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UMS Concert Program, May 2, 3, 4, 5 1917: Twenty-fourth Annual May Festival Of The University Of Michigan -- Choral Union Series

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Season: 1916-1917
Complete Series: CCCVII
Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan

Vti OF 1111
Annual May Festival
May 2, 3, 4, 5 1917
Board of Directors
FRANCIS W. KELSEY, Ph.D., LL.D...... ' . President
HARRY B. HUTCHINS, LL.D.......Vice-President
DURAND W. SPRINGER, B.S........Secretary
LEVI D. WINES, C.E..........Treasurer
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A.M., Mus.D. ... . . Musicai, Director
Business Manager.
Edward Elgar Frederick Stock Albert A. Stanley . Louise Homer Morgan Kingston Christine Miller gustaf holmquist . Ethel Leginska Amelita Galli-Curci Richard Keys Biggs Anna Schram-Imig . Giuseppe Verdi Maude Fay Giovanni Martinelli Margarete Matzenauer Giuseppe De Luca Lois M. Johnston William Wade Hinshaw Chase B. Sikes
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List of Concerts and Soloists
Mme. Louise Homer, Contralto
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Frederick Stock, Conductor
Elgar CAST
Gerontius . . . . . . Mr. Morgan Kingston
Priest ......Mr. Gustaf Holmquist
Assistants......The Choral Union
part ii Soul of Gerontius .... Mr. Morgan Kingston
Angel.......Miss Christine Miller
Angel of the Agony .... Mr. Gustaf Holmquist Demons, Angelicals, Souls . . . The Choral Union
Mr. Earl V. Moore, Organist The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
Miss Ethel Leginska, Pianist "The Walrus and the Carpenter" . .¦ Fletcher
Special Children's Chorus
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Frederick Stock and Albert A. Stanley, Conductors
Mme. Amelita Galli-Curci, Soprano
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Frederick Stock, Conductor
Richard Keys Biggs, Organist Mrs. Anna Schram-Imig, Mezzo-Soprano
" A I D A "
(Opera in Four Acts)
Aida........Miss Maude Fay
Amneris . . . . Mme. Margarete Matzenauer
High Priestess.....Miss Lois M. Johnston
Radames.....Signor Giovanni Martinelli
Amonasro.....Signor Giuseppe De Luca
Ramphis.....Mr. William Wade Hinshaw
The King......Mr. Gustaf Holmquist
The Messenger .....Mr. Chase B. Sikes
Priests, Priestesses, Soldiers, Ministers, and Captains, The People, Slave Prisoners . . . The Choral Union The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
First May Festival Concert
Mme. Louise Homer, Contralto
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
OVERTURE--"Othello," Opus, 93 Dvorak
ARIAS--(a) "Ombra mai fu," from "Xerxes" Handel
(b) "'Che faro senza Euridice," from "Orpheus et
Euridice" Gluck
Mme. Louise Homer
SYMPHONY, No. 3, F major, Opus 90 Brahms
Allegro con brio; Andante; Poco allegretto; Allegro
ARIA--"Nobil Signor," from "The Prophet"
MmE. Homer
ARIA--"O don fatale," from "Don Carlos"
MmE. Homer
SYMPHONIC POEM, "Finlandia," Opus 26, No. 7
Deuus Verdi
Second May Festival Concert
INCIDENTAL MUSIC AND FUNERAL MARCH from "Grania and Diarmid," Opus 42
GERONTIUS Mr. Morgan Kingston
THE PRIEST Mr. Gustaf Holmquist
SOUL OF GERONTIUS Mr. Morgan Kingston
ANGEL Miss Christine Miller
ANGEL OF THE AGONY Mr. Gustaf Holmquist
Mr. Earl V. Moore, Organist
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
Prelude.-(Orchestra). Tenor Solo (Gerontius). Chorus (Assistants). Tenor Solo (Gerontius). Chorus (Assistants). Tenor Solo (Gerontius).
Tenor Solo (Gerontius). Chorus (Assistants). Tenor Solo (Gerontius). Bass Solo (The Priest).-Chorus (Assistants).
Part II
Introduction.--( Orchestra). Tenor Solo (Soul of Gerontius). Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). Dialogue, Tenor and Mezzo-Soprano. Chorus (Demons). Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). Chorus (Demons). Dialogue, Tenor and Mezzo-Soprano. Chorus (Angelicals). Tenor Solo (Soul). Chorus (Angelicals). Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel).
Tenor Solo (Soul). Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). Chorus (Tutti).
Dialogue, Mezzo-Soprano and Tenor. Bass Solo (Angel of the Agony). Chorus (Voices on Earth). Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). Tenor Solo (Soul). Chorus (Souls in Purgatory). Mezzo-Soprano Solo (Angel). Chorus (Souls). Chorus (Angelicals).
Third May Festival Concert
SOLOIST Miss Ethel Leginska, Pianist
Children's Chorus The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Mr. Albert A. Stanley and Frederick Stock, Conductors
NATIONAL ANTHEM, "My Country Tis of Thee" Carey
SYMPHONY, C MAJOR, "Jupiter" (Kochel 551) Mozart
Allegro vivace; Andante cantabile; Menuetto; Molto allegro
CONCERTO FOR PIANOFORTE, No. 4, D minor, Opus 70, Rubinstein Moderato; Moderato assai; Allegro assai
Fourth May Festival Concert
Mme. AmElita Gauj-Curci, Soprano Mr. Frederick A. Stock, Conductor
Mendelssohn Mozart
OVERTURE--"Fingal's Cave"
ARIA--from "The Magic Flute"
Mme. Amewta Gaiai-Curci
SYMPHONY NO. 3, E major
Allegro con brio; Andante; Presto; Allegro con brio
ARIA--"Caro Nome," from "Rigoletto"
Mme. Galli-Curci
(a) "Molly on the Shore"
(b) "Mock Morris"
(c) "Shepherd's Hey"
ARIA--"Bell Song," from "Lakme"
Mme. Galu-Curci
"SIEGFRIED'S RHINE JOURNEY," from "Die Gotterdammerung"
Photo by Rcnlschler
Fifth May Festival Concert
Mr. Richard Keys Biggs, Organist Mrs. Anna Schram-Imig, Mezzo-Soprano
Miss Frances Louise Hamilton, Accompanist
SONATA in G minor Allegro moderato; Allegro pesante; Andante grazioso; Finale PlUTTI
THREE SONGS: (a) "Schmerzen" Ob) "Zur Ruh" (c) "Zueignung" Mrs. Anna Schram-Imig Wagner Wolp Strauss
MEDITATION from ist Symphony Widor
FANTASIA in C minor Bach
"CHANT de PRINTEMPS" . ¦ Bonnet
"ELFES" Bonnet
(a) "I Am Thy Harp" (b) "The Cry of Rachel" (c) "The Bird of the Wilderness" Mrs. Schram-Imig t Woodman Salter Horsman
"XIEBESTOD," from "Tristan" Wagner
OVERTURE--"Sakuntala" Goujmark
Sixth May Festival Concert
Verdi (An Opera in Four Acts)
CAST AIDA Miss Maude Fay
AMNERIS Mme. Margarete Matzenauer
HIGH PRIESTESS Miss Lois M. Johnston
RADAMES ' Signor Giovanni Martinelli
AMONASRO Signor Giuseppe De Luca
RAMPHIS " Mr. William Wade Hinshaw
THE KING Mr. Gustaf Holmquist
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
Act I
Introduction (Ramphis). Romanza (Radames). Duet (Amneris and Radames). Terzet (Amneris, Radames, Aida). Scene and Ensemble (The above with
the King, Ramphis, Messenger and
Battle-Hymn (The King, etc.) Scene (Aida). Chorus of Priestesses. Dance of Priestesses. Prayer (Ramphis and Chorus).
Act II
Chorus of Women.
Scene and Duet (Aida, Amneris).
Finale and Chorus.
Egyptian March.
Chorus op Victory.
Scene, Ensemble, and Chorus.
Prayer (Chorus of Priests and Priestesses).
Romanza (A'ida, Amneris). Scene and Duet (A'ida, Amonasro). Duet (Radames, A'ida). TerzET (Radames, Aida, Amonasro).
Act IV
Scene (Amneris). Duet (Amneris, Radames).
Judgment-Scene (Ramphis and Chorus;
Amneris). Scene and Duet (Radames, A'ida).
Descriptive Programs
by the University Musical Society
Ann Arbor, Mich.
Our patrons are invited to inspect the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments in the Foyer of the First Balcony and the adjoining room.
To study the evolution, it is only necessary to view the cases in their numerical order and remember that in the wall cases the evolution runs from right to left and from the top to the bottom, while the standard cases should always be approached on the left hand side. Descriptive lists are attached to the cases.
The conductor of the choral concerts desires to express his great obligation to Miss Florence B. Potter, Supervisor of Music in the Ann Arbor Public Schools, for her valuable services in the preparation of the Children's Choruses, and also to the Teachers, who always lend their loyal support.
Aii Concerts Will Begin on Time
Photo by Aimc Dtipont
Wednesday Evening, May 2
OVERTURE--"Othello," Op. 93........Dvorak
Antonin Dvorak was born in Miihlhausen, September 8, 1841; died in Prague, May 1, 1904.
Dvorak is the only European composer who became domesticated on this side of the Atlantic. Others, like Rubinstein, Tschaikowsky, and Strauss, have paid us visits, from which they returned none the poorer, and Mahler for a time transferred his activity as conductor from Vienna to New York. But Dvorak really settled in our midst and gave inspiration and direction to many of our native composers through his instruction and example. As a final claim on our interest he based his "New World" symphony on material bearing the stamp "Made in the United States." Not stopping to discuss how much of this material was native, how much Bohemian, and how much Dvorak, it is a fact that through this work and the activities which filled his life while sojourning in our midst, we have had a rather personal interest in him.
"Othello" is the third of a cycle of overtures in which "In der Natur" and the "Carnival" are included. They are closely bound together through the following theme,
called the "Nature" motive. To quote from E. Emerson, whose analysis of Dvorak's work reflects the master's ideas, this motive voices "the reflections of an humble individual who observes and is moved by the manifold signs of the unchangeable laws of the Universe." The three overtures are the unfolding of the three great forces of the Universe, Nature, Life and Love. It will be seen that the three should be heard in immediate succession to produce their full effect.
The overture on our program, as laid bare in its title, pictures the ferocious love of the Moor, which, over-mastered by an insane jealousy, leads to the tragic
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death of Desdemona. The score is not intended to literally follow the course of action revealed in Shakespeare's tragedy, but, to quote again from the same source, "rather to portray the after revery of a man whose imagination has been kindled by the theme of the play!" If this be the case, we may see that a genius may be less hampered in the expression of elemental emotional forces if he follows, not a prescribed program, but allows freedom of utterance to his convictions of the probable inter-working of these forces, for it is only through absolute conviction on his part that he can attain results that will convince others. Again, it would seem that the most fitting preparation for the auditor is to read the play, or at least this scene, and to listen with the kindled imagination whose free exercise leads to real appreciation. The musical analysis will, therefore, be restricted to the statement that the prevailing key is F sharp minor.
ARIAS--(a) "Ombra mia fu," from "Xerxes" ....'. Handel (b) "Che faro senza Euridice," from "Orpheus" . . . Gi,uck
Mme. Louise Homer.
(a) "Ombra mai fu," from "Xerxes" . . . . . . Handel
George Friedrich Handel was born at Halle, February 23, 1695; died at London, April 14, 1759.
We can have but a faint idea of the great popularity of Handel as an opera composer. His activity in this field began in Hamburg with the production of "Almira" and "Nero" in 1705, when he was but twenty years of age, and continued till 1741, with more or less success. After this date he was known as the master of the oratorio. In the disastrous "War of the Opera Houses" in London, neither through his genius, nor the fact that, through the purifying fire of naturalization an "e" was added to "Georg;" his middle name Anglicized; "a" substituted for "a" in his surname, and the whole prefixed by Mr. instead of "Herr," could he maintain his hold on the public. The presence of more distinguished singers on his rival's (Bononcini) stage was the real reason for this defection. An examination of the receipts of modern opera houses will show that this reason is still operative.
"Xerxes" (1738) must be placed in the comparatively small list of Handel's failures, but no one of his operas contained any melody that has been heard with such pleasure by so many people as the "Largo" from this "failure." It seems to embody the soul of the violin, and in this there is a poetic suggestion. The hero of the opera, Xerxes, finding shelter from the burning sun under the shade of a plane tree, addresses to it a glowing apostrophe, beginning "Thy shade gives rest." Of the fifty-seven parts making up the violin, the larger number are of maple (plane tree). The wood is always taken from the sunny side of the tree, the side which intercepting the rays of the sun, makes possible the shade. Thus this melody, which was the musical setting of the hero's expression of gratitude, when sung by violins, may be considered a tribute to the "author of their being."
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The text of the beautiful aria, through which we may become further acquainted with the opera, runs its course as given below, while the melody is the one to which reference has been made.
XERXES--Clad in verdure green thy branches, As once more, friend, I greet thee, My fate now thou shalt read me. Thunder, lightning, brooding Tempest, come not here to disturb Thy peaceful shadows. The north's savage cruelties Long may they spare thee! Thy blossoms fair, Shedding rare radiance, Wafting soft fragrance, Perfume the air.
(b) "Che faro senza Euridice" from "Orpheus" .... Gluck
Christoph Willibald Gluck was born in Weidenwang, July 2, 1714; died in Vienna, November 24, 1787.
With full consciousness of his own exalted genius, for he was not given to self-depreciation, for which he had no reason, and with due appreciation of the then existing situation, Handel felt justified in saying of Gluck, "He knows no more counterpoint than my cook." In the "then existing situation," viz., the mortifying failure of "Pyramus and Thisbe," through which Gluck expected to win the applause of the London public, it was a crushing deliverance but, in the light of the future work of the despised German composer, it loses its force. Gluck's failures, like Wagner's, were "stepping stones to success." As a result of this particular failure he turned to philosophy and aesthetics for remedies, the application of which might remove the weaknesses of the prevailing type of opera. Possibly in the fact that Handel knew no more of these subjects "than his cook," we may find the reason for the oblivion in which his operas are shrouded, and the vitality of certain operas of Gluck. As it is impossible to detail the steps leading to Gluck's conclusions, the result of his thinking will be given in his artistic Declaration of Independence proclaimed in the Preface to "Alceste" in the year 1776. The statement is so interesting, because it clearly details the real evils that beset the form, that it is given in full:
"When I undertook to set 'Alceste' to music I resolved to avoid all those abuses which had crept into Italian Opera through the mistaken vanity of singers, and the undue compliance of composers, and which rendered it wearisome and ridiculous instead of being, as it once was, the grandest and most inspiring stage of modern times. I endeavored to reduce music to its proper function--that of seconding poetry--by enforcing the expression of the sentiment, and the interest of the situation without interrupting the action or weakening it by superfluaus ornament. My idea was that the relation of music to poetry was much the same as that of harmonious
16 Official Program Book
coloring and well disposed light and shade to an accurate drawing--which animates the figures without altering the outline. I have, therefore, been very careful never to interrupt a singer in the heat of a dialogue in order to introduce a tedious ritornelle, nor to stop him in the middle of a piece either for the purpose of displaying the flexibility of his voice on some favorite vowel, or that the orchestra might give him time to take breath before a long sustained note. Furthermore, I have not thought it right to hurry through the second part of a song, if the words happened to be the most important of the whole, in order to repeat the first regularly four times over, or to finish the aria where the sense does not end, in order that the singer might be allowed to exhibit his power of varying the passage at pleasure. In fact my object was to put an end to abuses against which good taste and good sense have long protested in vain. My idea was that the overture ought to prepare the spectators for the character of the piece they are about to hear; that the instruments ought to be introduced in proportion to the degree of interest or passion in the words; that it was necessary above all to avoid too great a discrepancy between the air of a dialogue and the preceding recitative, so as not to break the sense of a period or awkwardly interrupt the movement and animation of a scene. I also thought that my chief endeavor should be to attain a grand simplicity, consequently I have avoided making a parade of difficulties at the cost of clearness. I have set no value on novelty as such, unless it was naturally suggested by the situation and suited to the expression, in short, there was no rule which I did not consider myself bound .to sacrifice for the sake of effect."
A full century later, Bayreuth was dedicated to the production of the music-dramas of a greater than he, one whose art was the fruition of the principles enunciated by Gluck.
In "Orpheus" (1762), which yields the aria on our program (Act III, Scene 2), we find a restraint, lucidity and appreciation of the dramatic implications of the subject, quite convincing in their testimony to the fact, that, although his convictions had not then been given formal utterance, they dominated his art.
The English translation of the text (sung in Italian) is as follows:
Orpheus--Alas! why hast thou left me,
Left me to suffer in a madness of love, loved one
Euridice, Euridice, my own one,
She no longer lives, I seek her in vain.
O what mis'ry to lose her, lose her again and forever!
0 judgment, O sad death, cruel recollection!
1 have no helper, nought gives me consolation, Nought can I image, O fearful vision, Nought but the dark gloomy aspect,
The horrors of my being.
Now fate may wreak her vengeance, I am despairing.
Live without my Euridice! Can I live without my love In my woe, where can I go
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Whither wander with no love Euridice! O Heaven! now tell me, O tell me, I am forever thy true lover.
Thro' darkness groping no help given,
Nothing hoping from Earth or Heav'n,
Live without my Euridice, whither wander with no love
In my woe where can I go, whither wander without my love
SYMPHONY, No. 3, F major, Opus 90.......Brahms
Allegro con brio; Andante; Poco allegretto; Allegro Johannes Brahms was born May 7, 1833, at Hamburg; died April 3, 1897, at Vienna.
In many instances to be the subject of prophecy is to be severely handicapped, and undoubtedly for many years Johannes Brahms was hampered, in so far as his appreciation was concerned, by the glowing terms in which Robert Schumann proclaimed his advent. As in the case of Chopin, whose genius he immediately recognized, time has proven the truth of his sweeping assertions, for Schumann is recognized as one of the few justified prophets of his day.
An analysis of Schumann's genius will clearly reveal the source of his prophetic declaration, for he had so much in common with Brahms that he detected the true note ringing in the early, unmatured work of the young composer. Brahms' power was the result of a long period of assimilation and proving, as has been the case in many other instances, and while progressive in his point of view, he was not swept off his feet by the surge of the incoming dramatic tide, but remained comi-paratively unaffected by movemerts that but circled about him while they engulfed others. He was responsive to the subtle suggestions of romanticism, but his love for the symmetry of classicism made it possible for him to preserve poise and dignity. That this dignity was neither rigid nor cold is shown by his songs, than which no more perfect revelations of genuine emotion have been cast in that form. His symphonies bear witness to his scholarship and power of sustained effort, no less than his chamber-music, while his songs reveal tender aspects. That he is one of the great symphonists is now conceded, and the symphony on our program will substantiate the claim of his followers and expose the reasons for the concession.
The F major symphony was written at Wiesbaden in the years 1882-3. At its first performance, under Hans Richter (Vienna, December 2, 1883), it was received with enthusiasm, and musical cognoscenti and the critics--the two are not always synonomous--agreed that it was his greatest work. It has been compared to Beethoven's "Eroica" symphony. The story of "Hero and Leander," and the atmosphere of a "forest idyll" were suggested by Joachim and Clara Schumann, respectively, as its meaning. The suggestion of the latter, that the first movement represented "the splendor of awakening day streaming through the trees" has found many a response since it was put forth--and may this evening.
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The first movement--F major, 6-4 time, Allegro con brio--opens with the following glorious material:
It must be noted that the melody of the first three measures constitutes a veritable motto, which is introduced in a most genial manner at various stages in the development of the movement. Enthusiasm for the glowing inspiration of this virile theme may lead one to overlook the "cross relation" between the A natural of the violins (3d measure, 5th beat) and the A flat of the basses (4th measure) ; if so, all the better. Brahms was not disturbed by it, why should we notice it Modern composers are frankly heterodox in such matters.
Preceded by a modulatory section, the song-like second subject--A major, 9-4 time--is given voice.
This pastoral duo-clarinet and bassoon--flows as naturally between the strings below and the flute above as a brook runs between its banks. In this theme we may-discover Brahms, the immortal song-writer.
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The following simple and melodious theme--C major, Common time, Andante espressivo--dominates the second movement
An exquisite touch, given to these opening measures by the repetition of the last three notes of this charming melody in a lower octave, should be noted.
Quite in keeping with the prevailing melodico-harmonic scheme underlying this movement is the following genial theme.
The themes quoted do not constitute all the material employed, as will be seen as the artistic plan is put forth, but they are the dominating factors.
The third movement--C minor, 3-8 time, Poco Allegretto--immediately proclaims its principal thematic material through the violoncellos.
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Then quickly follow further treatments, by the violins, flutes, oboes and horns, successively. The wood-wind choir figures in the Trio--A flat major--followed
by a contrasting tranquil song by the strings. The theme is further manipulated with a scholarship imbued with poetry, and the movement is brought to a close by the usual coda.
The musical quotations given for the fourth movement--F minor, 2-2 time, Allegro--especially the last two, will show that his themes were cast in an heroic mold. The first,
beginning e sotto voce, leads into a strophic theme in A flat major (strings and wind), succeeded by the following second subject
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so full of buoyant power, even though it is not as sonorous as the following "subsidiary."
With such inspiring material at his disposal the composer now elaborates it in accordance with the principles of the sonata-form, and ends with the motto of the initial measures of the first movement. Just what was in Brahms' mind when he wrote this work we may not know, but that his ideals were noble and true, their revelation in this symphony bears witness.
CAVATINA--"Nobil Signor," from "The Prophet" .... Meyerbeer
Mme. Homer.
Giacomo Meyerbeer was born September 5, 1791, at Berlin; died, May 2, 1864, at Paris.
With reference to Meyerbeer's art much has been written, much of praise, and, possibly more of disapproval. Many have followed the lead of Wagner, who said "he wished to produce an effect without an adequate cause," ignoring the statement in the same article (Oper und Drama) that, "he occasionally rises to great heights." Meyerbeer was most emphatically a creature of his age, and the age of Napoleon the Little--the period of his greatest vogue--was not conspicuous for idealism. It may also be stated that Meyerbeer was not so abundantly supplied with artistic conscientiousness as to deliberately, or accidentally, if he could prevent it, run counter to the tastes of his public, in order that he might enforce an ideal of little, or no, value to the box-office. The occasional "great heights" satisfied his followers, who willingly sat through deserts of recitative that they might be fascinated by the oases of melody occurring therein--of a type that put no tension on their intellects22 Official Program Book
and be thrilled by the electric suns, the blowing up of palaces, and the dancing of those who forsook their graves that they might contribute to the pleasure of the Parisians--primarily--and the rest of the world incidentally.
In "Les Hugenots" the composer attained real greatness. This was probably due to the fact that he had a subject worthy of the highest type of genius. The bloody events of St. Bartholomew's Night (August 24, 1572) yielded material from which his co-workers, Eugene Scribe and Emile Deschamps, elaborated a libretto full to overflowing with situations adapted to his sensational style. The dramatic value of this material is attested by its use in at least six tragedies by worthy dramatists, including Dumas. As early as 1690, a tragedy entitled "The Massacre at Paris," by R. Lee, was given in London. This work is of especial interest in that the music was written by Henry Purcell (1658-1695) in the years of his artistic maturity.
The aria on this evening's program occurs in Act I, Scene 9, and is one in which we may find the composer's art convincingly displayed. It must be said that Meyerbeer thoroughly understood the art of writing for the voice. Stress should also be laid on his masterful use of the orchestra, even though he was sometimes quite ready to throw restraint to the winds and give to it unbridled license of expression.
The English translation of the text (sung in Italian) runs as follows:
Urbino--Say, gentle page, what seek you at the castle My noble Knights, I hail you, I hail you!
Pure and noble is the lady fair
Whom a King with pride might woo, She confides this letter to my care, Noble Sirs, for one of you! I dare not name him, but may he prove, For ever worthy of so much love! You may believe me, that gallant knight Never was so grac'd by lady bright, no, no, no! etc.
Fear me not, for what I tell you,
Noble Sirs, the truth will prove;
Now adieu and heav'n defend you
Both in war and in love.
Now adieu, Noble Sirs, heav'n defend you in your love.
"A DANCE RHAPSODY"..........Dblius
Frederick Delius was born at Bradford, England, January 29, 1863.
That a wreath of orange blossoms has positive sociological value has long been known, but it remained for Frederick Delius to demonstrate that an orange plantation might be a stimulus to musical creation. This composer, whose name appears
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on the program this evening by virtue of his "Dance Rhapsody," an Englishman by birth, an American by accident, and a Frenchman by preference, is frankly a modernist. If, from his point of view the field in which the musical cubists and nihilists disport themselves is in plain sight, he has not yet joined the ranks of the harmonic contortionists and melodic iconoclasts who there are preparing to astonish an unenlightened world. It may be that his work with Reinicke and Jadassohn, at Leipzig, served as a restraining influence, for, however great one's" respect and affection for these masters may be, it is unmixed with any element of wonder at their daring ventures in localities where no paths trodden by preceding generations exist. It may be that the life portrayed in the composition played at a recent Festival (1915) was rather too strenuous for those who prefer bright sunlight to deep shadows, and it is to be hoped that the present composition, which has been received with decided favor elsewhere, will remove any doubt as the claim of Delius to an honorable position in the group of productive modern composers. "A Dance Rhapsody" was composed in 1908 and first heard at the Hereford Festival the following year.
ARIA--"O don fatale," from ''Don Carlos".......VfiRDl
Mme. Homer.
Guiseppi Verdi was born at Roncole, October 9, 1813; died at Milan, January 17, 1901.
"Don Carlos," from which the aria through which the Italian master makes his first appeal in this series is taken, was produced at Paris, March 11, 1867. In it Verdi gave evidence of the growth, both on the musical and dramatic side, which culminated in the works which, beginning with "Aida" (1871), belong to his third period of creative activity. It was not received with enthusiasm, indeed its success was but moderate. Whether this was due to a lack of perception on the part of the public, or the absence of qualities compelling success we may not know, but the infrequency with which it is given would seem to indicate that it did not possess elements of popularity. This judgment, or, more strictly speaking, opinion, need not be considered final, for the history of opera is full of instances in which the verdict of the public ran counter to the evidence. The text of this aria, which will be sung in Italian, is herewith appended in an English translation:
Oh fatal dower, oh cruel gift,
That in their fury the heavens did grant me!
Thou who canst make us so vain and haughty,
My curse is on thee!
Yea, curses for my beauty bright!
With bitter tears my heart is riven,
Hope never comes in sorrow's night.
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No torture may wipe out my crime, so great That it may call for sacrifice of life. My curse is on thee, O beauty bright! Ah! my curse is on thee, O beauty bright!
O Queen adored, I sacrific'd thee,
0 foolish error of this loving heart!
In some lone convent where none can find me,
1 can conceal my wild despair. Alas! alas! O Queen adored.
Oh heav'n! and Carlo--condemned tomorrow, he may be!
Great heav'ns!
Ah! one day is left .
"Tis hope sweetly dawning!
I'll save him yet! One day is left me,
Ah! thanks to heav'n, yes, thanks to heav'n, I'll save him now!
TONE POEM--"Finlandia," Op. 26, No. 7......Sibelius
Jean Sibelius was born at Tavesthus, Finland, December 8, 1865.
The wealth of folk song Finland has produced, and the love of the peasants for these naive melodies, have long predicated the advent of one who should draw on her epics, and the rich treasury just mentioned, for material to be set in the serious forms. One could not say in more enduring form, for true folk-music always lives, and nothing can dampen the enthusiasm of the folk for the songs in which all the varied aspects of their life, both individual and communal, are mirrored and their lessons enforced. In days now happily gone forever, let us hope, the Russians found that no punishment could restrain the ardor with which Finnish soldiers sung their home-songs when on the march.
It would seem that in the person of Jean Sibelius they have at last found the medium through which their musical concepts would come to such fullness of expression that the note from what used to be called the "outer circle" would sound convincingly. How thoroughly he is fitted for this task is shown by the following statement recently made by him: "There is a mistaken impression in the press abroad that my themes are often folk-melodies. So far I have never used a theme that is not of my own invention. Thus the thematic material of "Finlandia" and "En Saga" is entirely my own." This means that he is so permeated by the racial spirit that his voice is that of the folk. Realizing this, it is no wonder that the return of an exile to his native land, after a prolonged sojourn in foreign parts finds such adequate expression in the work we shall hear this evening. "Finlandia" is scored for the full and sonorous orchestra of our day. In form it is somewhat free, but there is no departure from the logical development, sanely ordered contrast, and appropriate color scheme, the absence of which is indicative of a nihilistic concept of freedom.
Thursday Evening, May 3
Edgar William Elgar was born at Broadheath (near Worcester), England, June 2, 1857.
Incidental Music and Funeral March, from "Grania and Diarmid."
Nothing can be more romantic than the content of most of the Celtic legends. That this flavor of romanticism is associated with the bloodiest incidents imaginable cannot take away from its poetic suggestiveness. One of the most interesting of these traditions forms the subject of the first number on this program. Three characters are involved in the story--Fion, or Fin MacCumhail, a hero of the time of King Cairbre, and who was slain in one of the innumerable battles of this epoch--(3rd century); Grania, or Granniae, daughter of King Cormac, and Fian's betrothed; and Diarmid, a man of mighty prowess, and unique in that he was neither a king nor the son of a king, a rare distinction in those days in Ireland.
Diarmid had a ball seirce (beauty spot) on his shoulder, and one day Grania, sitting at the window of her Grinaan (chamber), saw it and could not resist falling in love with him. In some versions this beauty spot is given as a mole on his forehead, to conceal which he always pulled his cap down to his eyes. The various versions agree that this irresistible charm was laid bare as he took part in an athletic game. The character and location of the ball seirce is of little importance in view of its effectiveness. It must be borne in mind that in those days neither limousines nor bank accounts could work their magic spell.
She laid Geasa on him, thus obliging him to follow her will and fly with her. The flight and pursuit of the elopers covered several years, and was brought to a sudden end by the death of Diarmid, who was slain by an enchanted boar, "of green color, and without ears or a tail." That all this is true is attested by standing stones, which the peasants still point out as the "Beds of Diarmid and Grania."
Elgar's setting of certain incidents in this Irish version of Venus, Adonis, and the boar, consists of a short movement based on two simple themes, and a March--A minor, 4-4 time, Maestoso--which runs along orthodox lines. The composition bears the Opus No. 42, and was played for the first time in this country on November 13, 1903, by the orchestra which will bring it to our attention this evening.
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"THE DREAM OF GERONTIUS," Op. 38.....Elgar
GERONTIUS.....Mr. Morgan Kingston
THE PRIEST . . . ... Mr. Gustaf Holmquist
ASSISTANTS......The Choral Union
SOUL OF GERONTIUS . . Mr. Morgan Kingston
ANGEL ...... Miss Christine Miller
ANGEL OF THE AGONY . . Mr. Gustaf Holmquist DEMONS, ANGELICALS, AND SOULS The Choral Unioi
Mr. Earl V. Moore, Organist The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
We have come to associate with the products of English composers a directness of purpose, a certain blunt, sometimes rough, honesty of statement, and a contempt for any over-accentuation of the emotions that comport perfectly with the genius of the Anglo-Saxon race. Such admirable qualities are not to be despised, but, unfortunately, English composers were so fully dominated by Handel and Mendelssohn that the originality and fervor seen in Purcell's music seemed to have been forever lost, and they drifted into a conventionality that made freedom of utterance impossible. But now that Italy seems to have exhausted herself, and Germany is unproductive--despite Richard Strauss--England seems to have entered upon a new artistic era, and in the person of Edward William Elgar we find the embodiment of a reaction against the "ways of the fathers" that is fraught with hope and laden with prophecy.
The unusual prominence given to Elgar in the programs of our great concert institutes, in reviews and in musical journals, would seem to indicate that in him we have a composer of more than ordinary significance, one of real originality.
His artistic equipment is superb, and, when we consider that he is almost entirely self-taught, the mastery he displays is every direction--especially in his control of the resources of the orchestra, in which he is only equalled by Richard Strauss--is nothing sort of marvelous. His career seems to emphasize ultra-modern art, not as the work of individual genius alone, but as an expression of the tremendous energy and complex forces conditioning modern life--and in the highest sense cosmopolitan. The query so often put as to the permanence of this movement cannot be definitely answered, but if the foregoing suggestions are correct, there can be no doubt of its sincerity--and sincerity is a condition of enduring art.
Elgar is a devout Roman Catholic. Almost ascetic in his devotion to the teachings of the Mother Church, in "Gerontius" he has blazed a new path. Attracted by subjects often out of touch with the modern point of view, he clothes these subjects in ultra-modern dress, and, more than any other, seems to have solved the problem
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of the relation of dramatic form to religious content. Living in the Malvern Hills, it was not strange that he should have given us his noble "Caractacus," which reflects England's glory and tells the story of one of the noblest of her early heroes. It may be that in the partial seclusion of his environment we may see the reason for his latest work, "The Apostles." Whether, as Ernest Newman fears, this absorption in mediaeval thought and early Christian history will react unfavorably on his work, by substituting introspection for action, and mysticism for clear cut realistic statement, time alone will tell. At all events, we must rejoice that Cardinal Newman's poem inspired him to write such a work as the one now under consideration.
Space forbids an extended analysis of the work, but certain characteristics must be pointed out, in the interest of such an appreciation of the significance of the subject, the nobility of the poetry, and the ultra-modern dramatic texture of the virile, fervid, and beautiful musical setting demand. First of all stress must be laid upon the fact that it is organic in structure. It is so closely knit together by a complicated system of typical motives, in some instances expanded into broad melodies; it is so compact in form, so entirely unlike the typical oratorio, with its solos, choruses and orchestral episodes standing unrelated side by side, that it can not come under any conventional definition of the form. It is the poem set to music in such a manner as to emphasize the unity of the idea rather than to display the variety of its utterance in single numbers, or, in other words, it is a religious work composed along the musico-dramatic lines first laid down by Richard Wagner. All the musical factors exist in combination, and no one part is subordinated to another for the sake of purely musical effects. The orchestra is delineative, and fills with subtle light and shade the more mystical parts, while in the intense dramatic episodes it is all that Wagner proclaimed it to be, both in his writings and in his practice.
Daring in conception,--the choice of subject enforces this--powerful, logical and original in the portrayal of scenes generally more effective when left to the imagination, his touch is tender when he gives such pictures as the death of Gerontius, and the 12-voiced chorus "Go on thy course," which concludes Part I. When, in Part II, the Soul of Gerontius is led by an Angel past the place where he hears the "sour and uncouth dissonances" of the Demons; and when, in response to his query, "Shall I see my dearest Master" come the ethereal harmonies of the Chorus of Angelicals, "Praise to the Holiest," which develops into a chorus in which climax succeeds climax in soul-compelling sequence, the composer rises to greatness. The queries of the Soul and the answers of the Angel are touching in their humanity, and the music often recalls the mysticism of Wagner's "Parsifal." Then the Judgment, the pleading of the Angel of the Agony for Souls "who in prison, calm and patient, wait for Thee"; the beautiful Semi-Chorus of Voices on Earth, who sing "Spare him, Lord," when he goes before his Judge, and the subdued glory of the ending, for, as though awed by the awful mystery of it all, the three choruses sing the final Amens pianissimo,--ending in a long sustained unison which vanishes as we listen.
Having now gained a general impression of the scope of the work, it may be helpful to examine details somewhat closely. The very first motive of the prelude-D-minor {Lento) common time--given by clarionets, bassoons and violas, is prophetic of the pathetic aspects of the text. Elgar has marked it mistico. As it is developed the English horn contributes fitting color. At the completion of this theme, a sustained chord of D-minor, introduces another motive of dramatic texture, which,
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alternating with a broad choral-like theme, leads into a wonderfully beautiful section, 3-4 time, con molto espressivo. This broadens into passionate utterance, only to die away in harmonies which are heard later as the soul of Gerontius takes its flight. A sustained motive, twice repeated, leads into a triumphant burst for full orchestra through which rings out a choral, which is here so important a factor that we must seek its fuller meaning in the text, "Lover of Souls I Look to Thee!" When first heard the theme may be associated with the words "Jesus have mercy; Mary pray for me!" This strong, decisive movement gives way to a repetition of the theme which led up to it, after which comes a fine treatment of the theme of the chorus, "Go forth in the name of Patriarchs and Prophets." With an echo of No. 3, and a repetition of the initial motive, the prelude, through a suggestive motive, merges into the introductory recitative for Gerontius, "Jesu Maria." This motive is constantly in evidence in this whole scene, and by reason of its plasticity stands for contrasting phases of thought. After the words "And Thou are calling me" we hear a motive which is full of significance, especially as used later in the development of the chorus, "Be merciful." The chromatic motive at the words "Not by the token of this failing breath" is delineative and suggestive. The choral theme is heard, and through this and other masterly motives, some new, and some suggested by the developments of the scene, we realize the feelings of Gerontius as he faces death and much of the mystery of dying is brought home to us as we listen. The scene is interrupted by a lovely Kyrie, mediaeval in spirit, although the harmonies occasionally betray modern usage--not to the disadvantage of the effect, and, strangely enough, with no tinge of incongruity--then, after a short recitative, "Rouse thee and play the man," introduced by the rhythmic pulse of the basses in the orchestra, comes the chorus, "Be merciful,'1 whose principal theme has in it much of the flavor of "Parsifal." And why not Suffering is the message of each. In this chorus the first motive mentioned in connection with the opening utterance of Gerontius is developed into a broad and expressive melody by the basses, "By the birth." These words have just been given an infinitely tender cantabile motive by the sopranos. This chorus is followed by a long scene, for Gerontius, in which all the varied and subtle phases of the poem are brought out in a score reflecting the latter-day eloquence of the orchestra. In this we have premonitions of the diabolical Chorus of Demons in Part II. Then the chorus, "Rescue him," divided into two parts, by responses between the semi-chorus, "Noe from the waters in a saving home," and the Amens of the chorus, after which the death of Gerontius, "Noznssima hora est . . . and I fain would sleep . . into thy hands--"
Part I ends with the proclamation of the Priest, Proficiscere, etc., and the final chorus, in the second section of which the voices seem poised in air.
Part II gives us, in the opening measures of the introduction, an impression of that peace of which the Soul of Gerontius speaks, "How still it is--I hear no more the busy beat of time." A wonderful conception of the waking of a soul now ensues. Closely bound together, unity secured by the frequent introduction of motives already heard, the score is truly delineative and expressive. At the words, "Another marvel, some one has me fast within his ample palm," we hear the motive that accompanies the Angel throughout this wonderful portrayal of the after life of a soul released from the body and hastening to its Judge. Now after the calm and comfort of the assurance of the Angel, "Thou hast forestalled the agony," and the duo, "Now that
Second Concert 29
the hour is come I can forward look with serenest joy," comes a "fierce hubbub." The Chorus of Demons, terrible in its depiction of the "hideous purring," "the incessant pacing to and fro," "the sullen howl of spirits who assembly by the judgment seat and gather souls for hell," is now heard by Gerontius, who says to the Angel, "I see not these false spirits, shall I see my dearest Master, when I reach His throne" "Yes for one moment thou shalt see thy Lord!" Then as the "sour dissonances" are heard no more, the glory of the Celestial Choir steals upon his ear. Ever gaining in intensity, piling climax on climax it finally ends in a long sustained chord. This chorus is symphonic in breadth of development, and with the short explanatory solos by the Angel, and illustrative orchestral episodes, comprises nearly one-sixth of the entire work. This is the climax judged by ordinary standards, and the most difficult artistic problem of the composition is now faced. "Thy judgment now is near," proclaims the Angel. Then Gerontius hears "the voices that on earth, around his bed, chant the 'Subvenite' with the priest." Then the pleading of the Angel of the Agony for the soul that now is to go before the Judge. The Voices on Earth sing, "Spare him Lord." Then the one glance at the glory of God, a most intense moment, with its one tremendous climax, succeeded immediately by a pianissimo, and the cry of Gerontius, "Take me away, and in the lowest depths there let me lie!" The Souls in Purgatory sing, "Lord, Thou hast been our refuge." The Angel, in a broad and eloquent melody, comforts the Soul: "Softly and gently, dearly ransomed soul; in my most loving arms I now enfold thee. And o'er the peaceful waters as they roll I poise thee, and I lower thee and hold thee. Thou shalt pass the night here; and I will come and wake thee on the morrow; farewell! Be brave and patient, brother dear." "Praise to the Holiest in the height, Amen." This by the chorus in threefold utterance. We see now that the glory of the song before the throne was but incidental. It is in this quiet ending--this suggestion of infinite peace and rest eternal that we see the real climax.
The extensive use of the technical musical apparatus of the modern music-drama, and the symphonic poem demands a word of explanation. The real reason is laid bare in Emerson's saying, "The artist must use the symbols in use in his day and generation."
Restricting the following historical proof of the force of the above quotation to sacred forms, we note that in Bach's time the prevailing structural principle was polyphony, with imitation as its norm; the symphonic style, whose expression is thematic development, was regnant in Beethoven's day, while, since Wagner's advent, the "typical motive" is the all-important medium of expression. Hence we have the B-minor Mass of Bach, Beethoven's Missa Solemnis--a symphony in five movements--and Elgar's "Gerontius," each representing the usage of its age.
Part I.
Gerontius.--Jesu, Maria--I am near to
death, And Thou are calling me; I know
it now. Not by the token of this faltering
This chill at heart, this dampness on my brow,(Jesu, have mercy! Mary, pray for
me!) " "Pis this new feeling, never felt
(Be with me, Lord, in my extremity!)
That I am going, that I am no more.
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"Tis this strange innermost abandonment, (Lover of souls! Great God! I
look to Thee."
This emptying out of each constituent And natural force, by which I came
to be.
Pray for me, O my friends; a visitant Is knocking his dire summons at
my door, The like of whom, to scare me and to
Has never, never come to me before;
So pray for me, my friends, who have not strength to pray.
Assistants.--Kyrie eleison, Christe
eleison, Kyrie eleison. Holy Mary, pray for him. All holy Angels, pray for him. Choirs of the righteous, pray for him.
All Apostles, all Evangelists, pray for
him. All holy Disciples of the Lord, pray
for him.
. All holy Innocents, pray for him. All holy Martyrs, all holy Confessors, All holy Hermits, all holy Virgins, All ye Saints of God, pray for him.
Gbrontius.--Rouse thee, my fainting
soul, and play the man; And through such waning span Of life and thought as still has to be
Prepare to meet thy God. And while the storm of that bewilderment
Is for a season spent, And, ere afresh the ruin on me fall, Use well the interval.
Assistants.--Be merciful, be gracious,
spare him, Lord.
Be merciful, be gracious; Lord, deliver him.
From the sins that are past; From Thy frown and Thine ire;
From the perils of dying; From any complying With sin, or denying His God, or relying
On self, at the last; From the nethermost fire; _
From all that is evil;
From power of the devil;
Thy servant deliver,
For once and for ever.
By Thy birth, and by Thy Cross.
Rescue him from endless loss;
By Thy death and burial,
Save him from a final fall;
By Thy rising from the tomb, By Thy mounting up above, By the Spirit's gracious love,
Save him in the day of doom.
Gerontius. -Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus,
De Profundis oro te, Miserere, Judex meus,
Parce mihi, Domine. Firmly I believe and truly
God is Three, and God is One; And I next acknowledge duly
Manhood taken by the Son. And I trust and hope most fully
In that Manhood crucified; And each thought and deed unruly
Do to death, as He has died. Simply to His grace, and wholly,
Light and life and strength belong, And I love, supremely, solely,
Him, the holy, Him the strong. Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus,
De profundis oro te, Miserere, Judex meus,
Parce, mihi, Domine. And I hold in veneration,
For the love of Him alone, Holy Church, as His creation,
And her teachings, as His own. And I take with joy whatever
Now besets me, pain or fear, And with a strong will I sever
All the ties which bind me here. Adoration aye be given,
With and through the angelic host,
To the God of earth and heaven, Father, Son, and Holy Ghost.
Sanctus fortis, Sanctus Deus, De profundis oro te,
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Miserere Judex metis,
Mortis in discrimine. I can no more; for now it comes
again, That sense of ruin, which is worse
than pain.
That masterful negation and collapse Of all that makes me man.
And, crueller still, A fierce and restless fright begins to
fill The mansion of my soul. And, worse
and worse,
Some bodily form of ill Floats on the wind, with many a
loathsome curse Tainting the hallowed air, and laughs
and flaps
Its hideous wings, And makes me wild with horror and
dismay. O Jesu, help! pray for me, Mary,
pray! Some Angel, Jesu! such as came to
In Thine own agony. Mary, pray for me. Joseph, pray for
me. Mary, pray for me.
Assistants.--Rescue him, O Lord, in
this his evil hour, As of old so many by Thy gracious
Noe from the waters in a saving
home; (Amen.)
Job from all his multiform and fell
distress; (Amen.)
Moses from the land of bondage and
despair; (Amen.)
David from Golia and the wrath of
Saul; (Amen.)
@@@@ --g0] t0 show Thy power, Rescue this Thy servant in his evil hour.
Gerontius.--Novissima hora est; and I
fain would sleep, The pain has wearied me. Into
Thy hands, O Lord, into Thy hands.
The Priest and Assistants.--Proficis-cere, anima Christiana, de hoc mundo!
Go forth upon thy journey, Christian soul!
Go from this world; Go, in the Name
of God The Omnipotent Father, who created
thee! Go, in the Name of Jesus Christ, our
Lord, Son of the living God, who bled for
thee! Go, in the Name of the Holy Spirit,
who Hath been poured out on thee! Go
in the name Of Angels and Archangels; in the
name Of Princedoms and of Powers; and
in the name
Of Cherubim and Seraphim, go forth! Go, in the name of Patriarchs and
And of Apostles and Evangelists; Of Martyrs and Confessors; in the
name Of holy Monks and Hermits; in the
name Of holy Virgins; and all Saints of
God, Both men and women, go! Go on thy
course; And may thy dwelling to-day be
found in peace, And may thy dwelling be the Holy
Mount Of Sion:--through the Same, through
Christ our Lord. Part II.
Soul of Gerontius.--I went to sleep;
and now I am refreshed, A strange refreshment: for I feel in
me An expressive lightness, and a sense
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Of freedom, as I were at length myself,
And ne'er had been before. How still it is!
I hear no more the busy beat of time,
No, nor my fluttering breath, nor struggling pulse;
Nor does one moment differ from the
This silence pours a solitariness Into the very essence of my soul; And the deep rest, so soothing and so
sweet, Hath something too of sternness and
of pain. Another marvel: _ someone has me
Within his ample palm; A uniform
And gentle pressure tells me I am
not Self-moving, but borne forward on
my way. And hark! I hear a singing; yet in
I cannot of that music rightly say Whether I hear, or touch, or taste the
tones. Oh, what a heart-subduing melody!
Angel.--My work is done, My task is o'er, And so I come, Taking it home, For the crown is won,
Alleluia, For evermore. My father gave In charge to me
This child of earth E'en from its birth, To serve and save,
And saved is he.
This child of clay ;
To me was given, To rear and train By sorrow and pain In the narrow way,
Alleluia, From earth to heaven.
Soul.--It is a member of that family Of wondrous beings, who, ere the
worlds were made, Millions of ages back, have stood
The throne of God.
I will address him.
Mighty one, my Lord,
My Guardian Spirit, all hail!
Angel.--All hail, my child! My child and brother, hail! what wouldst thou
Soul.--I would have nothing but to
speak with thee For speaking's sake. I wish to hold
with thee Conscious communion; though I fain
would know A maze of things, were it but meet to
ask, And not a curiousness.
Angel.--You cannot now Cherish a wish which ought not to be wished.
Soul.--Then I will speak. I ever had believed
That on the moment when the struggling soul
Quitted its mortal case, forthwith it fell
Under the awful presence of its God,
There to be judged and set to its own place,
What lets me now from going to my Lord
Angel.--Thou art not let; but with extremest speed
Art hurrying to the Just and Holy Judge.
Soul.--Dear Angel, say,
Why have I now no fear at meeting Him
Along my earthly life, the thought of
And judgment was to me most terrible.
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Angel.--It is because Then them didst fear, that now thou
dost not fear. Thou hast forestalled the agony, and
so For thee the bitterness of' death is
Also, because already in thy soul The judgment is begun.
A presage falls upon thee, as a ray
Straight from the Judge, expressive of thy lot.
That calm and joy uprising in thy soul
Is first-born to thee of thy recompense,
And heayen begun.
Soul.--Now that the hour is come, my
fear is fled;
And at this balance of my destiny, Now close upon me, I can forward
With a serenest joy.
But hark! upon my sense Comes a fierce hubbub, which would
make me fear Could I be frighted.
Angel.--We are now arrived Close on the judgment-court; that
sullen howl Is from the demons who assemble
Hungry and wild, to claim their property,
And gather their souls for hell. Hist to their cry.
Soul.--How sour and how uncouth a dissonance!
Demons.--Low-born clods
Of brute earth.
They aspire To become gods,
By a new birth, And an extra grace, And a score of merits, As if aught
Could stand in place
Of the high thought, And the glance of fire Of the great spirits, The powers blest, The lords by right, The primal, owners,
Of the proud dwelling And realm of light,-Dispossessed, Aside thrust,
Chucked down, By the sheer might Of a despot's will,
Of a tyrant's frown, Who after expelling Their hosts, gave, Triumphant still, And still unjust,
Each forfeit crown To psalm-droners, And canting groaners,
To every slave, And pious cheat,
And crawling knave, Who licked the dust Under his feet.
Angel.--It is the restless panting of their being;
Like 'beasts of prey, who, caged within their bars,
In a deep hideous purring have their life.
And an incessant pacing to and fro.
Demons.--The mind bold
And independent,
The purpose free, So we are told, Must not think To have the ascendant.
What's a saint One whose breath
Doth the air taint Before his death;
A bundle of bones, Which fools adore,
Ha! ha! When life is o'er
Virtue and vice, A knave's pretence. 'Tis all the same; Ha! ha!
Dread of hell-fire,
Of the venomous flame
A coward's plea.
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Give him his price,
Saint though he be, Ha! ha! From shrewd good
He'll slave for hire; Ha! hal
And does but aspire To the heaven above With sordid aim, And not from love.
Ha! ha!
Angel.--Yes,--for one moment thou
shalt see thy Lord.
One moment; but thou knowest not, my child,
What thou dost ask; the sight of the
Most Fair Will gladden thee, but it will pierce
thee too.
Soul.--Thou speakest darkly, Angel! and an awe
Falls on me, and a fear lest I be rash.
Angel.--There was a mortal, who is now above
In the mid glory; he, when near to die,
Was given Communion with the Crucified,-Such, that the Master's very wounds were stamped
Upon his flesh; and, from the agony
Which thrilled through body and soul in that embrace,
Learn that the flame of the Everlasting Love
Doth burn ere it transform.
Choir of Angelicals.--Praise to the Holiest in the Height,
And in the depth be praise:
Angbl.-Hark to those sounds! They come of tender beings angelical,
Least and most childlike of the sons of God.
Choir of Angelicals.-Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise; In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! To us His elder race He gave
To battle and to win, Without the chastisement of pain,
Without the soil of sin. The younger son He willed to be
A marvel in His birth: Spirit and flesh His parents were;
His home was heaven and earth. The Eternal blessed His child, and armed,
And sent Him hence afar, To serve as champion in the field
Of elemental war. To be His Viceroy in the world
Of matter, and of sense; Upon the frontier, towards the foe,
A resolute defense.
Angel.--We now have passed the gate,
and are within The House of Judgment. .
Soui,--The sound is like the rushing
of the wind--¦ The summer wind--among the lofty
Choir of Angelicals.--Glory to Him,
who evermore
By truth and justice reigns; Who tears the soul from out its case, And burns away its stains!
Angel.--They sing of thy approaching
Which thou so eagerly didst question of.
Soul.--My soul is in my hand: I have
no fear,But hark! a grand mysterious harmony :
It floods me, like the deep and solemn sound
Of many waters.

Second Concert
Angel.--And now the threshold, as we
traverse it,
Utters aloud its glad responsive chant. Choir of Angelicals.-Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful;
Most sure in all His ways! O loving wisdom of our God!
When all was sin and shame, A second Adam to the fight
And to the rescue came. O wisest love! that flesh and blood
Which did in Adam fail, Should strive and should prevail; And that a higher gift than grace
Should flesh and blood refine, God's Presence and His very Self,
And Essence all divine. O generous love! that He who smote
In man for man the foe, The double agony in man
For man should undergo; And in the garden secretly,
And on the cross on high, Should teach His brethren and inspire
To suffer and to die. Praise to the Holiest in the height,
And in the depth be praise: In all His words most wonderful; .
Most sure in all His ways!
Angel.--Thy judgment now is near, for
we are come Into the veiled presence of our God.
Soul.--I hear the voices that I left on earth.
Angel.--It is the voice of friends
around thy bed, Who say the "Subvenite" with the
priest. Hither the echoes come; before the
Stands the great Angel of the Agony, The same who strengthened Him,
what time He knelt Lone in the garden shade, bedewed
with blood.
That Angel best can plead with Him for all
Tormented souls, the dying and the dead.
Angel of the; Agony.--Jesu! by that shuddering dread which fell on Thee;
Jesu! by that cold dismay which sickened Thee;
Jesu! by that pang of heart which thrilled in Thee;
Jesu! by that mount of sins which crippled Thee;
Jesu! by that sense of guilt which stifled Thee;
Jesu! by that innocence which girdled Thee;
Jesu! by that sanctity which reigned in Thee;
Jesu! by that Godhead which was one with Thee;
Jesu! spare these souls which are so dear to Thee,
Souls, who in prison, calm and patient, wait for Thee;
Hasten, Lord, their hour, and bid them come to Thee,
To that glorious Home, where they shall ever gaze on Thee.
Soul.--I go before my Judge.
Voices on Earth.--Be merciful, be gracious; spare him, Lord. Be merciful, be gracious; Lord, deliver him.
Angel.-Praise to His Name!
O happy, suffering soul! for it is safe, Consumed, yet quickened, by the glance of God.
Soul.--Take me away, and in the lowest deep
There let me be,
And there in hope the lone night-watches keep,
Told out for me.
There, motionless and happy in my pain,
Alone, not forlorn.-There will I sing my sad perpetual strain,
Until the morn,
There will I sing, and soothe my stricken breast, Which ne'er can cease
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To throb, and pine, and languish, till possesst
Of its Soul Peace.
There will I sing my absent Lord and Love:-Take me away,
That sooner I may rise, and go above, And see Him in the truth of everlasting day.
Souls in Purgatory.--Lord, Thou hast been our refuge; in every generation ;
Before the hills were born, and the world was: from age to age Thou art God.
Bring us not, Lord, very low: for Thou has said, Come back again, ye sons of Adam.
Come back, O Lord! how long: and be entreated for Thy servants.
Angel.--Softly and gently, dearly-ransomed soul,
In my most loving arms I now enfold thee,
And, o'er the penal waters, as they roll,
I poise thee, and I lower thee, and
hold thee.
And carefully I dip thee in the lake, And thou, without a sob or a resistance,
Dost through the flood thy rapid passage take, Sinking deeper, deeper, into the dim
distance. Angels, to whom the willing task is
given, Shall tend, and nurse, and lull thee,
as thou liest; And Masses on the earth, and prayers
in heaven, Shall aid thee at the Throne of the
Most Highest. Farewell, but not for ever! brother
dear, Be brave and patient on thy bed of
sorrow; Swiftly shall pass thy night of trial
And I will come and wake thee on the morrow.
Souls.--Lord, Thou has been our refuge, &c. Amen.
Choir op AngEucals.--Praise to the Holiest, &c. Amen.
Cardinal Newman.
Friday Afternoon, May 4
PATRIOTIC HYMN, "My Country 'Tis of Thee'
Children's Chorus. My country, 'tis of thee, Sweet land of liberty,
Of thee I sing: Land where my fathers died, Land of the pilgrim's pride, From every mountain side Let freedom ring.
My native country thee, Land of the noble free,
Thy name I love; I love thy rocks and rills, Thy woods and templed hills; My heart with rapture thrills
Like that above.
Let music swell the breeze, And ring from all the trees
Sweet freedom's song; Let mortal tongues awake; Let all that breathe partake; Let rocks their silence break,
The song prolong.
Our fathers' God to thee, Author of liberty,
To thee we sing; Long may our land be bright With freedom's holy light; Protect us by thy might,
Great God, our King.
S. F. Smith.
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CANTATA FOR CHILDREN--"The Walrus and the Carpenter" . . Fujtcher Percy E. Fletcher was born December 2, 1880, in Derby, England.
Following the patriotic avowals of the young occupants of the chorus seats, comes an excellent musical setting of one of the many topsy-turvy classics of Lewis Carroll. A professor of mathematics by profession, he was, one might judge, more willingly a purveyor to the joy of youth and the delight of mature age than an academic fixture. In response to Queen Victoria's expressed desire to read the books he had published other than the series which furnished the text of the "Walrus and the Carpenter," he sent her a number of works he had written on pure mathematics, and he probably got more joy from picturing her amazement than the most glowing critical approval could have bestowed. He was excessively fond of taking some particularly dear child friends with him in his boat, and landing, throw himself on the turf, and reel off quantities of the nonsense rhymes of the type found in this libretto. These rhymes have an indefinable rhythmic charm, while the kaleidoscopic interweaving of impossibilities appeals with irresistible force.
Percy Fletcher has proven himself a worthy musical interpreter of the story, which was in reality a more difficult matter than appears on the surface. Technically speaking the proper utilization of children's voices is a distinct art. Children's voices --like their demands--run high, and but few composers have realized that the lower registers of the voice are comparatively ineffective. In the "Children's Crusade" by Pierne, the soprano parts hover for measures on tones that adult sopranos find difficult, but the children go at such places with avidity and fairly beam with contentment when they are singing high A's by the dozen--fortissimo. A still greater mistake is made when a composer underrates the intelligence of the child. They are unprejudiced, logical, and on matters relating to art, embarrassingly truthful. It is to be hoped that the relatively few worthy compositions for children's voices will be increased through contributions by men who have the skill to treat the musical side convincingly, and who will bear in mind that one must write up to children, not down.
We have a story to relate
Which may be rather long, And so as not to worry you
We'll tell it you in song. 'Twas told to gentle Alice,
(Who reads the book will see), By Tweedledum's twin brother,
Whose name was Tweedledee.
The Walrus and the Carpenter Is what the tale is called,
And by its quaint philosophy
You soon will be enthralled.
The moral of the story We leave for you to guess;
But though you may not do so, You'll like it none the less.
The sun was shining on the sea, Shining with all his might;
He did his very best to make The billows smooth and bright,
And this was odd, because it was The middle of the night.
The moon was shining sulkily, Because she thought the sun
Had got no business to be there After the day was done:--¦
"It's very rude of him," she said, "To come and spoil the fun!"
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The sea was wet as wet could be, The sands were dry as dry;
You could not see a cloud, because No cloud was in the sky:
No birds were flying overhead, There were no birds to fly.
The Walrus and the Carpenter Were walking close at hand;
They wept like anything to see Such quantities of sand:
"If this were only cleared away," They said, "it zvould be grand!"
"If seven maids, with seven mops,
Swept it for half a year, Do you suppose," the Walrus said,
"That they could get it clear" "I doubt it," said the Carpenter,
And shed a bitter tear.
"Oh, Oysters, come and walk with us!"
The Walrus did beseech-"A pleasant walk, a pleasant talk,
Along the briny beach; We cannot do with more than four
To give a hand to each."
The eldest Oyster looked at him, But never a word he said;
The eldest Oyster winked his eye, And shook his heavy head--¦
Meaning to say he did not choose To leave the oyster-bed.
But four young Oysters hurried up,
All eager for the treat; Their coats were brushed, their faces washed,
Their shoes were clean and neat-And this was odd, because, you know,
They hadn't any feet.
Four other Oysters followed them,
And yet another four; And thick and fast they came at last,
And more, and more, and more-All hopping through the frothy waves,
And scrambling to the shore.
The Walrus and the Carpenter.
Walked on a mile or so, And then they rested on a rock
Conveniently low: And all the little Oysters stood
And waited in a row.
"The time has come," the Walrus said,
To talk of many things: "Of shoes--and ships--and sealing wax
--Of cabbages--and kings-And why the sea is boiling hot-And whether pigs have wings!"
"But wait a bit," the Oysters cried, "Before we have our chat;
For some of us are out of breath, And all of us are fat!"
"No hurry!" said the Carpenter: They thanked him much for that.
"A loaf of bread," the Walrus said,
"Is what we chiefly need: Pepper and vinegar besides
Are very good indeed-Now, if you're ready, Oysters dear,
We can begin to feed."
"But not on us," the Oysters cried,
Turning a little blue, "After such kindness, that would be
A dismal thing to do!" "The night is fine," the Walrus said,
"Do you admire the view"
"It was so kind of you to come,
And you are very nice!" The Carpenter said nothing, but
"Cut us another slice: I wish you were not quite so deaf-I've had to ask you twice!"
"It seems a shame," the Walrus said, "To play them such a trick,
After we've brought them out so far, And made them trot so quick!"
The Carpenter said nothing, but "The butter's spread too think!"
"I weep for you," the Walrus said,
"I deeply sympathize!" With sobs and tears he sorted out
Those of the largest size, Holding his pocket-handkerchief
Before his streaming eyes.
"Oh, Oysters," said the Carpenter, "You've had a pleasant run!
Shall we be trotting home again" But answer came there none-And this was scarcely odd, because They'd eaten every one.
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Our story now is ended,
Our fairy-tale is told; You've listened to it patiently
As Alice did of old. No doubt you like the Walrus best
Because he was so grieved; Or do you think he ate the most,
As Tweedledee believed
Then should you like the Carpenter
Because he ate the least, You must agree with Tweedledum,
He had a monstrous feast; But if you dream of them to-night,
We hope you will not end By thinking you were gobbled up
By the Walrus and his friend.
SYMPHONY, C major, "Jupiter" (Kochel 551) '.....Mozart j
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; " j
died at Vienna, December 5, 1701. ]
Auegro vivace; Andante cantabile; Menuetto; Finale. !
In the period in which this symphony falls, Mozart was harassed financially, for, j like many other men of genius, he was careless about money matters, and his wife : (Constance Weber) cheerfully contributed to his improvidence, although she bravely j faced the results of their combined activity in this direction and shared his discomj forts without a murmur. That he could have completed his three greatest symphonies ; while undergoing the nagging of his numerous creditors and suffering from what . he considered to be reflections on his honor, is a revelation of the unfathomable ati tributes of real genius. When one realizes that June 26, 1788, witnessed the completion of the symphony in E flat; July 25, the G minor, and August 10, the "Jupiter," the frequently quoted examples of creative facility lose somewhat of their force, for . this immortal trio represents Mozart's highest attainment in symphonic writing. : Each is Highly individual, and each may be considered a model of melodic power i and grace, lucidity of statement, and formal symmetry. To choose between them is ! as embarrassing as to exhibit a preference for either of his two most popular operas. '¦ One might select "Figaro's Hochzeit" were it not for "Don Giovanni," and might choose the E flat symphony were it not for the G minor, and the "Jupiter," but the : better plan is to prefer the one last heard. ;
As we are now to hear the last named the following brief analysis of the four '. movements may be of assistance: i
Beginning with the title, it must be stated that Mozart named it the "C major" symphony, while the designated "Jupiter" was given it either by Cramer or Mendelssohn. We may not enter into the controversy regarding this, but prefer to accept the title as one perfectly illustrative of the grandeur of the work, for, in spite of its !
apparent simplicity, it does possess distinct greatness. ¦
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1
Ludwig Kochel (January 14, 1800-June 3, 1877) was a musical dilettante of
great learning. His "Chronological Thematic Index" of Mozart's works (Leipzig, j
1862) is so all-embracing and authorative that his numbering is always followed in j
programs in which Mozart is included. ;
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The first movement--C major, 4-4 time, Allegro vivace--opens with a striking
figure, with a lovely pendant immediately succeeding. Combined, they determine the character of the first subject.
A stirring passage for full orchestra
re-introduces the principal subject, which is now given an added charm, through the accompanying passages for the woodwinds. The second subject, in G major,
now holds our attention, till, closely pressing, a jolly "subsidiary" appears.
After its exploitation, the "exposition" is repeated.
In the "development" the subjects already noted appear in novel forms, and in contrasting tonalities, thereby exposing possibilities not revealed in the first section. In the "recapitulation," the principal theme and "subsidiaries" again appear, the second subject being in the principal key, C major, as demanded by the classic form.
Now-a-days, in the case of the earlier classic symphonies, the repetition frequently is omitted.
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The second movement--F major, 3-4 time, Andante Cantabile--opens with a statement of the principal theme by muted strings.
u Presently the oboe announces the second subject, which, with a coda, brings the
"exposition" to a close, with the "working out" of themes already heard. In the "development" a shortened re-statement of the principal themes, and a coda bring the movement to its end.
The third movement--C major, 3-4 time, Allegretto--is a typical Menuetto in which there is much of naive beauty.
The Minuet is an A. B. A. form, the Trio being represented by "B" and the titular division and its repetition by "A."
The themes in each of these divisions are also related in the same manner, so the resulting form is a compounding of three smaller divisions into a larger combination.
The principal theme in "A" runs as follows:and the leading subject in B is quoted below.
It only remains to note that this division is in the same key as "A," a proceedure quite at variance with formal usage, but justified in this instance. With the statement of a virile theme,
the first four measures of which are taken from a Gregorian chant, while the part beginning with the fifth measure is a dashing melodic figure in Mozart's happiest vein, the fourth movement--C major, 4-4 time, Molto Allegro--now follows. The
Third Concert
four-note theme had already been used by Mozart in the Credo of his Mass in P major, in the Sanctus of the C major Mass, and in several instrumental works. Its character makes the fugal treatment it now undergoes quite inevitable.
Before it becomes the subject of a masterly fugue the following "subsidiary" is announced.
The contrapuntal ingenuity of the involved treatments is so marked by naturalness of development that it does not obtrude itself, as is too frequently the case when scholarship is to the fore.
Neither does the following canonically treated theme appear in the least incongruous,
And, as a matter of fact, nothing could be more genial than the manner in which the following second subject appears to grow out of the theme given above.
In the "working out" of this plastic thematic material, and still other themes of great beauty, Mozart rises to great heights. It is refreshing to reflect that in a great masterpiece of polyphony, like this movement, its involved treatments and ingenious devices become the means through which exalted concepts are given adequate expression. The symmetrical formal expression always in evidence in Mozart's scores is inevitable, for, in the last analysis, Form is a product of genius, and the logical crystallization into principles, of usages first established by men of creative power and sanctioned by generations of inspired writers.
While this symphony was primarily chosen for the interpreters of "The Walrus and the Carpenter," those of riper years may renew their youth by giving themselves up to the full enjoyment of one of the greatest symphonies ever written.
CONCERTO FOR PIANOFORTE, No. 4, D minor, Op. 70 . . Rubinstein
Moderato; Moderato assai; Allegro assai Miss Ethel Leginska.
Anton Rubinstein was born at Wechwotynecz, Bessarabia, November 28, 1829; died at Peterhof, November 20, i8g4.
The star of Rubinstein as a composer is already on the wane, while his brilliant career as a pianist--for, as a virtuoso, he was second only to Liszt--is now a tradition. He was the creator of twenty operas, of which five were on Biblical subjects;
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six symphonies; twelve concertos; thirteen works in chamber-music forms; a large number of pianoforte compositions, and over one-hundred songs. After touring Europe as a virtuoso from 1867 to 1870, winning the enthusiastic approval of the entire Continent for his masterly readings of the classics, especially Beethoven, and his awe-inspiring technical feats, he came to America (1872-3), playing in two hundred and fifteen concerts. The musical conditions in our country at that time may be characterized by the remark of a young lady who, when asked whether she was going to hear Rubinstein, replied: "No, I've seen him once." It must be stated, much of Rubinstein's credit, that, when offered $125,000 for fifty concerts he refused to repeat his experiences. Possibly another reason for this refusal lay in his conviction that he was a great dramatic composer, and his wish to devote his energies to the composition and production of operas, whose titles, in spite of his own judgment of their value, are recorded in lexicons, rather than displayed on opera-house programs. It is not necessary to discuss his position as composer for the verdict of the musical world, which in the long run is just, has already gone on record.
The first movement,--D minor, 2-2 time, Moderato,--propounds the principal theme, followed by its re-statement by the solo instrument. Alternations of orchestra and piano, frequently using new material, lead to the second subject, F major. In the "development" and "recapitulation," we discover highly original and scholarly transformations, exploitations of the material already put forth, and justified introductions of new ideas. In the "recapitulation" the second subject appears in B flat major, a proof that Rubinstein was not hampered by convention. In the coda, as is usual in compositions in which the possibilities of an instrument are stressed, we find dazzling passage work for the piano, with contributory phrases by the orchestra.
In the second movement---F major, 3-4 time, Moderato assai--the principal subject is introduced after twelve measures of introductory material, the first eight for orchestra. The progress of this movement is so clear and self-explanatory that no words of analysis can be of assistance.
The character of the third movement--D minor, 2-4 time, Allegro assai--is made clear by the substitution of Allegro for Moderato and the retention of the qualifying assai. The orchestra precedes the solo instrument by twenty-four measures, given up to introductory material which appears later in the movement in both piano and orchestra. The second subject, in B flat major, is given out by the solo instrument alone, and taken up somewhat later by the wood-winds. As they expose the theme, the piano contributes an accompaniment of passage-work, exploiting one of the peculiar contributions of this instrument and one met with in all the important concertos. Following the usual formal course the work now proceeds on its way to the final measure, with a power and brilliancy that must precipitate the query, "Why is Rubinstein's star on the wane" Two explanations may be advanced--First, Rubinstein's relation to genius may be characterized by the slang word "near," and second, he was more at home in the type of composition in which his special instrument was included. The brilliancy and adequacy of his treatment of that instrument made up for the lack of the power of sustained effort and dramatic perception so clearly in evidence in his operas. That he could state that "music ended with Chopin," and could see nothing whatever to admire in the music-dramas of Richard Wagner, reveal limitations of outlook quite reconcilable with the initial statement of this analysis.
Friday Evening, May 4
OVERTURE--"Fingal's Cave" .......Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was born at Hamburg, February 3, 1809; died at Leipzig, November 4, 1847.
Nature, especially in her stormy moods, has always made a profound impression on great composers.
Haydn, when journeying to England, was stirred to his depths by the sight of a storm on the North Sea, and, in his "Creation," gave us his impressions; a like experience in the life of Richard Wagner resulted in the composition of the "Flying Dutchman," while Rubinstein's "Ocean" Symphony--in C--is incomparably his greatest work in that form. Some one, referring to the extreme length of the symphony-seven movements--remarked that every time that Rubinstein got a sniff of salt air he added a new movement. Mendelssohn must have been fortunate in his weather conditions for he had naught but pleasant associations with that particular body of water, the North Sea, as one may realize when listening to the first movement of the "Scotch" Symphony. In his "Calm Sea and a Prosperous Voyage" overture, his portrayal of certain unavoidable periods in a successful sea journey is both vivid and consoling to those who do not look upon ocean-voyages as seasons of unalloyed pleasure.
Mendelssohn, like Beethoven, adored the open. In the words of an old Leipzig Dienstmann, who lived in Mendelssohn's day, "When he came swinging along, taking his morning walk on the Promenade, he looked so happy and greeted every one he met so cheerily, that it made the hard work easier and the long day shorter for them."
It therefore goes without saying that such a natural wonder as Fingal's Cave should appeal to the genial Leipzig master with great force. He visited it in 1829 and the opening measures of the overture were written in the cave itself, according to a letter to his family.
The score bears the date--December 16, 1830--but it was first heard May 14, 1832, at a Philharmonic Concert (London). Although the initial inspiration was a flash of genius, he found difficulty in satisfying himself as to certain details for, writing from Paris January 12, 1836, he said, "The middle portion is too stupid, and the whole working out smacks more of counterpoint than of train-oil, sea gulls, and
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salt fish, and must be altered.' On its first hearing certain critics kindly pointed out "that, as descriptive music, it is a failure," but, on the whole, the feeling inclined towards Wagner's judgment, viz, "Wonderful imagination and delicate feeling are here presented with consummate art. Note the extraordinary beauty of a passage where the oboes rise above the other instruments with a plaintive wail, like sea-winds over the seas." This tribute comes with peculiar force when one realizes that Wagner at no time felt a pressing need to praise Mendelssohn, whose worshippers at that time showed their devotion to their idol by showering abusive insults on the creator of "Tannhauser," a work that was particularly obnoxious to them.
With reference to the title we find that the composer wavered between "Fingal's Cave," "Hebrides," and "The Solitary Island," but the first title eventually triumphed. It is scored for the usual concert orchestra of his day, in which many instruments we have come to look upon as indispensable were omitted.
The initial theme below carries its own message, and is very poetical in its implications.
With the later introduction of the following theme we have practically all the
¦ material with which, along the orthodox lines of the sonata-form, he constructed one of his most genial creations.
ARIA--"Caro Nome," from "Rigoletto"..... ,
Mme. Amelita Gaixi-Curci. Guiseppe Verdi was born at Roncole, October g, 1813; died at Milan, January 17, 1901.
While the saving of time may be the slogan of efficiency, in the field of musical creation it is of so little value that the instances in which great works have been produced in a surprising short interval are so rare that it is easy to mention them with little consumption of time or space. Handel's "Messiah," Mozart's three greatest symphonies, Wagner's "Flying Dutchman" and Verdi's "Rigoletto" complete the list. In contrast to these examples the case of Beethoven might be cited, for he spent years in working out concepts born of the moment.
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If in "Rigoletto" we do not see the Verdi of "Aida" we meet a greater composer than the creator of "II Trovatore." If on the dramatic side we discover lapses from logical development and coherent statement, on the musical side we discover fully as much that is prophetic of the higher flights of later years, as that which is reminiscent of points of view he had outgrown even then.
The aria, which will be sung in Italian, has been a great favorite since it was first heard, and rests on the following text:
Gilda--"I know his name!
Walter Malde I love thee, ev'ry fond thought for thee I cherish." "Carv'd upon my inmost heart Is thy name forever more, Ne'er again from thence to part, Name of love that I adore. Thou to me art ever near, Ev'ry thought to thee will fly, Life for thee alone is clear, ' Thine shall be my parting sigh."
SYMPHONY, No. 3, E major.........Alfven
Allegro con brio; Andante; Presto; Allegro con brio. Hugo Alfven was born at Stockholm, May 1, 1872.
The impression made last season by "Midsommervaka" ("Midsummer Wake!"), the first work of Alfven to appear on our Festival programs, leads to high anticipations regarding the more extended work offered this evening. As indicated by the title, this is his third venture in the symphonic field. Completed in 1905, it was first performed in Gothenburg in the same year (October), but was not heard in this country till November 6, 1914, when it was performed in Minneapolis under the direction of Emil Oberhoffer. While a cursory glance at the themes quoted below will reveal their virility, buoyancy, and fervor, it is fortunate that we have a statement of the meaning of the work from the composer himself.
"My symphony No. 3 was written in Italy. It was a paean in praise of all the joys of life, sunshine, and the love of living. The last movement is imbued with an intense longing for home; I dreamed I was a knight in a far-off land, who in a heedless gallop is making for home--a wild ride, now through sunny landscapes, now through dark abysses--until I have reached the goal of my dreams."
Reading this statement it will cause no surprise to be informed that the symphony is dedicated to his wife, who must have been a happy woman when she heard this apotheosis of the "love of living." Set for the full, sonorous, and omni-colored modern orchestra, the initial theme of the first movement--E major, 3-4 time, Allegro con brio--is over-flowing with "all the joys of life and sunshine," and gives no sug48 Official Program Book
gestions of the "dark abysses" he mentions, which, judging from the score, never reach the depth of misery and despair pictured so baldly by Selma Lagerloff in her novels.
The second subject--B major, poco meno tnosso--follows a modulatory section of more than ordinary significance, for occasionally in symphonies the structural necessity of this division is more in evidence than beauty. This subject continues in terms of the initial measures set forth in the following excerpt, while visions of future
delights find expression in the following fairy-like passages which so urgently seek expression that they interject themselves as soon as we come into possession of the material of the subject just set forth.
With over-flowing exuberance of fancy, still other ideas are introduced, but we recognize immediately that they are all germane to the original conception, and, as the movement progresses, following the structural norm of symphonic development, we realize that the composer introduced nothing that could disturb the unity of his treatment.
The second movement--A flat major, 4-4 time, Andante--opens with a theme in
which there is much of the North-land. As in the preceding movement, so in this we meet with new ideas enforcing the meaning of the principal theme. The rippling second subject follows a repetition of the original theme.
Again the initial theme, followed by the second in due course, but with a different instrumentation, and a final statement of the first subject.
Fourth Concert 49
The third movement--A major, 3-4 time, Presto--beginning thus, with an
episodical interjection by the oboes and bassoons, and the usual Trio--Meno mosso-runs the regular course of the scherzo form (of the minuet type), and in its content betrays no abatement of the spirit of joy which the composer proclaimed at the beginning of his symphony.
The fourth movement--E major, 2-2 time, Allegro con brio--is introduced and ended by a trumpet call, with which the "Knight in a far off land making for home" heralds his approach. The pace is indicated by the following passage for the strings.
The call of the home land is full of an emotional fervor calling for a grand climax,
which, reached, leads to a short episode (given below). This leads to the repetition of the first "exposition."
Through a series of transformations in the "development" section, we are led to the "recapitulation," in which the trumpet call is an insistent factor, conditioning the usual treatments of the first and second themes, as well as the episode already quoted.
This symphony is a veritable paen of joy, and a valuable addition to the modern repertoire which, in spite of the strenuous but occasionally misdirected activity of present-day composers, is not overwhelmed with works of real distinction.
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ARIA--"Queen of the Night," from "Magic Flute" .... Mozart
Mms. Galli-Curci.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at Salzburg, Germany, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.
In a recent contribution to the history of the "Magic Flute" by Edward J. Dent, of Cambridge University, England, many interesting and illuminating facts with reference to the genesis of the plot are given. It was derived from many sources, and although the name of EMANUEL SCHIKANEDER (1751-1812) appeared on the original house program as the librettist--with W. A. Mozart as composer--in all probability its authorship should be accredited to Carl Ludwig Geisecke (1761-1833) whose real name was Johann Georg Metzler. One authority states that he was expelled from the University of Halle and took his mother's name to hide his chagrin, but as a matter of fact, he was not expelled, and his mother's name was Goetz. In the University of Gottingen he was entered on the books as "Johannes Georgius Metzlerus," but he shortly after inscribed his name in a valuable album of his varied experiences as "Carolus Ludovicus Metzler cognomine Giesecke." One might fancy from this that he had something to conceal, but in reality he was a man of fine character and a scholar of real power.
It is impossible to enumerate the titles of the works based on the material from which Mozart's libretto was drawn. The character of Papageno was developed by Schikaneder, and taken by him in the first performances, that he might maintain the hold on the public won as a comedian of a rather low type. The "Queen of the Night," to whom the aria on our program was assigned, was a transformation from a role of an entirely distinct dramatic character. It is a well known fact that both the assumed librettist and the composer were enthusiastic Free Masons and therefore incorporated many of its mysteries in the plot. This accounts for its numerous idiosyncrasies, while the introduction of the serpent in Act I, Scene I, was due to the librettist's installation of a menagerie in the rudely constructed theater over the destinies of which he presided, and his fondness for sensational effects.
Schikaneder, who was no fool, may have experienced some of the embarrassing situations invited by the introduction of animals or reptiles on the stage, for in this case he placed reliance on papier-mache and springs controlled by wires, rather than on flesh and blood controlled by instinct.
Musically "The Magic Flute" was epoch making. Mozart gave emotional validity to the trombones and removed them from the noise-making group. This treatment of this important instrument ("an epic instrument" says Berlioz) had been anticipated by Purcell and still earlier by Monteverdi, but in his "Don Giovanni," "Magic Flute," and "Requiem," Mozart emancipated them forever. No work of this age was equally respected by those who came after him, and Franz Liszt said "The Nibelungen Ring will some time be the "Magic Flute" of our day.
The aria, whose text is subjoined, occurs in Act II, Scene 3, and was written for Mozart's sister-in-law, Mme. Hofer. She must have been a phenomenal singer, as it is still known as an aria whose adequate interpretation is reserved for the elect.
Fourth Concert
"Queen of the Night"--I'll have revenge, no longer can I bear it;
Hell has no torture I have not endured; Dar'st thou refuse, by all the gods I swear it, Thou as my daughter art for e'er abjured.
No time for tender yearning, Such foolish thoughts be spurning! The fires within me burning
Consume each vital part. To hatred and to vengeance they are turning
What was once a mother's heart. Yes, 'tis thou shalt strike the fatal blow,
Now, tyrant, tremble!
Gods' record my vow!
By this thy hand Sasastro's might shall crumble!
(E. J. Dent.)
(b) "MOCK MORRIS" V.....Grainger
Percy Aldridge Grainger was born at Brighton, Melbourne, Australia, July 8, 1892.
It is a great comfort, in view of this breezy and virle composer's exceptional contributions to the "joy of living," that we are not obliged to add to the record of
his birth, "Died-------------------------." After a thorough course of study under Louis
Pabst (1854-1897), James Kwast, (1852--), and Ferrucio Busoni (1866--), the first being responsible for his early training in his native land, he came to London in 1900, and very soon emerged above the musical horizon into stellar altitudes. He has been likened to Kipling, for like him he exults in the portrayal of subjects in which common people, their doings and their outlook, set the pace. This has been urged against him by some who forget that it is as great an art to give great settings to the commonplace as to give common-place exploitations to great things. To this adverse criticism Grainger's penchant for giving expression marks in a vernacular not untinged by slang has contributed much.
In his Grainger-esque vocabulary of expression he adds to the technicalities of golf, when he states that "Mock Morris" is written for "a string six-some," divided into "First" fiddles, second fiddles, third fiddles, middle fiddles, and first and second bass fiddles. The tempo of this piece is "At-jog-trotting-speed," and at certain points he directs "Louden lots bit by bit." Of the material in "Mock Morris" he proclaims "No folk music tune-stuffs at all are used therein." In a recent suite for orchestra "In a Nut-shell" he introduces "The Gum-Sucker's March," referring to the habit of Victorians of gaining refreshment in hot weather by sucking the leaves of the Eucalyptus. A slight change in the title would make it up-to-date American. But, as a Cockney once said, "What the hodds, so's we're 'appy," and certainly Grainger has
52 Official Program Book
given many happy experiences to music-lovers, especially those whose horizon extends beyond Mozart, and will continue to do so, if his life is spared, and his philological ardor is restrained, for he seems to draw upon an inexhaustible store of fresh and original ideas. Among the vehicles through which he has given us his exuberant fancy and bounding life in terms of music, are the three compositions whose titles appear above.
ARIA--"Bell Song," "Ou Va la Jeune," from "Lakme" .... Deubes
Mme. Gaiai-Curci.
Clement Delibes was born at St. Germain-du-Val, February 21, 1836; died at Paris, January 16, 1891.
The apprentice years of Delibes' training were spent in work under the leading masters of the Conservatoire, which he entered in 1848. His journeyman stage dates from 1853, when he became connected with the Theater Lyrique, and officiated as organist at the Church of St. Jean et St. Francois. In 1855 he produced a brilliant operetta, and during the interim between that date and 1866 he evolved into the master. His greatest opera, "Lakme," was produced in Paris in 1883, but before that he had written some clever and popular ballets which still maintain the boards.
The libretto of "Lakme," written by Edward Condinet and Philippe Gille, was taken from a story "Le Mariage de Loti" which appeared in the Nouvelle Revue in the '8o's. This may be, but an opera, "Das Sonnenfest der Brahminen," given by Marinelli in 1790, traverses the same ground with a similarity of detail that indicate.0 it as the source of the above mentioned story.
The aria is admirably adapted for the display of vocal virtuosity, the admiration of which is not disturbed by any intellectual demands thrust forward by the following text, which, sung in Italian, is herewith given in an English translation:-Lakme :--Ah!
Why strays the Indian maiden, Forsaken child so lone, Arrayed in silv'ry moonlight Where mimosas have grown
Speeding on, o'er the mosses,
Pariah child no more,
For her life now bears no crosses,
No ill for her's in store!
Speeding on, o'er the mosses,
Pariah child no more,
Where the laurel leaf glances,
Full of sweet maiden fancies,
Gliding on with delight,
Laughing out to the night!
Photo by Mishkin
Pourth Concert 53
With forest shadows gather'd round him
What trav'ler now has lost his way
With eyes that keenly watch,
What spell hath bound him
What fiercely seeks the coming prey
A roar in the forest is sounding!
In frenzy the beasts are up-bounding,
The maiden bravely flies to shield the trav'ler well!
The wand in her hand lightly swinging,
The silver bells out-ringing-Weave her spell.
Ah! Ah! Ah!
Now upon him she gazes,
And in amazement looks upon
A face more fair than Rajah's grand!
And he would blush to owe his life to this fair maid
With the Pariah child so near at hand!
But he, enchanted by his vision
Praises her to Heav'n'
And softly says:
"May peace be nigh!"
Vishnu behold, Brahma's son!
And since that day, upon the air
The traveller may hear
The silver bells out-ringing,
Strong and clear,
Where once she wove her spell
Ah ! Ah! Ah !
That the mantle of charity must be thrown over the majority of translations of arias and songs is so self-evident, that a word of explanation as to the attitude of the artist and the difficulties of the translator may not be amiss. In some instances it would almost appear that the fundamental difficulty is a less than sophomoric knowledge of the language the translators so gleefully distort. In others the problem of reconciling conflicting idioms seems to be insoluble. In the case of most operatic arias, especially of the older type, the librettist cannot be accused of reaching high poetic altitudes, and doggerel in one language begets doggerel in another. If the original text and music are happily wedded, it frequently happens that a translation of real literary merit will, for structural reasons, rudely divorce word and tone. For this reason artists prefer to sing the original text. A deplorable indictment is based on the fact that these translations are too often made by poorly paid literary "men of all work." In view of the above statements we must bear our sorrows with resignation, and not lose sight of our "mantle of charity," for it will be needed to "cover a multitude of sins."
Whether these statements apply to the translations in this publication we leave to its readers.
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"SIEGFRIED'S RHINE JOURNEY," from "Gotterdammerung" . WagnBR
Richard Wagner was born at Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.
The program, opening with an overture by Mendelssohn, is brought to its close by one of the most inspired creations of his artistic antithesis, Richard Wagner. As is well known the Gotterdammerung" (composed 1870-4, produced at Bayreuth August 17, 1876) is the closing music-drama of the "Ring" Cycle. After Briinhilde, whose sleep on the rock was wakened by the hero, Siegfried, has become the loving wife, throwing off all her Valkyr attributes that she might be his, she soon realizes that her hero must seek adventure, and not moodily "tarry at home," like the irascible and weak-natured Wotan, and so she sends him off on his journey up the Rhine--to his death as it later transpires.
Briinhilde has taught Siegfried all the wisdom of the gods, he has given her his love and faith, so, at their parting, she gives him her shield and her horse Grani, and he places on her finger the ring, to her a pledge of his love, but bearing with it the curse pronounced by Alberich in "Rhinegold." She watches his departure and listens for the last note of his horn, little realizing that from that moment, there would be nothing of joy, but that malice and intrigue, in which she through misapprehension, would take part, would result in her hero's death.
Saturday Afternoon, May 5
Mr. Richard Keys Biggs, Organist
Mrs. Anna Schram-Imig, Mezzo Soprano
Miss Frances Louise Hamilton, Accompanist
Sonata in G minor .... Piutti (1846--)
Allegro Moderate: Allegro pesante; Andante grazioso; Finale
(a) Schmerzen .... Wagner (1813-1883)
(b) Zur Ruh.....Wolf (1860-1903)
(c) Zueignung .... Strauss (1864--)
Mrs. Anna Schram-Imig Meditation from 1st Symphony . . Widor (1845--)
Scherzo......Dethier (1875--)
Fantasia in C minor .... Bach (1685-1750) Chant de Printemps .... Bonnet (1884--) Elfes ........Bonnet
(a) "I am thy Harp" . . . Woodman (1861--)
(b) "The Cry of Rachel".....Salter
(c) "The Bird of the Wilderness" . . Horsman
Mrs. Imig
Liebestod from "Tristan".....Wagner
Overture, "Sakuntala" . . . Goldmark (1830-1915)
This program is admirably adapted for its double purpose. It contains a finely contrasted choice of works for the instrument, and will afford our patrons an opportunity of hearing the Frieze Memorial Organ under more favorable, conditions than are possible in a concert in which the King of Instruments serves--either as support to a chorus or as a part of the orchestral mass--rather than asserts its right to command.
The composers represent two nationalities--French and German. This juxtaposition of nationalities is interesting in that each possesses a distinctive point of view
56 Official Program Book
regarding the character of the instrument itself, and, as a natural consequence, the compositions themselves are expressions of these varying concepts.
The French have developed a style of writing and of performance quite in unison with the salient characteristics of their work in other forms of instrumental composition. They favor a more delicate appreciation of the refinements of organ playing, but in Guilmant they gave us a composer who united with this delicacy undoubted strength of conception and consummate mastery of contrapuntal writing. Prior to his advent their organ composers enforced the conviction that the real reason for Berlioz's abhorrence of the fugue lay in the implications of Aesop's fable of the "Fox and the Grapes." Now that Rheinberger is dead, Germany has no prominent organ composer, and most of her contributions in this field are characterized by pedantic dullness. Carl Puitti, whose sonata opens the program, did not justify the over-enthusiastic prophecies of those who proclaimed him to be an epoch-making genius. But Germany produced Bach, and to him they can point with pride as the greatest of them all.
The two song-groups offered, represent three illustrious German composers, and three American writers whose work is fairly representative of our contributions in this field.
The texts of the songs are herewith appended.
First Group.
(a) "SCHMERZEN," "Pains"...... Richard Wagner
Sun thou weepest every even thy resplendent glances red, When into the sea from heaven all too soon thou sinkest dead; But new splendours thee adorn, glory of the darkened earth, When thou wakest in the morn hero-like of proudest worth.
Why should I in vain regretting load with heaviness my heart, If the sun must find a setting if the sun e'en must depart And engenders death but living, if but grief can lead to bliss: Oh! I thank thee then that nature gave me pain like this.
English words by Fr. Hueffer.
(b) "ZUR RUH, ZUR RUH!"--"To Rest".....Hugo Wolf
To rest, to rest! My limbs, repose ye! Close prest, close prest, mine eyelids, close ye! Alone am I, the world is banish'd! Night now is nigh, my darkness vanish'd!
Steep me to-night, ye secret powers, Deep in the light of midnight hours! Where, far above a world that hates me, A mother's love, in dreams, awaits me.
Justinus Kerner.
Photo by J. K. Cc.
Fifth Concert 5
(c) "ZUEIGNUNG"--"Devotion"......Richard Strauss
Ah! thou know'st, sweet, all mine anguish In thine absence how I languish. Love brings sorrow to the heart! Thanks, sweet heart! Once, when merry songs were ringing, I to liberty was drinking, Thou a blessing didst impart. Thanks, sweet heart!
Thou didst lay those wanton spirits; Comfort, peace my soul inherits, Joy and bliss shall thy love impart. Thanks, sweet heart! Hermann V. Gilm, English version by John Bernhoff.
Second Group
(a) "I AM THY HARP".....R. Huntington Woodman
I am thy harp, that all unknown thou sweepest, Strung to a thousand melodies of thee, And all too lightly, too lightly canst thou draw My fullest and deepest music, my deepest music For thy minstrelsy.
Author Unknown.
(b) "THE CRY OF RACHEL".....Mary Turner Saiter
I stand in the dark, I beat on the door:
Death, let me in, Death, let me in!
Thro' storm am I come, I find you before;
Death, let me in!
For him that is sweet, for him that is small,
I beat on the door, I cry and I call,
Death, let me in!
He was my bough of the almond-tree fair; Death, let me in!
' You brake it; it whitens no more by the stair;
Death, let me in!
He was my lamp in the house of the Lord: You quench'd it, and left me this dark and the sword; Death, Death, Death, let me in!
58 Official Program Book
I that was rich, do ask you for alms,
I, that was full, uplift empty palms.
Back to me now give the child that I had,
Give to my arms my sweet little lad.
Death, Death, let me in!
Are you grown so deaf that you cannot hear
Let me in!
Unclose the dim eye, unstop the dull ear;
Let me in!
I will call so loud, I will cry so sore,
You must in pity come open the door;
Death! Death! let me in!
(c) "THE BIRD OF THE WILDERNESS" . . . Edwarb Horsman
My heart, the bird of the wilderness, Has found its sky in your eyes; They are the cradle of the morning, They are the kingdom of the stars; My songs are lost in their depths.
Let me but soar in that sky,
In its lonely immensity!
Let me but cleave its clouds
And spread wings in its sunshine!
My heart, the bird of the wilderness,
Has found its sky in your eyes.
Rabindranath Tagorb, from "The Gardener."
Saturday Evening, May 5
"AIDA," An Opera in Four Acts........Verdi
AIDA, ........Miss Mauds Fay
AMNERIS, .... Madame Margarets Matzenauer HIGH PRIESTESS, .... Miss Lois M. Johnston RADAMES, .... Signor Giovanni Martinelli
AMONASRO......Signor Giuseppe De Luca
RAMPHIS,.....Mr. William Wade Hinshaw
THE KING, . . . . . Mr. Gustaf Holmquist MESSENGER,.....Mr. Chase B. Sikes
Ministers and Captains; Priests; Slave Prisoners; Priestesses; The People
Mr. Albert A. Stanley, Conductor
GIUSEPPE VERDI Born in Roncole, October 9, 1813; died at Milan, January 17, 1901.
The year 1813 was not alone of significance politically, but it marked the birth of two geniuses who dominated the field of opera in their century. These men, Richard Wagner and Giuseppe Verdi, represented, the one--revolution, the other --evolution. Wagner, a German full of the, Teutonic spirit, revolutionized musico-dramatic art, or as some would say, created it; Verdi, an Italian, no less truly national in spirit, from an exponent of a conventionalized form of opera, by a gradual process of evolution--in the course of which as he advanced in years he seemed to renew his youth--developed a style in which, without losing either his individuality or nationality, the spirit of his German contemporary came to be a guiding principle.
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He accomplished this result without subjecting philosophy to torture, as was frequently the case with his great contemporary, who persistently held to the opinion that he was a great dramatist because he was an equally great philosopher, ignoring the fact that his sublime musical genius often made amends for philosophical concepts that were puerile, and lapses from his own ideals of dramatic fitness.
In the operas preceding "Aida" we see the Verdi of the old school of Italian opera. In them we find wonderful melodies, now hackneyed, largely because their beauty made them popular, and partly because since the days of these earlier operas we have been gaining in appreciation of other elements than mere melody.
In these early operas he was hampered by the frequently absurd librettos delivered by men who worshipped conventionality, and to whom dramatic consistency was an evil to be avoided.
If, in "Aida," we may date the advent of the greater Verdi, in whose works the beauty of melody of the Italian, and the dramatic intensity and forceful use of the orchestra of the German schools happily combine, we may see one reason for its success in the fact that, in its preparation he had the assistance of men of dramatic perception as well as facility in rhyming. Another, and very important reason was-Verdi himself--who entered into the preparation of the libretto with such ardor that the life of the poet Ghislanzoni was anything but calm. An illuminating article by Dr. Edgar Istel shows that Verdi deserves to be ranked with Gluck and Wagner, for he displays the same fearlessness, initiative and appreciation of dramatic values as these geniuses to whom the musical world has hitherto accorded a monopoly of these virtues. Referring to certain changes in a certain scene Verdi wrote to his librettist, "I know very well what you will say to me: 'And the verse, the rhythm, the stanza' I have no answer, but I will immediately abandon rhyme, rhythm and strophic form if the action requires." Incidentally, any one who doubts Verdi's musical scholarship may be referred to the masterly fugue in the "Libera Me" of the "Manzoni Requiem." To this increasing interest in the "end of expression"--the drama--and constant development of power in the "means of expression"--music--we may attribute the fact that, in the last compositions, the "Quattro Pezzi Sacre," published in 1898--we see no diminution in creative power, even though they are the work of one long past the allotted time of man's existence.
Verdi's part in the evolution of the "Aida" book, which, by the way, is founded on fact, went far beyond mere criticism. It was constructive, as is shown by the correspondence with Ghislanzoni, and much of the effectiveness of the drama as such, is due to Verdi's keen sense of dramatic implications and his constructive ingenuity. The stage of the final scene is a case in point.
"Aida" was written for the Khedive of Egypt and was given its first performance in Cairo, December 24, 1871; in Milan, February 8, 1872. Tt was given in New York in 1873, three years before its first performance in Paris. Contemporary writers give conflicing accounts of the general effect of the first performance, but of the character of the music, its dramatic power, its gorgeous instrumentation, its captivat"The Musical Quarterly" January, 1917, p. 34. This publication is the most important review in its field our country has yet produced. It is edited by Oscar G. Sonneck, and published by Schirmer of New York. It can be recommended unreservedly.
Photo bv Mishkin
Sixth Concert 61
ing melodies, sonorous harmonies--there was no jarring note in the chorus of criticism. Nor has there been since--for even those who are worshippers at the shrine of what many of us love to think are really more exalted ideals--can but feel its originality and force. It has a most dramatic plot--full of action--giving opportunities for display of Oriental pomp and ceremony--for dancing and all the apparatus of the grand opera--while the deeper elements of dramatic power as shown in the characters of Aida, Amneris, Radames and Ramphis, come to the front with a truthfulness and regard for dramatic consistency unknown to most operas of his countrymen. It is a story of love, war, and loyalty--contrasted with hatred, revenge, and intrigue-dominated by the influence of the cruel and arrogant Egyptian priesthood. It abounds in grand chorus effects, notably in Acts I. and II.--while from beginning to end there is not a moment when one feels there is any uncertainty in the mind of the composer, as to the effect he desires to produce, nor any lapse from sustained power of portrayal. There are certain Oriental characteristics displayed in some of the melodies and harmonies, as in the scene in which appears the High Priestess--in conjunction with the Priestesses and the Priests; while some of the dances have a barbaric quality in rhythm and color. Of "typical motives" in the ordinary acceptation of the word, we find no trace, but there are certain themes to which dramatic significance may be given.
To use the typical motive as Wagner employed it, was not Verdi's way of expressing himself, and the power of the work lies--as has been started--in its naturalness.
Scene I.--Hall in the Palace of the King at Memphis. To the right and left a colonnade with statues and flowering shrubs. At the back a grand gate, from which may be seen the temples and palaces of Memphis and the Pyramids.
(Radames and Ramphis in consultation.)
Ramphis.--Yes, it is rumored that the
Ethiop dares
Once again our power, and the valley Of Nilus threatens, and Thebes as
well. The truth from messengers I soon
shall learn.
Radames.--Hast thou consulted the will of Isis
Ramphis.--She hath declared who of
Egypt's renowned armies Shall be the leader.
Radames.--Oh happy mortal!
Ramphis.--Young in years is he, and
The dread commandment I to the King shall take.
Radames.--What if .'tis I am chosen, and my dream
Be now accomplished! Of a glorious army I the chosen leader,
Mine glorious vict'ry by Memphis received in triumph !
To thee returned, Aida, my brow entwin'd with laurel:
Tell thee, for thee I battled, for thee I conquer'd!
Heav'nly Aida, beauty resplendent, Radiant flower, blooming and bright; Queenly thou reignest o'er me transcendent,
Bathing my spirit in beauty's light. Would that, thy bright skies once
more beholding, Breathing the air of thy native land,
62 Official Program Book
Roned thy fair brow a diadem folding.
Thine were a throne by the sun to stand.
{Enter Amnejus)
Amnekis.--In thy visage I trace a joy
unwonted! What martial ardor is beaming in thy
noble glances! Ah me! how worthy were of all envy
the woman
Whose dearly wish'd for presence Could have power to kindle in tfaee
such rapture!
Rabames--A dream of proud ambition in my heart I was nursing:
Isis this day has dedard by name the
warrior chief Appointed to lead to battle Egypts
host! Ah! for tins honor, say, what if I
me dhnsem
vision, one
more snreel; More gimrihiawltwg, found fkmr in yomnr
heart Hast thom in Memphis no attraction
Ran&ucs (aside).--I!
Has sbe the secret jearmmg Bi'd wittom me hnnrmng)
{aside.}--Ah, me! my kwe if spiDmBimg His heart to another were taming!
Rabames.--Have 'then mine eyes be¦ trayd me,
And told Aids's name
Amnebis.--Woe if hope should fake
have play'd me. And all in vain my lame.
{Muter Aiba.)
Rabames {seeimg Abba.)--She here!
Amstbhs (oiicle.)--He is tronMed. Ah, what a gaze doth be torn on her! Aida! Have I a rival Can it be she herself
{Tmrmkg ts Ana.) Come hither, than I dearly prize. Slave art thom none, nor menial: Here have I made by fondest ties Sister a name more genial Weep'st thon
Oh, tell me wherefore then ever art
mourning. Wherefore thy tears now flow.
Aida.--Alas! the cry of war I hear.
Vast hosts I see assemble;
Therefore the country's fate I fear, For me, for all I tremble.
Am.xisis.--And art thou sure no deeper woe now bids thy tears to flow
Tremble! oh thou base vassal!
Rabames (aside, regarding Axsnsus).
Her glance with auger flashing Proclaims our love suspected.
Amneris.--Yes, tremble, base vassal,
tremble. Lest thy secret stain be detected.
Radames.--Woe! if my hopes all dashing She mar the plans IVe laid!
Amkews.--All in -rain thou wonldst
dissemble, By tear and Hash betrayed!
Am& {aside}.--No! fate o'er Egypt
Weighs down on my heart dejected, I wept that hswt thus was dooming To woe a hapless maid!
{Enter the King, preceded fry Ms guards mid foMmmed by RaWhis, Ms Ministers, Priests, Ceptmns, etc., efe, sm afker of the Pmlmce, and afterwards a My
Kesg.--Mighty the cause that
suimnons Eonnd their King the faithful sons of
Egypt. From the Ethiop's land a messenger
this ffinoffiDtemilt has reached tois. Tidings of import brings he. Be
pleased to hear him. Mow let the man come forward! (To am
fc.--The. sacred finals of Egyptian soil are fay Etfaiofs irawaded.
Oar fertile fields lie all dlerasttataH, destroyd orar tartest
EmlboMerfd by so easy a ccmajtmest, ttiae pltmsTribg horde
On the Capital are mojrdiiiing.
Ail.--Presmnptaons daring!
Sixth Concert 63
Messenger.--They are led by a warrior, undaunted, never conquered: Amonasro.
All.--The King! Aida.--My father!
Messenger.--All Thebes has arisen, and
from her hundred portals Has pour'd on the invader a torrent
fierce, Fraught with relentless carnage.
The King.--Ay, death and battle be our rallying cry!
Radames., Ramphis, Chorus op Priests, Chorus of Ministers and Captains. Battle! and carnage, war unrelenting!
The King {addressing Radames).--Isis, revered Goddess, already has appointed The warrior chief with pow'r supreme
invested. Radames!
Aida, Amneris, Chorus op Ministers and Captains.--Radames !
Radames.--Ah! ye Gods, I thank you! My dearest wish is crown'd!
Amneris.--Our leader!
Aida.--I tremble.
The King.--Now unto Vulcan's temple, chieftain, proceed,
There to gird thee to vict'ry, donning sacred armor.
On! of Nilus' sacred river
Guard the shores, Egyptians brave,
Unto death the foe deliver,
Egypt they never, never shall enslave !
Ramphis.--Glory render, glory abiding, To our Gods, the warrior guiding; In their pow'r alone confiding, Their protection let us crave.
Aida (aside).--Whom to weep for
Whom to pray for Ah! what pow'r to him now binds me! Yet I love, tho' all reminds me That I love my country's foe!
Radames.--Glory's sacred thirst now
claims me,
Now 'tis war alone inflames me; On to vict'ry! Naught we stay for! Forward, and death to every foe!
AmnEris.--From my hand, thou warrior
Take thy stand, aye victorious; Let it ever lead thee onward To the foeman's overthrow.
Am,.--Battle; No quarter to any foe I May laurels crown thy brow!
Aida.--May laurels crown thy brow! What can my lips pronounce language so impious! Wish him victor o'er my father-O'er him who wages war but that I
may be restored to my country, To my kingdom, to the high station
I now perforce dissemble! Wish him conqu'ror o'er my brothers_! E'en now I see him stain'd with their
blood so cherished,
'Mid the clam'rous triumph of Egyptian battalions! Behind his chariot a King, my father,
as a fetter'd captive! Ye Gods watching o'er me, Those words deem unspoken! A father restore me, his daughter
heart-broken, Oh, scatter their armies, forever crush
our foe!
Ah! what wild words do I utter Of my affection have I no recollection That sweet love that consol'd me, a
captive pining, Like some bright, sunny ray on my
sad lot shining Shall I invoke destruction on (the
man for whom in love I languish Ah! never yet on earth liv'd one
whose heart
Was torn by wilder anguish ! Those names so holy, of father, of
lover, No more dare I now utter or e'en
recall; Abashed and trembling, to heav'n
fain would hover My prayers for both, for both my
tears would fall. Ah! all my prayers seem transformed
to blaspheming.
To suffer is a crime, dark sin to sigh; Thro' darkest night I do wander as
dreaming, And so cruel my woe, I fain would
64 Official Program Book
Merciful gods! look from on high! Pity these tears hopelessly shed. Love, fatal pow'r, mystic and dread, Break thou my heart, now let me die!
Scene II.--Interior of the Temple of Vulcan at Memphis. A mysterious light from above. A long row of columns, one behind the other, vanishing in darkness. Statues of various deities. In the middle of the stage, above a platform covered with carpet, rises the altar, surmounted with sacred emblems. Golden tripods emitting the fumes of incense. (Ramphis and Priests at the foot of the altar.)
High Priestess {in the interior).--Lo, we invoke thee.
Ramphis and Priests.--Thou who
mad'st ev'ry creature, Earth, water, air and fire, Lo, we invoke thee!
High Priestess. -Flame uncreated,
Fount of all light above, Hail! lo, we invoke love, Thee we invoke!
Ramphis and Priests.--Life giver, universal,
Source of unending love, Thee we invoke!
High Priestess and Priestesses.--Almighty Phtha!
(Sacred Dance of Priestesses.) Almighty Phtha! Thee we invoke!
Ramphis {to Radames).--Of gods the favor'd mortal,
To thee confided be the favor of Egypt.
Thy weapon, temper'd by hand immortal,
In thy hand shall bring to the foe-man
Alarm, agony, terror!
Priests.--Thy weapon, temper'd by hand immortal, etc.
Ramphis.-(Turning to the god.) Hear us, oh, guardian deity, Our sacred land protecting, Thy mighty hand extending, Danger from Egypt ward.
Radames.--Hear us, each mortal destiny,
War's dreadful course directing, Aid unto Egypt sending, Keep o'er her children ward.
Chorus of Priests. -Thy weapon, .temper'd by hand immortal, etc.
Chorus op Priestesses. -Almighty Phtha!
Scene I.--A hall in the apartments of Amneris. Amneris surrounded by female slaves who attire her for the triumphal feast. Tripods emitting perfumed vapors. Young Moorish slaves waving feather-fans.
Female Slaves.--Our songs his glory
Heavenward waft a name, Whose deeds the sun out-blazing, Out-shine his dazzling flame! Come, bind thy flowing tresses round With laurel and with flow'rs. While loud our songs of praise resound To celebrate love's pow'rs.
Amneris.--(Ah! come, love, with rapture fill me, To joy my heart restore.)
Female Slaves.--Ah! where are now
the foes who dared Egypt's brave sons attack As doves are by the eagle scar'd, Our warriors drove them back. Now wreaths of triumph glorious The victor's brow shall crown, And love, o'er him victorious, Shall smooth his war-like frown.
Amneris.--Be silent; Aida hither now advances,
Child of the conquer'd, to me her grief is sacred.
(At a sign from Amneris the slaves retire.)
(Enter Aida.)
On her appearance,
My soul again with doubt is tortur'd.
It shall now be reveal'd, the fatal mystery!
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(To Aida with feigned affection.) 'Neath the chances of battle succumb
thy people, Hapless Aida! The sorrows that
afflict thee,
Be sure I feel as keenly. My heart tow'rds thee yearns fondly; In vain naught shalt thou ask of me: Thou shalt be happy!
Aida.--Ah! how can I be happy. Far from my native country, where
I can never know
What fate may befall my father, brothers
Amneris.--Deeply you move me! yet no human sorrow
Is lasting here below. Time will comfort
And heal your present anguish.
Greater than time is e'en the healing power of love.
Aida.--Oh, love, sweet power! oh, joy tormenting!
Rapturous madness bliss fraught with woes,
Thy pangs most cruel a life contenting
Thy smiles enchanting bright heaven disclose!
Amneris.--Yon deadly pallor, her bosom
panting, Tell of love's passion, tell of love's
woes. Her heart to question, courage is
wanting. My bosom feels of her torture the
{Eying her fixedly.) Now say, what new emotion so doth
sway my fair Aida Thy secret thought reveal to me: Come, trust securely, come, Trust in my affection. Among the warriors brave who Fought fatally 'gainst thy country, It may be that one has waken'd In thee gentle thoughts of love
Aida.--What mean'st thou
Amneris.--The cruel fate of war not all alike embraces,
And then the dauntless warrior who
Leads the host may perish.
Yes! Radames by thine is slaughter'd;
And canst thou mourn him
The gods have wrought thee vengeance.
Aida.--What dost thou tell me! wretched fate!
Forever my tears shall flow!
Celestial favor to me was ne'er extended.
Amneris (breaking out with violence.)
Tremble! thou are discovered !
Thou lov'st him! Ne'er deny it!
Nay, to confound thee I need but a word.
Gaze on my visage; I told thee falsely;
Radames liveth!
Aida (with rapture.)--Liveth! gods, I thank ye!
Amneris.--Dost hope still now deceive
Yes, thou lov'st him ! But so do I; dost hear my words Behold thy rival, here is a Pharaoh's
Aida (drawing herself up with pride.)
Thou my rival! what tho' it were so;
For I, I, too!
(Falling at Amneris' feet.)
Ah! heed not my words! oh, spare! forgive me!
Ah! on all my anguish sweet pity take;
'Tis true, for his love I all else forsake.
While thou art mighty, all joys thy dower,
Naught save my love now is left for me!
Amneris.--Tremble, vile bond-maid!
Dj'ing heart-broken, Soon shalt thou rue the love thou
hast spoken.
Do I not hold thee fast in my power, Hatred and vengeance my heart owes
for thee! Chorus of People.--On! of Nilus'
sacred river.
Guard the shores, Egyptians brave: Unto death the foe deliver. Egypt they never shall enslave.
Amneris.--In the pageant now preparing
Shall a part by thee be taken; While before me thou in dust art
prone, I shall share the royal throne!
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Aida.--Pray thee spare a heart despairing!
Life's to me a void forsaken; Live and reign, thy anger -blighting, I shall no longer brave; Soon this love, thy hate inviting, Shall be buried in the grave. Ah! then spare!
AmnERis.--Come, now, follow, I will
show thee Whether thou canst vie with me.
Aida.--Powers above, pity my woe, Hope have I none now here below; Deign, ye Immortals, mercy to show; Ye gods, ah spare! ah spare! ah spare!
Scene II.--An avenue to the City of Thebes. In front, a clump of palms. Right hand, a temple dedicated to Amman. Left hand, a throne with a purple canopy. At back, triumphal arch. The stage is crowded with people.
(Enter the King followed by Officials, Priests, Captains, Fan-bearers, Standard-bearers. Afterwards Amneris with Aida and slaves. The King takes his seat on the throne. Amneris places herself at his left hand.)
Chorus of People.--Glory to Isis, who
from all
Wardeth away disaster! To Egypt's royal master Raise we our festal song! Glory! Glory! Glory, oh King!
Chorus op Women.--The laurel with
the lotus bound
The victor's brows enwreathing! Let flow'rs sweet perfume breathing, Veil warlike arms from sight, Ye sons of Egypt dance around, And sing your mystic praises,
All.--As round the sun in mazes Dance all the stars in delight. (The Egyptian Troops, preceeded by trumpeters, defile before the King --the chariots of war follow the ensigns -the sacred vases and statues of the gods--troops of
Dancing Girls who carry the treasures of the defeated--and lastly Radames, under a canopy borne by twelve officers.) (The King descends from the throne to embrace Radames.)
Chorus of People.--Hither advance, oh
glorious band, Mingle your joy with ours; Green bays and fragrant flowers, Scatter their path along.
Chorus of Priests.--To powers war
Our glances raise we; Thank we our gods and praise we, On this triumphant day.
The King.--Savior brave of thy country, Egypt salutes thee!
Hither now advance and on thy head
My daughter will place the crown of
(Radames bends before Amneris, who hands him the crown.)
What boon thou askest, freely I'll grant it.
Naught can be denied thee on such a day.
I swear it by the crown I am wearing,
By heav'n above us!
Radames.--First deign to order that the
captives Be before you brought.
(Enter Ethiopian prisoners surrounded by guards, Amonasro last in the dress of an officer.)
Ramphis and Priests.--Thank we our gods!
Aida.--What see I He here My father!
Au,.--Her father!
Aida (embracing her father).--Thou! captive made!
Amonasro (whispering to Aida.) Tell not my rank!
The King (to Amonasro).--Come forward-So then, thou art
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Amonasro.--Her father. I, too, have
fought, ' And we are conquer'd; death I vainly
{Pointing to the uniform he is wear-_ ing.)
This my garment has told you already That I fought to defend King and
country ;
Adverse fortune against us ran steady, Vainly sought we the fates to defy. At my feet in the dust lay extended Our King, countless wounds had
transpierc'd him; If to fight for the country that nurs'd
Make one guilty, we're ready to die! But, oh King, in thy power transcendent
Spare the lives on thy mercy dependent;
By fates though to-day overtaken, Ah! say, who can to-morrow's event descry
Aida.--But, O King, in thy power transcendent, etc.
Slave-Prisoners. -We, on whom heaven's anger is falling,
Thee implore, on thy clemency calling;
May ye ne'er be by fortune forsaken,
Nor thus in captivity lie!
Ramphis and Priests.--Death, oh King, be their just destination,
Close thy heart to all vain supplication,
By the heavens they doom'd are to perish,
We the heavens are bound to obey.
People.--Holy priests, calm your anger
exceeding, Lend an ear to the conquer'd foe,
pleading, Mighty King, thou whose power we
cherish, In thy bosom let mercy have sway.
Radames (fixing his eyes on Aida.) See her cheek wan with weeping and
sorrow, From affliction new charm seems to
borrow; In my bosom love's flame seems new
lighted By each tear drop that flows from her
Amneris.--With what glances on her he
is gazing! Glowing passion within them is
'blazing! She is lov'd, and my passion is
slighted Stern revenge in my breast loudly
The King.--High in triumph since our
banners now are soaring, Let us spare those our mercy imploring:
By the gods mercy, aye, is required, And of princes it strengthens the sway.
Radames.--O King! by heav'n above us, And by the crown on thy brow thou
sworest, Whate'er I asked thee ithou wouldst
grant it.
The King.--Say on.
Radames.--Vouchsafe then, I pray freedom and life to freely grant Unto these Ethiop captives here.
Amneris.--Free all, then!
Priests. -Death be the doom of
Egypt's enemies! People.--Compassion to the wretched!
Ramphis.--Hear me, oh King! and
thou too, Dauntless young hero, lost to the
voice of prudence; They are foes, to battle hardened
Vengeance ne'er in them will die, Growing bolder if now pardoned, They to arms once more will fly!
Radames.--With Amonasro, their warrior King, All hopes of revenge have perish'd.
Ramphis.--At least, as earnest of safety
and of peace, Keep we back then Aida's father.
The King.--I yield me to thy counsel;
Of safety now and peace a bond more certain will I give you.
Radames, to thee our debt is unbounded.
Amneris, my daughter, shall be thy guerdon.
Thou shalt hereafter o'er Egypt with her hold conjoint sway.
Amneris (aside).--Now let yon bondmaid, now let her Rob me of my love, she dare not I
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The King.--Glory to Egypt's gracious
Isis hath aye protected, With laurel and with lotus, Entwine proudly the victor's head.
Ramphis and Priests.--Praise be to
Isis, goddess bland, Who hath our land protected, And pray that the favors granted us, Ever be o'er us shed.
Slave-Prisoners. -Glory to Egypt's
gracious land, She hath revenge rejected, And liberty hath granted us Once more our soil to tread.
Aida.--Alas! to me what hope is left He wed, a throne ascending, I left my loss to measure, To mourn a hopeless love.
Radames.--Now heaven's bolt the clouds
has cleft,
Upon my head descending, Ah! no, all Egypt's treasure Weighs not Aida's love.
Amneris.--Almost of every sense bereft, By joy my hopes transcending, Scarce I the triumph can measure Now crowning all my love.
Amonasro (to Aida.)--Take heart:
there yet some hope is left, Thy country's fate amending;
Soon shalt thou see with pleasure Revenge light from above.
People. -Glory to Egypt's goddess
Who hath our land protected! With laurel and with lotus,
Entwine proudly the victor's head.
Scene I.--Shores of the Nile. Granite rocks overgrown with palm-trees. On the summit of the rocks a temple dedicated to Isis, half hidden in foliage. Night; stars and a bright moon.
Chorus (in the Temple).--Oh, thou who
to Osiris art
Mother and consort immortal, Goddess that mak'st the human heart In fond emotion move, Aid us who seek thy portal, Parent of deathless love.
High Priestess.--Aid us thy portal who
(From a boat which approaches the shore descend Amneris and Ram-phis followed by some women closely veiled. Guards.)
Ramphis (to Amneris).--Come to the
fane of Isis: the eve Before the day of thy bridal, to pray
the goddess Grant thee her favor. To Isis are the
hearts Of mortals open. In human hearts
whatever Is hidden, full well she knoweth.
Amneris.--Aye; and I will pray that
May give me truly his heart, Truly as mine to him was ever devoted.
Ramphis.--Now enter. Thou shalt pray
Till the daylight; I shall be near thee.
(All enter the Temple.)
(Aida enters cautiously veiled.)
Aida.--He will ere long be here! What
would he tell me I tremble! Ah! if thou comest to bid
Harsh man, farewell forever, Then Nilus, thy dark and rushing
stream Shall soon o'erwhelm me; peace shall
I find there. And a long oblivion. My native land no more, no more shall
I behold! O sky of azure hue, breezes softly
blowing. Whose smiling glances saw my young
life unfold Fair verdant hillsides, oh streamlets
gently flowing, Thee, oh, my country, no more shall
I behold! Yes, fragrant valleys, your sheltering
bowers, Once 'twas my dream, should love's
abode hang o'er;
Perish'd those dreams now like winter-blighted flowers, Land of my fathers, ne'er shall I see
thee more!
(Enter Amonasro.) Heav'n! my father!
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Amonasro.--Grave cause leads me to
seek thee here, Aida. Naught escapes my attention. For Radames thou'rt dying of love; He loves thee, thou await'st him. A daughter of the Pharaohs is thy
rival. Race accursed, race detested, to us
aye fatal!
Aida.--And I am in her grasp! I, Amonasro's daughter!
Amonasro.--In her power thou! No! if thou wishest,
Thy all-powerful rival thou shall vanquish,
Thy country, thy scepter, thy love, shall all be thine.
Once again shalt thou on our balmy forests,
Our verdant valleys, our golden temples gaze!
Aida.--Once again I shall on our balmy
Our verdant valleys, our golden temple's gaze!
Amonasro.--The happy bride of, thy
heart's dearest treasure, Delight unbounded there shalt thou enjoy.
Aida (with transport).--One day alone
of such enchanting pleasure, Nay, but an hour of bliss so sweet, then let me die!
Amonasro.--Yet recall how Egyptian hordes descended
On our homes, our temples, our altars dar'd profane!
Cast in bonds sisters, daughters undefended,
Mothers, graybeards, and helpless children slain.
Aida.--Too well remember'd are those
days of mourning! All the keen anguish my poor heart
that pierc'd! Gods! grant in mercy, peace once
more returning, Once more the dawn soon of glad
days may burst.
Amonasro.--Remember! Lose not a
moment. Our people arm'd are panting
For the signal when to strike the blow. Success is sure, only one thing is
wanting: That we know by what path will
march the foe.
Aida.--Who that path will discover Canst tell
Amonasro.--Thyself will! Aida--I
Amonasro.--Radames knows thou art
waiting. He loves thee, he commands the
Egyptians. Dost hear me
Aida.--0 horror! What wilt thou that
I do No! Nevermore!
Amonasro (with savage fury).--Up,
Egypt! fierce nation Our cities devoting To flames, and denoting With ruins your path. Spread wide devastation, Your fury unbridle, Resistance is idle, Give rein to your wrath.
Aida.--Ah ! Father!
Amonasro (repulsing her).--Dost call thee my daughter
Aida.--Nay hold ! have mercy!
Amonasro.--Torrents of blood shall crimson flow,
Grimly the foe stands gloating.
Seest thou from darkling gulfs below
Shades of the. dead upfloating!
Crying, as thee in scorn they show:
"Thy country thou hast slain!"
Aida.--Nay hold! ah hold! have mercy, pray!
Amonasro.--One among those phantoms dark,
E'en now it stands before thee: Tremble! now streaching o'er thee, Its bony hand I mark! Thy mother's hands, see there again Stretch'd out to curse thee.
Aida (with the utmost terror).
Ah! no! my father, spare thy child!
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Amonasro (repulsing her).--Thou'rt my
No, of the Pharaohs thou art a boncU maid!
Aida.--Oh spare thy child! Father! no, their slave am I no
Ah, with thy curse do not appall me; Still thine own daughter thou mayest
call me,
. Ne'er shall my country her child disdain.
Amonasro.--Think that thy race down-trampled by the conqu'ror, Thro' thee alone can their freedom gain.
Aida.--Oh then my country has proved
the stronger,
My country's cause than love is stronger!
Amonasro.--Have courage! he comes!
there! I'll remain. (Conceals himself among the palms.)
Radames (-with transport).--Again I see thee, my own Aida.
Aida.--Advance not! hence! what hopes are thine
Radames.--Love led me hither in hope to meet thee.
Aida.--Thou to another must thy hand
resign. The Princess weds thee.
Radames.--What sayest thou Thee only, Aida, e'er can I love. Be witness, heaven, thou art not forsaken.
Aida.--Invoke not falsely the gods
True, thou wert lov'd; let not untruth degrade thee!
Radames.--Can of my love no more I persuade thee
Aida.--And how then hop'st thou to
baffle the love of the Princess. The King's high command, the desire
of the people, The certain wrath of the priesthood
Radames.--Hear me, Aida.
Once more of deadly strife with hope unfading
The Ethiop has again lighted the brand.
Already they our borders have invaded ;
All Egypt's armies I shall command.
While shouts of triumph greet me victorious,
To our kind monarch my love disclosing,
I theewill claim as my guerdon glorious,
With thee live evermore in love reposing.
Aida.--Nay, but dost thou not fear then Amneris' fell revenge
Her dreadful vengeance, like the lightning of heaven
On me will fall, upon my father, my nation.
Radames.--I will defend thee!
Aida.--In vain wouldst thou attempt it, Yet if thou lov'st me, There still offers a path for our escape.
Radames.--Name it! Aida.--To flee! Radames.--To flee hence
Aida.--Ah, flee from where these burning skies
Are all beneath them blighting;
Toward regions now we'll turn our eyes,
Our faithful love inviting.
There, where the virgin forests rise,
'Mid fragrance softly stealing,
Our loving bliss concealing,
The world we'll quite forget.
Radames.--To distant countries ranging,
With thee thou bid'st me fly! For other lands exchanging All 'neath my native sky! The land these armies have guarded, That first fame's crown awarded, Where first I thee regarded, How can I e'er forget
Aida.--There, where the virgin forests
'Mid fragrance softly stealing, The world we'll quite forget.
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Radames.--Where first I thee regarded How can I e'er forget
Aida.--Beneath our skies more freely To our hearts will love be yielded; The gods thy youth that shielded, Will not our love forget; Ah, let us fly!
Radames (hesitating).--Aida. Aida.--Me thou lov'st not! Go!
Radames.--Not love thee Ne'er yet in mortal bosom love's flame
did burn With ardor so devouring!
Aida.--Go! go! yon awaits for thee Amneris!
Radames.--All in vain.
Aida.--In vain, thou sayest Then fall the axe upon me, And on my wretched father.
Radames (with impassioned resolution). Ah no! we'll fly, then! Yes, we'll fly these walls now hated, In the desert hide our treasure, Here the land to love seems fated, There all seems to smile on me.
Aida.--'Mid the valleys where nature greets thee,
We our bridal couch soon spreading,
Starry skies, their lustre shedding,
Be our lucid canopy.
Follow me, together flying,
Where all love dpth still abide;
Thou art lov'd with love undying!
Come, and love our steps shall guide. (They are hasting away when suddenly Aida pauses).
But, tell me: by what path shall we avoid
Alighting on the soldiers
Radames.--By ithe path that we have
To fall on the Ethiops, 'Twill be free until to-morrow.
Aida.--Say, which is that Radames.--The gorges of Napata.
Amonasro.--Of Napata the gorges! There will I post my men I
Radames.---Who has overheard us
Amonasro.--Aida's father, Ethiopa's King!
Radames (overcome with surprise). Thou! Amonasro! thou! the King Heaven! what say's thou No! it is false! Surely this can be but dreaming!
Aida.--Ah no! be calm, and list to me, Trust! love thy footsteps guiding.
Amonasro.--In her fond love confiding A throne thy prize shall be.
Radames.--My name forever branded! For thee I've played the traitor!
Aida.--Ah, calm thee!
Amonasro.--No; blame can never fall
on thee,
It was by fate commanded. Come, where beyond the Nile arrayed, Warriors brave are waiting; There love each fond wish sating, Thou shalt be happy made. Come then.
(Dragging Radames.)
AmnEris (from the temple).--Traitor vile!
Aida.--My rival here!
Amonasro.--Dost thou come to mar my projects!
(Advancing with dagger towards Amneris.)
Radames (rushing between them). Desist thou madman!
Amonasro.--Oh fury! Ramphis.--Soldiers, advance!
Radames (to Aida and Amonasro). Fly quick! delay not!
Amonasro (dragging Aida). -Come then, my daughter.
Ramphis (to the guards).--Follow after!
Radames (to Ramphis).--Priest of Isis, I yield to thee.
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Scene I.--A Hall in the King's palace. On the left a large portal leading to the subterranean hall of justice. A passage on the right, leading to the prison of Radames.
Amneris.--She, my rival detested, has
escaped me.
And from the priesthood Radames Awaits the sentence on a traitor. Yet a traitor he is not. Tho' he disclosed The weighty secrets of warfare, flight
was His true intention, and flight with her,
too. They are traitors all, then! deserving
to perish! What am I saying I love him, still
I love him:
Yes, insane and desp'rate is the love My wretched life destroying. Ah ! could he only love me! I fain would save him. Yet can I One effort! Soldiers, Radames bring
(Enter Radames, led by guards.) Now to the hall the priests proceed, Whose judgment thou are waiting; Yet there is hope from this foul deed Thyself of exculpating; Once clear to gain thy pardon I at the throne's foot kneeling, For mercy appealing, Life will I render thee.
Radames.--From me my judges ne'er
"will hear
One word of exculpation; In sight of heaven I am clear, Nor fear its reprobation. My lips I kept no guard on. The secret I imparted, But guiltless and pure-hearted, From stain my honor's free.
Amneris.--Then save thy life, and clear thyself.
Amneris.--Wouldst thou die
Radames.--My life is hateful! Of all
Forever 'tis divested, Without hope's priceless treasure, 'Tis beitter far to die.
AmnEris.--Wouldst die, then Ah!
thou for me shalt live! Live, of all my love assured; The keenest pangs that death can give, For thee have I endured! By love condemn'd to languish, Long vigils I've spent in anguish, My country, my power, existence, All I'd surrender for thee.
Radames.--For her I too my country, Honor and life surrendered!
Amneris.--No more of her!
Radames.--Dishonor awaits me, Yet thou wilt save me Thou all my hope has shaken, Aida thou has taken; Haply thou hast slain her, And yet offerest life to me
Amneris.--I, on her life lay guilty
hands No! She is living!
Amneris.--When routed fled the savage
To fate war's chances giving, Perish'd her father.
Radames.--And she then
Amneris.--Vanish'd, nor aught heard we then further.
Radames.--The gods her path guide,
Safe to her home returning, Guard her, too, e'er from learning That I for her sake die!
Amneris.--But if I save thee, wilt thou
swear Her sight e'er to resign
Radames.--I cannot!
Amneris.--Swear to renounce her forever, Life shall be thine!
Radames.--I cannot!
Amneris.--Once more thy answer; Wilt thou renounce her
Radames.--No never!
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Amneris.--Life's thread wouldst thou then sever
Radames.--I am prepared to die.
Amneris.--From the fate now hanging
o'er thee,
Who will save thee, wretched being She whose heart could once adore
Now is made thy mortal foe. Heaven all my anguish seeing, Will revenge this cruel 'blow.
Radames.---Void of terror death now
Since I die for her I cherish; In the hour when I perish, With delight my heart will glow; Wrath no more this bosom feareth, Scorn for thee alone I know.
{Exit Radames attended by guards. Amneris, overcome, sinks on a chair.)
Amneris.--Ah me; 'tis death approaches !
Who will save him
He is now in their power, his sentence I have seal'd!
Oh, how I curse thee, Jealousy, vile monster,
Thou who hast doom'd him to death,
And me to everlasting sorrow!
(The Priests cross and enter the subterranean hall.)
Now yonder come, remorseless,
Relentless, his merciless judges.
Ah! let me not behold those white rob'd phantoms!
He is now in their power;
Twas I alone his fate that seal'd!
Ramphis and Chorus. -Heavenly
spirit, in our hearts descending, Kindle of righteousness the flame,
Unto our sentence truth and righteousness lending.
Amneris.--Pity, oh heav'n, this heart
so sorely wounded! His heart is guiltless, save him,
pow'rs supernal! For my sorrow is despairing, deep,
unbounded! (Radames crosses with guards, and
enters the subterranean hall.
She sees Radames and' exclaims.) Ah! who will save him I feel death approach!
Ramphis (in the crypt).--Radames!
Radames! Radames! Thou hast betrayed of thy country the
secrets To aid the foeman. Defend thyself!
Chorus.--Defend thyself. Ramphis.--He is silent. All.--Traitor vile!
Amnews.--Mercy! spare him, ne'er was
he guilty;
Ah, spare him, heaven, ah, spare his life.
Ramphis.--Radames! Radames! Radames ! Thou hast deserted the encampment
the very day Before the combat. Defend thyself!
Chorus.--Defend thyself. Ramphis.--He is silent. All.--Traitor vile!
Amneris.--Mercy, spare him, save him,
oh heav'n,
Ah, spare him, heav'n, ah spare his life!
Ramphis.--Radames ! Radames ! Radames ! Hast broken faith as a traitor to
country, To King, to honor. Defend thyself!
Chorus.--Defend thyself. Ramphis.--He is silent. All.--Traitor vile!
Amneris.--Mercy, spare him, save him,
oh heav'n,
Ah heav'n, spare him, heav'n, spare his life!
Ramphis and Priests.--Radames, we
thy fate have decided; Of a traitor the fate shall be thine: 'Neath the altar whose god thou'st
derided, Thou a sepulchre living shall find.
Amneris.--Find a sepulchre living! Oh,
ye wretches!
Ever blood-thirsty, vengeful, and blind,
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Yet who serve of kind heaven the
{The Priests re-enter out of the crypt.)
Amneris {confronting the Priests).
Priests of Isis, your sentence is odious!
Tigers, ever exulting in slaughter!
Of the earth and the gods all laws ye outrage!
He is guiltless, whose death ye devise!
Ramphis and Priests.--He is condemned ! He dies!
Amneris {to Ramphis).--Priest of Isis, this man who you murder,
Well ye know, in my heart I have cherish'd:
May the curse of a heart whose hope has perish'd
Fall on him who mercy denies!
Ramphis and Priests.--He is condemned! He dies! {Exeunt Ramphis and Priests.)
Amneris.--Impious priesthood! curses
light on ye all!
On your heads heaven's vengeance will fall!
Scene II.--The scene is divided into two floors. The upper floor represents the interior of the Temple of Vulcan, resplendent with gold and glittering light. The lower floor is a crypt. Long arcades vanishing in the gloom. Colossal statues of Osiris with crossed hands support the pillars of the vault. Radames is discovered in the crypt, on the steps of the stairs leading into the vault. Above, two Priests are in the act of letting down the stone which closes the subterranean apartment.
Radames.--The fatal stone upon me
now is closing!
Now has the tomb engulf'd me. I never more shall light behold. Ne'er shall I see Aida, Aida, where now art thou Whate'er befall me, may'st thou be
happy, Ne'er may my frightful doom reach
thy ear.
What groan was that! 'Tis a phantom, Some vision dread! No! sure that
form is human! Heav'n! Aida!
Aida.--'Tis I, love!
Radames (in the utmost despair).-Thou with me here buried
Aida.--My heart foreboded this thy
dreadful sentence, And to this tomb, that shuts on
thee its portal, I creRt unseen by mortal. Here, far from all, where none can
more behold us, Clasp'd in thy arms I am resolved to
Radames.--To die! so pure and lovely! For me thyself so dooming, In all thy beauty blooming, Fade thus forever! Thou whom the heav'ns alone for
love created, But destroy thee was my love then
Ah, no, those eyes so clear I prize, For death too lovely are!
Aida (as in a trance).--Seest thou,
where death, in angel guise, In heav'nly radiance beaming, Would waft us to eternal joys, On golden wings above See, heaven's gates are open wide, Where tears are never streaming, Where only joy and bliss abide, And never fading love.
Priestesses and Priests. -Almighty
Phtha, that wakest, In all things breathing life, Lo ! we invoke thee.
Aida.--Doleful chanting!
Radames.--Of the Priests 'tis the invocation.
Aida.--It is our death chant resounding.
Radames (trying to displace the stone closing the vault).--Cannot my lusty sinews move from its place A moment this fatal stone!
Sixth Concert 75
Aida.--In vain! All is over, Hope on earth have we none.
Radames (with sad resignation) .--I fear it! I fear it!
Aida and Radames.--Farewell, oh earth, farewell, thou vale of sorrow,
Brief dream of joy condemn'd to end in woe,
To us now opens the sky, an endless morrow
Unshadow'd there eternally shall glow.
Ah! now opens the sky.
(Amneris appears habited in mourning, and throws herself on the stone closing the vault.)
Amneris {suffocating with emotion). Peace everlasting. Oh, my beloved, Isis relenting greet thee on high!
Priests.--Almighty Phtha!
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
F. J. WESSELS, Manager
H. E. VOEGELI, Asst. Manager
English Horn-NAPOLILLI, F.
Bass Clarinet--¦ MEYER, C.
Bassoons-GUETTER, W. RABE, H.
Contra Bassoon-KRUSE, P.
Bass Trumpet-ANDAUER, E.
Librarian-HANDKE, P.
The University Choral Union
Marjorie Anderson Adams
Marie Rosetta Alexander
Hazel Louise Allman
Florence Pullybank Anderson
Dorothy Alice Armstrong
Christine Baird
Florence Barnett
Laura Marie Bauer
Ruth Smith Benham
Lois L. Bennallack
Mrs. Perry Biggs
Abigail Blackburn
Helen Mar Blain
Corinne Keil Bledsoe
Cora Amanda Brown
Marie Grace Burg
Emma Louise Carlson
Catherine R. Caspari
Harriette Cole
Anna Elizabeth Collins
H. Kathleen Conklin
Margaret Carroll Cook
Charlotte Ruth Craig
Mrs. V. W. Crane
Ester C. Cristanelli
Clara Angalina Cronin
Mrs. E. N. Crossman
Gladyes C. Daun
E. Belle Davenport
Beulah B. Davis
Nina M. Davison
Violet Valida Dettman Amelia Marie Disderide Lotta S. Doan Nellmarie Durfee Mrs. R. O. Ficken Elizabeth M. Filer Mrs. Ralph J. Frackelton Mary Elizabeth Frey Annabelle Norris Frink Marian Frisbie Irene Esther Fritz Janet E. Gilchrist Florence W. Greene Hilda A. Greenfield Hilda Caroline Greve Helene M. Greve Elsa M. Grieve Elsa E. Haag
Mrs. Hazel Stimson Haller Helen Gertrude Hammels Ruth Agnes Hebblewhite Laura W. Henkel Florence Heselschwerdt Marguerite Mildred Hewitt Nina Belle Hewitt Frances Eva Hill Josephine N. Holland Martha H. Hyde Florence C. Jernberg Ada Grace Johnson Kathryn Selden Johnson
Laura J. Jones Marion J. Kapp Margaret H. Keeler Blanche Faye Keeney Edna Kidman Maude Charlotte Kleyn Alice Georgia Kuebler Mildred M. Lehman Caroline B. Little A. Laura Long Anna Eva Ludwig Verna H. Luther Elsa Frieda Lutz Zaida B. McFarren Katherine S. MacBride Shirley M. Mallette Vivian E. Markham Elsie Louise Mayer Ruth Merriman Neva Marguerite Nelson Anna Lucile Noble Jessie Garrit Nutting Dorothy G. O'Connor Margaret Gertrude Parks Ulen Marie Peterson Cara Floy Petrie Carol C. Pierson Mrs. Mabel Powell Catherine E. M. Purtell Ruth V. Riemenschneider Helen Rock
78 Official Program Book
Alice E. Rominger Nancy L. Rose Evelyn H. Scholl Louise Rankin Scott Eva M. Skelton Irene H. Skinner Ethel V. Slayton Mrs. Carl H. Smith Helen Agnes Smith Ida May Spathelf H. Irene Steffey Marion Steward
Mabel C. Stone Arabella G. Swartout Jessie E. Tapert Martha L. Taylor Louise Thayer Marie C. Thompson Mary J. Tinsman Edna M. Toland Mrs. Lissa M. O. Tucker Mildred C. VanAmberg Mildred Vorce Florence Walker
Marguerite N. Walker Mrs. R. Kidman-Westerman Laura Mae Whelan Myrtle May White Mrs. A. D. Wickett Olive J. Wiggins lone Alvilda Wilber Mildred H. Winch Cecile Allene Worrell Frances Hamilton Wrigley Dorothy Amelia Wylie
Margaret E. Addison Nora Olivia Bau Thusnelda C. Binhammer Alice Bliton Esther Bliton Adeline Boaz Eiladean A. Browne Vera H. Brown Gertrude R. Carson Cecelia A. Caspari Mary Adeline Chipman Jessie Eldora Clark Miriam O. Clarke Marcia M. Coburn Mrs. Charles Cole Eva L. Cole Mrs. H. C. Coops Helen Ruth Dailey Marie L. Dole Esther LDorrance Nellie Grace Field Louise Lydia Gaylord Louise Josephine Gould
Olive Irene Hagen Gladys Irene Hamilton Helen Carol Harris Lillian Poole Hartom H. Vera Haven Lillian B. Hertler Grace R. Hesse Mildred Paxton Hill Sarah T. Hollands Nora Crane Hunt Gretchen Jones Grace Light Kelley Clara Dorothy Lundell Lavinia McBride Mrs. M. B. A. McLaughlin Merle Madden Bertha S. Ohlinger Mrs. Henry P. Palen Henrietta E. Peterson Emily Powell Cora Irene Price Florence Marie Price Ethel Wheeler Rathke
Cora Lee Ravn Margery Eleanor Reynolds Nina Valene Salisbury Mena E. Scott E. Pearl Smith Mildred T. Smith Helen M. Spencer Hulda Stroebel Alice Taylor Susanne B. Trible Bernice A. Updike Susan Serrill Verlenden Amanda Dorothy Vetter Sophie T. Vogelbacker Marjorie M. Whelan attie Irene Whitman Lois Raff Winch Florence Helen Wixson Mrs. W. R. Wright Elizabeth Luce Wylie Lora Zaewn
Neflf Ashworth Carl Osborn Barton George Lee Borough Elbert Fletcher Campbell James C. Crittenden Horace Lee Davis Joseph H. Failing Edward C. Fisher L. Drew Goddard Burton G. Grim Frank W. Grover
James Hamilton W. Ogden Johnson Vernon Lancaster Warren A. Lanz William E. Legg John C. McGuire Oliver H. Morton Odra Ottis Patton Frederick W. Peterson Harold Victor Rocho Cecil A. Ross
H. Harold Rubey
James H. Russell
Paul A. Shinkman
E. Prescott Smith
Otto Jacob Stahl
Ralph Todd Swezey
Peter C. Treleaven
Julius W. Ulmer
William R. Vis
Kenneth Neville Westerman
C. V. Wicker
Children's Chorus 79
Milton P. Adams Otis N. Auer Gordon R. Ayery James M. Bailey Ray Baxter Herbert Bell Elliott M. Bender Don M. Benedict Harvey J. Bisbee George Maxwell Brown Chalmers S. Carson Ernest K. Chapin Fiske St. John Church William T. Dawson Robert Richard Dieterle William H. Dorrance, Jr. George W. Emery Richard O. Ficken Ralph J. Frackelton Burton A. Garlinghouse Clarence B. Garlock
Maurice Gay Welland Gay William A. Gonter John Harold Hanger Clare M. Hess S. Leslie Hudd Bert W. Ingle William L. Kemp Roger M. Kinzly Oscar C. Klager Chester S. Lawton Victor E. Legg George Allan Lindsay Alfred H. Lovell Carl Philip Martzloff .Irving B. Miller David D. Nash Clarence E. Netting Rev. F. Ohlinger Henry P. Palen Howard C. Porter
Hugh Donald Reed Charles Pratt Russell Woldemar F. Schreiber Harold J. Sherman Chase B. Sikes Walter M. Simpson John A. Skoog Herbert R. Slusser Paul Ticknor Smith Richard D. Smith James Geddes Staley Charles B. Stegner Norman H. Stumpf Paul B. Taylor Thomas I. Underwood Roy A. Vanderlind Elba E. Watson Walter Scott Westennan Carl H. Wilmot Levi D. Wines Winthrop R. Wright
Alice Anderson Marion Barth Clara Bedford Norma Beuerle Clarence Bissell Kathryn Cole Lillian Ernis Stella Eiting Melvin Fiegel Margaret Gauss Einar Glaser Clarence Glass Marjorie Glass Elsa Goetz Lucile Graham Gertrude Hackbarth
Hilda Hanselmann Florence Hertler Thelma Hoelzle Ruth Kohlenkamp Louise Hornung Ruth Hudnutt Gordon Hunter Lorain Jewell Marian Kelley Charlotte Kurtz Vera Kusterer Alvina Marquardt Donald Mayer Lucile Miller Dorothy Murray Ruth Neff Karl Nordmann Ruth Perkins
LaVergne Quigley Elmer Raab Erna Reickenecker Ruth Reickenecker Cornelia Roehm Roland Rogers Harold Schallhorn Ernest Schenk Eva Schlemmer Leone Schriber Loraine Schriber John Shannon Frank Spies Bernice Staebler Erna Steinke Loretta Stoll Ruth Stoll Florence Vogel
8o Official Program Book
Alma Weber Katherine Weiser Alvina Wiese Clara Wold
ALTOS George Bailey Oscar Buss Lila Gage
Irene Graf Ribert Kirop Louise Koch Herbert Kreklau Ernest Marquardt Ralph Murray-Roland Nissle Edna Roehm Emma Schaible
Claud Schlegel Frieda Schlupp Elmer Seeger Mary Shingledecker Walter Stiller Theodore Trost Roland Walz Donald Warren Clara Wild
SOPRANOS Edward Bevier John J. Clarkson Frank Davis Oscar Elsasser Elizabeth Gregory Vida James Earl Judson Ruth Lindenschmidt Florence Lucas
Ruth Maurer Lucile Poor Helen Petrie Frances Wilder Irma Wiedman
ALTOS Fred Bauer Harold Davis Lawrence Fest Virginia Hendrickson
Herman Hildner Robert John Esther Love Mildred Maurer Margaret Poor Frank Painter Carl Perrin Edward Richar Russell Smith Miles Seeley
SOPRANOS Bennie Baseler Frederic Besimer Edith Chatsey Marion Court Arthur Cobb Hazel Dunn Florence Dunn Helen Fletcher Roszella Flynn Nellie Freeland Ellen Gallup Elsa Geisendorfer Emerson Hammial Warren Harding Louis Huesman Margaret Jones Elsie Kauska Helen Koch Hazel Little Harry McCain
Donald McLean Gretchen Mullison Alva Pardon Clara Peterson Russell Ransom Lydia Snyder Helen Snyder Louise Sorg Cather Zackman
Gerald Blackmer Gertrude Campbell Frantz Coe Normal Crosby Margaret Day Mabel Eddy Henry Elsifor Wallace Firth Jennie Games Fred Haines
Vivian Hanford ¦Agnes Jones Johanna Kittle Walter McLean Courtney Novack Frank Pardon Harold Petrie Otto Pommerening Alice Robbins George Schaible Elsie Schmidt May Schmidt Genevieve Schultz Leah Sherman Barrett Stimpson Elmer Stringfellow Edith Swanson Oswald Teachworth Russell Warren Janet Webster George Yuhler
SOPRANOS Irene Adam Pearl Baker Enid Barrett Gretchen Bucholz
Ira Biddle Grace Clark Helen Clark Drayton Davidson George Efner
Gladys .Eno Ida Esslinger Doris Foster Henry Groomes Rosaltha Groomes
Children's Chorus gz
Paul Gruner
Bertha Hanselmann
John Hanselmann
William Hanselmann
Gerald Haupt
Mary Margaret Helmstetler
Elmer Heselschwerdt
Walter Hinz
Mildred Howe
Alvin Kuehn
Emanuel Kuehbler
Katherine Lane
Norma Meyer
Zeta Meyer
Nina Morse
Frances Nunn
Ralph Perkins
Verna Procknow
Nettie Rayment
Hilda Redies
Edwin Rodgers
Karl Schaefer
Ruth Schaefer
Arthur Schauer
Helen Scherdt
Luella Schneider
William Schneider
Robert Shankland
Franklin Simpson
Mildred Snyder
Helen Sorenson
SOPRANOS Gertrude Alexander Theodore Alexander Geraldine Aubrey Robert Bacher Margaret Backus Edna Bareis Walter Belser Florence Benz Elizabeth Bilon Caroline Binder Bernard Blashill Jennie Bonisteel Pearl Cleavinge Hazel Corbett Ira Corson Edwin Davis Philip Dow Edith Eastoi. Lucile Fiege! Flora Finkbeiner Marian Harris Ethel Heibein
Ethel Stevenson Rachel Terwilliger Anna Way Oswald Welke Louise Wiedman Ethel Williams Audrey Willscher Edna Wire Elsa Wolf Bertha Wolter Nellie Wyckoff
ALTOS Wilhelm Braatz Irwin Broderick Ernest Bucholz Lillian Burch Harold Coats Fred Doman Louise Ehnis Carl Ehrenberg Frances Fry Ted Fry Harold Gee Leslie Gee Mamie Haines Robert Hanselman Wanda Hanselman Earl Kleinschmidt Madge Kratz Isabell Krause
William Hoad Fadelma Hoffstetter Irene Hohlenkamp Helen Janowski Grace Klager Ella Lucht Vera Lutz Lauretta Marsh Gertrude Ottmer Irma Pracht Hazel Rich Virginia Royce Florence Schaller Amanda Schneider Ruth Seeger Ruth Stark Harold Stevens Clara Stoll Ellen Theurer Eleanor Thews Ida Wagner Helen Wilson
Grant Lindenschmidt John Liretti Clesta McFarlaue Leona Mann Erwin Nunn Trella Priddy Virgil Poland Lynden Pullen Merrill Rayment Ella Redies Clifford Ryan Joseph Ryan Aileen Rudd Robert St. Clair Dorris Saraw Margaret Schaible Ruth Schanz Earl Schneider Myrtle Sorenson Sinta Steinke Gorton Stevens Leo Strieter Ralph Warner Derwood Warren Norman Wenk Ruth Wier Sophie Wolf Alice Wuerfel Lewis Wurster
ALTOS Everett Bell Albert Bethke Edwin Bethke Ernest Briegel Ruth Bull Howard Canfield Ray Cannon Clarence Dietz Florence Dupslaff Amanda Gauss Wilma Gwinner Doric Hamilton Otto Hartman Marion Hill Esther Huss Phyllis Johnson Ray Kaufman Harold Marquardt Earl Meyer Lois Niethammer Lois Olney Clarke Parker
82 Official Program Book
Herbert Pfabe Elizabeth Pillsbury Floyd Pope Harold Reynolds Clarence Roehm Leonard Sauer Paul Schlanderer Fitzhugh Slaten
Edna Smith Horace Sodt Neil Staebler William Stellwagen Gladys Stevens Ruth Stevens Harvey Wagner William Walz
Ruth Weinmann Leslie Wessinger Douglas Whittemore Florence Wilkinson Hulda Wright Roy Yakley
Ruth Allmand Endora Begole Ruth Bennett Eleanor Bond Sue Grundy Bonner Elizabeth Brace Fern Mae Brittain Frederick Burt Charles Campbell Clarice Carmody Edmonde Colleau Harry Cooch John Diekhoff Margaret Effinger Lorene English Emma French Ruth Geniesse Nettie Gillian Helen Hall Robert Henderson Charlotte Jacobs Dorothy Jolly Robert Karpinski Alethia Keatley Doris Klock Ella Krausche Felice Lally
Lucius Lally Alice Manderbach Margaret Mason Helen Moses Marion Northrup Bernice O'Toole Ruth Rankin Anna Reeves Maxine Samuelson Richard Sawyer Marjorie Shaw Gladys Sherman Cynthia Smith Leverett Smith Wayne Smith Elizabeth Strauss Helen Taylor Elizabeth Van Gordon Robert Wagner Heath Walling Julia Wilson
Vernon Allmendinger Clarence Bristle Charles Crittenden Lucy Domboorajian Mabel Dunn
Richard Earhart Huber Goodrich Otto Guthe Foster Hall Harold Holmes Emma Horton Louise Jacobus Ingrid Jewell Reuel Kenyon Thelma McConnell Robert MacGregor Cassius Miller Kenneth Miller Lester Norman Doris Oakes Helen Ramsay Robert Ramsay Finley Riggs Winifred Russell Oswald Schaefer Karl Schlotterbeck George Scott Gertrude Slivinsky Justine Spradling Wilfred Stevens Elwood Stowe Robert Swain
Repertoire of the May Festival and Choral Union Series
From 1888 to 1917 Inclusive
The final concert in the Festival Series this year will be number 307, but in this list only the works since the reorganization of the Society in 1888 are included. A condensed statement of the programs for the twenty-four Festivals will be given first, after which follows a complete list of the works given, and the artists who have appeared in the concerts.
The Boston Festival Orchestra, Emil Mollenhauer, and Albert A. Stanley, Conductors, appeared in Festivals 1 to 11 inclusive. At the remaining Festivals, the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, with Frederick A. Stock, and Albert A. Stanley, Conductors, took part.
Dating from 1913 the Festivals have been given in the Hill Auditorium. Prior to that date they were given in University Hall.
FIRST FESTIVAL May 18, 19, 1894--Three Concerts
Soloists: Miss Emma Juch, Miss Rose Stewart, Sopranos; Miss Gertrude May Stein, Contralto; Mr. Edward C. Towne, Tenor; Mr. Max Heinrich, Baritone; Mr. Arthur Friedheim, Pianist; Mr. Felix Winternitz, Violinist; Mr. Fritz Giese, Violoncellist; Mr. Van Veachton Rogers, Harpist.
Principal Works
"Manzoni" Requiem, Verdi; Symphony, Op. 56, Mendelssohn; "Le Carnaval Ro-maine," Overture, Berlioz; "Lenore" Overture, No. 3, Beethoven; Suite, "Woodland," MacDowell; Piano Concerto, E flat, Liszt; Piano Concerto, F minor, Chopin.
SECOND FESTIVAL May 17, 18, 1895--Four Concerts
Soloists: Mme. Lillian Nordica, Miss Rose Stewart, Sopranos; Miss Gertrude May Stein, Contralto; Mr. William R. Rieger, Tenor; Mr. William H. Clarke, Bass; Mr. Max Heinrich, Baritone; Mr. Martinus Sieveking, Pianist; Mr. Clarence Eddy,
Organist. .
Principal Works
Symphony, B minor (unfinished), Schubert; "Damnation of Faust," Berlioz; Overture "Anacreon," Cherubini; Vorspiel "Tristan and Isolde," Wagner; Quartet from "Fidelio," Beethoven; Suite "L'Arlesienne," Bizet; Piano Concerto, Op. 22, G minor, Saint-Saens; Overture, "Melpomene," Chadwick.
THIRD FESTIVAL May 21, 22, 23, 1896--Five Concerts
Soloists: Frau Katherine Lohse-Klafsky, Miss Rose Stewart, Sopranos; Mrs. Katherine Bloodgood, Miss Gertrude May Stein, Contraltos; Mr. Barron Berthald, Mr. Evan Williams, Tenors; Mr. Max Heinrich, Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. Gardner S. Lamson, Baritones; Mr. Van Veachton Rogers, Harpist; Mr. Alberto Jonas, Pianist; Mr. Herman Zeitz, Violinist.
"Lohengrin," Act I, "Tristan and Isolde," (a) Vorspiel, (b) "Isolde's Liebstod," Wagner; Siegmund's "Love Song," Wagner; "Faust" Overture, Wagner; "Meister-singer," (a) Pogner's Address, (b) Vorspiel, Wagner; Overture, "Magic Flute,"
84 Official Program Book
Mozart; Piano Concerto, E flat, Beethoven; Symphony, F major, A. A. Stanley; Phantasie, "Romeo and Juliet," Svendsen; Overture, "Sakuntala," Goldmark; Overture, "Ruy Bias," Mendelssohn; Symphonic Sketches, Chadwick; "Samson and Deli-lah," Saint-Saens.
May 13, 14, 15, 1897--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mme. Emma Calve, Mrs. Francis Wood, Sopranos; Mrs. Katherine Bloodgood, Miss Jennie May Spencer, Contraltos; Mr. Barron Berthald, Mr. J. H. McKinley, Tenors; Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. Gardner S. Lamson, Mr. Hem-rich Meyn, Baritones; Mr. Alberto Jonas, Pianist; Mr. Herman Zeitz, Violinist; Mr.
Thomas C. Trueblood, Reader. _
Principal Works
Symphonic Poem, "Les Preludes," Liszt; Overture, "1812," Tschaikowsky; "Stabat Mater," Rossini; Symphony, "Consecration of Tone," Spohr; Piano Concerto, A minor, Paderewski; Overture, "Oberon," Weber; Serenade, Op. 48, Tschaikowsky; Violin Concerto, No. 2, Wieniawski; Music to "Midsummer Night's Dream," Mendel-ssohn; "Arminius," Bruch.
May 12, 13, 14, 1898--Five Concerts Soloists: Mme. Johanna Gadski, Mrs. Jennie Patrick Walker, Sopranos; Miss
Janet Spencer, Miss Gertrude May Stein, Contraltos; Mr. William J. Lavin, Mr. William H. Rieger, Mr. Barron Berthald, Tenors; Mr. David Bispham, Mr. William A. Howland, Signor Giuseppe Del Puente, Baritones; Mr. Alexander Heindl, Violoncellist; Miss Elsa von Grave, Pianist.
Principal Works
Manzoni Requiem, Verdi; Symphony Pathetique, Tschaikowsky; Piano Concerto, A major, Liszt; Overture, "Academic Festival," Brahms; Symphonic Poem, "Attis," A. A. Stanley; Aria, "Am stillen Herd" (Meistersinger), Wagner; "Kaisermarch," Wagner; Rhapsodie, "Espana," Chabrier; Ballet Music (Carmen), Bizet; "Flying Dutchman," Wagner.
May 11, 12, 13, 1899--Five Concerts
Soloists: Miss Sara Anderson, Miss Anna Lohmiller, Mme. Marie Brema, Sopranos; Miss Blanche Towle, Mrs. Josephine Jacoby, Contraltos; Mr. George Hamlin, Mr. Clarence Shirley, Tenors; Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. Gwylm Miles, Baritones; Mr. Myron W. Whitney, Jr., Bass; Miss Elsa Von Grave, Pianist; Mr. Emil Mollenhauer, Mr. Herman Zeitz, Conductors.
Principal Works
"Requiem," Brahms; Suite, Moskowski; Symphony, No. 3, Raff; Overture, "Ben-venuto Cellini," Berlioz; Overture, "Hansel and Gretel," Humperdinck; Symphony, "Rustic Wedding," Goldmark; Overture, "Robespierre," Litolf; "Samson and Deli-lah," Saint-Saens. SEVENTH FESTIVAL
May 17, 18, 19, 1900--Five Concerts
Soloists : Miss Sara Anderson, Mme. Juch-Wellman, Sopranos; Miss Isabel Bou-ton, Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Contraltos; Hr. G. Leon Moore, Mr. Evan Williams, Tenors; Mr. David Bispham, Mr. William A. Howland, Mr. Gwylm Miles, Baritones; Mr. Arthur Hadley, Violoncellist; Mr. Bernard Sturm, Violinist.
Repertoire, 1888-1917 85
Principal Works
Overture, "Lenore," Nos. 1, 2 and 3, Beethoven; "The Lily Nymph," G. W. Chad-wick; Overture, "Oedipus Tyrannus," J. K. Paine; Suite in D, Bach; Symphony, No. 6, "Pastoral," Beethoven; Overture, "In der Natur," Dvorak; Suite, Op. 48, "Indian," MacDowell; Concerto, No. 1, G minor (for Violin), Bruch; Symphony in G, Mozart; Serenade, Op. 69, Volkman; Theme and Variations, and Finale, Suite in D minor, Op. 38, Foote; Overture, "Tragic," Brahms; "Hora Novissima," Op. 30, H. W. Parker.
EIGHTH FESTIVAL May 16, 17, 18, 1901--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mrs. Marie Kunkel Zimmerman, Soprano; Miss Fielding Roselle, Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Contraltos; Mr. Glenn Hall, Tenor; Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. William Howland, Mr. Gwylm Miles, Baritones; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist; Mr. Albert Lockwood, Pianist; Mr. Bernard Sturm, Violinist; Mr. Alfred Hoffman, Violoncellist.
Principal Works
"Elijah," Mendelssohn; Overture, "Egmont," Op. 84, Beethoven; Piano Concerto, B flat minor, Op. 23, Tschaikowsky; "Wotan's Farewell" from "Walkure," Wagner; Symphony, "In the New World," Dvorak; Symphonic Poem, "Les Eolides," Cesar Franck; Concerto, for Violin, D minor, Op. 22, Tschaikowsky; Vorspiel and "Liebes-tod," Wagner; Symphony, E flat, No. 1, Haydn; Suite, Op. 22, "Children's Games," Bizet; "Golden Legend," Sullivan.
NINTH FESTIVAL May 15, 16, 17, 1902--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mme. Johanna Gadski, Mme. Evta Kileski, Miss Anita Rio, Sopranos; Mme. Louise Homer, Miss Janet Spencer, Contraltos; Mr. Barron Berthald, Mr. Glenn Hall, Mr. James Moore, Mr. Marshall Pease, Tenors; Signor Emilio De Gorgoza, Mr. William A. Howland, Baritones; Mr. Frederick Martin, Bass; Mr. Van den Berg, Pianist; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"Orpheus," Gluck; "Faust," Gounod; "Tannhauser," Wagner; Overture, "The Water Carrier," Cherubini; Concerto, A minor, Op. 54, Schumann; Symphony, No. 5, C minor, Beethoven; Symphony, B minor, (unfinished), Schubert; Suite for Strings, Tschaikowsky; Ballet Music (Azara), Paine; Overture, "King Richard III," VolkmannTENTH FESTIVAL
May 14, 15, 16, 1903--Five Concerts
Soloists: Miss Frances Caspari, Miss Shanna Cumming, Miss Anita Rio, Sopranos ; Miss Isabelle Bouton, Mme. Louise Homer, Contraltos; Mr. Andreas Dippel, Mr. William Wegener, Tenors; Sig. Emilio de Gorgoza, Mr. William Howland, Baritones; Mr. Frederick Martin, Bass; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist; Mr. Carl Webster, Violoncellist; Mme. Fannie Bloomfield Zeisler, Pianist.
Principal Works
"Caractacus," Elgar; "Aida," Verdi; Symphonic Poem, Op. 21, Volbach; Concerto, A minor, Op. 54 for Piano, Schumann; Symphony No. 6, C minor, Op. 58, Glazounow; Overture, "Rienzi," Wagner; Adriano's Aria (Rienzi), Wagner; "Lohengrin," Prelude, Wagner; Introduction, Act III (Lohengrin), Wagner; "Lohengrin's Narrative," Wagner; "Waldweben" (Siegfried), Wagner; "Song of the Rhine Daughters" (Gotterdammerung), Wagner; "Meistersinger" Vorspiel, Wagner; Finale to
86 Official Program Book
Act III, "Meistersinger," Wagner; Aria, "Abscheulicher" (Fidelio), Beethoven; Suits, Op. 16, Suk; Symphony in B minor, Op. 42 for Organ and Orchestra, Guilmant; Variations Symphonique for Violoncello, Boellmann.
ELEVENTH FESTIVAL May 12, 13, 14, 1904--Five Concerts
Soloists: Miss Clara Henly Bussing, Miss Frances Caspari, Miss Anita Rio, Sopranos; Mme. Louise Homer, Miss Florence Mulford, Contraltos; Mr. Holmes Cow-per, Mr. Ellison Van Hoose, Tenors; Sig. Giuseppe Campanari, Sig. Emilio de Gor-goza, Baritones; Mr. Frederic Martin, Bass; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"Fair Ellen," Bruch; "Dream of Gerontius," Elgar; "Carmen," Bizet; Overture-Fantasie, "Romeo and Juliet," Tschaikowsky; Symphony (unfinished), Schubert; Overture, "Magic Flute," Mozart; "Good Friday Spell," Wagner; Symphony, A major, No. 7, Beethoven; "Don Juan," Op. 20, Richard Strauss; Suite for String Orchestra, Juon; Suite, "Esclarmonde," Massenet.
TWELFTH FESTIVAL May 11, 12, 13, 1905--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mme. Lillian Blauvelt, Mrs. Lillian French Read, Sopranos; Mrs. Daisy Force Scott, Miss Gertrude May Stein, Contraltos; Mr. Ellison Van Hoose, Mr. Alfred Shaw, Tenors; Mr. David Bispham, Mr. Vernon D'Arnalle, Baritones; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mrs. Janet Durno-Collins, Pianist; Mr. Henri Ern, Violinist; Mr.
Bruno Steindel, Violoncellist. _
Principal Works
"St. Paul," Mendelssohn; "Arminius," Bruch; Overture, "Carneval," Dvorak; Symphony, "Country Wedding," Goldmark; Overture, "Solonelle," Glazounow; Concerto, for Piano, G minor, Saint-Saens; Symphonic Poem, "Les Preludes," Liszt; Overture, "Academic Festival," Brahms; Symphony, B flat major, No. 4, Beethoven; "Death and Transfiguration," Strauss; Concerto, E minor for Violin, Mendelssohn; Vorspiel "Meistersinger," Wagner; Overture, "Coriolan," Beethoven.
THIRTEENTH FESTIVAL May 10, 11, 12, 1906--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mme. Charlotte Maconda, Mrs. Lillian French Read, Miss Frances Caspari, Sopranos; Miss Isabelle Bouton, Miss Grace Munson, Contraltos; Mr. Glenn Hall, Mr. Ellison Van Hoose, Tenors; Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. Gwylm Miles, Mr. William Howland, Baritones; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mr. Brahm Van
den Berg, Pianist.
Principal Works
Symphony Pathetique, Op. 74, Tschaikowsky; Concerto, Pianoforte, A minor, Op. 16, Grieg; Overture, "Bartered Bride," Smetana; Italian Serenade, Hugo Wolff; Overture, "Liebesfruhling," G. Schumann; Serenade for Wind Choir, Op. 7, R. Strauss; Overture, "Magic Flute," Mozart; Symphony, D major, Op. 73, Brahms; Suite in D, Bach; Overture, "Leonore, No. 3," Beethoven; "Stabat Mater," Dvorak; "A Psalm of Victory," Stanley; "Aida," Verdi; Overture, "Euryanthe," von Weber.
FOURTENTH FESTIVAL May 8, 9, 10, 11, 1907--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mrs. Corinne Rider-Kelsey, Soprano; Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Miss Janet Spencer, Contraltos; Mr. Edward Johnson, Mr. Theodore Van
Repertoire, 1888-191J 87
Yorx, Tenors; Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. William Howland, Baritones; Mrs. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mr. Leopold Kramer, Violinist; Mr. Albert Lockwood,
Principal Works
"The Messiah," Handel; "Samson and Delilah," Saint-Saens; Overture, "Tann-hauser," Wagner; "Afternoon of a Faun," Debussy; Concerto, No. 2, D minor, Op. 44, Bruch; "Scene d'Ballet," Op. 52, Glazounow; "Wotan's Farewell" and "Magic Fire," Wagner; Overture, "Genoveva," Schumann; "Sea Pictures," Elgar; Concerto, D minor, Rubinstein; Symphony, No. 7, Op. 52, Beethoven; Overture, "In the South," Elgar; Ball Scene from "Romeo and Juliet," Berlioz; Symphonic Poem, "On the Moldau" Smetana; "On the Shores of Sorrento," R. Strauss.
FIFTEENTH FESTIVAL May 13, 14, 15, 16, 1908--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mrs. Corinne Rider-Kelsey, Soprano; Mme. Ernestine Schumann-Heink, Miss Janet Spencer, Contraltos; Mr. Edward Johnson, Tenor; Mr. Claude Cunningham, Mr. Earle G. Killeen, Baritones; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mr. Leopold deMare, Horn; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"Creation," Haydn; "Faust," Gounod; Vorspiel "Meistersinger," Wagner; Lyric Suite, Op. 54, Grieg; Concerto for Organ, Op. 177, Rheinberger; Overture, "Barber of Bagdad," Cornelius; Valse de Concert, Glazounow; Introduction to Act I, "Fervaal," d'Indy; Concerto, French Horn, Strauss; Symphony, No. 1, Op. 38, Schumann; Overture, "Benvenuto Cellini," Berlioz; Two Legends, "Kalevala," "En Saga," Sibelius; Variations, Op. 36, Elgar; Overture, "Der faule Hans," Ritter; "Till Eulenspiegel's Merry Pranks," R. Strauss. SIXTEENTH FESTIVAL
May 12, 13, 14, 15, 1909--Five Concerts
Soloists: Miss Perceval Allen, Mme. Olive Fremstad, Sopranos; Miss Margaret Keyes, Contralto; Mr. Daniel Beddoe, Mr. Edward C. Towne, Tenors; Mr. Earle G. Killeen, Baritone; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mr. Alfred Barthel, Oboe; Mr.
Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"The seasons," Haydn; "Damnation of Faust," Berlioz; Overture, "Improvisator," D'Albert; Symphony, No. 8, Op. 93, Beethoven; Symphonic Poem, "Attis," Stanley; Symphonic Valse, "At Sundown," Stock; "Love Song" (Feuersnot), Strauss; Overture, "Fingal's Cave," Mendelssohn; Concerto for Oboe, Op. 7, D minor, de Grandvaal; Symphony, No. 2, D major, Brahms; Overture, "Polonia," Wagner; "Siegfried's Rhine Journey," Wagner; Selections from "Parsifal," Wagner.
SEVENTEENTH FESTIVAL May 18, 19, 20, 21, 1910--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mrs. Jane Osborn Hannah, Mrs. Corinne Rider-Kelsey, Mrs. Sybil Sammis MacDermid, Sopranos; Miss Margaret Keyes, Controlto; Mr. Daniel Beddoe, Tenor; Mr. Sidney Biden, Signor Giuseppe Campanari, Mr. William Howland, Baritones; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mile. Tina Lerner, Pianist.
Principal Works
"Fair Ellen," Bruch; "Odysseus," Bruch; "The New Life," Wolf-Ferrari; Symphony, G minor, Mozart; Symphony, D minor, Cesar Franck; "Manfred," Schumann; Concerto, F minor, Chopin.
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EIGHTEENTH FESTIVAL May 10, ii, 12, 13, 1911--Five Concerts
Soloists: Miss Perceval Allen, Mrs. Sybil Sammis MacDermid, Mme. Bernice de Pasquale, Sopranos; Miss Florence Mulford, Miss Janet Spencer, Contraltos; Mr. Reed Miller, Tenor; Mr. Clarence Whitehill, Baritone; Mr. Horatio Connell, Bass; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"Judas Maccabeus," Handel; "Eugen Onegin," Tschaikowsky; Symphony, in B minor, Borodin; Symphony, C major, Schubert; Overture, "The Perriot of the Minute," Bantock; Overture, "The Carnival," Glazounow; "In Springtime," Goldmark; "Capriccio Espagnole," Rimsky-Korsakow; "Vschyrad," "Moldau," Smetana; "Bran-gane's Warning" (Tristan), Wagner; Closing Scene (Gotterdammerung), Wagner.
NINETEENTH FESTIVAL May 15, 16, 17, 18, 1912--Five Concerts
Soloists: Mme. Alma Gluck, Miss Florence Hinkle, Sopranos; Miss Florence Mulford, Mrs. Nevada Von der Veer, Contraltos; Mr. Ellison Van Hoose, Mr. Reed Miller, Tenors; Mr. Marion Green, Baritone; Mr. Herbert Witherspoon, Bass; Mr.
Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"Dream of Gerontius," Elgar; "Samson and Delilah," Saint-Saens; "Chorus Tri-omphalis," Stanley; Vorspiel, "Hansel and Gretel," Humperdinck; Legende, "Zora-hayda," Svendsen; Symphony, No. 5, E minor, Op. 64, Tschaikowsky; Overture, "Coriolan," Beethoven; Symphony, No. 4, E minor, Op. 98, Brahms; Symphonic Poem, "Les Preludes," Liszt; Overture, "Melusine," Mendelssohn; Symphonic Poem, "Le Chasseur Maudit," Cesar Franck; Suite, "Die Konigskinder," Humperdinck; March Fantasie, Op. 44, Guilmant.
TWENTIETH FESTIVAL May 14, is, 16, 17, 1913--Five Concerts
Soloists: Miss Florence Hinkle, Mme. Marie Rappold, Sopranos; Mme. Schu-mann-Heink, Miss Rosalie Wirthlin, Contraltos; Mr. Lambert Murphy, Tenor; Sig. Pasquale Amato, Mr. Frederick A. Munson, Mr. William Hinshaw, Baritones; Mr.
Henri Scott, Bass. TTr
Principal Works
"Walrus and the Carpenter," Fletcher; "Laus Deo," Stanley; "Manzoni Requiem," Verdi; "Lohengrin," Act. I, Wagner; "Meistersinger," Finale, Wagner; Symphony, No. 5, C minor, Beethoven; Overture, "Academic Festival, Op. 80," Brahms; Overture, "Merry Wives of Windsor," Nicolai; Overture, "Flying Dutchman," Wagner; Overture, "Tannhauser," Wagner; Suite, "Wand of Youth," Elgar; Suite, "Woodland," Op. 42, MacDowell; Tone Poem, "Don Juan," Richard Strauss; Hungarian Dances, Brahms-Dvorak; "Song of the Rhine Daughters," Funeral March (Gotterdammerung), Wagner.
TWENTY-FIRST FESTIVAL May 13, 14, IS, 16, 1914--Six Concerts
Soloists: Miss Inez Barbour, Mme. Alma Gluck, Miss Florence Hinkle, Sopranos; Miss Margaret Keyes, Contralto; Mr. Riccardo Martin, Mr. Lambert Murphy, Tenors; Sig. Pasquale Amato, Mr. Reinald Werrenrath, Baritones; Mr. Henri Scott, Bass; Mr. Earl V. Moore, Organist.
Repertoire, 1888-1917 89
Principal Works
"Into the World," Benoit; "Caractacus," Elgar; "Messiah," Handel; D. minor Symphony, Cesar Franck; B. minor Symphony, Schubert; Overtures, "Benvenuto Cellini," Berlioz; "Bartered Bride," Smetana; Symphonic Poems, "Phaeton," Saint-Saens; "Till Eulenspiegel," Strauss; "Midsummer Night's Dream Music," Mendelssohn; "Impressions of Italy," Charpentier; "Festival March and Hymn to Liberty," Stock; Prelude, Act III, "Natoma," Herbert; "Fire Music," Wagner.
TWENTY-SECOND FESTIVAL May 19, 20, 2i, 22, 1915--Six Concerts
Soloists: Miss Leonora Allen, Miss Frieda Hempel, Miss Ada Grace Johnson, Miss Olive Kline, Sopranos; Miss Margaret Keyes, Controlto; Mr. Lambert Murphy, Tenor; Mr. Theodore Harrison, Mr. Clarence Whitehill, Baritones; Mr. Harold Bauer, Pianist; Mr. Llewellyn L. Renwick, Organist.
Principal Works
"The New Life," Wolf-Ferrari; "The Children's Crusade," Pierne; Pianoforte Concerto, A minor, Op. 54, Schumann; Symphony No. 1, C minor, Op. 68, Brahms; Overture, "Leonore," No. 3, Beethoven; Fantasie-Overture "Hamlet," Tschaikowsky; "Wotan's Farewell and Magic Fire" (Walkiire) ; "Siegfried in the Forest," Wagner; "Life's Dance," Delius. TWENTY.TfflRD FESTIVAL
May 17, 18, 19, 20, 1916--Six Concerts
Soloists: Miss Frieda Hempel, Miss Florence Hinkle, Miss Ada Grace Johnson, Miss Maude C. Kleyn, Miss Doris Marvin, Sopranos; Miss Sophie Braslau, Mme. Margarete Matzenauer, Contraltos; Mr. Horace L. Davis, Mr. Morgan Kingston, Mr. John McCormack, Tenors; Mr. Pasquale Amato, Mr. Robert Dieterle, Mr. Chase B. Sikes, Mr. Reinald Werrenrath, Baritones; Mr. Gustaf Holmquist, Bass; Mr. Ralph Kinder, Organist; Mr. Richard D. T. Hollister, Reader.
Principal Works
"Paradise Lost," M. Enrico Bossi; "The Children at Bethlehem," Pierne; "Samson and Delilah," Saint-Saens; Symphony No. 7, A major, Beethoven; Symphony, E flat, Mozart; Overture--Fantasia "Francesca da Rimini," Tschaikowsky; Wedding March and Variations from "Rustic Wedding," Goldmark; Suite, Dohnanyi; "Love Scene" from "Feuersnot," Strauss; Swedish Rhapsody, Alfven.
TWENTY-FOURTH FESTIVAL May 2, 3, 4, S, 1917--Six Concerts
Soloists: Miss Maude Fay, Mme. Amelita Galli-Curci, Miss Lois M. Johnston, Sopranos; Mrs. Anna Schram-Imig, Mezzo-Soprano; Mme. Margarete Matzenauer, Miss Christine Miller, Contraltos; Mr. Morgan Kingston, Signor Giovanni Martinelli, Tenors; Signor Giuseppi De Luca, Mr. William Wade Hinshaw, Mr. Chase B. Sikes, Baritones; Mr. Gustaf Holmquist, Bass; Miss Ethel Leginska, Pianist; Mr. Richard
Keys Biggs, Organist.
Principal Works
"The Dream of Gerontius," Elgar; "Aida," Verdi; "The Walrus and the Carpenter," Fletcher; E major Symphony, Alfven; M major Symphony, Brahms; "Jupiter" Symphony, Mozart; "Othello" Overture, Dvorak; "Fingal's Cave" Overture, Mendelssohn; G minor Concerto, Rubinstein; "Dance Rhapsody," Delius; "Molly on the Shore," Mock Morris," and "Shepherds Hey," Granger; "Finlandia," Sibelius; "Siegfried's Rhine Journey,' Wagner.
List of Organizations and Artists
Herbert (3) ; Killeen; Kneisel; Kunwald; Mollenhauer (31) ; Muck; Nikisch (2) ; Pauer (3) ; Rosenbecker; Seidl; Stanley (81) ; Stock (41) ; Stokowski (2) ; Stransky; Thomas (6); Urach; Zeitz.
Boston Festival (51) ; Boston Symphony (5) ; Chicago Festival (3) ; Chicago Symphony (67); Cincinnati (2); Detroit (10); New York Philharmonic; Philadelphia (2) ; Pittsburg (7) ; Seidl.
Detroit Philharmonic Club (4) ; Flonzaley Quartet (6); Kneisel Quartet (4) ; New York Philharmonic Club; Spiering Quartet.
Berlioz, "Damnation of Faust" (4) ; Bizet, "Carmen"; Bossi, "Paradise Lost"; Bruch, "Arminius" (2) "Odysseus"; Buck, "Light of Asia"; Chadwick, "Lily Nymph"; Dvorak, "Stabat Mater"; Elgar, "Caractacus" (First Time in America, 1893), (2); "Dream of Gerontius" (3); Gluck, "Orpheus"; Gounod, "Redemption," "Faust" (2); Handel, "Judas Maccabeus," "Messiah"' (5); Haydn, "Creation," "Seasons"; Mendelssohn, "Elijah" (2); "St. Paul" (2), "42nd Psalm" (2); Parker, "Hora Novissima"; Pierne, "The Children at Bethlehem," "The Children's Crusade"; Rheinberger, "Christ-tophorus"; Rossini, "Stabat Mater"; Saint-Saens, "Samson and Delilah" (5); Stanley, "A Psalm of Victory," "Laus Deo"; Sullivan, "Golden Legend"; Coleridge-Taylor, "Hiawatha's Wedding Feast"; Tschaikowsky, "Eugen Onegin"; Verdi, "Manzoni Requiem" (3), "Aida" (3) ; Wagner, "Flying Dutchman," "Lohengrin," Act I (3) ; Meistersinger (Finale), (2) ; "Tannhauser" (Paris version) ; Wolf-Ferrari, "The New Life," (2).
Benoit, "Into the World" (Children's Chorus) ; Brahms, "Requiem" (two choruses) ; Bruch, "Fair Ellen" (4), "Flight into Egypt" (2) ; "Flight of the Holy Family" (2) ; Cornelius, "Salemaleikum," from "Barber of Bagdad"; Faning, "Song of the Vikings"; Fletcher, "Walrus and Carpenter" (Children's Chorus) (2) ; Foote, "Wreck of the Hesperus"; Gounod, "Gallia" (5) ; "Lovely Appear" and "Unfold Ye Everlasting Portals," from "Redemption" (3) ; Grieg, "Discovery" (2) ; Marchetti, "Ave Maria" (2); Massenet, "Narcissus"; Rheinberger, "The Night" (2); Saint-Saens,
Detailed Repertoire 91
"Spring Song" from "Samson and Delilah"; Stanley, "Chorus Triomphalis" (4) ; Verdi, "Stabat Mater";. Wagner, "Spinning Song," "Flying Dutchman," Act II; "Hail Bright Abode" from "Tannhauser" (3) ; "Flower Girls Scene" from "Parsifal," "Bac-chanale" and "Chorus of Sirens" from "Tannhauser," Act I, Scene 1. Finale. In addition a large number of part-songs, madrigals, motets, etc., both ancient and modern, have been given.
Alfven--No. 3, E major. Beethoven--No. 2, D major (2) ; No. 3, "Eroica"; No. 4, B flat major; No. 5, C minor (3); No.6, "Pastoral"; No. 7, A major (4) ; No. 8, F major (3). Borodin--No. 2, B minor. Brahms--C minor, No. 1; D major, No. 2 (4) ; No. 3, F major; E minor, No. 4. Dvorak--D major, No. 1; "In the New World," No. 5 (2). Franck--D minor (2). Glazounow--G minor, No. 6. Goldmark--"Rustic Wedding" (2). Haydn--E flat, No. I. Mendelssohn--A minor, "Scotch." Mozart--G major (Short Symphony); G minor (2); E flat major; C major (Jupiter). Raff-"Im Walde." Schubert--B minor, "Unfinished" (6) ; No. 10, C major (2). Schumann --B flat (3) ; "Rhenish." Spohr--"Consecration of Tones." Stanley--F major. Tschaikowsky--E minor, No. 5 (5); "Pathetic" (4).
Alfven -"Swedish Rhapsody." Bach -Adagio, Gavotte: Praeludium et Fuga; Suite in D (2). Beethoven--Allegretto, 7th Symphony; Allegretto scherzando, 8th symphony. Berlioz--"Ball Scene" from "Romeo and Juliet" symphony; "Danse des Sylphes"; Menuetto, "Will o' the Wisps"; Marche, "Hongroise" (2). Bizet--Ballet Music, "Carmen"; Suite, "Children's Games"; Suite, "Les Arlesienne" (2). Bour-gault-Ducoudray--"Burial of Ophelia." Brahms--Hungarian Dances (Fourth Set). Cassella "Italia." Chabrier--Entr'acte "Gwendoline"; "Rhapsodie Espana" (3). Chadwick--'Symphonic Sketches. Charpentier---"Impressions d'ltalie" (2). Debussy-"An Afternoon of a Faun" (2) ; "March Ecossaise"; "Cortege" and Air de Danse. Delibes--Intermezzo, "Naila." D'Indy--Introduction, Act I, "Fervaal." Delius-"Life's Dance"; "Dance Rhapsody." Dohnanyi--Suite (2). Dubois--Petit Suite. Dukas--"L'Apprenti Sorcier." Dvorak--Largo from "New World Symphony" (2) ; Symphonic Variations; Suite in D minor; Scherzo Capriccioso, Op. 66. Elgar-"Enigma" Variations; Suite, "Wand of Youth"; March, "Pomp and Circumstance." Franck--Symphonic Poem, "Les Eolides." German--Ballet Music, "Henry VIII." Gilson--Fanfare Inaugurale. Glazounow--Suite, Valse de Concert. Gliere--"The Sirens." Goldmark--Prelude, Act III, "Cricket on the Hearth";, Scherzo; Theme and Variations from "Rustic" Symphony (2). Gounod--"Hymn to St. Cecelia." Grainger --"Molly on the Shore"; "Mock Morris"; "Shepherd's Hey." Grieg--"Herzwunden," "Im Friihling" (Strings) (2) ; Suite, "Peer Gynt" (2) ; Lyric Suite, Op. 54. Gretry-Mottl--Ballet Music, "Cephale and Procris." Hadley--Variations. Haydn--"Austrian National Hymn" (Strings). Herbert--Prelude, Act III, "Natoma." Humperdinck-Dream Music, "Hansel and Gretel"; Vorspiele II and III, "Konigs-Kinder." Juon-Suite for String Orchestra. Kaun--Festival March. Lalo--"Norwegian Rhapsodie." Liadow--"Le Lac Enchante," "Kikimorora." Liszt--"Les Preludes" (5) ; "Tasso"; Grand Polonaise in E; Rhapsodie No. IX; Hungarian Rhapsody No. 1; "Marguerite"
92 Official Program Book
from "Faust" Symphony. MacDowell--Suite, Op. 42 (2) ; "Indian." Mackenzie-Benedictus. Massenet--Prelude, Act III. "Herodiade"; Suite, "Les Erinnyes"; Suite, "Esclarmonde." Mendelssohn--"Mid-Summer Night's Dream" Music (3); Scherzo. Moszkowski--"Malaguena" and "Maurische," Danse "Boabdil"; Suite d'Orchestre. Paganini---"Mobile Perpetuum." Paine--Moorish Dances. Ponchielli--"Danza dell' Or." Puccini--"La Boheme." Rimsky-Korzakow--Symphonic Poem, "Scheherazade"; Capriccio Espagnol, Op. 34. Saint-Saens--"A Night in Lisbon"; Symphonic Poem," "Le Rouet d'Omphale"; "La Jeunesse d'Hercules"; "Marche Heroique"; "Phaeton." Schillings--"Vorspiel," Act II; 'Ingwelde"; 'Harvest Festival"; "Moloch." Schubert --Theme and Variations, D major Quartet (Strings) ; March in E flat. Sibelins-"The Swan of Tuonela," "Lemminkamen Turns Homeward"; Valse triste; "Fin-landia" (2); "En Saga." Sinigaglia--"Suite Piemontest." Smetana--"Sarka"; Symphonic Poem, "Wallenstein's Camp"; "Vysehrad"; "On the Moldau" (2). Stanley-Symphonic Poem, "Attis" (2) ; Scherzo from F major Symphony. Stock--"At Sunset," Symphonic Waltz; "Festival March and Hymn to Liberty." Strauss, Ed--"Seid umschlungen Millionen." Strauss, Richard--Tone Poem, "Don Juan" (3) ; "Tod and Ver'klarung" (2) ; Love Scene from "Feuersnot" (2) ; "On the Shores of Sorrento" (2); "Till Eulenspiegel" (2). Svendsen--Allegretto Scherzando; Kronung's Marsch"; Fantasie, "Romeo and Juliet" (2) ; Legend "Zorahayda." Tschaikowsky--Adagio, from E minor Symphony; Andante from B flat Quartette (2) ; Elegy; "Pizzicato Ostinato," from F minor Symphony; Theme, Variations and Polacca (2) ; Marche, "Sclav"; Serenade, Op. 48 (2); Suite, "Casse Noisette"; Overture-Fantasia, "Fran-cesca da Rimini"; Overture-Fantasia "Hamlet." Volbach--"Es waren zwei Konigs-kinder." Van der Stucken--"Spring Night." Wagner--"Huldigungsmarsch" (2) ; "Kaisermarsch" (2); "Siegfried" Idylle; Fragment from "Tannhauser"; Bacchanale (3); "Traume" (2); Introduction to Act III. "Lohengrin"; "Ride of the Valkyrs" (3) ; ''Magic Fire" (3) ; "Forge Songs"; "Siegfried in the Forest"; "Waldweben" (2) ; "Siegfried and the Bird"; "Siegfried's Rhine Journey and Passing of Brunhilde's Rock" (5); 'Song of the Rhine Daughters"; "Siegfried's Death"; "Siegfried's Funeral March" (2); Closing Scene from "Gotterdammerung"; "Love Scene and Bran-gane's Warning"; "Flower Girl's Scene"; "Good Friday Spell" (3); "Procession of the Knights of the Grail and Glorification." Weber--"Invitation to the Dance." Wolf--"Italian Serenade."
d'Albert--"Der Improvisator." Bantock--"The Perriot of the Minute." Beethoven--"Coriolanus" (3); "Egmont" (2); "Fidelio" (3); "Lenore' Nos. 1 and 2; No. 3 (7). Berlioz--"Benvenuto Cellini" (3) ; "Carnival Romain" (3). Brahms--"Aka-demische Fest" (4); "Tragische." Chabrier -"Gwendoline." Chadwick -"Melpomene." Cherubini--"Anacreon"; "Wassertrager." Cornelius--"Barber of Bagdad." Dvorak--"Carnival"; "In der Natur"; "Othello." Elgar--"Cockaigne"; "In the South" (2). Goldmark--"Sakuntala"; "Im Fruhling" (3). Glazounow--"Carnival"; "Solo-nelle" (2). Humperdinck---"Hansel and Gretel" (2). Litolf---"Robespierre." Nicolai --"Merry Wives of Windsor." Mendelssohn--"Fingal's Cave" (2) ; "Mid-Summer Night's Dream" (2) ; "Ruy Bias"; Melusina." Mozart--"Figaro" (3) ; "Magic Flute" (3) ; "Der Schauspieldirektor." Paine--"Oedipus Tyrannus." Ritter--"Der Faule Hans." Rossini--"William Tell." Scheinpflug--"To a Shakespeare Comedy." Schumann, G.--"Liebesfruhling." Schumann, R.--"Genoveva" (2) ; "Manfred." Sinigaglia
Detailed Repertoire 93
--"Le Baruffe Chiozotte." Smetana--"Bartered Bride" (2). Thomas--"Mignon." Tschaikowsky--"1812" (2); "Romeo and Juliet"; Overture-Fantasia, "Hamlet." von Reznicek--"Donna Diana." Wagner--"Faust" (2) ; "Flying Dutchman" (3) ; "Lohengrin" (5); "Meistersinger" (9); "Parsifal" (2); "Polonia"; "Rienzi" (4); "Tann-hauser" (9); "Tristan" (5). Weber--"Euryanthe" (3); "Freischiitz"; "Oberon" (6);
Beethoven--E flat (Pianoforte). Boellman--(Violoncello). Bruch--D minor; G minor (Violin) (2); Scotch Fantasia (Violin). Chopin--E minor (Pianoforte); F minor (Pianoforte). Dubois--(Organ). Ernst--(Violin). Golterman--Violoncello). Grieg--A minor (Pianoforte), de Grandvaal--D minor (Oboe). Guilmant-D minor (Organ). Handel--G major (Organ, Oboe and Strings). Henselt--G major (Pianoforte). Lindner--(Violoncello). Liszt--E flat; A major; "Hungarian Fan-tasie" (Pianoforte). Mendelssohn--E minor (Violin) (5). Paderewski--A minor (Pianoforte). Paganini--(Violin). Rheinberger--G minor (Organ). Rubinstein--D minor (Pianoforte) (3). Saint-Saens--A minor (Violoncello) (2); G minor (Pianoforte) (2). Rondo Capriccioso (Violin) (4). Schumann--A minor (Pianoforte) (2). Strauss--Horn Concerto, de Swert--D minor (Violoncello). Tschaikowsky--B flat minor (Pianoforte). Wienawski--(Violin) (3).
Bach, W. Friedman--"Sonata a Tre." Beethoven--G major, Op. 18, No. 2; D major, Op. 18, No. 3; A major, Op. 18, No. 5; Sonata in A major for Piano and Violoncello. Dvorak--F major, Op. 96 (2) ; E flat major, Op. 51; A flat major, Op. 105. Franck--D major. Grieg--Op. 27. Handel--Sonata in A major, for Violin and Piano. Haydn--D major, Op. 76, No. 5 (2) ; G minor, Op. 74, No. 3; D minor, Op. 76, No. 2. Jadassohn--Quintette, Op. 76. Kurth--Sextette. Leclair l'Aine--Sonata a Tre. Mendelssohn--E flat, Op. 12. Mozart--D major (2). Raff--D minor. Rubinstein--C minor, Op. 17, No. 2, Op. 19. Saint-Saens--Piano Septet, Op. 65. Schubert-D minor (3). Schumann--Piano Quintette, Op. 44. Smetana--E minor. Strawinsky --"Three Pieces." Tschaikowsky--Trio, A minor, von Dittersdorf--D major. Wolf --"Italienische Serenade." ARTISTS
Mme. Alda; Miss Leonora Allen; Miss Perceval Allen (4) ; Miss Bailey (2) ; Miss Inez Barbour; Mrs. Bishop (5) ; Mme. Blauvelt; Mme. Brema; Mrs. Bussing; Mme. Calve; Mrs. Cumming; Miss Doolittle; Mme. Fabris (3); Maude Fay; Mrs. Ford (2) ; Mme. Fremstad (2) ; Mme. Gadski (3) ; Miss Goodwin; Mme. Gluck (2) ; Miss Harrah; Miss Frieda Hempel (2) ; Mrs. Henschel; Miss Hiltz; Miss Hinkle (5) ; Miss Johnson (2); Miss Johnston; Mme. Juch (3); Mme. Kaschoska; Mme. Kileski (2); Mme. Klafsky; Miss Kleyn (2); Mme. Linne; Miss Lohmiller; Mrs. Sammis Mac-Dermid (2); Mme. Maconda (2); Miss Marvin; Mrs. Nikisch; Mme. Nordica (2); Miss Osborne; Mrs. Osborne-Hannah (2) ; Miss Parmeter; Mme. Pasquale (2) ; Mrs. French-Read (2) ; Mrs. Rider-Kelsey (6) ; Mme. Rappold (2) ; Miss Rio (5) ; Mme. de Vere-Sapio (2) ; Mme. Sembrich; Mme. Steinbach; Miss Stevenson; Miss Stewart (5) ; Mme. Tanner-Musin; Mrs. Walker (2); Mrs. Winchell (2); Mrs. Wood; Mrs. Zimmerman (2).
94 Official Program Book
Mrs. Bloodgood (3) ; Mme. Bouton (4) ; Miss Buckley (2) ; Mrs. Clements (2) ; Miss Crawford; Miss Muriel Foster; Miss Glenn; Miss Hall; Miss Heinrich; Mme. Homer (7) ; Mme. Jacoby (2) ; Miss Keyes (7) ; Mme. Matzenauer (3) ; Christine Miller; Miss Mulford (3); Miss Munson (2); Mrs. Pease (2); Miss Roselle (2); Mrs. Scott; Mme. Schumann-Heink (6); Miss Spencer (6); Miss Stein (10); Miss Stoddard; Miss Towle; Mme. Van der Veer; Miss Weed; Mrs. Wright; Miss Wirthlin.
Beddoe (3); Berthald (4); Bonci; Cowper (2); Davies; Davis; Dippel (2); Gordon; Hall (8); Hamlin (5); Johnson (4); Jordan (2); Kingston (2); Knorr (2); Lavin; Martinelli (2); McCormack; McKinley (2); Murphy (5); Stevens (4); Towne (3); Van Hoose (4) ; Van York; Wegener; Williams (4).
Amato (4) ; Beresford (2) ; Bispham (6) ; Campanari (n) ; Campbell; Campion; Clarke; Connell (2); Crane; D'Arnalle (3); Del Puente; Dieterle; Gorgoza (5) ; Marion Greene (2); Plunket Green (2); Theodore Harrison (3) ; Heinrich (9); Henschel; Hinshaw (2); Holmes; Holmquist (3); Howland (11); Killeen (2); Lamson (6); Martin (7); Meyn (5); Miles (5); Mills (2); Munson; Scott (4); Senger; Sikes (2) ; Spalding; Werrenrath (4) ; Whitehill (4) ; Whitney (2) ; Wither-spoon (7).
d'Albert; Aus der Ohe (4); Bauer (3); Busoni; Carreno (2); Gabrilowitsch (2); Dohnanyi; Durno-Collins (2); Friedheim (2); Hambourg; Jonas (5); La-chaume (2); Leginska; Tina Lerner (2); Lhevinne; Lockwood (3); De Pachman; Paderewski (3); Pugno; Samaroff (2); Scharff; Schmall (3); Seyler (2); Sickiez; Sieveking; Sternberg (3); Sumowska; van den Berg; von Grave (2); Zeisler (2).
T. Adamowski; Bendix; Miss Botsford; Burmester; Elman; Ern; Flesch; Halir; Heerman; Kramer; Kreisler (3) ; Lichtenberg; Lockwood; Loeffler; Macmillan; Musin; Miss Powell (2); Ricarde; Sturm (2); Winternitz; Ysaye; Yunk (2);
Zeitz (3).
Abel; J. Adamowski; Bramsen; Bronstein; Casals; Diestel; Gerardy; Giese; Heberlein; Heindl; Hekking; Hoffman; Elsa Ruegger (2); Schroeder; Steindl.
Archer; Biggs; Eddy (2); Guilmant; Kinder; Middkschulte; Moore; Ren-wick (8).
Bach (3) ; Beethoven (4) ; Bellini (3) ; Bizet (4) ; Caccini (2) ; Chadwick (3) ; Charpentier (2); Delibes; Donizetti (7); Giordani (2); Gluck (4); Goetz; Gounod (13); Handel (19); Haydn (4); Leoncavallo (7); Massenet (17); Merca-dante (2); Meyerbeer (5); Mozart (18); Pasiello (2); Pergolese (4); Rossi (3); Rossini (5) ; Saint-Saens (3) ; Thomas, A. (7) ; Thomas, G. (3) ; Tschaikowsky (7) ; Verdi (19) ; Wagner (42) ; Weber (7).--Bemberg; Berlioz; Boito; Bononcini; Cornelius; David; D'Aqua; Gomez; Gretry; Graun; Halevy; Meyerbeer; Monteverdi; Peccia; Ponchielli; Puccini; Schubert; Scarlatti; Secchi; Spohr, one each.
Detailed Repertoire 95
D'Albert (2); Allitsen (2); Alvarez (3); Bach (3); Bantock; Beach (4); Beethoven (3) ; Bemberg (3) ; Bizet (2) ; Bohm (2) ; Brahms (47) ; Cadman (3) ; Cal-lone; Carissimi (2); Carpenter (2); Chadwick (10); Chaminade (2); Cimarosa (2);. Clay (7); Colburn; Coleridge-Taylor; Cornelius; Cowen (2); Damrosch (2); Debussy (3) ; Elgar (3) ; Old English (17) ; Faning; Foote (6) ; Franz (6) ; Old French (5) ; Giordiani (2); Goldmark; Gounod (4); Grieg (11); Hahn (4); Hammond (2) ; Henschel (9) ; Hildach (4) ; Homer (4) ; Horrocks (3) ; Old Irish (19) ; Jada-ssohn (2); Jensen (2); Korbay (5) ; Lalo (3); Legrenzi; Liszt (5); Loewe (8); Lucas (2); MacDowell (4); MacFadden (2); Mackenzie (3); Marchesi; Mascagni; Massenet (2); Mendelssohn (11); Meyer-Helmund (3); Parker (2); Pitt; Purcell (5) ; Rakhmaninoff (6) ; Reger (2) ; Rimsky-Korsakow (2) ; Rummell (2) ; Saint-Saens (4) ; Salter (2) ; Schubert (72) ; Schuman (60) ; Old Scotch (6) ; Schneider
(2) ; Scott; Sieveking (2) ; Somerville (13) ; R. Strauss (26) ; Sullivan (2) ; Thomas, A.; Thomas, G. (15); Tosti (3); Tschaikowsky (9); Weingartner; Wolf (14); and 72 untabulated songs by as many composers.
Bach (12); Beethoven (13); Brahms (9); Chopin (109); Couperin; Daquin; Dohnanyi (2) ; Godard (5) ; Gluck (3) ; Grieg (3) ; Handel (4) ; Henselt (3) ; Liszt (49) ; Mendelssohn (8) ; Moskowski (2) ; Mozart (3) ; Paderewski (8) ; Rakhmaninoff (2) ; Rubinstein (6) ; Saint-Saens (3) ; Schubert (5) ; Schumann (20) ; Aus der Ohe; Arensky; Bach, Ph. Em.; Carreno; D'Acqua; d'Albert; Debussy; Delibes; Dvorak; Franck; Gabrilowitsch; Hambourg; Hinton; Jonas; LaForge; Laidon; Merkler; Poldoni; Pugno; Raff; Rameau; Schiitt; Schultz-Evler; Scriabine; Sgam-bati; Stavenhagen; Strauss-Tausig; Tschaikowsky; Weber, one each.
Bach (13); Bazzini (2); Brahms (5) ; Couperin (2); Ernst (3); Handel (2); Kreisler (4) ; Mozart (5) ; Paganini (5) ; Schubert (5) ; Pugnani (3) ; Schumann
(3) ; Tartini (2) ; Vieuxtemps (2) ; Wagner-Wilhelmj (2) ; Wieniawski (3) ; Zarzysky (2); Nardini (2).--Bach, F.; Boccherini; Bruch; Chaminade; Cuiz Francouer; Gla-zounow; Goldmark; Granados; Halir; Hubay; de Kontsky; Musin; Martini; Paderewski; Ries; Sarasate; Saint-Saens; Spohr; Tschaikowsky, one each.
Bach (3) ; Boccherini (3) ; Popper (6) ; Saint-Saens (2) ; Schubert (2) ; Schumann (2).---Arensky; Bruch; Colsmann; Dadidoff; Faure; Gluber; Goens; Gold-beck ; Goltermann; Gluck; Heberlein; Locatelli; Salmond; Servais; Tschaikowsky, one each.
Bach (10); Baldwin (3); Boellman (2); Bonnet (2); Buxtehude (2); Callaerts (2) ; Dubois (4) ; Faulkes (4) ; Gigout (2) ; Guilmant (20) ; Hollins (2) ; Kinder (2) ; Mailly (2) ; Merkel (3) ; Parker (2) ; Saint-Saens (2) ; Schumann (3) ; Wagner (3) ; Widor (3).--Archer; Beethoven; Berlioz Bernard; Bird; Borowski; Bossi; Capocci; Chopin; Dethier; Foote; Fricker; Goldmark; Gounod; Hoyte; Johnson; Krebs; Le-mare; Lendrai; Laidow; Liszt; Macfarlane; Mailing; Middleschulte; Moszowski; Piutti; Renner; Salome; Silas; Stainer; Verdi; Vierne; Whiting, one each.
Summary of Works (1888-1917)
38 Larger Choral Works ' by 25 composers, were given 65 performances
23 Smaller Choral Works " 16 " " " 43
33 Symphonies " 17 " " " 62
154 Symphonic Poems, etc. " 65 " " " 202 "
63 Overtures " 31 " " " 131
31 Concertos " 23 " " " 45
33 Quartets, etc. " 20 " " " 37
379 Piano Solos " 48 " " performed
63 Violin Solos " 37
29 Violoncello Solos " 21 "
86 Organ Solos " 51
186 Arias " 51
Sio Songs " 54
Total number of Vocal works (including arias and songs)...... 757
Total number of Instrumental works (including solos)........... 871
Summary of Organizations and Artists
(1888-1917--307 Concerts)
10 Orchestras took part in 149 concerts
S String Quartets . " " " 16
17 Conductors " " " 174
56 Sopranos " " " 106 "
28 Contraltos ¦ " " " 70
25 Tenors " " " 67
38 Baritones and Basses " " " 125 "
30 Pianists " " " 55
23 Violinists " " " 30 "
15 Violoncellists " " " 16 "
8 Organists " " " 35 "
The activity of the University Musical Society is by no means covered by this list. The 1,030 programs included in the various concert series of the University School of Music, cover well nigh the entire field of ensemble and solo music. Many important ensemble works were given their first hearing in this country in these concerts.
A reasonably conservative estimate of the number of works performed at these concerts would place them at 8,500. These added to the Choral Union total would give more than 10,000 works heard during this period.

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