the mother of Johann, the False Prophet, has been cast by his orders into a dungeon. Realizing the full extent of his ingratitude--and at the same time knowing that he is in imminent danger of assassination, through Bertha, whom he has cruelly and basely wronged--she is in a pitiful mental condition. Hence this wonderful scene!
'Notes on program for Chicago Symphony Orchestra Concert, December 5-6, 1913.
18 Official Program Book
Fides, Recitative:-Ihr Raalspriester, ihr! Wohin habt ihr mich gefiihret Welche diistre Kerkergruft! Weh'! hier begrabt man mich, indessen Bertha Tod dem Sohne droht! Meinem Sohn! Er ist's nicht mehr! Weh! er verleugnet die Mutter! So falle auf sein Haupt des Himmels Rach-estrahl! Schlag' ihn, du, der an Kindes Haupt den Un-dank straft!
Nein, Gnade fur ihn!
CavaTine :-Du einz' Gliick meines Lebens
Entwaffnet ist mein Herz, entwaffnet ist's
Nicht kann die Mutter hassen,
Leb' vvohl, mein Kind, leb' wohl!
iMutterliebe hat nur Vergebung fur dich und Schmerz!
Ich hab' dir Alles, ja Alles hingegeben,
So geb' ich jetzt auch gerne dir mein Leben!
Nur du sollst gliicklich sein!
Nimm mein Leben hin, ich harre jenseits dein!
Recitative :-Er wird mir nah'n! Ich soil ihn seh'n ! Doch ach! Von Schuld schwer beladen ! Gott, Gott!
Aria :-Wirf deines Lichts blitzenden Strahl in seine Seele,
Der Wahrheit Glanz lautre sein Herz von Schuld und Fehle!
Ja lautre ihn durch Flammenkraft!
Fiihre ihn zuriick in deinen Arm!
Ihr heiligen Schaaren, beschirmt ihn mit eurer Huld und Gnade!
O steigt hernieder und fiihret ihn zu Gott zuriick!
Ja, so fiihre ich mein Kind zu Gott zuriick,
In seine Hand zuriick.
Fides :--Ye Priests ! Where have ye led me
What a gloomy cell! Woe! here I am buried
While Bertha threatens my son with death!
My son! He is no more! Woe! he disclaims his mother.
May Heaven's vengeance fall on his head!
Strike him, ye who punish the unfilial! No !--grant him mercy!
First Concert 19
Cavatina:--Thou only joy of my life, Disarmed in my heart A mother cannot hate. Farewell, my child, farewell!
The mother love hath forgiveness for thee and sorrow. I have given my all to thee And now I gladly give my life. Thou must be happy-Take my life, and I will wait for thee beyond.
Recitative:--He will come near! I shall see him! But oh, so full of guilt! Oh, God !
Aria:--Send down thy light into his soul
And purify with truth his heart from guilt. O, purify through fire. O, lead him back within thine arms! Ye heav'nly hosts protect him with your mercy Descend and lead him back to God. Yea, so I lead my child back to his God. Back to his arms.
OVERTURE-FANTASIA, "Hamlet" Tschaikowsky
Peter Iljitsch Tschaikowsky was born at Wotkinsk, Russia, May 7, 1840; died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893.
There are certain episodes in the life of the great Russian composer whose impliÂcations reveal idiosyncrasies of temperament not remote from those displayed by the "Melancholy Dane."
If one may judge from the revelations of his inner life, recorded in his biography, he must have felt to the full the tragedy and pathos of the story the salient points of which furnish the inspiration for this work. The opinion is held by many that in it he did not reach the high altitudes attained in his "Manfred," nor in his F minor symphony, which he, in writing to Frau von Mech, called "our symphony."
The designation "Overture-Fantasia" prepares one for greater elasticity of form and more daring treatments than we discover in the score, in which the gloomy charÂacter of Hamlet and the pathetic lot of Ophelia find adequate delineation against a background descriptive of the environment in which the tragedy is laid. Taking the themes so illustrative of these personalities as the first and second themes in the sonata-form, the other formal factors stand out so clearly as to be unmistakable in their bearing on the portrayal of the dramatic bases of the tragedy.
It only remains to be said that a long introduction--A minor--Lento lugnbre--4-4 time--establishes the proper mood at the outset and leads into the section in which the formal sonata structure dominates--F minor, Allegro vivace, 4-4 time. A march-like theme gives suggestions of environment, while the material of the introduction figures in a fitting conclusion. The work, composed in 1882, is scored for a large orchestra and received its first performance at Petrograd, November 24, 1888.
20 Official Program Book
ARIA--From "The Taming of the Shrew" Goetz
Hermann Goetz was born in Konigsberg, December 17, 1840; died near Zurich, December 3, 1876.
In previous issues of the "Official Program" the fact that Shakespeare has found his most sympathetic musical interpreters in composers not of English extraction has been commented on quite at length. To the list of such interpreters--Gounod, Lortz-ing, Thomas, and Verdi, must be added the name of the composer on this evening's program--and it must be stated that his contribution is immeasurably superior, both musically and dramatically, to any settings but those of Verdi.
"The Taming of the Shrew" won immediate success at its first performance (Mannheim, October 11, 1874) and has maintained its hold on German audiences ever since. For some unknown reason it is not known as it should be in our English-speaking centers--God save the mark! He was richly endowed with the melodic gift --a distinction no less in evidence in his beautiful F major Symphony than in this opera. For many years a semi-invalid, he could not complete his second opera (FranÂcesco di Rimini). At his request the score was finished by his intimate friend, Franck (1847-1889), but, as has almost unvariably happened with such collaborations, its initial performance (Mannheim, September 20, 1877) was not the beginning of a triumphal career.
This aria occurs in Act IV, Scene III, and marks the climax of Katherine's woes. In the very next scene the course of true love changes from a series of rapids and shallows difficult to negotiate, to a pellucid stream in which the lineaments of Hymen are mirrored. The text in the original German and a very free English translation is given below. The liberties taken with Shakespeare's text by the librettest, Joseph Victor Widman, may serve as a cloak to hide the deficiencies of the English translaÂtion.
Katharine:--Die Kraft versagt, des Kampfes bin ich miide, Und wie ein Schiff im Seesturm untergeht, So stirbt des kiihnen Mutes letzter Schimmer, In dem Orkane seines Zorns dahin. ;Sind Weibes Waffen nidht Strohhalmen gkioh! Wo ist mein Stolz Wie bin ich jetzt so weich! Und hass ich ihn O nein! welch' Wort, ihn hasseu! Mein Leben wollt' ich fur ihn lassen, O konnt ich ihn versohnt und milde seh'n! Sonst muss in seinem Ziirnen ich vergeh'n.
Es schweige die Klage!
In Demuth es trage,
Was noch so Schweres
Er Dir beschliesst!
In freundlichem Scheme
Winkt Dir nur eine,
Nur eine Hoffnung
Die Dir's versiisst:
First Concert 21
Das ihn die Arme Zuletzt erbarme, Dass Ihre Deniuth Ihn endlich riihrt. O Wonnegedanke! O Gliick ohne Schranke! Dass ihn die L,iebe An's Herz mir fuhrt.
D'rum schweige die Klage! :
In Demuth es trage,
Was noch so Schweres :
Er dir beschliesst. . j
My strength is gone, of strife I tire,
And, as a ship by the tempest is wrecked,
So dieth the last spark of courage Â¦
In the hurricane of his wrath. ,
Are not woman's weapons like to helmets of straw!
Where is my pride Why am I so weak!
And do I hate him O, no! I hate him! ;
My life I'd gladly give up for him now, 1
Could I but see him forgiving and mild! ' ;
Be he otherwise, I'll die 'fore his wrath. ;
O cease complaining ;
As duty regard, i
Whate'er he determines Â¦
Be it never so hard, i
For twinkling above ]
One bright ray doth shine 1
One fond hope to sweeten )
That hard lot of thine. i
I That he with deep pity j
Will look on thy need, j
That thy submission
Will move him indeed.
O joy without measure!
O rapturous thought!
That love to thine heart
Thy lover hath brought.
22 Official Program Book
"SIEGFRIED IN THE FOREST," from Siegfried" Wagner
Wilhelm Richard Wagner was born at Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.
Can any one conversant with the "Ring" think of Siegfried in any environment other than the forest Born in its depths; nurtured in one of its many caverns; skilled in woodcraft; on intimate terms with bird and beast, he was the personificaÂtion of its ideals. He has arrived at the conviction that he can not be the son of Mime--the Niebelung dwarf who found his mother dying that he might live, and who has brought him up for an ulterior purpose--and now, reclining in the shadow of a linden tree, muses over the mother whom he never knew. Having conquered the dragon and possessed himself of the ring and the tarn-helmet, he listens to the song of a bird, whose note conveys the information that on the flame encircled rock Brunn-hilde sleeps till some hero who can dare and achieve shall waken her. Joyfully he departs in search of this wondrous being, the bird leading on as a tuneful guide. This is the subject matter of the episodes covered by this excerpt from that wonderful music-drama "Siegfried." Musical literature can offer nothing to compare with this as a revelation of the spirit and atmosphere of the forest, and the moods of an unÂtutored youth who has yet to come into contact with mankind.
"WOTAN'S ABSCHIED," and "FEUER ZAUBER" Wagner
"Die Walkure," from which this scene is taken, is the second drama in the TetÂralogy of the "Nibelungen Ring." Wotan, who by intrigue and falsehood, to say nothÂing of worse lapses from virtue, has incurred the displeasure of Fricka, his wife, in pursuance of a promise extorted from him by her, is obliged to mete out punishment on his favorite Valkyr daughter, Brunhilde, who has disobeyed him, although, as he states in the following drama, "Siegfried," she by so doing made possible the realizaÂtion of his most cherished plan. As she kneels in contrition before him, his affection for her impels him to grant her request that she be surrounded by a circle of fire, that her long sleep--her punishment--be not broken by any but a hero of more than mortal prowess. He grants this prayer and takes leave of her in this beautiful "Farewell." He then calls on Loki, who surrounds with flames the rock on which she rests. In the music we hear some of the most expressive of the many motives that unite to make this work one of the greatest of the series of music dramas written by Richard WagÂner. Prominent among them are the "Pleading," "Magic Fire," "Siegfried," and "Slumber" motives. The text is as follows:
Wotan :--"Farewell, my brave and beautiful child! Thou once the life and light of my heart,
First Concert " 23
farewell, farewell, farewell!
Loth I must leave thee;
no more in love may I grant thee greeting;
henceforth my maid
ne'er more with me rideth, nor waiteth wine to reach me.
When I relinquish
thee, my beloved one, thou laughing delight of my eyes,
thy bed shall be lit
by torches more brilliant than ever for bridal have burned!
shall girdle the fell,
with terrible scorching
scaring the timid,
who, cowed, may cross not
Brunhilde's couch;-for one alone free-eth the bride; one freer than I, the God!
(Brunhilde, touched and enraptured, throws herself into his arms.)
These eyes so lustrous and clear, which oft in love I have kissed,
when warlike longings
won my lauding,
or when with lispings
of heroes leal
thy honied lips were inspired;-these effulgent, glorious eyes, whose flash oft my gloom dispelled,
when hopeless cravings
my heart discouraged,
so when my wishes
toward worldly pleasure from wild warfare were turning;-their lustrous gaze
lights on me now
as my lips imprint
this last farewell!
On happier mortal
here shall they beam; the grief suffering god may never henceforth behold them!
he gives thee this kiss and taketh thy god-hood away.
24 Official Program Book
(As he kisses her on both eyes, which then remain closed, she sinks gently unconscious back in his arms. He bears her tenderly and lays her on a low mossy mound overshadowed by a wide-spreading fir tree. Again he gazes on her features, then closes her helmet visor; once more his look rests sorrowfully on her form, which he at last covers with the long steel shield of the Valkyrie. Then he stalks with solemn resolution to the middle of the stage, and. turns the point of his spear to-wards a huge rocky boulder.)
listen and heed!
As I found thee at first,
a fiery glow,
as thou fleddest me headlong,
a hovering glimmer,
as then I bound thee,
bound be thou now! Appear, wavering spirit, and spread me thy fire around this fell!
Loki! Loki! appear!
(At the last invocation he strikes his spear point thrice against the rock, which thereupon emits a stream of fire; this quickly swells to a sea of flame, which Wotan, with a sign of his spear, directs to encircle the rock.)
He who my spear in spirit feareth ne'er springs through this fiery bar 1"
(He disappears through the flames.)
H. AND F. CoRDER.
Thursday Evening, May 20
CANTATA, "THE NEW LIFE," (La Vita Nuova, Dante) WokF-Ferrari
That Dante's "La Vita Nuova" should not have inspired some composer long ere this to wed it to music seems strange, but it is fortunate that its beauties at last found so sympathetic an interpreter as Ermanni Wolf-Ferrari.
The perfect blending of Teutonic depth and sincerity of feeling with Latin grace and fervor of expression, permeating this work, is somewhat unusual, and accounts for many of its most appealing characteristics. Italian music without melody is unthinkÂable--but that melody often lacks distinction. It is--since the Verdi of "Aida," "Otel-lo" and "Falstaff," we may say was--frequently superficial. The Teutonic muse, on the other hand,--after Gluck pointed out the way--has been occasionally over-insistent on dramatic fidelity and, possibly in some instances, a trifle unappreciative of the power of pure melody. Wolf-Ferrari--German on his father's side, Italian on his mother's--in his art gives us the charm of broadly conceived melody resting on a foundation of significant harmony. Invoking the aid of the modern orchestra with its endless resources, and displaying consummate mastery of the heights and depths of vocal expression, the composer, animated by lofty poetic purpose, has given us one of the most beautiful creations of modern times. To say that, from the date of its first performance (Munich, March 21, 1903), the "New Life" has been accepted as in every way worthy of the immortal poem it illustrates, is to record the concensus of critical judgment--a judgment endorsed by those who have listened to it uninfluenced by any critical bias. The work deserves, however, more than mere generalizations and may be better appreciated through the following non-technical analysis.
The Prologue opens with a charming introductory section for orchestra--E major, Cantando molto, 9-8 time--leading into a solo for soprano--"I am an angel fair"--to which a baritone solo, "These are the words we read in a vision"--responds. The chorus is added at the words "Love is the fire that ever fills me with rapture," and the ensemble proceeds in terms of broadly flowing melody, leading through several inspiring intensifications to the climax at the words, "Their Lord we greet, whose name is Love immortal," a "typical" melody utilized in succeeding numbers.
The happy use of boys' voices in this and succeeding numbers is to be particularly noted.
The First Part is introduced by a beautiful Spring Song, "Sweet rose of the morning,"--A major, 3-8 time,--for baritone solo and chorus. This song is as fresh
26 Official Program Book
and sparkling as a May morning. The text is given direction through the section-E major, Pitt largo--"More lovely than the roses, lady mine, thou appearest!" which, followed by a repetition of the theme of the first section, leads into the "Dance of Angels" ("o'er field and meadow, merrily") in which, in the orchestration, the comÂposer shows his originality. The pianoforte and seven kettle drums are added to the harp and strings. The drums are used, not as Berlioz employed them for purposes of noise-making, but to accentuate the basses playing pizzicato. Both the organ and pianoforte are treated as orchestral instruments throughout the entire work, thus enÂforcing Wolf-Ferrari's modernity. An Arioso--F sharp minor, dolcissimo, common time--for baritone, "Ye ladies all, that with love are acquainted" now ensues, followed by a Sonetto, which is one of the most original conceptions of the whole work and of great technical interest in that it is, to all intents and purposes, a modern intensiÂfied version of the "long measure" of the earliest Italian operas. It therefore lends itself to a style of delivery that may be termed a semi-improvisation. This is accomÂpanied by the pianoforte alone, and is followed by an echo of the "Dance of Angels," B major, 6-8 time. The next number is a Canzone, "L,o now an angel calleth," for chorus, the opening tenor phrase of which yields an important typical motive. The first section ends in a thrilling climax--"Lord!" thrice repeated. Heralded by an inÂteresting orchestral interlude--3-4 time--enters one of the most charming bits of writÂing in the entire work, "On earth is a wonder revealed." A strong unison passage "Then spake th' Almighty," is followed by a choral-like section ending in a pp stateÂment of the typical melody heard in the Prologue, to which the oboe solo gives individuality. An orchestral Intermezzo--E minor, common time--is succeeded by a baritone solo--"Ye that bear the burden of bitter sorrow." A violin solo--F major, Adagio, common time--leads to a chorus for female voices, which is one of the most exquisite products of the composer's genius. The violin solo--quasi recitativo--and the characteristic accompaniment motive of the Arioso are significant features in the orchestra, while the melody and harmony of the voices illustrate ultra-modern practice. Note the wonderful effect of the harmonies accompanying the last two words of the line "That such as fain would have gazed upon her." Such a treatment, in which chords are used as a painter would use color, constitutes one of the charms of the "idiomatic speech of music"--a phrase which has the sanction of Richard Wagner. Also note the typical melody given out by the oboe pp in the concluding measures.
None but a professional art critic--or a dictionary-maker--can control enough adÂjectives to worthily characterize the beauty of the solo "So pure and fair and holy seems my lady," with which the Second Part opens. A happy inspiration was the use of the most striking melodic phrases of the Canzone. After the final phrase--"That bids the spirit sigh ever!" comes the gloom of Beatrice's death, (orchestra) with the unaccompanied chorus--"Quomodo sedet sola civitas" leading into a magnificent uniÂson melody for basses, and later for full chorus,--"Beatrice hath departed." The Finale--C minor, declamando, common tune--openswith a despairing note---"Weary, so weary of infinite sighing." The accompaniment to this is for pianoforte alone. The solo part is interrupted by cries of "Ah! Ah!" by the chorus. In this section the orchestra develops tremendous intensity. Dying to pppp--the second division of the Finale--C major, Adagio sostenuto, 6-4 time--introduces the theme of "So pure and fair." Then, through a crescendo--leading into the most intense modern harmonic and rhythmical schemes--6-4, 3-4, 4-4, 5-4, 6-4 in quick succession--the chorus is inÂtroduced as a part of the orchestral mass,--as the singers merely vocalize on "a"--and
Second Concert 27
an inspiring climax is reached. The real climax, however, comes with the soprano solo--on one tone--"I dwell in peace," the response--"May all blessings be thine!" (baritone) and the soft chords--tranquillo--through which the work comes to an end. Without doing violence to the spirit of Wolf-Ferrari's conception, one may conÂsider the baritone the personification of Dante, while in the opening solo in the ProÂlogue--and in the concluding measures of the Finale--the voice of the glorified BeaÂtrice is heard.
Sow and Chorus.
Soprano Solo.--I am an angel fair, from Paradise descending.
I come to tell you of its joys unending,
All the vain delights this world can ofÂfer transcending!
From Heav'n I come, to Heav'n am I returning,
And who, beholding me, knows nought of Love's strange yearning,
Then Love to him shall ever be hidden treasure.
To give light to all in fullest measure,
To sing the praise of beauty was I chosÂen.
From the heights of heav'n am I deÂscending,
To tell ye, oh! mortals of love unendÂing.
Baritone Solo.--These are the words we may read in the vision of an angel to us revealed,
And I, who as my very life those bright eyes cherish,
Must surely perish
If they be concealed.
What tho' the wound be deep, and naught may heal it,
Yet will I still gaze upon those eyes enÂthralling.
Till in a torrent all my tears are falling,
Till in a torrent bitter tears are falling.
Chorus.--Love is the fire that ever fills
me with rapture,
Love is the fire that fills my being, Love is the magic flame filling my heart
with rapture. To every soul that suffers now give we
greeting. And those who know the joy and pain
of loving Their lord we greet, whose name is
The poems by Dante on which the ProÂlogue is based, are included in the Supplement to the Italian editions of the "Vita Nuova."
THE FIRST PART
Ballata. Baritone Sou. -Sweet rose of the
The meadows adorning, With dew-laden petals Upturned to the sunlight, In fair woodland mazes I'll sing thy praises!
Chorus.--With sound of joyous singing The meadows shall all be ringing, As merrily the maidens greet thee, Pretty rose, pretty rosebud of morning!
Baritone Solo. -As all the birds of
heaven From morning until even-Chorus. -The woodland choir rejoices
From morning until even-In the branches are singing
All hearts are singing.
Because the winter's over,
And the springtime is coming
And all her joys await the happy lover.
Baritone Solo. -More lovely than the
Lady mine, thou appearest! Unto me the best, The dearest that all this world discloses!
Chorus.--Dearest! By the spell of thy beauty Human hearts thou ensnarest; More fair then is the fairest; Of Nature's children rarest!
Baritone Solo.--Lo! all thy sisters hail
thee as "Dearest!" (As thou art, love!) The charms that are thine, love Say who shall recount them 'Twas bounteous Nature crown'd thee Queen among mortals!
Chorus.--Dearest! Yet not alone for mortals Was thy beauty created, Since the Almighty In thee delighted.
Probably not by Dante.
.28 Official Program Book
Baritone Solo. -Let the light of thy
Dispel all grief and sadness, And fill my heart with gladness. If I declare my passion For thee in this fashion, Beauteous lady, ah! do not chide me, Since it is Love that sways' me, 'Tis Love, "Tis Love, And his might may ne'er be resisted.
DANCE OF ANGELS.
(O'er field and meadow merrily.") Arioso.
["After this, it chanced that, as I passed along a path beside a stream of clear water, so great was my desire for speech, that I pondered upon the methÂod of my utterance; and it seemed to me unfitting that I should speak of her save as I addressed other ladies in the second person, and not all ladies, but only such as were gentlewomen, not women mereÂly. So, then, I declare that my tongue spake, as of its own accord, and said:]
Baritone Solo.--Ye ladies all, that with
love are acquainted, With you I fain would speak of my own
lady; Not that I rightly may sing of her
praises; But by discourse of her my mind is
When I muse on all her beauty, Then Love upon my heart doth shed
such sweetness, That, if my courage did not wholly fail
me, The words I uttered should move all
hearts to love!
[Then the longing came to me to say more in praise of my beloved and to show thereby how this love for her awoke, and how she not only roused the slumberer, but, though Love was not, yet in marvellous wise did she creÂate him. So, then, I indited the folÂlowing sonnet:]
Baritone Solo.--Within my lady's eyes
Love sits enthroned; Thus she ennobles all on which she gazeth, And as she passes all men turn towards
Vita Nuova. Chapter XIX.
And him she greeteth feels his heart
a-trembling. His glance he turns away and is
Aware of all his sin for which he sorÂrows. Wrath at her glance doth flee, and hate
is banished! Prithee help me, oh! ladies, to do her
honour! All thoughts that are both humble,
sweet and lovely Dwell in the heart of him to whom she
Whoso beholds her, he doubly is blessed!. All that she seems when she smiles for
a moment May not be told nor retain'd in the
mem'ry; A miracle divine is she my lady!
(The dance recurs; an echo, as it were, that dies in the distance.)
Chorus.--Lo! now an angel calleth,
All divine knowledge possessing,
And sayeth: Lord !
On earth is a wonder revealed,
That proceeds from a soul
Whose glory reaches even hither.
Since Heaven not another thing re-quireth save her alone,
Now of its lord doth crave her.
Ev'ry saint for this mercy doth clamÂour.
Pity alone yet protecteth our treasure;
Then spake th' Almighty (for well He knoweth my lady)
In peace I pray ye to suffer
Oh my beloved!
That she, your hope, yet stay upon the earth awhile.
Where dwells one who sorely dreads to lose her;
And when in hell he shall say unto the damned:
"The hope have I beheld of God's electÂed." ["Then, sighing deeply, I said within
myself, "It must some time come that
the most gentle Beatrice must die." Then came such great dismay that
my brain began to work as the brain of
one demented . . . and so strong was
this idle imagining that I seemed to see
my lady dead . . .
A continuation of the Canzone in Chapter XIX of the Vita Nuova, the beginning of which occurs in the Arioso.
Second Concert 29At the sight of her such humility posÂsessed me that I called unto death, sayÂing, "O sweetest death, come to me, and be no longer harsh to me . . . And already I had said 'O Beatrice,' when, rousing myself I saw that I had been deceived."]
["After this, not many days passed when the father of that most wondrous and noble Beatrice departed this life and passed to that glory which in very truth is eternal. And, according to the cusÂtom, many ladies assembled where BeaÂtrice was weeping grievously; and I, seeing several ladies returning from her, overheard them speaking of my beauteÂous one and of how she was grieving. . . . Then, after reflection, I resolved to indite something wherein I should include all that these ladies had said. . . . Thus I wrote two sonnets."]f
Baritone Solo. -Ye that the burden bear of bitter sorrow
With downcast eyes all your anguish beÂtraying,
Whence come ye hither that thus all your faces
Wear the expression of a gentle pity
Have ye beheld her, our lady most graÂcious,
Seen her sweet face that in love's tears . is bathed
Tell me, ye ladies, as my heart doth tell me,
Since thus I see you go, with mien deÂjected;
If ye have come then, from all her great sorrow.
Stay with me for a season here, I pray you!
And how it fares with her oh! tell me truly!
Your eyes have wept, and even now are weeping!
Ah! when I see ye sad, of joy bereaved,
My heart doth grieve because that ye are grieving.
Sonetto II. Chorus (Female Voices)--Art thou,
then, he who so often hath chanted
to us And us alone, of our dear lady
Vita Nuova, Chap. XXIII. t Vita Nuova, Chap. XXII.
In very truth is thy voice like his voice;. Yet is thy face as the face of another. And wherefore weepest thou, for lo ! Thy grieving with pity fills our hearts.
who hear thy plaint Hast thou then seen her weep That thou from us canst not conceal the
grief within thy bosom Leave this weeping to us; 'tis we should
sorrow; (It were a sin if ye sought to console
us) Since her sweet voice have we heard
thro' her weeping! Yea, in her face such bitter grief abideth, That such as fain would have gazed
upon her, Would there have straightway fallen
dead before her.
THE SECOND PART.
["She shewed herself, I say, so gentle and so kind, that all who beheld her felt a noble and sweet delight beyond exÂpression ; nor could any one look upon her without he sighed. Such, and more wondrous things yet were wrought by her marvellous virtue. Then I, considÂering this, and desirous to resume the theme of her praises, resolved to write some thing that should make others, and not alone those who could see her with the eyes of the senses, know such things concerning her as words have power to proclaim. So, then, I wrote this sonÂnet."] Baritone Solo.--So pure and fair and'
holy seems my lady, That, as she passes and unto all gives
Ev'ry faltering tongue finds nought to-utter, And eyes no longer dare to gaze upon.
her. She goes her way, if praise of her sheheareth,
Clad in the modest garb of sweet huÂmility;
She seems an apparition newly descendÂed from Heaven to earth, unto us a marvel displaying! So pleasant doth she seem to those who
see her, To human hearts such sweetness she
That none indeed may know save thosc-who prove it.
Vita Nuova. Chap. XXVI.
30 Official Program Book
Behold from out her sweet lips there
cometh a sigh low and tender, That bids the spirit sigh for love, sigh ever!
LA MORTE. The Death of Beatrice.
["How doth the city sit solitary that was full of people! How is she become a widow, she that was great among the nations!" (Lamentations of Jeremiah I.
Chorus.--"Quomodo sedet sola civitas
plena populo! Facta est quasi vidua, dotnina gentium."
Chorus-Beatrice hath departed to highest heaven.
To the kingdom where the angels are at peace,
With these she dwelleth, and you, ladies, hath forsaken.
'Twas not the bitter biting frost that took her,
Nor yet the summer heats, to others deadly;
Nay, 'twas her goodness, 'twas her goodÂness only!
And from her radiant meekness arose such glory,
Filling the heav'ns with the fame of her goodness,
That e'en th' Eternal Sire was moved to wonder
And at last he desired to call unto HimÂself such blessed beauty,
And bade her from this earth ascend to Heaven.
Counting this tedious life of strife and sorrow
As all unworthy of so fair a creature. [Mine eyes were like two things
which longed to weep, and it often
chanced that from their long continued
weeping they were surrounded with a
purple hue such as the halo worn by
Baritone Solo.--Weary, so weary of inÂfinite sighing, my heart alas!
Thro' blighted love is broken;
Vita Nuova. Chapter XXXII. t Vita Nuova. Chapter XI.
Now, mine eyes fail me, and their strength is exhausted,
Nor can they glance at folk that would behold them!
In truth they seem as they were twin desires that long to be weeping and to show their sorrow,
And often do they weep so much that Love doth circle them as with a marÂtyr's halo.
Thoughts such as these and all the sighs I utter
Fill this poor heart of mine with such great anguish,
That Love within my soul doth faint and languish.
For, graven on themselves, these mournÂers bear it,
That sweetest name of her, my gentle lady,
And many words of grief touching her dying.
Chorus.--Ah ! Ah ! Ah!
[After this sonnet I beld a wonÂdrous vision wherein I saw things which made me resolve to say nought else conÂcerning by Blessed one until I could discourse more worthily of her. And to this end I labour all I can, as truly she knoweth. Wherefore if it please Him by whom all things live that for some years yet my life shall last, I hope to say that concerning her which never yet hath been said concerning any woÂman, and then it may please Him who is the Lord of courtesy that my soul may go hence to behold the glory of its lady to wit: of that blessed Beatrice who in glory gazeth upon the counteÂnance of Him qui est per omnia saecula benedictus.]
Boys.--May blessings ever attend thee, beauteous spirit.
Soprano Solo (a voice sounding from
Heaven). I dwell in peace.
Baritone Solo.--May all blessings be
[English translation (copyrighted) by Percy Pinkerton.]
Vita Nuova, Chap. XLVIII.
Second Concert 31
OVERTURE, "Der Schauspieldirektor" Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.
This simple, tuneful overture was written in 1786 as the introduction to a very unpretentious work brought out at Schonbrunn on February 7, 1786. The operetta itself, for it was nothing more, has sunk into forgetfulness for it was but a piece d' occasion, and contains but little outside of the overture that would appeal to a modern audience. One could not expect very much from such a "loose, ill-jointed" libretto, nor could Mozart with the best will in the world rise to a high level in a work intended for summer-palace consumption only. The overture, in the sonata form, which Mozart always used with fluency and lucidity, is scored for a small orchestra as befits its modest outline and naive content. It serves as an admirable introduction to the aria which follows and no less genially leads from the ultra-modern "La Vita Nuova" to the music of a different nature dominating Part II.
ARIA, "QUEEN OF THE NIGHT," from "The Magic Flute" Mozart
Miss Frieda Hemfel
On the seventh of March, 1791, Emanuel Schikaneder (1751-1812), a brother FreeÂmason, brought to Mozart the book of a fairy opera in which were incorporated many of the mysteries of Freemasonry. As Schikaneder was in financial distress, Mozart, always too generous for his own good, gladly undertook its composition. Schikaneder did not redeem his promises, and proved himself so ungrateful that Mozart, who was ever charitable in his judgments, called him "Der Lump." It was first performed on September 30, 1791, in Vienna. The house program of that date shows the name of Emanuel Schikaneder in capitals at the top, while the name of Mozart, as the comÂposer of the music and conductor, occurs in fine print at the bottom. It was successÂful, but the presumptuous Schikaneder stated at the time that "it would have been more successful had not Mozart spoiled it." The first twenty-four performances brought Schikaneder over 8,000 guldens, and Mozart--nothing. Future years, however, have brought Schikaneder a few lines in musical dictionaries and Mozart----immortality.
The "Magic Flute" contains many wonderful arias, none of more importance than the one to be sung this evening. It is of extreme difficulty, and calls for a voice of extraordinary range and unimpeachable vocal technique. It possesses great intrinsic value, and its significance in the opera justifies the employment of the brilliant devices which here a means, in similar arias, are too often the end.
Der Holle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen
Tod und Verzweiflung toben um mich her; Fiihlt nicht durch Dich Sarastro Todesschmerzen,
Bist Du mein Kind, bist mir nicht Tochter mehr.
Official Program Book ' :
Verstossen sei auf ewig! Verlassen sei auf ewig!
Zertrummert seien alle Bande der Natur!
Wenn nicht durch Dich Sarastro wird erblassen!
Hort Rachegotter! Hort der Mutter! Hort der Mutter Schwur!
Consuming wrath my inmost soul is tearing, Death and despair are raging all about me;
If not through thee Sarastro feels the pangs of death; Thou art my child no more.
Despised be thou ever, Deserted be thou ever, And broken every natural tie! Hear the mother's oath! Hear, ye avenging gods!
"ON THE SHORES OF SORRENTO," Richard Strauss
Richard Strauss was born at Munich, June II, 1864; still living.
It is interesting to view the South as it appealed to the imagination of this parÂticular composer, who seems to have little sympathy with the simpler side of life-if we may judge from the general tenor of his great orchestral works. It will be observed that this excerpt from the Symphonic Fantasia, Op. 16--bearing the title "Italy,"--is a somewhat rhapsodical, impressionistic sketch. In it we find no trace of the super-strenuous composer of the "Sinfonia Domestica," or "Helden-leben." We may safely assume that his impressions of the ever-beautiful Sorrento, "Lying high above the waters," were not disturbed by visions of the chromatically dissonant and morally decadent Salome, the gory Elektra, nor any of the depraved and unpleasant characters with whom he has consorted of late in his operas.
ARIA, "Ernani involami," from "Emani" Verdi
Miss Frieda Hempei,
Giusseppe Verdi was born at Roncole, Italy, October 9, 1813; died at Milan, January 17, 1901.
No one will seriously challenge the assertion, that the career of no Italian comÂposer presents more of interest than that of Giuseppe Verdi.
It is a far cry from "Un giorno di regno,' his first opera, (Milan, September 5, 1840) to Falstaff, his last (Milan, February 9, 1893). The score of the monumental work that closes his career as an operatic composer sparkles with the vigor and buoySSLFSDJGDOPIHGDS
Second Concert 33
ancy of youth; evinces the maturity of artistic judgment that comes only with the years; and contains no hint of any diminution of creative power. If, in the Kingdom of Art, there exists a "Fountain of Perpetual Youth," Verdi must have drunk deeply of its waters.
He, rather than any one of the composers of the super-strenuous, ultra-modern Italian school, stands for the idealism and bounding life we associate with youth-for, when he died, at the age of eighty-eight, he was the youngest man in Italy.
Whether the composers referred to will prove themselves worthy successors of this great genius remains to be proven, but two of them, at least, have already shown signs of approaching barrenness.
Verdi's significant works fall into three periods. The first, covering exactly two years, includes Nabuco, I Lombardi, and Ernani, a fine trio, which shows a constantly increasing growth in power. Then, after a period of seeming retrogression, in the latter years of which he seemed to have again "found himself," comes a second1, and extremely fruitful period, beginning with Rigoletto, and including, among others, Trovatore and La Travmta. Again, he seems to have evolved a newer and greater art, while giving proofs of his mastery of the older, and we have the Verdi of Aides. Otello, and Falstaff.
"Ernani," from which the aria on our program is taken, is the third in the first group. It was first produced March 9, 1844. The aria occurs in Act I and the text runs as follows:
Surta e la notte, e Silva non ritorna!
Ah! non tornasse ei piu! Questo odiato veglio, che quale immondo
spettro ognor m'insegue Col favellar d'amore, Piu sempre Ernani mi configge in core.
Cavatina :-Ernani! Ernani, involami all'abborrito amplesso Fuggiamo Se teco vivere mi sia d'amor concesso,
per antri e lande inospite ti seguira il mio pie.
Un Eden di delizia saran quegli antri a me, Un Eden, un Eden di delizia saran quegli antri a me.
Recit. :-M'e dolce il voto ingenuo che il vostro cor mi fa.
Aria :-Tutto sprezzo che d'Ernani non favella a questo core Non v'ha gemma che in amore possa l'odio tramutar Ah! Vola, o tempo e presto reca di mia fuga il lieto istante; vola, o tempo, al core amante e supplizio l'indugiar.
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Night is approaching, and Silva not returned!
Ah! might he ever stay!
Never thus to haunt me,
A dark and fearful phantom my life to follow,
With vows of love, with vows of love to proffer,
Thou only, Ernani, hast a home in my bosom!
Emani, Ernani, fly with me,
Far from this scene of sorrow,
Forever to dwell in joy with thee,
And life from love to borrow,
Thro' other lands tho' dark and drear,
I follow thee with my love, with my love;
An Eden of rapture,
Life then forever will prove,
Worthless gift that of Ernani,
Tells not fondly the love and sadness.
Gold can never turn into gladness,
The hatred born of today!
Ah! fly, oh! moments, and relieve me,
From this dark and o'er-whelming dejection:
Sever, fate, this abhor'd connection;
There is torment in delay.
OVERTURE, "Academic Festival," Op. 80 Brahms
Johanns Brahms was born at Hamburg, May 7, 1833; died at Vienna, April 3, 1897.
Although this eminently characteristic overture was played in the Festival of 1913, it is submitted again with no apology for its selection. To listen to important works so frequently that they become familiar is one of the privileges and rights of the concert-goer, and to make this possible is a duty of every concert institute animated by artistic ideals.
As is well known, it was produced under the direction of the composer, January 4, 1881, on the occasion of the bestowal on him of the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, by the University of Breslau. The subject matter consists largely of popular student songs occurring in the following order: "Wir hatten gebauet ein stattliches Haus" (We had built a stately house) ; "Der Landesvater" (The Father of his Country) ; "Wer kommt dort von der Hoh" (Who comes there from the Heights) ; and, in the coda, "Gandeamus Igitur."
It must not be inferred that they are treated in the style of a potpourri or medley. They appear in conjunction with, and supplementary to, other subjects of a more elevated style. Aside from the fact that it is adapted to the present environment, it deserves its position as the closing number of a program in which melody is regnant by virtue of its genial exploitation of the same element.
Friday Afternoon, May 21
OVERTURE, "Leonore," Op. 72, No. 3.......Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna,
March 26, 1827.
The recent rehabilitation of the original unrevised "Leonore," Beethoven's only opera, and its inevitable comparison with "Fidelio," its condensed version, emphasizes the true greatness of Beethoven and the narrowness of the majority of the critical opinions of his contemporaries. It proves to be nearly everything his critics and friends said it was not.
Beethoven was a prophetic genius, one who looked far beyond the ken of any of his day, and although the overture known as "Leonore" No. 3, written for the perÂformance of "Fidelio" in 1806, like its predecessors, followed established lines, and conformed to the general concept of the functions of the overture, Beethoven realized that it was an anti-climax. He saw that this massively ordered and vividly pictorial introduction dwarfed the opening scenes, which are pervaded by the atmosphere of Gemiithlichkeit. Inasmuch as these scenes are much more accentuated in the original version, and the general character of the three overtures is so similar,, it is easy to discern why neither the first nor the second fully satisfied the composer. How effective the overture on our program becomes, when, played between the two acts of the present version, it so perfectly illustrates the Wagner concept of the form, and becomes at once a remembrance, and a prophecy! Our interest is so thoroughly aroused, and our sympathies are so completely enlisted by this time, that we look forward to the opening scene of the Second Act with foreboding, yet with certainty of ultimate triumph. In the technical structure of the three overtures, as well as in their relation to the opera, there are many points of similarity, but when Beethoven in the fourth, or "Fidelio," overture gives the Stimmung of the opening scene, he draws nothing from the opera as a whole, and gives us a work as distinct in form and content from the others as possible.
Beethoven did not compose with the facility for which Mozart was noted, but subjected his work to the severest criticism. Many of the themes which appear to have flown spontaneously from his pen were in reality the results of toil. Many examples might be cited of this fact, none more conclusive than the mass of rejected material one finds in the book of sketches from "Leonore." This care is responsible for the fact that we have three overtures, the comparative study of
36 Official Program Book
which is so full of suggestion. The evolution from the first, through the second to the third, came through a change of values, that is to say, in the relative stress laid upon opposing dramatic elements, rather than in the -purely musical treatment. The No. 3 is best adapted to the genius of the orchestra, hence more effective in perÂformance, but we have seen that in spite of its sublimity of conception and style, Beethoven rejected it--as an introduction, to the opera--for purely dramatic reasons,, and, moreover, reasons that could not have been so thoroughly appreciated then as now.
That one cannot hope to findi much that is helpful from contemporaneous criticism is shown by the following extract from a review of the No. 2.
"The most grotesque modulations--in truly ghastly harmony--follow one another throughout the piece; and the few trivial ideas that there are--which, however, are carefully guarded from anything like nobility, as for instance, a post-horn solo, doubtless referring to the arrival of the governor--complete the disagreeable and deafening impression."
ARIA, "Penelope am Gewand wirkend," from "Odysseus," . . . Bruch
Miss Margaret Keyes. Max Bruch was born at Cologne, January 6, 1838; still living.
At fourteen years of age Max Bruch brought out his first symphon}', followed' in-1858 by his first dramatic work. He has written in all the serious instrumental and vocal forms with success, but his most important contribution to music is the epic cantata, a form in which his most important works are cast. His compositions are characterized 'by clear melodic invention and beauty of orchestral color, rather than by depth of feeling or originality. The aria on this evening's program is fairly illusÂtrative of his style, and is one of the most effective excerpts from a work held by-many to be superior to his better known "Arminius."
Penelope:--This garment by day I weave in my sorrow, And ravel the web in the still hours of night; Thus wearying long, yet my tears greet the morrow, Hope vanishes as the long years take their flight; Where art thou, my husband
Hath bitter fate borne thee down to the hateful abyss of Hades Or, by tempests toss'd, art thou roving Upon the wide and desolate sea Dost thou stray o'er its billowy wastes Return, my Odysseus, return, oh my husband! Come, ere this garment my hands shall have wrought! Importunate suitors with boldness assail thy devoted spouse, Unjustly despoil they thy son of his birthright! Each day and each night 'neath thy roof they carouse! Return, my Odysseus, my husband!
Third Concert 37
CONCERTO, A minor, Op. 54........Schumann
AwjBGro affettuoso; Andante grazioso; AixEgro vivace. Mr. Harold Bauer.
Robert Alexander Schumann was born at Zwickau, June 8, 1810; died at Endenich, near Bonn, July 29, 1856.
In Robert Alexander Schumann we see one of the foremost composers of the last century, and one of the founders of the neo-romantic school. A composer of commanding genius, he was at the same time a critic of a type practically unknown since his day. He was sympathetic in his judgment of his contemporaries, many of whom, like Mendelssohn, Hiller and Hauptmann, failed to recognize his genius, not realizing that such pronounced literary power and critical acumen could be combined with even greater creative musical genius. Franz Liszt and Moscheles appreciated him from the first. Schumann, like L,iszt, possessed great discernment and was one of the first to welcome Chopin, of whom he said: "What is a whole year of a musical paper to a concerto by Ohopin" 'He also heralded the advent of Brahms in glowing terms. To understand Schumann's compositions fully one should study his critical methods, for his articles over the names of Florestan, Eusebius, Raro, etc., looking at subjects from many points of view, display an insight into the hidden processes of creative art that illuminates his own methods. Early in his artistic career there were premonitions of the malady that brought his life to an end in a madhouse, but in the period just after his happy marriage with Clara Wieck, who afterwards became the greatest interpreter of his pianoforte works, his compositions sparkle with life and vigor. To this period belongs the concerto on our program.
The first movement--A minor, Allegro Affettuoso, common time--was written in 1841 and was given the title "Fantasie," as it was intended to form an independent composition. The other two movements were written in 1845. It is free in form, for Schumann allowed formal rules to rest very lightly upon him, realizing, as Wagner states, "that a worthy idea will create an adequate form." In this as in all his works, however, his ideas are developed with a breadth well nigh symphonic, although Schumann did not look upon the concerto as a symphony for orchestra in which the piano is but a part. The first four measures of the principal theme remind one forcibly of Mendelssohn, but here all resemblance to his contemporary ceases, for, as the movement proceeds, it has little in common with the polished but somewhat superficial style of that composer. The second subject is a lovely melody treated with an admirable appreciation not only of the solo instrument, but also of its relation to the orchestra. The cadenza is happily illustrative of the composer's style, and, above all, of his disdain of difficulties as such. The Intermezzo--F major, Andante grazioso, 2-4 time--with its alternations of solo instrument and orchestra, and the beautiful second subject, for 'celli, is worthy of that much abused designation "Tone-poem." It is hardly developed when it merges into the final movement--A major, Allegro vivace, 3-4 time. --a virile ending to the work. It bristles with difficulties, which, as in some of the more modern concertos, are realized more by the performer than the listener. This statement emphasizes the dignity of Schumann's art, for the tendency to magnify the
.38 Official Program Book
technical side of performance, while it gave rise to the form originally, is a constant source of danger to the composer, and may account for the fact that only such works as disregard this element, as the end, are retained in the repertoire of the true artist.
SYMPHONY No. 1, C minor, Op. 68.......Brahms
UN POCO SOSTENUTO--ALLEGRO; ANDANTE SOSTENUTO; UN POCO ALLEGRETTO E GRAZIOSO; ADAGIO--PIU ANDANTE; ALLEGRO NON TROPPO MA CON BRIO.
The reputation of Brahms is consistently 'making headway and he has gloriously redeemed all that Robert Schumann so enthusiastically prophesied. His position has become unassailable and circles that at first were lukewarm, or coldly respectful, have become ardent in their appreciation of the elevated concepts and purity of expression that characterize every product of his genius. While the reputation and influence of many contemporaries of the Vienna master have declined somewhat in recent years, his hold on the world of music has been growing more secure. A significant scheme of concerts can not be imagined in which he is not represented, and, strangely enough, the qualities which many thought were lacking in his style are those through which he now makes his strongest appeal. He was considered cold, lacking in melody, deficient in imagination, etc., etc., but no one dreams of making such strictures on his art now-a-days. This may be stating it over-strongly, but, whereas such criticisms were stated in chorus at one time, the voices are now those of a few isolated solo performers.
The symphony on our program will never be as popular as the perennial D major offering in this form, but although it was his first, it contains no hint of the apprentice, grasps one at the outset, and the grip is tightened when we come to the glorious last movement. Symphonic literature contains not a few works in which the inspiration runs well for a season, but becomes attenuated before the end, so that they frequently stop without ending--dying of inanition. No such criticism can hold when applied to Brahms' work. As a matter of fact, reference is generally made to a superabundance of thematic material and too prodigal a use of orchestral color, the first leading to lack of clearness in outline, and the latter to a clouding of detail through "muddy" orchesÂtration. Fuller-Maitland, in his admirable book on Brahms, referring to this particular symphony, takes up the cudgels in his defense by saying (Page 157) "the case is almost parallel to certain poems of Browning--the thoughts are so weighty, the reasoning so close, that the ordinary means of expression are inadequate. To try to re-score such a movement (as the first) with the sacrifice of none of its meaning, is as hopeless a task as to rewrite 'Sordello' in sentences that a child should understand." The German critics have gleefully pointed out the rhythmic resemblance of the principal theme of the last movement to the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, but in this connection we must remember R. Wagner's statement that "The Almighty created Art in order that German criticism might have a new joy." These musical Jack Homers have long since come out of their corners.
The C minor Symphony was begun as early as 1862 and was still unfinished late in 1875. It was first produced at Karlsruhe, November 4, 1876. On March 8, 1877, it was given by the Cambridge Musical Society under the direction of Joachim. This will be its first performance in Ann Arbor. May it not be the last!
Third Concert 39
It is scored for the usual symphony orchestra. As is not infrequently the case, the Introduction--C minor, un poco sostenuto, 6-8 time--is prophetic of the principal theme of the Allegro which is given below.
The second theme makes its appearance in due time, after the material of the opening subject has been exploited with the thoroughness always displayed by Brahms. He secures unity of expression by suggestions of that theme in the accompanying figures of the new idea.
Those to whom Brahms' beautiful songs appeal will discover in the second movement--E major, Andante soslcnuto, 3-4 time--the melodic qualities so distinctly in evidence in the smaller form. Nor is a knowledge of his lyrics indispensable to enjoy this web of exquisite melody from beginning to end. The quotation given below is an indication of the plane on which the entire movement is held. Naturally this theme is supplemented and placed over against still other ideas which will present themselves 'with great lucidity as they enter. Note the clarinet and oboe themes and the beautiful effect of the violin solo.
To write a symphony without a Scherzo must have demanded some courage, provided Brahms ever took the matter into consideration, which he probably did not. The principal subject--A flat major, Poco allegretto e grasioso, 2-4 time--herewith given,
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Poco allegretto e Grazioso.
is prophetic of a pleasure which will be augmented by the entrance of the second part with its contrasting theme in B major, 6-8 time.
Heralded by a magnificent and somewhat extended introduction--C minor, Adagio, 4-4 time--the principal subject of the Finale is given out by the first violins--C major, Allegro 11011 troppo, ma con brio, 4-4 time.
Allusion has already been made to the resemblance between this theme and that of the finale of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. It will 'be seen that it is not unlike in spirit, but, as Miss Florence May writes, "Brahms' movement develops on its own lines which do not resemble those of Beethoven." The second subject
is a genial inspiration. As the movement proceeds, with the themes developed as Brahms knew how to bring out every shade of meaning, the onward progress of the whole movement is irresistible in its power.
Signor Giovanni Martinelli
Will sing the following Arias at the Fourth Concert, taking the place of John McCormack, who was obliged to cancel his engageÂment on account of illness.
TEXTS (in translations) of Arias in Fourth Concert, in the order in which they will be sung.
ARIA, "E lucevan le stelle," from "Tosca" . . . Puccini
Signor Giovanni Martinelli Giacomo Puccini was born at Luca, Italy, 1858.
Cavaradossi--I leave behind me one whom I cherish fondly. Can you grant me leave to write a few words to her Nothing is left of all that I possessed but this little ring If you will pledge your word to convey my last farewell to her safely, it is yours .
When the stars were brightly shining And faint perfumes the air pervaded, Creaked the gate of the garden,
And a footstep its precincts invaded, 'Twas her's, the fragrant creature, In her soft arms she clasped me With sweetest kisses, tenderest caresses,
A thing of toeauty, of matchless symmetry in form and feature! My dream of love is now dispelled forever!
I lived uncaring,
And now I die despairing! Yet ne'er was life so dear to me, no, never!
ARIA, "Racconto di Rodolfo," from "La Boheme" . . Puccini
Rudolph--Your tiny hand is frozen! Let me warm it into life. Our search is useless; In darkness all is hidden.
Ere long the light of the moon shall aid us, Yes, in'the moonlight our search let us resume, dear. One moment, pretty maiden, while I tell you in a trice Who I am,
What I do, and how I live. Â¦.
I am a poet.
What's my employment
Is that a living
I've wit tho' wealth be wanting;
Ladies of rank and fashion all inspire me with passion,
In dreams and fond illusions or castles in the air-Richer is none on earth than I!
Bright eyes as yours, believe me,
Steal my priceless jewels
In Fancy's storehouse cherish'd.
Your rougish eyes have robb'd me,
Of all my dreams bereft me--dreams that are fair yet fleeting-Fled are my truant fancies,
Regrets I do not cherish.
For now life's rosy morn is breaking, now golden love is waking.
Now that I've told my story, pray tell me yours, too, tell me frankly,
Who are you
Say will you tell
ARIA, "Celestial Aida," from "Aida".....Verdi
Signor Marti neuj
Radames--What if 'tis I am chosen, and my dream
Be now accomplished! Of a glorious army I the chosen leader, Mine glorious vict'ry, by Memphis received in triumph! To thee returned, Aida, my brow entwin'd with laurel: Tell thee, for thee I battled, for thee I conquer'd!
Heav'nly Aida, beauty resplendent,
Radiant flower, blooming and bright;
Queenly thou reignest o'er me transcendent.
Bathing my spirit in beauty's light.
Would that, thy bright skies once more beholding.
Breathing the air of thy native land,
Round thy fair brow a diadem folding,
Thine were a throne by the sun to stand.
Friday Evening, May 21
OVERTURE--"Im Friihling," Op. 36........Goi,dmark
Karl Goldmark was born May 18, 1830 at Kerzthely; died January 3, 1915.
Hans Sachs, in "Die Meistersinger," says, substantially as follows: "If in youth, when the heart is young and life is in its Spring-time we sing--that is Nature! If, after the snows of many winters have silvered our hair, and grief and disappointÂment have laid their burdens on our souls, we sing--that is Art."
"In Spring Time," is a title full of appeal, when we realize that it was written when Goldmark was on the verge of the "Three score years and ten" allotted to man: that within the next ten years he produced two operas, and that he sang to the end. Max Bruch--who is eight years Goldmark's junior--recently produced a new violin concerto which is said to be fully equal to his perennially beautiful "G minor." Youth is a relative term after all and cannot be estimated by years, for, while these two comÂposers in their declining years have produced music full of the elasticity and buoyancy of youth, many of our younger men are writing music which is prematurely old and so lacking in the virile qualities that compel attention that they are obliged to invoke the aid of poetry, sensationalism, and curiosity to advertise their wares.
As to the overture on our program, it is in no sense an epoch-making work, but it is permeated with the unique qualities of its creator's art, and leads along pleasant and restful paths. In view of the composers recent passing it acquires new meaning and constitutes our tribute to his memory.
RECITATIVE AND ARIA, from "Mount of Olives" . . . Beethoven
"Jehovah, Thou My Father,"
"In My Soul Dread Thoughts Awaken."
Mr. John McCokmack.
Beethoven, the symphonist, looms so large on the musical horizon that the world is somewhat neglectfu'l of his work in other directions, notably as a composer of religious choral works.
It used to be maintained, and with a certain show of reasonableness, that his demands on both soloists and chorus were so excessive as to be almost prohibitive. There is no doubt that they are difficult, largely on account of his frequent and susÂtained use of high notes. But when one examines the "Children's Crusade", "The
42 Official Program Book
New Life" and the "Dream of Gerontius",--not to mention still other more notable examples--we find that modern composers continually use, not high, but the highest registers.
The "Mount of Olives was written in 1800 or 1801, and was first performed at Vienna, April 5, 1803. It is full of the harmonic and melodic characteristics we term Beethovenesque, and moves on a very high plane. Possibly, were it not for the "Hallelujah Chorus," which is sung very frequently, it would be less known than it is. It cannot rank with his sublime D Major Mass, but neither does Handel's "Jephthah" equal his "Messiah." Even works of men of genius do not always display their highest attributes. The aria on our program occurs early in the oratorio, in the scene--'"Christ on the Mount of Olives."
The text is as follows:
Jehovah, Thou, 'My Father, oh send me solace, pow'r and fortitude, now is the-hour approaching of my suff'rings, which chosen were by me, before the world, at Thy command, from chaos was releas'd.
I listen to the thunder of Thy Seraphs, they loudly ask, Who will in place of man, now stand before Thy judgment seat
0 Father to this call I here respond; Redeemed I will be atoning,
1 alone for sins of man.
How could this feeble race, from dust created, endure a judgment which I Thine only Son can scarce endure
Behold! what deadly fear what agony, with pain, invades my heart!
I suffer much, My father! Behold, I suffer much, Have mercy, Lord.
In my soul dread thoughts awaken, of the torments drawing near, and my memÂbers all are shaken by a crushing sense of fear.
Death, with terrors most appalling overwhelms, o'erwhelms me like a flood.
From my brow, no sweat is falling, there are falling drops of blood.
Father, thus before Thee bending, humbly prays Thy Son to Thee, to Thee! Thou has pow'r all pow'r transcending; take this bitter cup from me!
LARGO, from Symphony, "New World," Op. 95.....Dvorak
Antonin Dvorak was born September 8, 1844 at Muhlhausen; died May 1, 1909 at Prague.
A great German conductor once said, "Had Dvorak been born in Germany he would have been the greatest composer of the nineteenth century." This remark-may have been one of those half truths which are mischief-makers in art and science; it ma}' have been due to Teutonic complaisance--or it may rest on a fundamental truth. Among its implications might be the following: A great composer is more than an individual gifted with unusual powers of perception, keenly alive to the subtlest suggestion of environment and association, and possessed of creative power through which he imparts the results of his artistic beholding in terms of music. To-behold, he must have a point of view, and the altitude of this point of vantage, which necessarily determines the range of his outlook, may be the result of an historic past,.
Fourth Concert 43.
and thus represent national ideal attainment. Again, the keeness of vision which would define the measure of his accurate perception of all included within the circle of his horizon, and the process of delineation and interpretation through which he would make the world "partners of his artistic joy" may depend on racial temperaÂment. Thus, while as an observer, a genius may see, or feel, more keenly than his fellows, in his role of interpreter he may not venture beyond the racial ideal.
This comparison of men of genius by the historic (sic) method might be made very interesting. By shrewd manipulation it might be made to work, were it not for two rather disturbing factors--men of genius, the concrete, and genius, itself, the abstract. Men of genius are uneasy when harnessed, and genius is a law unto itself.
Dvorak was a composer of great originality, and of unusual versatility. His activity in every field of composition was inspiring and, to the ordinary man, appallÂingly discouraging. He was one of the few great European masters who came into more or less close touch with the musical life of our country. He cherished the conÂviction that he had found, in negro melodies, the real source from which might be drawn abundant inspiration for an American school of composition. Did he not write the "New World Symphony" in which he immortalized "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," and other typical negro melodies Is not his example being followed by many of our younger men, who are engaged in constructing a musical halo about the North AmeriÂcan Indian, attempting to prove that the "good Indian" is not a "dead Indian," but a "singing Indian" Puccini, in his "Girl of the Golden West," has given artistic endorsement of lynching and other idiosyncrasies of the "wide open" life, and who knows when next the magic of (foreign) genius will invoke our real national music from--what This tendency of the alien to usurp the "racial note" is a disturbing factor in the problem propounded in our initial paragraph.
Not stopping to define just what is meant by "racial note," for definitions are frequently evasions, it must be noted that in his glowing apotheosis of the musical products of the ante-bellum and pre-Booker-Washington negro this particular moveÂment stands out with compelling power.
Subdued chords, vaguely mysterious, herald the appearance of the following' melody for the English horn--D flat major, Largo, 4-4 time.
It is of a quasi-religious character and full of purity and sweetness. Some one has said that "it seems to voice the pathos of a race." Another said, "It is the American spirit as it would like to be at times." Still other attacks on its meaning have been made, but such a bit of real inspiration untainted by racial, scholastic, or artistic prepossesÂsions needs neither explanation nor platitudinous gush.
Again the subdued chords of the introduction, and then a new melody--C sharp-minor, piu mosso--by the flutes and oboes, whose quaint charm makes a powerful
appeal to our hearts, after which the plaintive first theme reappears and the lovely close comes like a benediction.
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Â¦"FLOWER SONG", from "Carmen".......Bizet
George Allexandre' Ce'sar Leopold Bizet was born at Paris, October 25, 1838; died at Bougival, June 3, 1875.
Tschaikowsky voiced a quite general opinion when he stated that "Carmen" is the greatest opera France has produced. Naturally, he might have revised his judgÂment had he lived in our day, but it may be doubted. However, comparisons are not called for at this time. It remains to be pointed out that it is compelling both dramatically and musically. "The number on our program occurs in Act II and is considered one of the most beautiful lyrics in the work.
Don Jose: La fleur que tu m'avais jetee, Dans ma prison m'etait restee, Fletrie et seche, cette fleur Gardait toujours sa douce odeur; Â¦Et pendant des heures entieres, Sur mes yeux, fermant mes paupieres, De cette odeur je m'enivrais Et dans la nuit je te voyais! Je me prenais a te maudire, A te detester, a me dire: Pourquoi fautil que le destin L'ait mise la sur mon chemin! Puis je m'accusais de blaspheme, Et je ne sentais en moimeme, Je ne sentais qu'un seul desir, un seul espoir: Te revoir, 6 Carmen, oui, te revoir! Car tu n'avais eu qu' a paraitre, Qu' a jeter un regard sur moi, Pour t'emparer de tout mon etre,
0 ma Carmen!
Et j'etais une chose a toie! Carmen, je t'ai me!
This flower that you threw to Â¦me,
1 kept it still while in the jail,
And still the flow'r, tho' dead and dry, A sweet perfume did e'er exhale; And, thro' many a silent hour, On mine eyelids clos'd, lay the flow'r, This rare perfume was my delight; I saw your face at dead of night! Then I began to curse your name, And e'en to detest you, and t' exclaim:-Why must it be, that in my way
Fourth Concert 45
She should be set by Destiny!
Then, I'd call myself a blasphemer,
And within my heart thrill'd a tremor,
I only knew a sole desire, one hope alone:
Carmen, 'twas to see you, my own!
For hardly had you met my vision,
Or cast a single glance at me,
Of all my soul you took possession,
0 my Carmen!
And I liv'd only yours to be!
Carmen, I love you!
Frederick Delius was born at Bradford, England, 1863; still living.
The title of the composition which introduces this composer to our Festival patrons is quite in keeping with the career of the creator. Born in what might be considered at first blush the uncongenial atmosphere of an industrial center, with a father whose aspirations were entirely commercial, the young man found little to his liking in the introductory section of his "Life's Dance." It is also quite in evidence that getting close to Nature as an orange planter in Florida did not fill his soul with joy nor his portfolio with scores. Finally he kicked over the whole commercialized house of cards and hied him to Leipzig, where he devoted himself to the serious study of his chosen art. Then this son of German parents--born in England--chastened by American experience--educated in Germany--settled down as a resident of France.
Delius has been a fairly prolific composer and is one of the men with whom the future of creative art largely rests. He is decidedly original; is not obsessed by blind devotion to traditions that need dusting and, best of all, looks to real life experiences for his subjects, even to those of a lowly and commonplace nature.
The score calls for a large orchestra including what used to be called unusual instruments. In form it is very clear, though varied as one would naturally infer from its title. While it contains no hint of any of the so-called new dance rhythms-the sole theme of the "light, fantastic" type being in waltz measure--it escapes the charge of not being "up to date" by ending in an unresolved chord--but so does "Life's Dance" not infrequently.
SUITE -'PIEMONTESI," Opus 36........Sinigaglia
. Â¦ (a) Rustic Dance.
Leone Sinigaglia was born at Turin, Italy, August 14, 1868; still living.
Possibly the most cheering fact in connection with modern Italian music is again emphasized by Sinigaglia's record, for he, like Sgambati and Enrico Bossi, in reality to a greater degree than the latter, has devoted himself to forms so remote from the stage that many of his countrymen look upon such composers as he as occupying' interstellar spaces. We may not question the sincerity of such a feeling but it is cer46 Official Program Book
tainly a cause for congratulation that so many are now found who are not seduced by the footlights.
Many years ago our Festival Program included a marvellously effective concert etude for strings from his pen, and a charming overture--"Le Baruffe Chiozzotte"-was heard in the same environment in 1910. The Suite "Piemontesi" will be found no less interesting, although it moves on broader lines. The list of his works for string quartet--violin solo--and orchestra, while not large, removes him from the charge of idleness and sustains the contention that he is a very conscientious and careful worker. "Haste makes waste" in composition as well as in other fields--and with overproduction comes too frequently imputations of superficiality.
The titles of the excerpts given this evening show that he, like the majority of successful modern composers, finds inspiration in the life and activity of the folk. The "Rustic Dance"--D major--Allegro 2-4 time--is full of rhythmical verve and fitting melody, while the "Carnival" is as kaleidoscopic as the jolly event it so admirÂably portrays. There are many hints of folk-song motives in this number, as well as remembrances of themes heard in a previous movement. Any formal analysis is so superfluous that it will not be entered upon.
(a) "Singer's Consolation" ..... Robert Schumann
(b) "Ave Maria" . . . . ... Franz Schubert
(c) "Oh, thou billowy harvest-field" . . . Sergei Rachmaninoff
Those who have followed the career of the distinguished artist on our program will rejoice at the opportunity of hearing him in the beautiful group of songs chosen from the works of three great song writers. They are so well known that comment upon them would be superfluous.
"THE MINSTREL'S CONSOLATION".....R. Schumann
Though sad tears no maiden o'er my grave may shed, Flowers will with dewdrops water my lone bed 1 Though no wand'rer linger as he passes by, Yet the moon looks on it, wand'ring through the sky, Though on me no mortal cast a thought away Grove and mead are ever mindful of my lay. Flowers, groves and moonlight, stars that rise and set They their minstrel never, never will forget.
Fourth Concert 47
"AVE MARIA"..........p. Schubert
Ave Maria! Holy Maid! Oh deign to hear a maiden's vow; To thee we humbly look for aid, To thee, to thee in supplication bow. The heart with sin and sorrow laden, Beneath thy care shall find repose. Then hear, O ! hear a lowly maiden, And soothe the anguish of her woes! Ave Maria! Ave Maria!
Mother dear, the heath on which we now lie sleeping A down bed seems if thou art near, To guard us in thy holy keeping. When thy soft smile creation cheereth, To rest is lull'd the stormy gale, The moon more silv'ry white appeareth, The dew shines brighter o'er the vale, Ave Maria! Ave Maria ! Hear our pray'r. If still by thy protection blest, No spirits of the earth or air shall dare, Shall dare to break our peaceful rest. Â¦ Thy child with care and sorrow laden, In lowly supplication bows, Be near we pray thee holy Maiden, Virgin Mother hear our vows. Ave Maria!
"O THOU BILLOWY HARVEST-FIELD" .... S.Rachmaninoff
O thou billowy harvest-field of grain!
Never may'st thou be mown at a single swath,
Never may'st thou be bound in a single sheaf!
Ah, ye thoughts and ye dreams so fraught with care!
Who can garner you in heart or mind!
Who can grasp you or bind you up in words!
Over thee, O field, hurried a driving storm,
Down it bent all thy harvest of grain to earth,
All thy ripen'd seed it flung abroad!
Ah, how widely were ye scattered,
O my dreams! Yet where'er one among you has fallen to earth,
There have sprung from the soil weeds of misery,
There has flourished the bitterest heart's distress!
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RHAPSODY "ITALIA," Op. n.........Casbwa
Alfredo Casella was born at Turin, 1878; still living.
Turin appears to have come into its own in the matter of composers, for singularly-enough, two appear this evening on the same program. Almost nothing regarding Casella is available. This seems strange in the case of a composer who has produced significant works in the fields of symphonic and chamber music. It may be that his fame as a pianist has diverted attention from his more serious claims upon the world.
The work on our program was first produced April 23, 1910, at the Salle Gaveau, Paris. On the score appears the following: "The composer has endeavored to picture musically--but without any 'program' whatever--Sicilian and Neapolitan life; the first, tragic, superstitious, passionate as it is found under the scorching southern sun or in the inferno of the sulphur mines; the second the turbulent, careless, frenetic existence which may be lived amid the magic of the Gulf of Naples."
The expression marks--Lento; grave; tragico; con molto fantasia; lamentoso; Lento assai; Allegretto grazioso; piu mosso; Allegro molto vivace; Assai vivace con brio; give an inkling of the contents of the work. The range of emotion so clearly set forth above may be the more concretely stated by considering that they represent a ferocious lover, who sings a theme from the province of Caltanissetta to an unreÂsponsive and shrewish mistress; the song of the sulphur-mine workers in the same province; A Good Friday hymn; song of the female workers in the marble quarries of Catitu; and a glowing exploitation of three Neapolitan songs "Funiculi-Funicula" (Denza), "Lariula" (Mario Costa) and a fragment of "A maredriare" (Tosti). It is to be hoped that no one will object to the materials employed in the Finale, for any one who has lived in Italy, specifically Naples, knows how dear they are to the common people. Nothing that is taken to the hearts of the folk can be dismissed with a sneer.
Saturday Afternoon, May 22
LiEwei,i,yn L. Renwick, Organist.
Soloists : Margaret Keyes, Contralto; Theodore Harrison, Baritone; Mrs. Minnie Davis-Sherriia, Pianiste.
On a lovely September afternoon in 1889 the wonderful man whose name is inscribed on the memorial tablet carried by the organ to which we shall listen this afternoon, said to his companion--"I know that some day there will be a large concert organ in University Hall; that we will have fine choral and orchestral concerts; that the School of Music will become a significant and influential institution; I shall not live to see all this but you will." Not long afterwards he was taken from us.
Few of those who knew and loved him listen to the organ, or to the concerts with which we are favored, without wishing that he might be here, or feeling that his spirit may be hovering about us. So it has been felt that the Frieze Memorial Organ should be heard, not merely as a support for the chorus, as in oratorio, or as a part of the orchestral ensemble, as in many modern works, but as a solo instrument. It has also-been determined that this recital should no longer be considered a supplementary offerÂing, but should be an integral part of the Festival Series.
It will be noted that among the organ composers are many new names. This is. neither for or against the value of their offerings, for in the last decade the number of those who write for this instrument has increased very rapidly. The resources of a modern organ make possible a treatment of the instrument unknown to the older composers. The comparative merits of these treatments will not be discussed here, for these notes are explanatory rather than controversial. The wide range of nationalÂities represented is a notable feature of the program and illuminative in its revelation of the concepts of organ music obtaining in various countries. Liadow, the Russian (1855--), Capocci (1840--), the Italian, and Lendrai, whose antecedents are absolutely hidden, are balanced by Bairstow (1874--), Johnson, Faulkes, and Lemare (1870--), who are English. Macfarlane (1870--), is an American, and is at present City Organist of Portland, Maine.
In the first vocal selection Bizet (1838-1875) will appear in a new light to those who only know him as the composer of "Carmen." He was in reality one of the most versatile composers France has produced.
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In the song groups we meet a new man--Carlo Galloni (1881--) ; one of the old Italian masters--Giovanni Legrenzi (1625-1690), and two German composers whose names are household words, that is in musical households.
The texts are herewith given:-"AGNUS DEI" . ........Bizet
Agnus Dei! qui tollis peccata mundi, Miserere nobis. Dona nobis pacem.
Lamb of God, thou that takest away the world's guilt, O have compassion upon us. May thy peace be with us.
Lungi su 1'ali del canto
Di qui lungi recare ti vo
La nei campi noriti del santo Gange
Un luogo bellissimo io so.
Le viole bisbiglian vezzose
Guardan gli astri su in alto passar
E tra loro si chinan' le rose odorose .
Novelle a contar
Oh! che sensi di pace e di calma
Beveremo nell'aura cola,
Sogneremo seduti a una palma
Lunghi sogni di felicita.
"CHE FIERO COSTUME" .......Giovanni Legrenzi
Che fiero costume
che a forza di pene si faccia adorar!
E pur nell'ardore
il Dio traditore
un vago sembiante mi fe'idolatrar.
Che crudo destino
Che un cieco bambino
con bocca di latte si faccia stimar!
Ma questo tiranno
con barbaro inganno,
entrando per gli occhi, mi fe'sospirar.
Fifth Concert 51
VII. "DER NEUGIERIGE"........Fr. Schubert
Ich frage keine Blunie.
Ich frage keinen Stern,
Sie konnen mir alle nicht sagen,
Was ich erfuhr' so gern,.
Ich bin ja auch kein Gartner,
Die Sterne steh'n zu hoch,
Mein Bachlein will ich fragen,
Ob mich meiu Herz belog.
O Bachlein meiner Liebe,
Wie bist du heut' so stumm,
Will ja nur Eines wissen, Ein Wortchen um und um. Ja, heisst das eine Wortchen, Das ander heisset Nein, Die beiden Wortchen schliesen Die ganze Welt mir ein. O Bachlein meiner Liebe, Was bist du wunderlich! Will's ja nicht weiter sagen, Sag, Bachlein, liebt sie mich
Wenn du es wiisstest,
was triiumen heisst, von brennenden Kiissen,
von Wandern und Ruhen mit der Geliebten, Aug.' in Auge,
und Kosend und Plaudernd,-wenn du es wiisstest,
du neigtest dein Herz!
Wenn du es wiisstest
Was bangen heisst in einsamen Nachten,
umschauert vom Sturm,
da niemand trostet milden Mundes
di Kampfmiide Seele,-wenn du es wiisstest,
du kamest zu mir,
Wenn du es wiisstest,
was leben heisst,
umhaucht von der Gottheit weltschaffendem Atem,
zu schweben empor, lichtgetragen,
zu seligen Hohn,
Wenn du es wiisstest,
du lebtest mit mir.
Far away on the wings of song, Far from here do I wish to take thee. There in the flowering fields of the sacred Ganges A beautiful spot I know. The violets whisper happily As they watch the passing clouds; And among them bend the lovely roses, New tales to each other relating. Oh, what a sense of peace and calm We will drink in that lovely place; Dreaming, while resting under palms, Our long, happy dreams of bliss.
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"CHE FIERO COSTUME".......Giovanni Legrbnzi
The fates in derision have writ their decision, That love's sweet emotion should waken our cries! But Cupid' is master, so let come disaster! A vision all fleeting's the thing that I prize.
For sad tho' it may be, this blind little baby, Scarce weaned from his father, should make me unwise, This tyrant untender, of hearts the rude render, Entrancing my senses, hath fill'd me with sighs.
a. "DER NEUGIERIGE".........Schubert
I ask no flow'r the question, No star invoke to show, For neither can ever tell me What I should like to know.
0 brooklet, my beloved, Thou ne'er wast dumb before,
1 seek to know but one thing, One brief word o'er and o'er.
I am no ready gard'ner, The stars are all too high,
My brooklet, tell me, can I Upon my heart rely "Yes," is one speedy answer; 'The other, it is "No;" Each little word containing My fate on earth below.
0 brooklet, my beloved,
How strange thou seem'st to be,
1 ne'er will tell thy secret, Say that she loves but me.
If you but knew, sweet, what 'tis to dream
Of fond, burning kisses, of wand'ring and resting
With the beloved one; gazing fondly, caressing and chatting.
Could I but tell you, your heart would assent.
If you but knew, sweet, the anguish of waking, Through nights long and lonely, And rocked by the storm, when no one is near, To sooth and comfort the strife-weary spirit, Could I but tell you, you'd come, sweet, to me.
If you but knew, sweet, what living is
In the creative breath of God, Lord and Maker;
To hover, upborne on dove-like pinions
To regions of light. If you knew it.
Could I but tell you, you'd dwell, sweet, with me.
Saturday Evening, May 22
"THE CHILDREN'S CRUSADE" . . . . -. . . . Pierne A 'Musical Legend in Four Parts for Solo Voices, Choruses and Orchestra.
ALLYS...........Miss Olive Kline
ALAIN..........Miss Leonora Allen
A MOTHER........Miss Ada Grace Johnson
THE NARRATOR ........Mr. Lambert Murphy
AN OLD SAILOR ) .-, Â