Press enter after choosing selection

UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore

UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image UMS Concert Program, May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930: The Thirty-seventh Annual May Festival -- Earl V. Moore image
Day
1
Month
May
Year
1930
Download PDF
Rights Held By
University Musical Society
OCR Text

Season: 1929-1930
Concert: SIXTEENTH
Complete Series: 1834
Hill Auditorium Ann Arbor, Michigan

thirty Seventh Annual
cLLniruersity of Michigan
NANETTE GUILFORD Soprano
CHARLES A. SINK President
CLAIRE DUX Soprano
EARL V. MOORE Musical Director
ALBERT A. STANLEY Musical Director Emeritus
FREDERICK STOCK Orchestra Conductor
PERCY GRATNGER Pianist
RUGGIERO RICCI Violinist
DAN GRIDLEY Tenor
PAUL LEYSSAC Narrator
i CK
JOHN WHITE Bass
[OFFICIAL]
Thirt$SeVenth. Annual
MAY FESTIVAL
University gf Michigan
May 14, 15, 16, 17 1930
HILL AUDITORIUM
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
Board of Directors
EARL V. MOORE, A.M., Mus.D., Musical Director
CHARLES A. SINK, A.B., M.Ed. -.......President
ALEXANDER G. RUTHVEN, Ph.D., LL.D......Vice-President
DURAND W. SPRINGER, B.S., A.M. -------Secretary
LEVI D. WINES, C.E.........Treasurer
OSCAR A. EBERBACH, A.B. ----Assistant Secretary-Treasurer
JUNIUS E. BEAL, A.B.
HARLEY A. HAYNES, M.D.
JAMES INGLIS
ARNOLD GOSS
HORACE G. PRETTYMAN, A.B.
SHIRLEY W. SMITH, A.M.
ALBERT A. STANLEY, A.M., Mus.D.
THE UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY is organized under an Act of the State of Michigan providing for the incorporation of "Associations not for pecuniary profit." Its purpose is "to cultivate the public taste for music." All fees are placed at the lowest possible point compatible with sound business principles, the financial side serving but as a means to an educational and artistic end, a fact duly recognized by the Treasury Department of the United States by exempting from war-tax admissions to concerts given under its auspices, and by the United States Post Office.Department in admitting its publications to second-class privileges.
Page Two
List of Concerts and Soloists
WEDNESDAY EVENING, MAY 14, 8:15 O'CLOCK
OPENING CONCERT
SOLOISTS
Claire Dux, Soprano Percy Grainger, Pianist
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Frederick Stock, Conductor
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 15, 8:15 O'CLOCK
CHORAL CONCERT
SOLOISTS
Ethyl Hayden, Soprano Merle Alcock, Contralto
Dan GridlBy, Tenor Carl Lindegren, Bass
Paul Leyssac, Narrator
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra The University Choral Union
Frederick Stock and Earl V. Mooke, Conductors
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 16, 2:30 O'CLOCK
CHILDREN'S CONCERT
SOLOIST
Ruggiero Ricci, Violinist
The Children's Festival Chorus, Orchestral Accompaniment Frederick Stock and Juva Higbee, Conductors
FRIDAY EVENING, MAY 16, 8:15 O'CLOCK
MISCELLANEOUS CONCERT
SOLOISTS Dusolina Giannini, Soprano Richard Bonelli, Baritone
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Frederick Stock and Eric DeLamarter, Conductors
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 17, 2:30 O'CLOCK
SYMPHONY CONCERT
SOLOISTS
Guy Maiek and Lee Pattison, Pianists
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Frederick Stock, Conductor
SATURDAY EVENING, MAY 17, 8:15 O'CLOCK
CHORAL CONCERT
"MANZONI REQUIEM," Verdi SOLOISTS
Nanette Guhford, Soprano Kathryn Meisle, Contralto
Paul Althouse, Tenor Chase Baromeo, Bass
The University Choral Union
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Earl V. Moose, Conductor
Page Three
CHORAL UNION S E R I E S--1 9 2 9-1 9 3 0
Notices and Acknowledgments
All concerts will begin on time (Eastern Standard Time).
Trumpet calls from the stage will be sounded three minutes before the resumption of the program after the Intermission.
Our patrons are invited to inspect the Stearns Collection of Musical Instruments in the Foyer of the First Balcony and the adjoining room.
To study the evolution, it is only necessary to view the cases in their numerical order and remember that in the wall cases the evolution runs from right to left and from top to the bottom, while the standard cases should always be approached on the left-hand side. Descriptive Lists are attached to each case.
The Musical Director of the Festival desires to express his great obligation to Miss Juva Higbee, Supervisor of Music in the Ann Arbor Public Schools, for her valuable service as Conductor of the Children's Concert; and to the several members of her staff, for their efficient preparatory work, and to the teachers in the various schools from which the children have been drawn, for their co-operation.
The writer of the analyses hereby expresses his deep obligation to Dr. A. A. Stanley and Mr. Felix Borowski, whose scholarly analyses, given in the Program Books of the preceding May Festivals and of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, respectively, are authoritative contributions to contemporary criticism and have been drawn upon for some of the analyses in this book.
The programs of the important concerts given during the present season under the auspices of the University Musical Society (with the exception of the May Festival Series) are given in the final pages of this publication.
Page Four
CHORAL UNION SERIESFIFTY-FIRST SEASON
First May Festival Concert
WEDNESDAY EVENING, MAY 14, 8:15 O'CLOCK
SOLOISTS CiairE Dux, Soprano Percy Grainger, Pianist
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Frederick Stock, Conductor
PROGRAM
OVERTURE, "Liebesfriihling" .......................................G. Schumann
ARIA, "E Susanna non vien," from "The Marriage of Figaro" ................Mozart
Claire Dux
OVERTURE-FANTASIA, "Francesca da Rimini" .....................Tchaikovsky
CONCERTINO for Piano and Orchestra ...................................Carpenter
Allegro con moto; Lento grazioso; Allegro risoluto Percy Grainger
Intermission
SONGS WITH ORCHESTRA Freundliche Vision
Morgen ¦................................................Strauss
Standchen )
Mme. Dux
VARIATIONS SYMPHONIQUES for Pianoforte and Orchestra............Pranck
Mr. Grainger
Pege Five
CHORAL UNION S E R I E S--1 9 2 9-1 9 3 0
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON
COMPLETE SERIES 1830
TWELFTH CONCERT
Second May Festival Concert
THURSDAY EVENING, MAY 15, 8:15 O'CLOCK
SOLOISTS
Ethyl Hayden, Soprano Dan GridlEy, Tenor
Merle Alcock, Contralto Carl Lindegren, Bass
Mabel Rhead, Continuo (Piano) Palmer Christian, Organ
Paul LEyssac, Narrator
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra The University Choral Union
Frederick Stock and Earl V. Moore, Conductors
PROGRAM
"KING DAVID," a Symphonic Psalm, in Three Parts,
after a Drama by Rene Morax......................................Honegger
For Soprano, Alto, Tenor Soli, Narrator, Chorus, Orchestra, and Organ
Intermission
PASSACAGLIA AND FUGUE IN C MINOR ...............................Bach
(Transcribed for Modern Orchestra by Frederick Stock)
"MAGNIFICAT," D Major...................................................Bach
For Soli, Chorus, Orchestra, Continuo, and Organ
I. Chorus : Magnificat anima mea.
II. Air: Et exultavit spiritus meus.
III. Air: Quia respexit.
IV. Chorus: Omnes generationes. V. Air : Quia fecit.
VI. Duet: Et misericordia.
VII. Chorus : Fecit potentiam.
VIII. Air: Deposuit potentes de sede.
IX. Air: Esurientes implevit bonis.
X. Terzett: Suscepit Israel.
XI. Chorus: Sicut locutus est.
XII. Chorus: Gloria Patri.
Page Six
CHORAL UNION S E R I E S--1 9 2 9-1 9 3 0
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON
THIRTEENTH CONCERT
COMPLETE SERIES 1831
Third May Festival Concert
FRIDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 16, 2:30 O'CLOCK
SOLOISTS
RuggiERO Ricci, Violinist
John White, Baritone
The Children's Festival, Chorus, Orchestral Accompaniment
Palmer Christian, Organist Frederick Stock and Juva HigbEE., Conductors
PROGRAM
CONCERTO NO. 4, for Solo Violin, Two Flutes, and Orchestra ..............Bach
SONGS
Lotus Flower .....................................................Schwmann
Hark, Hark the Lark...............................................Schubert
Cradle Song .........................................................Mozart
Children's Festival Chorus SCHERZO, from "Midsummer Night's Dream"..........................Mendelssohn
CANTATA, "A Symphony of Song" .........................................Strong
John White and Children's Festival Chorus
Intermission CONCERTO IN D MAJOR for Violin and Orchestra ....................Beethoven
RUGGIERO RlCCI
tge Seven
CHORAL UNION S E R I E S--1 9 2 9-1 9 3 0
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON
FOURTEENTH CONCERT
COMPLETE SERIES 1832
Fourth May Festival Concert j
FRIDAY EVENING, MAY 16, 8:15 O'CLOCK j
SOLOISTS
Dusouna Giannini, Soprano
Richard Boneu,!, Baritone
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra Frederick Stock and Eric DeLamarter, Conductors
PROGRAM
OVERTURE, "Fingal's Cave"..........................................Mendelssohn
ARIA, "Vision Fugitive" from "Herodiade" ...............................Mossenei
Richard Boneui
"SCENE BY THE BROOK" from "Pastoral" Symphony..................Beethoven
ARIA, "Plus grand dans son obscurite" from "La Reine de Saba" ............Gounod
DUSOUNA GlANNINI
SUITE from "The Betrothal" ..........................................DeLamarter
Intermission
ARIA, "Credo" from "Othello".................................................Verdi
Mr. Bonelu
BOLERO ....................................................................Ravel
ARIA, "Connais-tu le Pays" from "Mignon" ................................Thomas
Miss Giannini
BACCHANALE (Paris Version) and FINALE from Overture to
"Tannhauser" ...................................................Wagner
Vage Eight
CHORAL UNION S E R I E S--1 9 2 9-1 9 3 0
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON
FIFTEENTH CONCERT
COMPLETE SERIES 1833
Fifth May Festival Concert
SATURDAY AFTERNOON, MAY 17, 2:30 O'CLOCK
SOLOISTS
Guy Maier, Pianist LEE Pattison, Pianist
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Frederick Stock, Conductor
PROGRAM
OVERTURE to "Egmont".................................................Beethoven
SYMPHONY NO. 2 in E Minor, Opus 27 ............................Rachmaninow
Largo
Allegro moderate Allegro molto Adagio Allegro vivace
Intermission
CONCERTO IN E FLAT MAJOR, for Two Pianos and Orchestra ..........Mozart
Allegro
Andante con moto
Rondo--Allegro vivace
Page Nine
CHORAL UNION S E R I E S--1 9 2 9-1 9 3 0
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON
SIXTEENTH CONCERT
COMPLETE SERIES 1834
Sixth May Festival Concert
SATURDAY EVENING, MAY 17, 8:15 O'CLOCK
SOLOISTS
Nanette Guilford, Soprano Kathryn Meisle, Contralto
Paul Althouse, Tenor Chase Baromeo, Bass
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
The University Choral Union
Palmer Christian, Organist
Earl V. Moore, Conductor
PROGRAM
"MANZONI REQUIEM" ...................................................Verdi
For Soli, Chorus, Orchestra, and Organ
I. Requiem E Kyrie
Quartet and Chorus--Requiem aeternam dona eis. Kyrie eleison.
II. Dies IrE Chorus--Dies irse.
Tuba mirum spargens sonum. Bass Solo--Mors stupebit et natura. Contralto Solo and Chorus--Liber
scriptus proferetur. Trio--Quid sum, miser! tune dicturus. Quartet and Chorus--Rex tremendae
maj estates.
Chorus--Dies irae, dies ilia. Duet--Recordare, Jesu pie. Tenor Solo--Ingemisco tanquam reus. Bass Solo--Confutatis maledictis. Quartet and Chorus--Lacrymosa dies
ilia.
III. Domine Jesu
Soli--Domine Jesu Christe.
Page Ten
IV. Sanctus
Double Chorus -Sanctus, Domine Deus Sabaoth.
V. Agnus Dei
Duet and Chorus--Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi.
VI. Lux vEterna
Trio--Lux seterna luceat eis.
VII. Libera Me
Soprano Solo and Chorus--Libera me, Domine, de morte Eeterna.
The audience is respectfully requested to retnain in their seats until the end, as otherwise the effect of the closing measures will be lost.
DESCRIPTIVE PROGRAMS
BY EARL V. MOORE
COPYRIGHT
By the University Musical Society 1930
FIRST CONCERT
Wednesday Evening, May 14
OVERTURE, "Liebesfruhling" ("Springtime of Love") Georg Schumann Georg Schumann was born at Konigstein, October 25, 1866.
Under the direction of Arthur Nikisch, this overture was first played at one of the Philharmonic Concerts in Berlin, April 1, 1901. The name given to it on that program was "Freulingsfeier," and the writer of the program analysis--probably inspired by the composer--asserted that "the music was intended not only to portray the exaltation of nature, awakened and blossomed into Spring, but--and this much more--the dawn of joy in the hearts of men and the rapture that springs from the awakening of love." Before the work was published the composer withdrew the symbolism of his work by giving it the present title.
The outstanding events in Georg Schumann's musical life may be summed up in these sentences: "Georg Schumann obtained his first education in Dresden, but in 1881 he entered the Conservatory of Leipzig as a pupil of Reinecke, Jadassohn, and Zwintscher. The musical impulses of the young composer were, however, encouraged at a much earlier period. His grandfather was the cantor of the church at Konigstein, and Schumann's father was music director and conductor of the small orchestra which was the pride of the little town. The boy obtained, even at the age of four, an insight into musical things by reason of his constant attendance upon the artistic activities of his father and grandfather. Much of his interest in orchestral composition was the result of experiments with instruments which were the property of his paternal parent. Young Schumann made a practical acquaintance with the kettledrums, flute, double-bass, horn, and clarinet, and he had been given lessons in piano-playing by his father long before it was thought necessary to send the boy to Dresden to obtain systematic instruction.
"Schumann's progress in the musical career, upon leaving the Conservatory of Leipzig, was rapid. He conducted the Dantzic Gesang Verein from 1890 until 1896. He was called, in the latter year, to direct the Bremen
Page Thirteen
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
Philharmonic Orchestra, a position which he held until 1900, when he moved to Berlin as the conductor of the Berlin Singakademie."
"The overture is scored for two flutes and a piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons and a double bassoon, four horns, two cornets and two trumpets, three trombones and a tuba, kettledrums, triangle, cymbals, and strings. The sonata form is clearly outlined in the construction of the work. The principal subject--Allegrissimo con anima, G major, 6-8 time--is heard in the violoncellos, a palpitating figure in the woodwinds accompanying it. The second subject in D major is announced by the clarinet (un poco tranquillo). These materials are then given development and the usual recapitulation brings the work to a conclusion."
ARIA, "E Susanna non vien," from "The Marriage of Figaro" Mozart
Claire Dux
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born January 27, 1756, at Salzburg; died December 5, 1791, at Vienna.
With the sparkling music of Mozart wedded to a merry comedy full of clever dialogue and farcical situations--da Ponte, a successful librettist of that day, had done over into an opera text the popular comedy, The Barber of Seville by Beaumarchais--there resulted a most delightful comic opera in the true sense of the term. The same subject has been used before and since by numerous composers, but Rossini's Barber of Seville is the only rival of the Mozart setting.
In spite of the inherent comedy and fine music with which The Marriage of Figaro abounds, its initial success in Vienna was short-lived. The work was first produced in 1786, but scarcely lasted through the first season; Don Giovanni was brought out the next year and its immediate and lasting success regained favor for the composer.
Of the many arias with which Figaro teems, the one chosen for this evening's program contains that beauty of melody, simplicity of utterance, and symmetry of form we associate with the music of Mozart.
The string division of the orchestra carries the bulk of the accompaniment, though in the aria, two oboes, two bassoons, and two horns occasionally enter adding sonority and color.
The aria is sung in the third act by the Countess; the Italian text and a translation are appended:
Page Fourteen
FIRST CONCERT
Recitative
E Susanna non vien Sono ansiosa di saper, come il Conte accolse la proposta! Alquanto ardito il progetto mi par! e ad uno sposo si vivace egelso! Ma che mal c'e! Cagiando i miei vistiti con quel di Susanna, e i suoi co' miei, al favor della notte. Oh cielo! a quale umil stato fatale io son ridotta da un consorte crudel, che dopo aver mi con un misto inaudito d'infedelta, di gelosia, di sdegni prima amata, indi offesa, e alfin tradita, fammi or cercar dauna mia serva aita!
Aria
(Andantino)
Dove sono i bei momenti di dolcezza e di piacer dove andaro i giuramenti di quel labbro menzogner! Perche mai, se in piante e in pene per me tutto si cangio, la memoria di quel bene dal mio non trapasso!
(Allegro)
Ah se almen la mia costanza nel languire amando ognor, mi portasse una speranza, di cagniar l'ingrato cor!
Recitative
And Susanna's not come I am anxious ! Would I knew how my husband received the proposition! The undertaking seems to me very rash! And with a husband so quick-witted and suspicious! But never mind! For I intend to dress me in clothes of my Susanna, and she'll wear mine, and the night's in our favor. Oh heaven! To think what contemptible measures am I reduced to by so heartless a husband! How long has he not treated me with indignity and neglect, suspected me, and scorned me: First he loved me, then deceived me, and now deserts me. Now from a servant must I seek assistance.
Aria
(Andantino)
Where now are ye, ye blissful moments, Days of joy--I lov'd so well Where now are ye, ye words of promise From his lying lips that fell, from his
lying lips that fell! Every joy that life can offer Swiftly turns to grief and pain, swiftly
turns to grief and pain, While the memories of those moments In my broken heart remain.
(Allegro) Would at least that ray devotion, and the
pain with which I yearn, Might a ray of hope afford me That his love may still return!
OVERTURE-FANTASIA, "Francesca da Rimini" Tchaikovsky
Peter Iljitsch Tchaikovsky was born at Wotkinsk, Russia, December 25, 1840; died at St. Petersburg, November 6, 1893.
So much has been written concerning Tchaikovsky that it seems scarcely necessary to recapitulate the incidents of his remarkable career. The reasons for his choice of this particular subject are, however, too interesting to be omitted.
Page Fifteen
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
In a letter to Modeste (in February, 1876) he writes: "I shall not embark on anything new until I have decided upon an opera." One of the subjects he was considering--Francesco,--did not inspire him to write an opera but formed the foundation of the work on our program. It was completed in November, 1876, and received its first performance on March 9, 1877. It achieved a brilliant success but evoked storms of criticism. Tchaikovsky was more or less of a "storm center" all through his life, but this work produced a veritable tempest.
When, in 1893, the University of Cambridge bestowed on Boito, Bruch, Grieg, Saint-Saens, and Tchaikovsky the degree of Doctor of Music, this composition was performed. Saint-Saens wrote of it as follows: "Piquant charm and dazzling fireworks abound in Tchaikovsky's Francesca da Rimini, which bristles with difficulties and shrinks from no violence of effect. The gentlest and kindest of men has let loose a whirlwind of wind in this work and shows as little pity for his interpreters and hearers as Satan for sinners. But the composer's talent and astonishing technique are so great that the critic can only find pleasure in the work.
"A long melodic phrase, the love-song of Paola and Francesca, soars above this tempest, this bufera infernale, which attracted Liszt before Tchaikovsky, and engendered his Dante symphony. Liszt's Francesca is more touching and more Italian in character than that of the great Slavonic composer; the whole work is so typical that we seem to see the profile of Dante projected in it. Tchaikovsky's art is more subtle, the outlines clearer, the material more attractive; from a purely musical point of view the work is better. Liszt's version is perhaps more to the taste of the poet or painter. On the whole, they can fitly stand side by side; either of them is worthy of Dante, and as regards noise, both leave nothing to be desired."
The score of Tchaikovsky's work contains the following quotation from the fifth canto of the Inferno. There it stands in the original; the subjoined translation is by Henry Francis Cary.
"Dante, coming into the second circle of Hell, witnesses the punishment of carnal sinners, who are tossed about ceaselessly in the dark air by the most furious winds. Amongst these he meets with Francesca of Rimini, who relates her story:
No greater grief than to remember days Of joy, when misery is at hand. That kens Thy learn'd instructor. Yet so eagerly If thou art bent to know the primal root, From whence our love gat being, I will do
Page Sixteen
ETHYL HAYDEN Soprano
CVY MAIER Pianist
JUVA HIGBEE Children's Conductor
PALMER CHRISTIAN Organist
RICHARD BONELLI Baritone
KATHRYN MEISLE Contralto
ERIC DKLAMARTER Assistant Conductor
CHASE BAROMEO Bass
lH'SOLINA GIANNINI Soprano
LEE PATTISON Pianist
CARL LINDEGREN Bass
PAUL ALTHOUSE Tenor
FIRST CONCERT
As one who weeps and tells his tale. One day For him love thrall'd. Alone we were, and no Suspicion near us. Oft-times by that reading Our eyes were drawn together, and the hue Fled from our alter'd cheek. But at one point Alone we fell. When of that smile we read The wished-for smile so rapturously kissed By one so deep in love, then he, who ne'er From me shall separate, at once my lips All trembling kiss'd. The book and writer both Were love's purveyors. In its leaves that day We read no more. Thus while one spirit spake, The other wailed so sorely, that heart-struck I, through compassion fainting, seem'd not far From death, and like a corpse fell to the ground."
The keys in which the contrasting ideas are expressed are C major and A minor (both in 4-4 time). The first section, terrible in its delineation of the entrance to Hell, is marked--Andante lugubre, while what we might call the Francesca section is Andante cantabile non troppo. Reference to the quotation from the score given above will give the necessary suggestions to the listener, and render a long discussion of thematic developments and inter-relationships, as well as formal treatments superfluous. By attempting to hear everything in such a work the untrained hearer frequently gets nothing.
CONCERTINO for Piano and Orchestra Carpenter
Allegro con moto; Lento grazioso; Allegro risoluto
Percy Grainger
John Alden Carpenter was born February 28, 1876, at Park Ridge, Illinois.
Since 1912 when a set of eight songs were published, Mr. Carpenter has continuously produced works, in both vocal and instrumental forms, which have brought him conspicuously and favorably to the attention not only of his fellow countrymen, but to the musical cognoscenti across the Atlantic. Having graduated from Harvard University in 1897, where he had been a pupil of Professor Paine, he immediately entered his father's business in Chicago--railroad and vessel supplies--and in 1909 became vice-president of the company. 'Mr. Carpenter's training for his avocation began under his mother who had been a pupil in singing of Marchesi and of William Shakespeare of London. Later on in addition to receiving pianoforte instruction, he studied composition with Bernhard Ziehn (Chicago), and for a short period with Sir Edward Elgar.
Page Seventeen
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
In the orchestral field, his suite, Adventures in a Perambulator, and the ballets Krasy Kat (a Jazz Pantomime) and the Skyscrapers have been most conspicuous successes.
The Concertino for Piano and Orchestra was begun and completed in the space of three months, from July ist, 1915, and the first performance took place in Chicago, with Mr. Grainger as the interpreter of the solo parts and Mr. Stock directing the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, on March 10-11, 1916. For that occasion the composer contributed the following information concerning the work:
¦ "Not to impose on it a definite 'program,' but merely to establish the mood of the piece, it may be suggested that the Concertino is, in effect, a light-hearted conversation between piano and orchestra--as between two friends who have traveled different paths and become a little garrulous over their separate experiences. The conversation is mostly of rhythms--American, Oriental, and otherwise. The rules of polite talk, as always, between friends, are not strictly observed--often, in animated moments, they talk both at once, each hearing only what he says himself. Presently the moment comes, as always between friends, when no conversation is necessary--a relaxed moment, when Friendship itself takes them in hand, and they have nothing to say. But the reaction is quick and strong--there is still so much that presses to be said---on a pleasant night--with youth in the air--between friends.
"In form the Concertino is in three short movements: Allegro con nioto, Lento grasioso, and Allegro risoluto--the last two separated by an almost imperceptible pause. Each movement is in the simplest song form--first subject, second subject, and repetition--except the last movement, which has a short coda based on the first subject in the first movement. Since the first production the finale has been rewritten."
SONGS WITH ORCHESTRA
Freundliche Vision )
Morgen ------Stratiss
Standchen )
e. Dux Freundliche Vision (A Welcome Vision)
Nicht im Schlafe hab' ich das getraumt, Hell am Tage sah ich schon vor mir:
Eine Wiese voller Margeritten;
Tief ein weisses Haus in griinen Buschen;
Gotterbilder leuchten aus dem Laube.
Und ich geh' mit Einer, die mich lieb hat
Ruhigen Gemutes in die Kiihle
Dieses weissen Hauses, in den Frieden,
Der voll Schonheit wartet, dass wir kimmen.
Page Eighteen
FIRST CONCERT
Not in slumber did the dream arise, But in day's broad light I saw it all: Just a meadow full of budding daisies, And a sunny house half hid in foliage; Forms divine are lurking in the thicket. And I walk with her whose love I cherish; Tranquilly we enjoy the coolness Of this sheltered cottage, full of beauty. Full of peace that waiteth on our coming. And I go with her whom I cherish To the peace and the beauty.
Morgen (Tomorrow)
Und morgen wird die Sonne wieder scheinen und auf dem wege, den ich gehen werde,
wird uns, die Gliicklichen, sie wieder einen inmitten dieser son nonat menden Erde,
und zu dem Strand, dem weiten, wogenblauen, werden wir still und langsam niedersteigen
stumm werden wir uns in die Augen schauen und auf uns sinkt des Gluckes stummes Schweigen.
Tomorrow's sun will rise in glory beaming, And in the pathway that my foot shall wander, We'll meet, forget the earth, and lost in dreaming, Let heav'n unite a love that earth no more shall sunder, And towards that shore, its billows softly flowing, Our hands entwined, our footsteps slowly wending, Gaze in each other's eyes in love's soft splendour glowing, Mute with tears of joy and bliss ne'er ending.
StandchEn
Mach' auf, Mach' auf, doch leise, mein Kind, um Keinen vom Schlummer zu wecken, kaum murmelt der Bach, kaum zittert im Wind, ein Blatt an den Biischen und Hecken.
D'rum leise, mein Madchen, dass nichts sich regt, nur leise die Hand auf die Klinke gelegt.
Mit Tritten, wie Tritte der Elfen so sacht, um iiber die Blumen zu hiipfen,
Flieg' leicht hinaus in die Mondscheinnacht, zu mir in den Garten zu schliipfen.
Rings schlummern die Bliithen am rieselnden Bach und duften im Schlaf, nur die Liebe ist wach!
Sitz' nieder, hier dammert's geheimnissvoll unter den Lindenbaumen, die Nachtigall uns zu Haupten soil von uns'ren Kiissen traumen, und die Rose wenn sie am Morgen erwacht hoch gliihn, hoch gliihn von den Wonneschauernder Nacht.
Page Nineteen
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
Awake! arise, but softly, my Love,
That no one from slumber awaken!
Scarce murmurs the brook, scarce trembles above
A leaf by the light zephyr shaken.
Then softly, my maiden, that naught be heard,
Lay softly thy hand on the latch ere 'tis stirr'd!
With footsteps like footsteps of elves leaping light
Lest they hurt the heart of a flower,
Come swiftly out in the moonlit night
I wait in the cool garden bower.
The flow'rs sweetly slumber beside the calm lake
And perfume the breeze: only Love is awake!
Come hither! Here under the linden tree
Mysterious shadows hover;
The nightingale shall with envy see
The maiden kiss her lover,
And the roses, wakened by morning's delight,
Shall glow with the wondrous bliss of the night!
VARIATIONS SYMPHONIQUES for Pianoforte and Orchestra Franck
Mr. Grainger
Cesar Franck was born at Liege, December 10, 1822; died at Paris, November 8, 1890.
The Variations Symphoniques occupies a unique place in the literature for piano and orchestra. In style, form, and spirit, the work defies classification in any of the classic or romantic categories: in spite of its name, it is much more than a theme and variations; although it is written for solo instruments and orchestra it cannot be considered a concerto. In this work Franck evidences his ability to utilize the best that his predecessors had bequeathed him and to remold and reshape these ideas in the caldron of his own imagination and intuition. The result is a composition in which the subject matter conditions the form and manner of expression, and in which the moods evoked are distinctly those of the Belgian mystic of the middle nineteenth century. His themes are not merely varied and embellished, but evolved and transformed; the piano is not merely a solo instrument with orchestral color in the background, but rather an integral and equal part in the color values of modern music. The work was written in 1885; and was given for the first time at a concert in Paris, by the Societe Nationale de la Musique, on May 1st of that year. The work was interpreted by Louis Diemer to whom it was dedicated. It was first heard in this country in Carnegie Hall, March 7, 1898, at a concert given in honor of Alexandre Guilmant and Raoul Pugno.
Page Twenty
SECOND CONCERT
Thursday Evening, May 15
"KING DAVID," a Symphonic Psalm, in Three Parts,
after a Drama by Rene Morax Honegger
For Soprano, Alto, Tenor Soli, Narrator, Chorus, Orchestra, and Organ
Arthur Honegger was born March 10, 1892, at Havre.
In the Montparnasse quarter of Paris near the rendezvous of artists, the "Cafe de la Rotunde," there came together in 1917 under the watchful eye of the police, a group of painters, sculptors, musicians, and men of letters to escape from the depressing atmosphere of circles in which war was the sole topic of conversation. Durey, Auric, and Honegger were later joined by Milhaud, Poulenc, and Mile. Taillefer and this group of independents became famous as "The Six." (The title was given them by the critic of Comoedia on the ground that this coterie of Six resembled the well known Russian Group of "Five": Borodine, Rimsky-Korsakoff, Moussorgsky, Balakireff, and Cui.) Some have professed to see in the group a common endeavor based on (1) a reaction against impressionism, and (2) a return to simplicity. Be that as it may, all branches except church music are represented in the output of this group which does not pretend to inaugurate a "school," but is merely an association in which each member is free to go his own way in the light of his own ideals and temperament. At the least, this group has achieved considerable publicity and effected a widespread interest in their compositions, which otherwise might have gathered dust for a decade or more.
Honegger's training in music was received first at Havre and then at Zurich. Afterward he went to Paris and entered the Conservatoire as a pupil in composition of Andre Gedalge and Charles Widor. Orchestration, Honegger studied with Vincent d'Indy.
Honegger's principal works include he dit des jeux du monde, a masque; Music for Max Jacob's La Mort de St. Almeine (1919); Hymn for ten strings (This was composed for new stringed instruments invented by Leo
Page Twenty-One
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
Sir.); Le Roi David (Theatre du Jorat, Mezieres, Switzerland, 1921); Funeral March in Les Maries de la Tour Eiffel, a ballet in which others of "The Six" were represented (1921); Ballet, Skating Rink, produced by the Swedish Ballet (1922); Prelude to Aglavaine et Selysette (1917; Chant de Nigamon (1920) ; Pastorale d'Ete (1921). Honegger has also contributed to the literature of chamber music--string quartet (1917); two sonatas for pianoforte and violin (respectively 1916 and 1919) ; sonata for viola and pianoforte (1920) ; sonata for violoncello and pianoforte (1921) ; sonata for two violins; rhapsody for two flutes, clarinet, and pianoforte.
Honegger is disdainful of rapid success and builds up laboriously works which combine solid constructions with deep thought. Though a typical Romantic (especially true in the poetic and impressionistic Pastorale d'Ete) he inclines toward rugged or violent subjects.
Honegger's Le Roi David was not originally written in the form in which now it stands. In February, 1921, he received a commission from one of the brothers Morax to compose music for a dramatic work which they planned to produce at their Theatre du Jorat, at Mezieres, in Switzerland. This theater had been founded by Rene and Jean Morax in 1903, and its operations had been interrupted by the Great War. It was proposed in 1920 to re-open the theater with a new drama, Le Roi David, which had been written by Rene Morax. As music was needed for the work the two brothers applied to a young Swiss composer of their acquaintance. The latter, realizing that only a short time would be given him for the creation of a work which also he felt to be beyond his skill, declined the commission. It was then that Rene Morax consulted Ernest Ansermet, the Swiss conductor, who had directed much modern music, particularly that of Strawinsky. Both Ansermet and Strawinsky recommended Morax to engage the services of Honegger. As the whereabouts of Honegger was unknown, a letter was confided to the composer's friend Milhaud--one of the prominent members of "Les Six"-but it was not until February, 1921, that Milhaud was able to put the commission into his colleague's hands. Honegger began his labors on Le Roi David--it was then called "dramatic psalm"--February 25. The projected work had come to the notice of Foetisch, the music publisher of Lausanne, and he came to Paris to secure the composition--which had scarcely been begun--for his firm. He offered Honegger five hundred Swiss francs, which the composer accepted. In two months Honegger completed his incidental music. The production of Le Roi David took place at the Theatre du Jorat, June 11, 1921. The reviewer of music for the Paris Temps devoted his
Page Twenty-Two
SECOND CONCERT
feuilleton to a discussion of Honegger and his work, and soon the public was agog for an interpretation of Le Roi David in the capital. The composer perceived that a mere assemblage of his incidental music to the drama, scored for the small orchestra of fifteen players that had been put at his disposal at Mezieres, would be out of the question where Paris was concerned. In the summer of 1922 he began to re-orchestrate the work. In the following summer a performance was given at Winterthur, and, having satisfied himself that Le Roi David--now styled "symphonic psalm"--was ready for the French public which for so long had been awaiting it, Honegger produced the work at the Salle Gaveau, Paris, March 14, 1924. In order to join the sections of the symphonic psalm together and to supply the continuity which, in the drama, had been given by the action and spoken text, Honegger employed a narrator. The latter, whose duty it was to set forth a chronicle of David, the King, compressed from the Old Testament, was Jacques Copeau, who stood by the side of R. Siohan, the conductor.
"Usually the narrator is unaccompanied," wrote Mr. H. T. Parker, reviewing the first production in America of Honegger's work (given by the Friends of Music, New York, October 26, 1925), "yet on occasion his voice merges into a background of music. He recounts the calling of David to be king; his exploits against the Philistines and Goliath; the jealousies and intrigues of Saul; the flight of David to the enemy; their victory over the Israelites; his royal state; his amour with Bathsheba; the rebellion of Absalom, his son; the final rites of temple building, succession and death. That is to say, the recitative in pedestrian verse of the old oratorio has become a plain prose narrative, read, not sung; or at most threaded across an outspread tonal tapestry."
The following is a translation in English of the French text of Le Roi David made by Edward Agate:
FIRST PART
INTRODUCTION
The Narrator
And in those days the Lord spoke to the people of Israel through the mouth of the prophet. And God turned against Saul and spoke to Samuel, saying: Arise, fill thine horn with oil, and go; I will send thee to Jesse the Bethlehemite: for I have provided me a king among his sons. And Samuel arose, and went to Bethlehem, where David was tending his flocks and singing in the fields.
THE SONG OF DAVID,
THE SHEPHERD
(Contralto Solo)
God shall be my shepherd kind; He will shield me from the wind, Lead His lamb to pastures cool, Guide me to the quiet pool. He shall be my staff and rod,
Restore my spirit again; E'en the darkest vale I trod
Shall not be traveled in pain.
Page Twenty-Three
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
He will keep me from alarm,
Though the lightning play around; Save me with His mighty arm, The while, shelter me from harm; Comfort I have found.
The Narrator
And Jesse made seven of his sons pass before Samuel. And Samuel said: The Lord hath not chosen these.
And Samuel said unto Jesse: Are here all thy children And he said: There remaineth yet the youngest, and behold, he keepeth the sheep. And Samuel said: Send and fetch him.
And he sent and brought him in. And the Lord said : Arise, anoint him : for this is he.
PSALM (Chorus)
All praise to Him, the Lord of glory, The everlasting God, my helper. He has avenged all my wrongs and my
woes, And by His hand my people are made
safe. When hordes of heathens arose up against
me,
By His right hand I felt myself sustained, His thunder pealed on the heads of the
foe, Who in their malice sought my end.
(Words after Clement Marot)
The Narrator
And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together and set the battle in array against the Philistines.
And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, a giant. And he mocked the Israelites.
And David smote him in the forehead with a stone from his sling. And the Israelites shouted and pursued the Philistines even unto the gates of Ekron.
Page Twenty-Four
SONG OF VICTORY
(Chorus) David is great! The Philistines o'erthrown. Chosen of God is he, Succored and unafraid. Saul hath slain his thousands, And ten thousands, David !
MARCH The Narrator
And Michal, Saul's daughter, loved David. And the evil spirit from the Lord was upon Saul as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand, and David played to him. And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the javelin. For he was old and David was young and beautiful.
PSALM
(Tenor Solo)
In the Lord I put my faith, I put my
trust. How say ye unto my soul: "Flee like any
bird unto the mountain" For behold, evil is here, And the wicked bend their bow, That they may privily shoot them that
are clean and upright.
The Narrator
So David fled and escaped, and came to the prophets. And he languished and pined in the heat of the desert. And he bade farewell to Jonathan, who loved him as a brother.
PSALM (Soprano Solo) O had I wings like a dove, Then would I fly away and be at rest. Save in the tomb alone is there no comfort Is there no balm to heal this woe of
mine
Where shall I find for my head some safe shelter
SECOND CONCERT
Morning and eve I pray and cry aloud. The storm of my distress blows like the
tempest, Bearing to God my cries and my prayer.
The Narrator
And Saul sent messengers to take David. And they came to Naioth, in Ramah, and they found him with the company of the prophets, prophesying.
SONG OF THE PROPHETS
Man that is born of woman lives but a little while.
Whichever way he turn, the path he must pursue
Is heavy to his feet.
He cometh up like grass, which in time shall be mowed down.
He fleeth as a shadow,
And the place that once he knew remembers him no more.
The Narrator
Henceforth he must wander in the wilderness; his heart assailed by want, by care and weeping.
PSALM (Tenor Solo)
Pity me, Lord, for I am weak! A refuge and harbor I seek.
My weary head Thy wings shall cover; When will the endless night be over Pity me, Lord, for I am weak! My heart upraise
To hymn Thy bounty all my days! O sun, arise to lead me on, That with my harp, the victory won, I may return to sing a joyful song of praise!
The Narrator
And the Lord delivered Saul into the hands of David. So David came to the people by night; and behold, Saul lay sleeping with a spear at his bolster and cruse of water at his head. And David
feared to destroy the Lord's anointed.
So David took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul's bolster; and he gat him away, and no man saw it, nor knew it, neither awaked: for they were all asleep: because a deep sleep from the Lord was fallen upon them.
And war broke out anew between the Philistines and the King of Israel. Saul's army is hard pressed on the steep hillsides, for the enemy's horses draw near, and David is with the Philistines. The people of Israel call upon the Lord in vain.
PSALM
(Chorus) God the Lord shall be my light and my
salvation;
What cause have I to fear God the Lord shall be my strength in
tribulation; His help is ever near. Though wicked enemies came, My foes who my flesh would fain devour,
Bright sword and lance they might claim, Yet they stumble and fall upon that
hour. E'en though an host against me should
rise,
I shall not be afraid; From field of war the Lord will hear
my cries, And their arm shall be stayed.
The Narrator
And when Saul saw the host of the Philistines in Shunem, he was afraid, and his heart greatly trembled.
And when Saul inquired of the Lord, the Lord answered him not, neither by dreams nor by prophets.
And his servants said to him: Behold, there is a woman that hath a familiar spirit at En-dor.
Page Twenty-Five
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
And Saul disguised himself, and he went, and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night: and he said, I pray thee, bring me him up whom I shall name unto thee.
Then said the woman: Whom shall I bring up unto thee And he said: Bring me up Samuel.
INCANTATION
By fire, by water, by speech and by wind, by sight and by sound, break thy chains, burst the locks which bind thee! Appear! 'Tis time! I call thee from Sheol's darkness. Return, and enter into the temple of nine doors ! Appear ! Give thy blood! Let the breath of life return to thy nostrils; come from the depths of the earth! Appear!
The fire burns me; the fire below! It enters into me, it searches the marrow of my bones. It pierces me like a sharp sword. Arise! Appear! O why hast thou deceived me for thou art Saul!
The Shade of Samuel Why hast thou disquieted me, to bring me up
The Narrator
And Samuel prophesied to Saul, saying: Moreover the Lord will also deliver Israel with thee into the hand of the Philistines.
And Saul fell with his sons in Mount Gilboa. And the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines.
MARCH OF THE PHILISTINES
The Narrator
And the Amalekite messenger brought to David the crown and the bracelet of Saul. Then David rent his clothes, and mourned and wept for Saul, and for Jonathan his son, and for the house
Page Twenty-Six
of Israel; because they were fallen by the
sword.
LAMENT OF GILBOA {Chorus and Soli)
Ths Narrator (During the Chorus)
The beauty of Israel is slain upon thy high places; how are the mighty fallen!
Tell it not in Gath, publish it not in the streets of Askelon; lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice.
Ye mountains of Gilboa, let there be no dew, neither let there be rain, upon you, nor fields of offerings; for there the shield of the mighty is vilely cast away, the shield of Saul, as though he had not been anointed with oil.
From the blood of the slain, from the fat of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan turned not back, and the sword of Saul returned not empty.
Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives, and in their death they were not divided; they were swifter than eagles, they were stronger than lions.
Ye daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, who clothed you in scarlet, with other delights, who put on ornaments of gold upon your apparel.
How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! O Jonathan, thou wast slain in thine high places.
I am distressed for thee, my brother Jonathan; very pleasant hast thou been unto me; thy love to me was wonderful, passing the love of women.
How are the mighty fallen, and the weapons of war perish!
The Daughters op Israix Ha! Ha!
SECOND CONCERT SECOND PART
INTRODUCTION THE DANCE BEFORE THE ARK
The Narrator
Jerusalem ! Jerusalem ! David is king! He hath chosen thee to cherish the ark of God. Behold, today it shall be set in the midst of Israel.
SONG OF THE DAUGHTERS OF
ISRAEL
Sister, oh sing thy song! Never hath God forsaken us, E'en in captivity, Or in adversity. Chosen of Him above, On us now 'lights His love. God the Lord comes to bless Israel.
The Narrator
And behold, shepherds lead their flocks, the workers in the fields bring their harvest and wine from their vineyards, and all to the glory of the Lord. O Israel, now get thee to the hill, for all peoples shall receive the blessing of God.
And David played before the Lord and danced before the ark, and the earth shook, even as an harp-string trembleth beneath the hand of a virgin.
Chorus Mighty God! Jehovah, be with us! O radiance of the morn, And the splendor of noon! Mighty God, be with us!
Priests (Before the Ark) Ope wide those doors that lead to heaven! Ope wide those gates that lead to justice! For the righteous alone enter therein, In those precious portals of God the Lord.
Soldiers
Many nations brought me to war, Yet in Jehovah's name they were destroyed ;
Compassed me round like bees that swarm,
Yet in Jehovah's name they were destroyed.
Each withered bush I set on fire,
In great Jehovah's name it was destroyed ;
For He has shielded me from harm,
And His right hand has led me on.
Lord above, show Thyself, and scatter all our foes!
Maidens
Sing to the Lord, sing loud and long! Play on your instruments and dance! Give to the Lord glory and strength! Let the sea roar in its fullness; Yea, let the fields rejoice for gladness, And the trees of the forest sing praises! In eternal light He abides; He hovers on wings of the wind, And his robe the roof of the earth. Hidden by clouds, there lies His dwelling, And 'mid the tempest He hath spoken. Then magnify the Lord Creator! Praise to the holiest, Saviour of Israel!
Chorus Mighty God! Jehovah, be with us !
The Angel {Soprano Solo)
Give ear; 'tis not for thee as king To build an house unto My name. Behold, a child is born to thee, And I will set him on thy throne. And he shall be My son, And I will be his Father. Then shall he build an house for My
name,
And Solomon he shall be called, That over Israel peace may reign.
Choir of Angels Alleluia! Alleluia!
Page Twenty-Seven
OFFICIAL PROGRAM THIRD PART
Chorus Now my voice, in song upsoaring,
Shall loud proclaim my king afar. His wealth of splendor, fast outpouring, Shall put to nothing e'en the loveliest of
star. Pride of Adam's race that bore thee,
A simple shepherd, wont to sing, And yet surpassing all before thee,
Thou hast been chosen by the Lord to
be our king. God will send thee sons to cherish,
Who shall inherit in their turn; Thy name in glory shall not perish, And all the people as their pastor Shall announce thee master.
The Narrator
And the blessing of God rested upon David's house. All the kings of the earth are united with him, and he is the greatest among them all. But sin entered into his heart, for it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself; and the woman was Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam. the wife of Uriah the Hittite; and she was very beautiful to look upon.
And David took Bathsheba to wife, and killed her husband Uriah the Hittite with the sword. And Bathsheba bare a son; but the thing that David had done displeased the Lord. And the Lord struck the child, and on the seventh day he died.
PSALM OF PENITENCE
(Chants)
Pity me, God, in my distress! Turn not away, but heal me again! Wash me of sin and cleanse of shame, And in Thy hot displeasure, O chasten
me not!
Page Twenty-Eight
The Narrator
And the Lord sent Nathan unto David to reprove him for his sin.
PSALM
(Chorus)
Behold, in evil I was born, And in iniquity conceived. For Thou desirest truth and goodness, And in the hidden part great wisdom. I have sinned, yea, heavily transgressed. I have been shown the path to follow, And I have wandered from Thy footsteps. Pity me, God, in my distress! Pardon, Lord, the evil I have done!
The Narrator
And the wrath of the Lord fell upon David's house. For a brother had ravished his sister, and a brother killed his brother. And Absalom, David's well beloved son, rose up against his father, and David escaped and sought the desert.
PSALM (Tenor Solo)
O shall I raise mine eyes unto the mountains,
From whence should come my help
The Lord shall guide thy steps, going and coming,
From henceforth, evermore.
He will not suffer thy foot to be moved,
For He is on high, watching above;
The Lord who is thy keeper neither slumbers nor sleeps.
The Narrator
So the people went out into the field against Israel; and the battle was in the wood of Ephraim. And Joab slew Absalom, whose head was caught in the thick boughs of a great oak.
And when the king heard of it he was much moved, and went up into his chamber and wept.
SECOND CONCERT
MARCH OF THE HEBREWS
The Narrator
And David signaled with his hand, and the army stood still. And David said: Ye warriors of Israel, ye are my brethren, ye are my bones and my flesh. Ye have established peace in the land. Receive my thanks!
The Narrator
His enemies o'erthrown, David sings a grateful song unto the Lord.
PSALM
(Chorus)
Thee will I love, O Lord, who art ray
fortress,
Thou art my shield, the horn of my salvation.
God is my refuge safe; I trust in Him, My rock, my strength, my tower and
my deliverer. In Him I find the solace that I long
for; He guideth my steps, that I may walk
in comfort.
I call on Him and invoke His aid, And I am saved from my strong enemy. When waves of death encompassed me, And snares of men made me afraid, Then did He send, and take me from
above,
And drew me forth out of many waters. (Words after Clement Marot)
The Narrator
And David waxed old in his palace of cedar and gold. And Satan stood up
against Israel, and provoked David to number the people. So the Lord sent pestilence upon Israel; and He sent an angel unto Jerusalem to destroy it.
And David proclaimed Solomon, the son of Bathsheba, king over Israel and over Judah. And when Nathan had crowned Solomon, David looked on the temple for the last time.
THE CROWNING OF SOLOMON
The Narrator
And Nathan said: Before all Israel and before Jehovah we anoint as king Solomon, the son of David. And the people shouted: God save King Solomon!
THE DEATH OF DAVID
The Narrator
And David said: The spirit of God is within me. One cometh after me to lead my people in the fear of the Lord. O how good it was to live! I thank thee, God, Thou who gavest me life.
The Angel (Soprano Solo)
And God said: The day shall dawn To bring a flower, newly born,
From thy stem in fullness growing, In fragrance sweet, night and morn, All my people shall adorn, With breath of life bestowing.
Choir of Angels Alleluia! Alleluia!
Page Twenty-Nine
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
PASSACAGLIA AND FUGUE in C Minor ... Bach
(Transcribed for the Modern Orchestra and dedicated to the memory of Horace S. Oakley by Frederick A. Stock.)
Johann Sebastian Bach was born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipzig, July 28, 1750.
Although the Passacaglia and Fugue has long been recognized as one of the great conceptions in organ literature, few who have heard it realize that it was written originally for a harpsichord with two keyboards and pedals. Dr. Albert Schweitzer in his . S. Bach notes how adequately its polyphonic structure fits the organistic idiom of speech, and points out that "we can hardly understand nowadays how anyone could have ventured to play it on a stringed instrument."
Several of the great organ compositions of Bach have intrigued conductors of the present generation who have recognized the great possibilities these compositions hold for expression by the modern orchestra. On several occasions the great Fugue in G Minor arranged by Abert has been heard in these concerts. The Toccata and Fugue in D Minor and this same Passacaglia and Fugue in C Minor have been transcribed by Mr. Stokowsky and performed by the Philadelphia Symphony Orchestra. The Passacaglia and Fugue in its original form was performed during the current year by Mr. Christian in his weekly organ recitals.
While no specific date appears on the original score, Bach experts believe that the work was written during the period when the master served as court organist and concertmeister to Wilhelm Ernst, Duke of Sachsen-Weimar, from 1708-1717.
Mr. Stock's arrangement of the Passacaglia and Fugue was made in November, 1929, and performed at a subsequent concert in Chicago as a memorial to Mr. Horace S. Oakley, late president of the Orchestral Association.
In plan the work follows the well-known theme and variations design. The name Passacaglia is derived from an old dance usually in 3-4 time which was used in instrumental music as a ground-bass in the variations which followed. In Mr. Stock's transcription the wealth of color variety available in the modern orchestra and the range of dynamics from whispered pianissimo to almost overwhelming fortissimo are utilized in a scholarly manner
Page Thirty
SECOND CONCERT
to bring out the inherent and hidden qualities in the original score. Careful attention to the first statement of the theme and its recurrence in the early variations will facilitate the recognition of the polyphonic structure which is woven around the ground-bass in the succeeding portion of the work. The specific instrumentation for the several sections is given below:
The theme, or basso ostinato, which occurs twenty times in the course of the Passacaglia, is given out by the violoncellos and double-basses. Variation No. i is for strings alone (without double-basses). No. 2: The theme is given to the bass clarinet, bassoons, and harp. No. 3: There is a moving figure in the violins and violas with the theme in the bass clarinet. No. 4: A figuration in the violins and violas with the theme in the bassoons, harp, and double-basses. No. 5: Here there is a rhythmic construction somewhat similar to that of the preceding variation, the theme being given to the lower woodwind and strings. No. 6: An ascending running figure divided between strings and woodwind, with the theme in the lowest strings. No. 7: In this there is a descending running figure in the strings and certain woodwind instruments, with the theme in the bassoons, fourth horn, harp, and violoncellos. No. 8: A sixteenth-note figuration, continuing that of the preceding variation, but with the theme in the bassoons, doublebasses, and tuba. No. 9: A more robust figuration in strings and woodwind, the theme, less sustained than in previous sections, being heard in the lowest strings and bassoons. No. 10: The full orchestra is employed in this variation, the strings playing a running figure in sixteenth notes, with the theme in the double-basses and tenor and bass tubas. No. 11: The theme is transferred from the lowest to the topmost part of the harmony. It is given out, piano, by the flutes and the harp in harmonics with a light running figure against it. No. 12: The theme, still in the upper register, is heard, forte, in the horns and trumpets, a busy sixteenth-note figuration in the remainder of the orchestra working against it. No. 13: Here there is set forth a more tranquil mood, with the theme less easily recognizable. It is given to a solo viola and violoncello, the harp entering at the third measure. No. 14: The theme is now in the first horn, with a broken-chord figuration accompanying it in solo strings, harp, and certain woodwind instruments. No. 15: The trombones take up the theme, with a broken-chord figure against it in the woodwind and with pizzicato chords in the strings. No. 16: The theme is now given to the double-bassoon and violoncellos, strings and harp accompanying. No. 17: A sextolet figuration in the woodwind accompanies the theme, which is given to the bass clarinet, horns, and tenor tuba. No. 18: The figuration accompanying the theme--the latter allotted to the trombones, tenor tuba, and double-basses--is more marcato than before. No. 19: The full orchestra enters in this variation. The theme is in the two bass tubas and double-basses. No. 20: In this the music reaches a climax. The theme is easily to be recognized in the brass. Following a chord (C minor) of tremendous sonority there is a pause, and the thema fugatnm--a fugue based upon the theme of the passacaglia--begins with its subject given out by the violas, the violoncellos playing the counter-theme.
Page Thirty-One
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
MAGNIFICAT, D Major -------Bach
For soprano, alto, tenor, and bass soli, chorus, orchestra, continuo,
and organ.
Bach wrote the music of the Magnificat during the first year of his service as cantor at St. Thomas Church at Leipzig. The text is taken from the Gospel according to St. Luke, Chapter I, which proclaims the song known as Virgin Mary's "Hymn of Praise" sung in the house of Zacharias after she had heard the inspired prophecy of Elizabeth. The setting given by Bach to this inspired canticle is one of his greatest creations, and although of lesser extent than the B Minor Mass or The Passion According to St. Matthew, this contains the essence of his style, and the quintessence of his spiritual and emotional embodiment of the mood of the several sections of the song in musical praises. It was probably sung for the first time at the evening Christmas service in St. Thomas Church in Leipzig in 1723.
Two scores of the Magnificat exist; an older one in the key of E flat and a later one in D major which is the one sung on this occasion. In the older, E flat, version, several movements which did not form a part of the regular text were inserted between the verses of the Magnificat; after the aria for soprano (No. 2) "et exultavit spiritus" there is in the manuscript score the following note: "N.B. Alhier folget der Chorale von Himmel hoch." In like manner other hymns of the Lutheran Church were inserted after "Quia fecit" and "Fecit potentiam." This practice of introducing hymns into a larger work for choir and orchestra is to be found in the several settings of the Passion by the same composer, and has been perpetuated in more modern works such as St. Paul by Mendelssohn and Crucifixion by Stainer. Dr. Schweitzer believed that these hymns "were not rendered by the choir that stood beside the great organ, but by some choristers in the small gallery opposite, accompanied by a smaller organ."
The Magnificat is divided into twelve brief numbers, each of which is devoted to a verse of the canticle; and the final chorus treats the "Gloria Patri." The choruses are in five parts, first and second sopranos, alto, tenor, and bass. There is one trio for women's voices, and one duet for alto and tenor; two arias for soprano, and one each for the other solos. Bach's original score calls for an orchestra of two flutes, three trumpets, organ, and continuo, and occasional solo instruments which are not in common use today such as the oboe d'amore.
The score of the Magnificat was first published in 1818, that being the version in E flat; the present D major version was published by the Bach
Page Thirty-Two
SECOND CONCERT
Gesellschaft in 1861. The first performance of the Magnificat in this countrywas at the second Cincinnati Festival, May 11, 1875. For modern use, Mr. Stock has made a new orchestral accompaniment which, while keeping intact the spirit of Bach's original scoring, permits of greater effectiveness under present-day demands of concert performance.
The work will be sung in Latin, the text of which is given together with an English translation.
I. CHORUS
Magnificat anima mea Dominum.
My soul doth magnify the Lord.
II. AIR (Soprano)
Et exultavit spiritus meus, in Deo salutari meo.
My spirit hath rejoiced in God, my Saviour.
III. AIR (Soprano)
Quia respexit humilitatem, ancillae suae.
For He hath regarded the lowliness of His handmaiden.
IV. CHORUS
Omnes generationes.
All generations.
V. AIR (Bass)
Quia fecit mihi magna, qui potens est et sanctum nomen ejus.
For He that is mighty hath magnified me, and holy is His name.
VI. DUET (Alto-Tenor)
Et misericordia a progenies timentibus eum.
And His mercy is on them that fear Him, throughout all generations.
VII. CHORUS
Fecit potentiam in brachio suo, dispersit superbos mente cordis sui.
He hath shown strength and scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts.
VIII. AIR (Tenor)
Deposuit potentes de sede, et exaltavit humiles.
He hath put down the mighty, and hath exalted them of low degree.
Page Thirty-Three
OFFICIAL PROGRAM IX. AIR (Alto)
Esurientes implevit bonis, et divites diinisit inanes.
He hath filled the hungry with good things, and the rich hath sent empty away.
X. TERZETT (Women's Voices)
Suscepit Israel puerum suum, recordatus misericordiae suae.
He hath helped His servant Israel, in remembrance of His mercy.
XI. CHORUS
Sicut locutus est ad patres nostros, Abraham, et semini ejus in secula.
Even as He promised to our forefathers, to Abraham, and to his seed forever.
XII. CHORUS
Gloria Patri, gloria Filio, gloria et Spiritui sancto. Sicut erat in principio et nunc et semper et in secula. Amen.
Glory to the Father, glory to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be. Amen.
Page Thirty-Four
THIRD CONCERT
Friday Afternoon, May 16
CONCERTO NO. 4, for Solo Violin, Two Flutes and Orchestra Bach
Johann Sebastian Bach was born at Eisenach, March 21, 1685; died at Leipzig, July 28, 1750.
The designation, Concerto, assigned by Bach to this composition does not carry the same implication as to style and content as when applied to the compositions for violin or piano virtuoso display as represented on other programs in this series. The status of orchestral music and of orchestral groups in the first half of the eighteenth century is not to be compared with nineteenth or twentieth century conditions. Nearly every princely court of that day possessed a small aggregation of musicians, some of whom possessed reasonable technical proficiency on their instruments, but the balance of whom were engaged in other menial tasks and contributed to the musical ensemble only in a small and modest way. As a result the efficiency of the orchestral group cannot be adequately judged. The composers of those days took into account these conditions of performance and wrote music which was divided into two groups known as the concertino, which performed the most difficult music, and the ripieno, which contributed to the volume and sonority of the tuttis.
The present concerto is one of six written by the master at the commission of Christian L,udwig, Margrave of Brandenburg. They were written in the years 1719 to 1721. For each one of the six concertos Bach demands an orchestra of different proportion: the first he wrote for strings, including a violino-piccolo, three oboes, two horns, a bassoon and a cembalo--the last named instrument having been used to fill in the harmonies when it was needed. In the second concerto, in addition to the strings, he employed a flute, oboe, trumpet and a solo violin; the third was for strings only; the fourth, as indicated above. The fifth concerto made use of the clavier, flute and violin as its concertino, while the sixth, written for strings alone, employs two violas, two viola da gamba, violoncello and clavier.
It is apparent, then, that these orchestral pieces were conceived for the moderate confines of a royal concert hall rather than for the vast spaces of
Page Thirty-Five
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
the present-day music hall. They are to be considered as examples of chamber music rather than symphonic literature.
The fourth concerto bears on the autographed score the following title: Concerto 4to a Violino Principale, due Flauti d'Bcho due Violini, una Viola e Violone in Ripieno, Violoncello e Continuo. The concerto contains three movements whose tempo and key indications are as follows: I. Allegro, G major, 3-8 time. II. Andante, E minor, 3-4 time. III. Presto, G major, 2-2 time.
SONGS
Lotus Flower __-_--___ Schumann Hark, Hark the Lark ------Schubert
Cradle Song ---------Mozart
Children's Festival Chorus
Lotus Flowur ------------Schumann
The lotus flower is drooping, Searing the sun's warm ray: Folding her dewy petals, She longs for the close of day. She loves the silver moonlight That wakes her with radiance bright, Her gentle heart she discloses Unveiling her charms in the night. She blooms in wond'rous splendor Her gaze is lifted above Her petals are trembling and glowing With rapture and burning love, With rapture and burning love.
Hark, Hark, the Lark ---------Schubert
Hark! Hark! the lark at heaven's gate sings,
And Phoebus 'gins arise,
His steeds to water at those springs
On chalic'd flow'rs that lies;
And winking Marybuds begin
To ope their golden eyes;
With every thing that pretty bin,
My lady sweet, arise.
The flauto d'echo was another name for the flute a bee, which was not played like the modern flute-the latter often called by Bach "Travsersiere" but held vertically like the oboe or clarinet, and played with a mouthpiece. The flute a bee belonged to that family of wind instruments which in England in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were called "recorders." They have long beea obsolete.
Page Thirty-Six
THIRD CONCERT
Cradle Song ..--.---..-.. Mozart Sleep now, my little one, sleep! Soft flow the waters so deep, Quiet is all in the house, Tired are the cat and the mouse; Here now in slumber they lie. Bright are the clouds in the sky: Angels their watch o'er thee keep; Sleep now, my little one, sleep, Oh, sleep, now sleep!
Sleep now, my little one, sleep! Soft rest the birds and the sheep, Gardens and meadows are dumb, Little bees no longer come; Luna all silvery bright, Sheds through the window her light: Stars now their nightwatch do keep; Sleep now, my little one, sleep, Oh, sleep, now sleep!
SCHERZO from the Music to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's
Dream," Op. 61 -------Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was born February 3, 1809, at Hamburg; died November 4, 1847, at Leipzig.
Shakespeare's conceptions, whether single poems or entire plays, individual characters or dramatic incidents, have ever held an attraction for the composers of music. The imaginations of a Verdi, Tchaikovsky, Thomas, Schubert, and Mendelssohn, to name only a few, have been kindled by the lines of the great English dramatist, and there have resulted compositions both short and long, subjective and objective, dramatic and lyric.
Mendelssohn created one of his greatest masterpieces as a youth of seventeen when he completed in Berlin, August 6, 1826, the Overture to "A Midsummer Night's Dream." An airy fairy lightness and youthful grace characterize this exquisite creation. Seventeen years later, he composed music for the complete play, at the request of King Frederick William IV of Prussia. The complete incidental music has thirteen numbers, many of which utilize the themes found in the overture.
The Scherzo--G minor, 3-8 time, Allegro vivace--is No. II, and is an entr'acte between Acts I and II; it consists of light and elf-like music, and represents the scene in Quince's
Page Thirty-Seven
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
house, where the play to be given by the workmen at the wedding is being discussed. The character of the music as a whole is unmistakably dainty and suggestive of fairies, with no single touch of the grotesque. There are two themes, not sharply contrasted, and the Schcrso consists of an elaborate development of them. It is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, and strings.
CANTATA, "A Symphony of Song" May A. Strong Introduction
Giocoso: "Bad Sir Brian Botany" Andantino : "The Invaders" Allegretto grazioso : "The King's Breakfast"
John White; and Children's Festival Chorus
May A. Strong received her musical education at the Institute of Musical Art in New York City and the American Conservatory in Chicago. In 1924 she won the W. E. Kimball Company Prize of one hundred dollars offered by the Chicago Madrigal Club for the best setting of "May Comes Laughing." Only two women have received this prize in the years it has been offered. In 1927 her setting of the "Slumber Songs of the Madonna" received the Theodore Presser Prize of five hundred dollars offered by the National Federation of Music Clubs. Other works of Miss Strong include songs, short piano pieces, a trio, and an orchestration for the "Slumber Songs of the Madonna."
In 1928 Miss Strong received her master's degree, summa cum laude, in Musical Theory from the American Conservatory of Chicago. Adolf Weidig was her teacher. For three years she was a member of the voice faculty of Northwestern University and has been a member of the faculty of the same department at the University School of Music since September, 1928.
A Symphony of Song is dedicated to the composer's sister, Jette StrongPutnam, and was written for the Ann Arbor Festival. The words are from When We Were Very Young by A. A. Milne, and used in this performance by permission of the publishers, E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
I. Introduction: The characters are presented.
II. Giocoso: "Bad Sir Brian Botany" illustrates the sad adventures of Sir Brian as he is metamorphosed into "Plain Mr. Botany B."
III. Andantino: "The Invaders" is a pastoral describing the beauties of an early spring morning as the silence is broken by songs of the birds.
Page Thirty-Eight
THIRD CONCERT
IV. Allegretto grazioso: "The King's Breakfast" relates the difficulties encountered by the king who only wants "a little bit of butter for his bread." The work is scored for the following orchestra: 2 flutes (one interchangeable with piccolo), 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, 3 horns, 2 trumpets, kettledrums, cymbals, celeste harp, and strings.
Introduction
The King
The Queen, and
Bad Sir Brian Botany,
The Cow,
The Dairymaid,
The very sleepy Alderney,
All these and more,
We sing in happy company
"When we were very young."
Giocoso: "Bad Sir Brian Botany"
Sir Brian had a battleaxe with great big knobs on;
He went among the villagers and blipped them on the head. On Wednesday and on Saturday, but mostly on the latter day,
He called at all the cottages, and this is what he said:
"I am Sir Brian!" (ting-ling)
"I am Sir Brian!" (rat-tat) "I am Sir Brian, as bold as a lion-Take that!--and that!--and that!"
Sir Brian had a pair of boots with great big spurs on, A fighting pair of which he was particularly fond.
On Tuesday and on Friday, just to make the street look tidy, He'd collect the passing villagers and kick them in the pond.
"I am Sir Brian!" (sper-lash)
"I am Sir Brian!" (sper-losh) "I am Sir Brian, as bold as a lion-Is anyone else for a wash"
Sir Brian woke one morning, and he couldn't find his battleaxe;
He walked into the village in his second pair of boots. He had gone a hundred paces, when the street was full of faces,
And the villagers were round him with ironical salutes.
"You are Sir Brian Indeed!
You are Sir Brian Dear, dear! You are Sir Brian, as bold as a lion
Delighted to meet you here!"
Page Thirty-Nine
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
Sir Brian went a journey, and he found a lot of duckweed:
They pulled him out and dried him, and they blipped him on the head.
They took him by the breeches, and they hurled him into ditches,
And they pushed him under waterfalls, and this is what they said:
"You are Sir Brian--don't laugh,
You are Sir Brian--don't cry; You are Sir Brian, as bold as a lion-Sir Brian, the lion, good-bye!"
Sir Brian struggled home again, and chopped up his battleaxe, Sir Brian took his fighting boots, and threw them in the fire.
He is quite a different person now he hasn't got his spurs on, And he goes about the village as B. Botany, Esquire.
"I am Sir Brian Oh, no!
I am Sir Brian Who's he I haven't got any title, I'm Botany-Plain Mr. Botany (B)."
Andantino: "The Invaders"
In careless patches through the wood The clumps of yellow primrose stood, And sheets of white anemones, Like driven snow against the trees, Had covered up the violet, But left the bluebell bluer yet.
Along the narrow carpet ride, With primroses on either side, Between their shadows and the sun, The cows came slowly, one by one, Breathing the early morning air And leaving it still sweeter there. And, one by one, intent upon Their purposes, they followed on In ordered silence--and were gone.
But all the little wood was still,
As if it waited so, until
Some blackbird on an outpost yew,
Watching the slow procession through,
Lifted his yellow beak at last
To whistle that the line had passed-Then all the wood began to sing
Its morning anthem to the spring.
Page Forty
THIRD CONCERT
Allegretto grasioso : "The King's Breakfast"
The King asked
The Queen, and
The Queen asked
The Dairymaid:
"Could we have some butter for
The Royal slice of bread"
The Queen asked the Dairymaid,
The Dairymaid
Said, "Certainly,
I'll go and tell
The cow
Now
Before she goes to bed."
The Dairymaid
She curtsied,
And went and told
The Alderney:
"Don't forget the butter for
The Royal slice of bread."
The Alderney
Said sleepily:
"You'd better tell
His Majesty
That many people nowadays
Like marmalade
Instead."
The Dairymaid
Said, "Fancy!"
And went to
Her Majesty.
She curtsied to the Queen, and
She turned a little red:
"Excuse me,
Your Majesty,
For taking of
The Liberty,
But marmalade is tasty, if
It's very
Thickly
Spread."
The Queen said
"Oh!"
And went to
His Majesty:
"Talking of the butter for
The Royal slice of bread,
Many people
Think that
Marmalade
Is nicer.
Would you like to try a little
Marmalade
Instead"
The King said,
"Bother!"
And then he said,
"Oh, deary me!"
The King sobbed, "Oh, deary me!" And went back to bed. "Nobody," He whimpered, "Could call me A fussy man;
I only want
A little bit
Of butter for
My bread!"
The Queen said,
"There, there!"
And went to
The Dairymaid.
The Dairymaid
Said, "There, there!" And went to the shed. The cow said, "There, there! I didn't really Mean it;
Here's milk for his porringer And butter for his bread."
Page Forty-One
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
The Queen took
The butter
And brought it to
His Majesty;
The King said,
"Butter, eh"
And bounced out of bed.
"Nobody," he said,
As he kissed her
Tenderly,
"Nobody," he said,
As he slid down
The banisters,
"Nobody,
My darling,
Could call me
A fussy man-BUT "I do like a little bit of butter to viy bread!"
CONCERTO IN D MAJOR, for violin and orchestra, Opus 61 Beethoven AiAEGRO ma non troppo; LarghETTo; Rondo--Aixegro
RUGGIERO RlCCI
Ludwig van Beethoven was born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.
In the literature of the violin concerto the great master of the symphony is represented by a single contribution. For the violin as a solo instrument in other combinations and relations, Beethoven created much, but in the most pretentious and expansive form of virtuoso demonstration, the Concerto on this afternoon's program is his single adventure. It was written late in the year 1806, just after the Rasoumoffsky Quartet and the Fourth Symphony, Opus 60. It is reported that the work was not finished in time for rehearsal, and that the soloist of the occasion, Franz Clement, played it at his concert at the Theater an der Wien on December 23, 1806, at sight. On the page of the manuscript score, which differs in many details from the work as performed this afternoon, there stands in the composer's handwriting the punning title as follows "Concerto Par Clemenza pour Clement, primo Violino e direttore al Theatro de Vienne." The soloist of that first performance was a violinist of remarkable attainment in his day and at the time of the perPage Forty-Two
THIRD CONCERT
formance was the conductor of the orchestra at the theater in which the concert took place.
Some two years after the Concerto was completed, Beethoven brought out the work arranged by himself as a concerto for piano; for this he composed a cadenza for the first movement with an obligato part for the kettle drums and a shorter cadenza for the last movement. The orchestral score of the Concerto was published in 1809, and, as indicated above, shows the result of that familiar process of revision which Beethoven employed with most of his work.
For those who may be interested in following the rather lengthy work in a more detailed fashion, the appended analysis of material is given:
I. {Allegro ma turn troppo, D Major, 4-4 time.) This movement is constructed in the sonata form with the double exposition peculiar to nearly all concertos of the earlier masters. Note the important part played by the opening notes of the kettledrum. This rhythmical figure runs throughout the entire movement.
The principal theme opens in the woodwind. The transitional passage leading to the second theme begins with new material--and ascending scale--also in the woodwind. After an outburst in the full orchestra, fortissimo, the second theme appears in the woodwind in D major, later to be continued in the strings in D minor. The orchestral exposition does not end with a complete close, as was often customary, but leads at once into the second exposition--for the solo instrument, which enters with an ascending octave figure, introductory to its presentation of the principal theme. The transitional passage begins in the orchestra (scale passage in woodwind), and is continued in octaves by the solo violin. The second theme--now in A--is given out by the clarinets and bassoons, the solo instrument playing a trill. The strings continue this theme, passagework in triplets accompanying it in the solo.
The Development portion of the movement is ushered in by a fortissimo tutti. The second theme is given further and lengthy presentation. The real working out of the subject matter begins with the entrance of the solo violin, the rhythmical "motto" of the movement being continually in evidence. Following two trills in the violin solo there appears a tranquil episode for the principal instrument.
The Recapitulation enters, ff, in the full orchestra. The principal themes are presented much as before, the second theme being in D major instead of A. A sonorous tutti leads into the cadenza for the solo, at the conclusion of which a reminiscence of the second theme brings the movement to a close.
II. (Larghetto, G major, 4-4 time.) In the scoring of this movement, in addition to the strings only two clarinets, two bassoons, and two horns are used. The muted strings bring forward a subject--ten measures long--which is repeated three times by
'Beethoven, in this characteristic passage, had been anticipated by Bach, who opened the Christmas cantata Jauchset, frohlocket with five notes from the drum in the same key, and precisely similar. The time signature of Bach's work is, however, 3-8.
Page Vorty-Three
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
the clarinet, bassoon, and strings, respectively, with graceful embroidery in the solo instrument. Following this a new theme appears in G major in the violin, leading to a repetition {pizzicato in the strings) of the first subject, and a further embroidered presentation of the second theme in the solo violin. A modulation in the strings, fortissimo, prepares the way for the rondo.
III. (Rondo. Allegro, D major, 6-8 time.) The solo instrument announces the principal theme (on the G string), the violoncellos providing a light accompaniment. The subject is repeated by the violin two octaves higher, and taken up, ff, by the full orchestra. A transitional passage--in the nature of a hunting call--appears in the horns, with ornamental work in the violin. The second theme--in A major--is given out, ff, for two measures by the full orchestra, these being answered by the solo violin. There follows rapid passage-work for the solo instrument. Reminiscences of the opening theme in the accompaniment lead to its repetition by the violin. The second part of the movement opens with a fortissimo tutti, after which the violin brings forward an episode in G minor, the theme of which is repeated by the bassoon with figuration in the solo instrument.
The Recapitulation announces the principal subject in the solo, with violoncello accompaniment, as at the beginning of the movement. The transitional passage (hunting call in the horns) and the second theme are presented as before, the latter being now in the key of the piece. A fortissimo tutti leads to a cadenza, less elaborate than that of the first movement, and the close of the movement is occupied with further development of the principal theme.
Page Forty-Four
FOURTH CONCERT
Friday Evening, May 16
OVERTURE--"Fingal's Cave"......Mendelssohn
Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy was born at Hamburg, February 3, 1809; died at Leipzig, November 4, 1847.
Nature, especially in her stormy moods, has always made a profound impression on great composers.
Haydn, when journeying to England, was stirred to his depths by the sight of a storm on the North Sea, and, in his "Creation," gave us his impressions ; a like experience in the life of Richard Wagner resulted in the composition of the "Flying Dutchman," while Rubinstein's "Ocean" Symphony--in C--is incomparably his greatest work in that form. Mendelssohn must have been fortunate in his weather conditions for he had naught but pleasant associations with that particular body of water, the North Sea, as one may realize when listening to the first movement of the "Scotch" Symphony. In his "Calm Sea and a Prosperous Voyage" overture, his portrayal of certain unavoidable periods in a successful sea journey is both vivid and consoling to those who do not look upon ocean-voyages as seasons of unalloyed pleasure.
Mendelssohn, like Beethoven, adored the open. It goes without saying that such a natural wonder as Fingal's Cave should appeal to the genial Leipzig master with great force. He visited it in 1829 and the opening measures of the overture were written in the cave itself, according to a letter to his family.
The score bears the date--December 16, 1830--but it was first heard May 14, 1832, at a Philharmonic Concert (London). Although the initial inspiration was a flash of genius, he found difficulty in satisfying himself as to certain details, for, writing from Paris January 12, 1836, he said, "The middle portion is too stupid, and the whole working out smacks more of counterpoint than of train-oil, sea gulls, and salt fish, and must be altered." On its first hearing certain critics kindly pointed out "that, as descriptive music, it is a failure," but, on the whole, the feeling inclined towards Wagner's
Page Forty-Five
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
judgment, viz, "Wonderful imagination and delicate feeling are here presented with consummate art. Note the extraordinary beauty of a passage where the oboes rise above the other instruments with a plaintive wail, like sea-winds over the seas." This tribute comes with peculiar force when one realizes that Wagner at no time felt a pressing need to praise Mendelssohn, whose worshippers at that time showed their devotion to their idol by showering abusive insults on the creator of "Tannhauser," a work that was particularly obnoxious to them.
With reference to the title we find that the composer wavered between "Fingal's Cave," "Hebrides," and "The Solitary Island," but the first title eventually triumphed. It is scored for the usual concert orchestra of his day, in which many instruments we have come to look upon as indispensable were omitted.
ARIA, "Vision Fugitive" from "Herodiade" .... Massenet
Richard Boneuj
Jules Emil Frederic Massenet was born at Montreaux, France, May 12, 1842; died at Paris, August 13, 1912.
Massenet was one of the most productive of French opera composers of the late nineteenth century. Already many of his works are but matters of record in musical dictionaries; some, however, are well established in the permanent repertoires of the leading opera houses. Manon and The Juggler of Notre Dame are most frequently presented in America. From several other pieces for the stage, the literature of dramatic and lyric arias has been immeasurably enriched. Massenet has a melodic gift just short of his compatriot Gounod; his dramatic powers are not to be compared with those of Meyerbeer or Bizet; "his art, a voluptuous one, acts violently upon the senses, not upon the heart." Nevertheless, his power of weaving a spell by means of tender melodies and melting harmonies are attested by the many excerpts from otherwise forgotten operas, which consistently maintain a place on concert programs.
The plot of the opera is based on the novelette by Flaubert, Herodias; Massenet's score was first performed at the Theatre Italien in Paris, February 1, 1884. The scene of Act II is Herod's chamber. Lying on his couch while attendants sing to him, Herod thinks only of Salome. Seeking distraction,
Page Forty-Six
FOURTH CONCERT
he bids the slaves dance, and that a potion be given him. As if in a trance, he sings the air Vision Fugitive, the text of which is appended:
Ce breuvage pourrait me donner un tel reve!
Je pourrais la revoir contempler sa beaute!
Divine volupte a mes regards promise!
Esperance trop breve
Qui viens bercer mon coeur et troubler ma raison
Ah! ne t'en fuis pas, douce illusion!
Vision fugitive et toujours pour suivie,
Ange mysterieux qui prends toute ma vie
Ah! c'est toi que je veux voir,
0 mon amour ! O mon espoir! Vision fugitive c'est toi
Qui prends toute ma vie
Te presser dans mes bras!
Sentir battre ton coeur
D'une amoureuse ardeur!
Puis, mourir enlaces dans une meme ivresse
Pour ces transports, pour cette flamme,
Ah! sans remords et sans plainte
Je donnerais mon ame
Pour toi, mon amour! mon espoir!
And this potion could bring such a vision before me!
1 could see her again in her beauty tonight!
O thou divine delight, whose view shall overpower me!
O thou hope all too brief,
That wouldst cheer my weary heart, and my reason ensnare!
Ah! flee not away, dream so heavenly fair!
Dream so fair, dream I follow while ever 'tis fleeing,
Angel shadowy dim, who reign'st over my being,
Ah! to see thee I aspire, O thou my love! O my desire!
"SCENE BY THE BROOK" from "Pastoral" Symphony Beethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.
One of the few examples of program music which may be discovered in the work of Beethoven is to be found in the Second Movement from the "Pastoral" Symphony. In the strictest sense of the term, and in truth in Beethoven's own conception of the movement, it cannot be considered an example of realism or impressionism. He thought, rather, to convey the impressions of the moods which one experiences when wandering through
Page Forty-Seven
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
the fields and the woods, as he was wont to do. Although there are examples at the close of the Second Movement of actual bird calls, these details must not be magnified into an importance they do not occupy in the delineation of "running waters" with which the music is chiefly concerned.
In a sketchbook dating from the year 1803, there is a passage Andante molto which is written in much the same rhythm as the movement of this Symphony and which bears the heading, "The Murmuring of Brooks." A few measures later, it continues at a lower pitch, and below the staff Beethoven has explained "the larger the brook, the deeper the tone." Beethoven's friend, Schindler, declared that when in April, 1823, he visited the master at Heiligenstadt, Beethoven paused as they came to a brook flowing through a valley and said: "It was here I wrote the movement By the Brook and above where the orioles, the quails, the nightingales, and the cuckoos composed with me." On being asked if he introduced the notes of the oriole into the movement, Schindler said that Beethoven took out his sketchbook and wrote down the ascending arpeggio of six notes given to the flute in the Symphony. The authenticity of this anecdote is called into question by an ornithologist who states that the oriole sings only two notes, of which the second is lower in tone; and no bird is able to sing such an ascending arpeggio as Schindler describes. Prod'homme, the French critic, remarked that on this occasion "Beethoven was making fun of Schindler and of all his commentators."
ARIA, "Plus grand dans son obscurite" from "La Reine de Saba" Gounod
DuSOLINA GlANNINI
Charles Frangois Gounod was born at Paris, June 17, 1818; died at Paris, October 17, 1893.
Without doubt the world-wide recognition accorded Gounod rests largely on the success he achieved in his opera Faust; for sheer popularity, as represented by the number of performances, this work would take first rank in a statistical count. To audiences outside of his native country his Romeo and Juliet and Queen of Sheba are less familiar, yet in each of them are to be discovered the qualities which reached fullest and most perfect expression in Faust.
The Queen of Sheba, with book by the same librettists as Faust, was written in the interim between the first performance of that work and the creation of Romeo and Juliet. It came to its world premiere at the Opera,
Page Forty-Eight
FOURTH CONCERT
Paris, in 1862, and was first performed in this country by the French Company at New Orleans in 1889. The aria, allotted to the Queen, is one of the best examples of the composer's style. The text following is an English translation:
I am at last alone!
What a fiery ardor within the eyes of this stranger appears!
How his pride and his courage in the danger past
Thrill'd through my inmost spirit!
And must a queen, alas! still all woman's emotion
More regal in his low estate than kings in richest robes appearing;
In his heart no thought of fearing, did he stand kinglike, elate!
O fatal vow thus fretting! Now be resigned, my heart, forgetting.
Evermore shall I see him stand, with his arms the angry tumult stilling.
The power of the king withstand, the royal breast with terror filling!
Evermore shall I him behold, the genius of his soul revealing,
When moulding porphyry and gold, he wakened tones of matchless feeling.
When amid the flames he pass'd, they sank in homage to his power;
At my feet when he lay at last, in my heart bloom'd love's fair flower.
More regal in his low estate than kings in richest robes appearing.
In his heart no thought of fearing, did he stand kinglike, proud elate!
SUITE from "The Betrothal" ---.._. DeLamarter
Eric DeLamarter was born February 18, 1880, at Lansing, Michigan.
Concerning the play The Betrothal and the incidental music which he composed for it, Mr. DeLamarter has contributed the following to this program:
"Maeterlinck's The Betrotlwl, his sequel to The Blue Bird, was produced by Winthrop Ames at the Schubert Theater, New York, November 19, 1919. The scenic scheme was the work of one of the younger artists, Herbert Paus, and the incidental music was written during the summer and autumn months of that year. Theodore Spiering was the conductor; and during the months of the 'run' of this piece Max Bendix relieved him for a couple of weeks.
"The Blue Bird told the story of the search for happiness, a small peasant boy, Tyltyl, and his sister being the seekers through the worlds of those 'passed beyond our ken,' of nature, of the animals, and of things inanimate. The Betrothal takes Tyltyl to the homes of his ancestors and of his childrento-be on the search for his true mate. With him go his six sweethearts and a 'veiled figure.' At the end he finds the right girl, and the caged blue bird, mute for many a day, trills a sort of 'Amen' of peace and happiness over the youngsters.
Page Forty-Nine
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
"For this production, which, from the stage angle, surpassed anything the composer of the incidental music ever saw in the theater, Mr. Ames assembled a remarkable cast. In the 'grown-up' roles were several world-famous players ; for the six sweethearts and the 'veiled figure' he selected seven out of two hundred and fifty candidates. Of the seven, only one had been in a professional company before. All were in their 'teens,' and that all were unusually gifted is proved by the fact that six who have remained on the stage have made successes in their art. The Tyltyl of the first performance was Reginald Sheffield.
"The incidental score was written for a 'solo' orchestra of eighteen players, and the choice of instruments was made entirely on the point of widest range of musical effectiveness. Noise, as a traditional stage adjunct from the orchestra pit, was discarded. Out of this large score was drawn material for four movements of a concert suite, first played at the concerts of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra, March 21 and 22, 1919. For the present performance the second and third movements have been omitted, and an elaboration of the melody typifying the 'veiled figure' has been substituted.
"The overture, written without reference to subsequent themes used in the play, was designed to express the light-heartedness and restlessness of youth. It is based on two motives, the first of which has in it a little catch of syncopation, and the second, a brief lyric phrase. The second movement presents in the introduction the phrase characterizing Tyltyl throughout the piece; there follows in the solo violin the melody accompanying the 'veiled figure'--who is none other than Tyltyl's destined wife. The third movement was devised for a rapturous dance, an innocent 'bacchanale,' as Mr. Ames expressed it, with which the six sweethearts ended the first act.
"The score of this concert version calls for three flutes (piccolo), two oboes, English horn, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, kettledrums, side and bass drums, cymbals, bells, triangle, and strings."
It should be added that Mr. DeLamarter has made certain revisions in the suite since its first performance, and that the work was published in 1929 with a dedication to Winthrop Ames.
ARIA, "Credo" from "Othello" -------Verdi
Mr.
Guiseppe Verdi was born October 9, 1813, at Roncole, Italy; died January 27, 1901, at Milan.
No more striking example of the evolution of a composer's style exists than the change that is apparent between the Verdi of Trovatore in 1853, the Verdi of Aida in 1871, and the Verdi of Othello in 1887. The writing of
Page Fifty
FOURTH CONCERT
this master music drama on the libretto by Boito, which in turn closely follows the Shakespeare play, would alone have sufficed to make him famous had he not already established his unique position in the history of Italian opera. No hint of his advanced age--76 years--can be discovered in the tense, vigorous, and dramatic writing in this opera. The superb "Credo" occurs in the second act, and is sung by Iago, who has just suggested to Cassio how he (Cassio) might regain the favor of Othello by inducing Desdemona to intercede for him. As Cassio departs, Iago sings:
Vanne; la tua meta gia vedo.
Ti spinge il tuo dimone
E il tuo dimon son io,
E me trascina il mio,
Nel quale io credo inesorato Iddio.
Credo in un dio crudel
Che m'ha creato simile a se
E che nell'ira io nomo.
Dala vilta d'un germe
O d'un atomo vile son nato.
Son scellerato perche son uomo,
E sento il fango originario in me.
Si, quest'e la mia fe!
Credo con fermo cuor,
Siccome crede la vedovella al tempio,
Che il mal ch'io penso e che da
Me procede per mio destino adempio.
Credo che il giusto e un istrion
Beffardo e nel viso e nel cuor,
Che tutto e in lui bugiardo,
Lagrima, bacio, sguardo, sacrificio ed
onor.
E credo l'uom giuoco d'iniqua sorte Dal germe della culla al verme dell'avel. Viene dopo tanta irision la morte. E poi E poi La morte e nulla E vecchia folia il ciel.
Go, then! Thy fate I can descry.
Thy demon drives thee onward,
And that demon am I;
Even as my own impels me
On whose command I wait-Relentless Fate.
Cruel is he the God who in his image
Hath fashioned me and whom in wrath
I worship. From some vile germ of nature, some
paltry atom, I took mine issue; Vile is my tissue, For I am human.
I feel the primal mud-flow of my breed. This is my creed,
As firmly I believe, as e'er did woman Who prays before the altar, Of every ill, whether I think or do it, 'Tis Fate that drives me to it. Thou honest man art but a wretched
player ;
Thy life is but a part, A lie each word thou say'st; thy tear,
thy kiss, thy prayer Are as false as thou art. Man's Fortune's fool even from his
earliest breath.
The germ of life is fashioned To feel the worm of death. Yea, after all this folly all must die. And then And then there's nothing, And heav'n an ancient lie.
Page fifty-One
OFFICIAL PROGRAM "BOLERO" ----------Ravel
Maurice Ravel was born at Ciboure, March 7, 1875
It has often been noted that composers whose nationalities are other than Spanish have been the most successful in capturing and imprisoning in music impressions of the life of the people living south of the Pyrenees. Moskowski, Rimsky-Korsakoff, Bizet, Debussy, and Ravel have had their creative imaginations stimulated by Iberian traits of character and rhythms of life. The Spanish influence in Ravel's music is apparent from the following list of compositions: "Habanera" (1895), "Pavane pour une infante definite (1899), "Vocalise en forme a"Habanera" (1907), "Rapsodie espagnole" (1907) and the opera, "L'heure espagnole."
The Bolero was written for the dancer, Ida Rubinstein, and performed by her for the first time in Paris at the Opera, November, 1928. The scenery, designed by Alexandre Benoist, represented an inn in Spain. The action takes place in the public room of this hostelry. In the center of the room stands a trestle table, and upon this the dancer performs her evolutions, men standing around the trestle and applauding. The action as well as the music grows cumulatively more and more violent.
In the Christian Science Monitor for April 20, 1929, the Parisian music critic, G. Jean-Aubry, wrote concerning the Bolero as follows:
"In Ravel's Bolero, which has just been danced at the Paris Opera, the part of musical invention is reduced to a strict minimum, if by 'invention' there be understood the idea of the discovery or the fabrication of new themes.
"By a sort of irony, which is quite in keeping with his character, Maurice Ravel, having received an order for an orchestral dance to last about ten minutes, chose as a theme the most ordinary bolero, the simplest, the least ornate and least original possible. From start to finish of the work this theme constantly recurs, without the slightest change or the smallest modulation.
"The hearing of the same theme repeated to satiety during ten minutes should indeed bore the audience to tears. Not so with this Bolero which limits itself to the use of a single theme. Ravel wished to show that contrary or conjointly to the well known definition which says that beauty is 'unity in variety,' beauty can also be 'variety in unity.' In spite of the constant
Page Vifty-Two
FOURTH CONCERT
repetition he succeeded in writing an extremely varied and amusing work, and he has done it solely by his prodigious orchestral ability.
"It is the most complete musical demonstration of the French proverb, 'La sauce fait passer le poisson,' and if the fish be not rare and have no special flavor, it must be confessed that few people could compose such a subtle and refined sauce, in which the most varied ingredients succeed one another or are mixed with such perfect art that one is at first unaware of the subtle succession, and it is only the absence of insipidity which makes one realize its variety.
"In contrast to many composers who try to cause astonishment by violent and abrupt methods, Ravel has succeeded in achieving what might be termed 'un etonnement apres-coup.' The work unfolds without a shock, without anything which brusquely strikes the audience. It flows smoothly on, and the exact repetition of the theme seems here quite natural and born of an inherent necessity, so perfectly is it blended into the mold of the orchestra, whilst with the same theme Ravel has succeeded in establishing the diverse coloring of the score and producing a new effect each time. It is like a varied system of lighting, which without in any way modifying the nature of the object illuminated, changes it considerably, in our sight, merely by the different play of lights."
Ravel's Bolero is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes, oboe d'amour, English horn, two clarinets, one E flat clarinet, two bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, three saxophones, kettledrums, side drums, cymbals, gong, celesta, harp, and strings.
The first performance of Ravel's Bolero in America was given by the Philharmonic Orchestra of New York, November 14, 1929.
ARIA, "Connais-tu le pays" from "Mignon" Thomas
Miss Giannini
(Charles-Louis) Atnbroise Thomas was born at Metz, August S, 1811; died at Paris, February 12, 1896.
Ambroise Thomas is known to the world at large as the composer of Mignon (Opera Comique, Paris, November 17, 1866) and Hamlet (Opera, Paris, March 9, 1869). Twenty other dramatic works, three of which are ballets, stand to his credit. His work as an opera composer represents but
Page Fifty-Three
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
part of his activity, for in 1871 he succeeded Auber as Director of the Conservatoire, a position in which he displayed brilliant qualities. In 1851 he was elected to Spontini's chair in the Academic
The book of Mignon is by Michel Carre and Jules Barbier, the incidents of the plot being drawn chiefly from episodes in Goethe's novel, Wilhelm Meister's Lehrjahre. Proceeding after the manner of their treatment of Faust for Gounod, done a few years before, the librettists constructed a romantic play out of the Mignon incidents, which were only of subordinate interest in the novel. The Mignon of Carre and Barbier bears but little more than external resemblance to Goethe's Mignon; as the young girl stolen by gypsies, she "is the embodiment of pathos, and the exemplar of the cantabile style," as is to be noted in her aria, "Connais-tu le pays." Filina, an actress, to whom is assigned the equally well known aria from this opera, "I am fair Titania," is a perfect prototype for an operatic character of the Leggiera class, and the music of her role forms a striking contrast to that sung by Mignon.
The aria on this evening's program is sung by the heroine of the opera in the first act. In her infancy, Mignon had been stolen from her home in Italy by a wandering band of gypsies, and is now compelled by them to earn her living by dancing at the various places they stop. She has been shielded from the jibes of another group of traveling actors at this German inn by the young student Wilhelm. As the group disappears within, the two are left alone. Wilhelm asks Mignon, "What far country lives as a memory in your mind And were my hand to break your fetters, toward what beloved land would your step be inclined " Without hesitation she replies:
Connais-tu le pays ou fleurit l'oranger,
Le pays des fruits d'or et des roses vermeilles,
Ou la brise est plus douce et l'oiseau leger
Ou dans toute saison--butinent les abeilles,
Ou rayonne et sourit, comme un bienfait de Dieu
Un eternel printemps sous un ciel toujours bleu
Helas! que ne puis-je te suivre
vers ce rivage heureux
d'ou le sort m'exila!
C'est la, c'est la!
que je voudrais vivre,
Aimer et mourir!
C'est la que je voudrais vivre,
c'est la! oui, c'est la!
Page Fifty-Four
FOURTH CONCERT
Connais-tu la maison ou Ton m'attend la bas
La salle aux lambris d'or, ou des hommes de marbre
M'appellent dans la nuit--en me tendant les bras
Et la cour oil l'on danse--a l'ombre d'un grand arbre,
Et le lac transparent, ou glissent sur les eaux
Mille bateaux legers pareils a des oiseaux!
Helas! que ne puis-je te suivre
Vers ce pays lointain d'ou le sort m'exila!
C'est la! c'est la! que je voudrais vivre, aimer, et mourir!
C'est la! c'est la! que je voudrais vivre, c'est la! oui, c'est la.
Dost thou know that fair land where the lemons bloom Where the oranges' gold lights the leafy gloom From azure skies tender breezes gently lave Silent myrtle trees, and high the laurels wave, Where so radiantly calm, like blessing from on high, Smiles an eternal spring, ever blue is the sky.
Ah me! wherefore may I not wander unto that happy shore
Fain with thee I would fare!
'Tis there, "Tis there,
in love ever fonder,
I fain would live and die!
Hast thou e'er seen the house in its pillar'd walls, They stand waiting for me, how resplendent the halls! And forms of marble stand and gaze on me Hapless maiden, what sorrow o'erclouds thy destiny And the clear, shining lake whereon there glides along Many a swaying boat with dancing and with song!
Dr. Th. Baker.
BACCHANALE and FINALE from Overture to "Tannhauser" Wagner
Richard Wagner was born at Leipzig, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1883.
For the performance of Tannhauser at the Opera in Paris which was arranged for by Princess Metternich, wife of the Austrian ambassador to Paris, who secured the permission of Napoleon III for the performance, Wagner wrote the music to this Bacchanale which was no doubt inspired by his knowledge of the great interest the French opera-going public had in the ballet. The unvarying custom in French operas to introduce a ballet into the second or third act allowed the fashionable subscribers to finish dinner in comfortable time and arrive at the theater sufficiently early to see the ballet
Page Fifty-Five
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
which, for many, was the most important portion of the evening's business. It is easy to understand the formidable opposition which Wagner encountered when his Bacchanale took place early in the first act. He would neither consent to a shortening of the scene, nor to an insertion of a portion of it later in the opera.
An examination of the first act of the Dresden and Paris scores of, Tannhduser will indicate the growth in Wagner's style and in the facility with which he handles the materials of musical expression fifteen years after the work was first produced. In the opera, the Bacchanale does not come to a definite close, and on this occasion the music is made to lead into the last portion of the overture of the opera, which is based upon the famous "Pilgrims' Chorus."
Page Fifty-Six
FIFTH CONCERT
Saturday Afternoon, May 17
OVERTURE to "Egmont," Opus 84 Beethoven
Ludwig von Beethoven was born at Bonn, December 16, 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827.
Beethoven was commissioned to provide incidental music to Goethe's Bgmont by Hartl who desired to present in the Vienna Theater, of which he was the manager, plays by Goethe and Schiller, and to add to the beauty of these plays by creaming them with music by the great masters of that day. The first performance of the incidental music took place at the Hofburg Theater, Vienna, May 24, 1810. In addition to the overture there were four entr'actes, two songs for soprano, two orchestral pieces, and a "Symphony of Triumph," which formed the finale of the work.
Some twenty years after the Egmont had been written by Goethe, Beethoven wrote him that "I am in a position to approach you only with the deepest reverence, with an inexpressibly deep feeling for your noble creations. You will shortly receive from Breitkopf and Hartl the music to 'Egmont,' this glorious 'Egmont' with which I, with the same warmth with which I read it, was again through you impressed by it, and set it to music. I should much like to know your opinion of it; even blame will be as profitable for me and for my art, and will be as willingly received as the greatest praise."
Goethe's reply, dated Carlsbad, June, 1811, is equally enlightening: "Your friendly letter, highly esteemed Sir, I received to my great pleasure, through Herr von Oliva. I am most thankful to you for the opinions expressed therein, and I assure you that I can honestly reciprocate them, for I have never heard any of your great works performed by artists and amateurs without wishing that I could for once admire you at the pianoforte, and take delight in your extraordinary talent."
Page Fifty-Seven
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
SYMPHONY No. 2, E Minor, Opus 27 Rachmaninow Largo--Allegro moderato; Allegro molto; Adagio; Allegro vivace
Sergei Vassilievitch Rachmaninow was born at Novgorod, Russia, April 2, 1873.
The rich musical life of Russia is scarcely a century old. Glinka, the "father of Russian opera"--and of Russian music in the broad sense--produced his "A Life for a Czar" at St. Petersburg in 1836. The seed fell on fertile soil, and in the next generation the yield was abundant, resulting in the banding together of the "Invincible Five"----Balakiref, Borodin, Caesar Cui, Moussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakoff. This young Russian school was not distinguished by modesty; individually talented, they scorned anything like foreign influences, and set before themselves the task of creating a genuine Russian school of composition. Nationalism was their aim, and their center of influence was St. Petersburg.
The Conservatory at Moscow, under the directorship of Nicholas Rubinstein, was less radical in its teachings, fostering the European spirit as exemplified through the work of Anton Rubinstein and Tchaikovsky, Russians who were repudiated by the "Invincible Five."
When nine years of age, Rachmaninow entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory; three years later he transferred to the Conservatory at Moscow, where he studied the piano, first with Tchaikovsky's friend, Sverew, a pupil of Liszt, and afterwards with Siloti, his cousin. His masters for theory and composition were Taneiew and Arensky. The sound training Rachmaninow received at Moscow, the thorough knowledge of the technic of composition and the keen appreciation for those principles which are essential to a great work of art have been instrumental in shaping the trend of his artistic creations.
The symphony played this afternoon was composed at Dresden, where Rachmaninow established his residence in 1906. It was first performed at a concert of the Imperial Musical Society at Moscow in the season of 1908-1909. Rachmaninow was the conductor upon this occasion (due to the illness of Nikisch), and also upon the first presentation of the work in America, at a concert of the Philadelphia Orchestra, Philadelphia, November 26, 1919. The E Minor Symphony is dedicated to Taneiew, who was the successor of Tchaikovsky as teacher of composition at the Moscow Conservatory.
Upon the outbreak of the war in 1914 Rachmaninow returned to Russia, where he devoted his time to giving concerts in aid of the war funds until the collapse of the Russian Empire. In January, 1918, he sought to escape the Bolshevistic troubles by moving to Copenhagen, Denmark, and since November 10, 1918, he has been living in New York.
Page Fifty-Eight
FIFTH CONCERT
"This symphony," writes W. H. Humiston, "is one of the most important works which has come from the younger generation of Russian composers. It is conceived on a large scale; the themes are such as to require considerable development; the orchestration is massive and sonorous; and the structure of the whole symphony polyphonic. There is little or nothing of 'atmospheric effects,' such as occur so often in Debussy and Stravinsky; on the other hand, there is much of the spirit of melancholy which permeates so much of the Russian folk music."
The views of Rachmaninow upon musical composition are of interest, as bearing upon his own work. The following is quoted from an interview printed in The Etude (October, 1919):
"Composers of experience take into consideration first of all that melody is the supreme ruler in the world of music. Melody is music--the integral foundation of all music, since a perfectly conceived melody implies and develops its own natural harmonic treatment. Schopenhauer has phrased this idea wonderfully when he said: 'Music--that is, melody--and words thereto-ah, that is the whole world!' Melodic inventiveness is, in the highest sense of the term, the vital goal of the composer. If he is unable to make melodies which command the right to endure he has little reason to proceed with his studies in musical composition. It is for this reason that the great composers of the past have shown such intimate respect for the peasant melodies of their respective countries. Rimsky-Korsakoff, Dvorak, Grieg and others have turned to them as the natural springs of inspiration.
"By the word 'modern' I do not refer to the Futurists. I have little regard for those who divorce themselves from melody and harmony for the sake of reveling in a kind of orgy of noise and discord for discord's sake. The Russian Futurists have turned their backs upon the simple songs of the common people of their native land, and it is probably because of this that they are forced, stilted, not natural in their musical expression. This is true not only of the Russian Futurists but of the Futurists of almost all lands. They have made themselves outcasts, men without a country, in the hope that they might become international. But in this hope they reason amiss; for if we ever acquire a musical Volapuk or Esperanto it will be not by ignoring the folk-music of any land, but by a fusion of the common musical languages of all nations into one tongue; not by an apotheosis of eccentric individual expression, but by the coming together of the music of the plain people of every land, as 'the voice of many waters' from the seven seas of the great world."
Page Fifty-Nine
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
The score of this symphony being unavailable, the following analysis by Mr. Felix Borowski is offered:
The E Minor Symphony is scored for three flutes (piccolo), three oboes, English horn, two clarinets, bass clarinet, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, three kettledrums, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, glockenspiel, and strings.
I. The work opens with a lengthy Introduction {Largo, E minor, 4-4 time), in which, at the fourth measure, the violins foreshadow a theme which is later employed. The main movement {Allegro moderato, E minor, 2-2 time) brings forward the principal subject in the violins after four preliminary measures played by the lower strings, clarinets, and bassoons. Eight measures are quoted. Note the relationship of the theme to the material of the Introduction:
The subject is extensively presented, and leads to a transitional passage (poco a poco vivo), in which a triplet figure plays an important part. The second theme, in G major, is divided between the wind and strings. A short quotation is subjoined:
The strings play a triplet variation of this theme; a climax is attained, and following this a long diminuendo leads to the close of the Exposition, which is then repeated. The Development begins with a working out in augmentation of the principal theme (No. i) in a solo violin. Episodical matter follows, alternating with further working out of No. I, or of the figure in the Introduction to which reference has already been made. The Recapitulation brings forward the principal theme in the first violins, as before, but its aspect is considerably changed. The second subject (No. 2) now appears in E major, but it is, with slightly changed scoring, divided between the wind and strings, as in the Exposition. There is an extended coda.
II. (Allegro molto, A minor, 2-2 time.) After two introductory measures the horns call out the first theme, the violins continuing it:
Page Sixty
FIFTH CONCERT
Eighty-four measures are devoted to the working over of the material just quoted, and there then follows (nwd-emto) a melodious section in C major, the violins giving out the following theme:
The first theme is developed, finally dying away in a long diminuendo. There is a pause, followed by a loud chord, which ushers in the trio (Meno m-osso). The second violins begin this section with a marcato figure that is imitated, four measures later, by the first violins. The brass bring forward another idea punctuated by cymbals and tambourine, over which the violins and woodwind play a lightly tripping figure. There follows then a free repetition of the opening subject of the movement (No. 3), the second theme (No. 4) also being included. At the conclusion there is a reminiscence of the opening of the introduction to the first movement, combined with final references to No. 3.
III. (Adagio, A major, 4-4 time.) The movement opens with the following theme, heard in the first violins:
Immediately following this subject there is heard another section, sung expressively by the clarinet, it in its turn being followed by a third idea, given to the first violins and oboe. After a reminiscence of the first theme (No. 5) in the violins there is presented, as the middle section of the movement, a development of the theme which originally appeared in the Introduction to the first movement, and upon which the principal subject (No. 1) of that movement was contracted. The first theme (No. 5) is now worked out in combination with this motive, and succeeding that development there occurs a somewhat free representation of the opening material of the movement. Toward the end there occur again suggestions of the initial motive of the symphony.
IV. (Allegro vivace, E major, 2-2 time.) Four introductory measures, fortissimo, for the full orchestra precede the entrance of the principal theme. A few measures of the latter are quoted:
This material is worked over at considerable length and almost throughout fortissimo. A diminuendo (stopped note in the horn and pizzicato in the basses) leads to a marchPage Sixty-One
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
like subject in the wind, which in its turn is succeeded by a return of the principal theme (No. 6). The second subject, in D major, is given out in octaves by the strings as follows:
The presentation of this matter, ending in a long diminuendo, is followed by a short section (Adagio), in which, over a tremolo in the strings, the first violins give out a suggestion of the subject of the slow movement (No. 5), this being combined with other suggestions (woodwind) of the opening theme of the symphony. A development of the principal theme of the movement (No. 6) begins abruptly in the violins. There are reminiscences of the initial theme in the flute, and considerable use is made of a descending scale figure in quarter notes. A crescendo leads to the Recapitulation, its principal theme (No. 6) being now set forth by the woodwind with a counter-theme against it in the violins. The march-like subject is heard in the brass. After another repetition of the principal theme, and further development of it, the second subject (No. 7) is sung, ff, by the strings. A coda, built on the brilliant triplet figure of the principal subject, closes the work.
CONCERTO IN E FLAT MAJOR for Two Pianos and Orchestra
(Kochel 365) . Mozart
Aixegbo; Andante; Rondo--Allegro Guy Maier and Lee Pattison
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born at Salzburg, January 27, 1756; died at Vienna, December 5, 1791.
Jahn, Mozart's biographer, suggests that the Concerto in B Flat Major for two pianos was written by Mozart in order that he and his sister, Maria Anna, who was five years older than himself, and likewise precocious, might have a composition which they could play together. The year 1780, in which it was written, Mozart spent in Salzburg. In June of the preceding year he had returned from Paris mourning for his mother, and all but crushed were his hopes of material success. In his natal community, he undertook the duties of concertmeister and organist to the court and to the cathedral. During the season he produced three masses, two symphonies, and a large number of sonatas and pieces of "house music." The conjecture of Jahn is further supported by a letter which Mozart wrote to his father from Vienna in 1781 as follows: "Pray have copied for me the Sonata in B Flat, a quatre mains, and the two concertos for two pianos, and send them to me here without delay."
Page Sixty-Two
FIFTH CONCERT
The demand for haste in preparation of the copies is due no doubt to the fact that Mozart was planning to perform this concerto with Fraulein Aurnhammer in Vienna. In letters to his father, Mozart presents an ungilded picture of the various members of the Aurnhammer family and with extreme frankness discusses the advances made by the young lady. That Fraulein Aurnhammer was one of the best pianists living in Vienna is evidenced by the following excerpt from the letter of June 27, 1781: "The young lady is a fright, but she plays enchantingly, although in cantnbile she loses sight of true refined expression; she does not play smoothly. She privately told me her plan--which is to study music steadily for two or three years, and then go to Paris and make it her profession. She says: 'I am not pretty; on the contrary, I am plain.' " Mozart dined frequently with the Aurnhammers and visited them nearly every day. His pen-pictures of the senior members of the family do not spare his friends' deficiencies. Herr Aurnhammer he considered "utterly insignificant in his own family." Frau Aurnhammer is "both stupid and malicious."
"As for the daughter," Mozart continues, "if a painter wished to depict the devil according to nature, he could not do better than have recourse to her countenance. She is as clumsy as a peasant girl, revolting to look at, dirty and untidy. I wrote to you how she plays the piano, and why she asked me to give her my assistance. I am happy to oblige people, but not to be plagued incessantly. She is not satisfied with my being two hours every day with her--I am to sit there the livelong day while she tries to be agreeable. But, worse still, she is seriously smitten with me. I thought at first it was a joke, but now I know it to be a fact. When I first observed it--by her beginning to take liberties, such as reproaching me tenderly if I came later than, usual, or could not stay long, or similar things--I was obliged to prevent her making a fool of herself, to tell her the truth in a civil manner. This, however, did no good, and she became more loving than ever. At last I was always very polite, except when she began any of her pranks, then I snubbed her bluntly; but one day she took my hand and said: 'Dear Mozart, don't be cross; you may say what you please, but I shall always like you.' All the people here say that we are to be married, and great surprise is expressed at my choosing such a face. She told me that when she heard anything of the sort she always laughed at it. I know, however, from a third person that she confirms it, adding that we are to travel immediately afterwards. This did enrage me. I told her my opinion pretty plainly, and warned her not to take advantage
Page Sixty-Three
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
of my good nature. Now I no longer go there every day, but only every two days, so the report will gradually die away."
In spite of this episode, Mozart performed the B Flat Concerto with Fraulein Aurnhammer late in November, 1781. For that performance Mozart added, not to the score but on a separate sheet of paper, two clarinet parts. These were not published in the early edition of the concerto. Mozart wrote two different cadenzas for use at the end of the first movement. On the present occasion the Cadenza by Reinecke will be performed.
The orchestral accompaniment is scored for two oboes (two clarinets), bassoon, two horns, and strings.
I. Allegro, E flat major, 4-4 time. The orchestral exposition opens at once with the principal theme in the full orchestra, forte. After a pause on the chord of B flat major the second subject of this first exposition enters, p, in the second violins and violas, its opening phrase being repeated with fuller scoring. The exposition for the solo instruments is, as to its first phrase, introduced with the principal subject in both pianos. A dialogue between the two solo instruments leads to the second theme--different from that in the orchestral exposition--given to the first piano, in B flat, and then repeated by the second. There is another section of the subject, also alternating in the two pianos, and followed by a tutti six bars long, based on a portion of the first exposition. The pianos also take up a figure originally employed in the orchestral exposition, and there is passage-work for both. A tutti brings forward what had previously been the second theme in the opening exposition; this orchestral matter alternates with material for the pianos, and finally leads into the Recapitulation, in which the first phrase of the principal subject is given out, as before, by the full orchestra, forte. The remainder of the theme is allotted to the pianos. The second subject now appears (in the first piano) in E flat major. At the close of this there are suggestions of the opening theme, and passagework for the pianos leads to a tutti, which in its turn paves the way for a cadenza for the solo instruments. The cadenza is succeeded by a final tutti constructed of material taken from the first exposition.
II. Andante, B flat major, 3-4 time. The principal subject is announced by the strings, oboe, and bassoon. At the eleventh measure it is taken up by the pianos. A new idea is introduced in the piano parts in E flat major, and this is followed by a return to the first theme in B flat. A quiet coda closes the movement.
III. Rondo. Allegro, E flat major, 2-4 time. The principal theme is announced by the first violins. The first piano enters with an episode, which is repeated an octave lower by the second. A suggestion of the first subject is played by the orchestra, and passage-work for the pianos follows. The principal theme now finds repetition in the first piano part, and it is taken up by a tutti. A second episode in C minor is allotted to the pianos. The principal theme returns in the second piano, and is continued by the orchestra. Development of it follows, with a triplet accompaniment in the two pianos alternately. Scale passages for these instruments lead to a tutti, which serves as an introduction to a cadenza. The first piano, accompanied by triplets in the second, gives out the principal theme for the last time, and a tutti brings the concerto to a close.
Page Sixty-Four
SIXTH CONCERT
Saturday Evening, May 17
"MANZONI REQUIEM," for Soli, Chorus, Orchestra, and Organ. . . Verdi
SOLOISTS
Nanette Guilford, Soprano Kathryn Meisle, Contralto Paul Althouse, Tenor Chase Baromeo, Bass
(Fortunio) Giuseppi (Francesco) Verdi was born in Le Roncole, October o, 1813; died in Milan, January 17, 1901.
Le Roncole--whose claim to distinction is the fact that it was Verdi's birthplace--is the name given to a small cluster of laborers' houses, a short distance from Busseto, at that time in the Duchy of Parma. Dame Fortune must have watched over this child of genius, for in 1814 Russian and Austrian troops passing through Le Roncole ruthlessly massacred women and children, and young Giuseppi was saved only by the presence of mind of his mother, who, taking him in her arms, climbed up a narrow ladder into the belfry of the church and hid herself and her baby in some lumber until the drunken troops left the hamlet. Later, while yet a young boy, Giuseppi fell into a deep canal, and was rescued by a peasant woman when, chilled and exhausted by the icy water, he was being carried under. Of his early reverses and successes we may not speak, although their record makes an intensely interesting and instructive story, for we are now more concerned with his work as the composer of the Mansoni Requiem.
Shortly after Rossini's death (November 13, 1868), Verdi suggested that Italian composers should unite in writing a worthy requiem as a tribute to the memory of the "Swan of Pesaro." This was to be performed only at the Cathedral of Bologne every hundredth year, on the centenary of Rossini's death. This was a curious proposition to submit to Italian composers, who lived for the applause of their countrymen only, and may have stifled their
Page Sixty-Five
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
inspiration, for the resulting work was wanting in unity and lacking in spontaneity. The only bond of union was a fixed succession of tonalities determined on in advance. Verdi took the final number, "Libera Me." The thirteen numbers of the Requiem were divided among composers as follows:
1. Requiem seternam (G minor), Buzzola, 1815-1871.
2. Dies irae (C minor), Bazzini, 1818-1897.
3. Tuba mirum (E flat minor), Pedrotti, 1817-1893.
4. Quid sum miser (A flat minor), Gagnoni.
5. Recordare (F major), Ricci, 1809-1877.
6. Ingemisco (A minor), Mini.
7. Confutatis ('D major), Bonchinon.
8. Lachrymosa (G major), Coccia, 1782-1873.
9. Domine Jesu (C major), Gaspari, 1807-1881.
10. Sanctus (D flat major), Platania, 1828-1863.
11. Agnus Dei (F major), Petrella, 1813-1877.
12. L,ux seterna (A flat major), Mabellini, 1817-1897.
13. Libera me (C minor), Verdi, 1813-1901.
It is unfortunate that this attempt suffered shipwreck, as, had it been successful, we might have some idea of the artistic significance of this group of composers, the majority of whom seem to have "embalmed themselves alive," for three of them cannot be found in any biographical dictionary, which speaks volumes for their artistic status. Many of them were very prolific opera composers, the most of them dabbled more or less in sacred forms, while two were known chiefly by work in other directions than creation--Gaetano Gaspari is the best musical historian Italy has produced and Platania is known to fame as the author of a very dry treatise on canon and fugue. The extreme range of tonalities employed removes the probability of Verdi's having been the guiding spirit in the choice. It would almost appear that each composer chose his favorite key. At all events, the attempt was an absolute failure.
The power of Verdi's contribution (the "Libera Me"), to this musical crazy-quilt so impressed his friends that, upon the death of Alessandro Manzoni, he was persuaded by the late M. Mazzacuto, of Milan, to compose an entire requiem in memory of the great Italian.
Alessandro Manzoni, an Italian poet, novelist, and statesman was born in Milan, March 7, 1784. For several years during his young manhood he resided in Paris; in 1808 he married the daughter f a Genoese banker, under whose influence he settled down into Catholicism. His chief works are: Sacred Hymns, a series of lyrics; The Fifth of May, a powerful ode on the death of Napoleon; several tragedies; and his greatest novel, The Betrothed. His death occurred in Milan, May 22, 1873.
Page Sixty-Six
SIXTH CONCERT
The employment of the Latin text of the Mass for the Dead as a source of inspiration for a musical conception which should transcend the physical limitations of a church or even cathedral performance, did not have its inception in the work on this evening's program. While many composers-Palestrina, Vittoria, Mozart, Cherubini, and others--wrote significant settings of this solemn Mass in its stricter form, Bach and Beethoven so extended and expanded the moods of the several phrases of the text of the High Mass, that the Mass in B Minor and the Solemn Mass in D Major are in truth adequately performed only with the enlarged facilities of the concert hall: an orchestra of symphonic proportions, a group of soloists of first rank, and a choral body several times the size of an ecclesiastical choir. What these two composers conceived for the High Mass, Verdi carried over into his treatment of the Requiem Mass.
The first performance of the work, May 22, 1874 (on the occasion of the first anniversary of the death of the distinguished Italian whose memory it was to commemorate), was the signal for a controversy that flared into fever heat, and lasted for years. National points of view with respect to the nature and function of sacred music were brought to the fore in the discussion of Verdi's score. The Germans, with Handel and Bach in mind, saw in it little but theatrical tawdriness and overwrought sentimentality.
The English point of view wavered somewhat, for the memories of Handel and Mendelssohn were still conditioning factors with many. The French and Italians, especially the latter, found in its idioms a perfect expression of religious emotion. They saw nothing out of the way in the employment of idioms already familiar and beloved of them through their use in opera. They cared little for polyphonic writing, especially the fugue form, for, in the main, they are signally unsuccessful in this style. Yet Palestrina was one of the greatest masters of polyphony the world has known; and Guilmant, the Frenchman, was sui generis in this form. The memory of Handel is, moreover, somewhat robbed of its directive power when we reflect that no one could tell the difference between his oratorio arias and the most vapid examples of his operatic style. Did he not use a gavotte in Joshua and contemplate adding a minuet to the Messiah overture Verdi, like Palestrina, Bach, Handel, and Beethoven, used the "symbols in use in his day and generation"--as Elgar has done in his Dream of Gerontius--consequently his appeal is natural and justified, even though we may prefer the Teutonic (e.g., the German Requiem, Brahms) to the Latin concept of sacred music.
Page Sixty-Seven
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
The whole work reveals Verdi at the maturity of his genius, shows the mastery of vocal resources characteristic of Italian composers, with a control of the possibilities of the orchestra in which he stands alone among the composers of Italy. A careful study of the two fugues--in the "Sanctus" and "Libera Me"--will clearly reveal that Verdi possesses distinguished power as a contrapuntist. The fact that his themes are so very melodious that this element is constantly in evidence has a tendency to draw away one's attention from the constructive skill revealed in these fugues. The work is genuinely Italian in spirit, but it shows on every page the imprint of genius, and genius knows no national boundaries.
I. REQUIEM E KYRIE
The Introduction {A minor) to the "Requiem e Kyrie" (Grant them rest) gives us a quiet and mournful theme, developed entirely by the strings. In this portion of the work the chorus is purely an accompaniment to the melody played by the violins, but at the words, "Te decet hymnus" (There shall be singing), it is supreme. After this division (F major, sung a cappella), the introductory theme reappears. At its conclusion the solo parts come into prominence {A major), and the rest of the number is a finely conceived and elaborately executed eight-voiced setting of the words, "Kyrie eleison."
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine; et lux perpetua luceat eis;
Te decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion, et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem.
Exaudi orationem meam, ad te omnis caro veniet.
Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison.
Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them.
Thou, O God, art praised in Zion, and unto Thee shall the vow be performed in Jerusalem.
Hear my prayer; unto Thee shall all flesh come.
Lord have mercy! Christ have mercy!
II. DIES IR2E
The "Dies Ine" (Day of Anger) is divided into nine parts, for solo, chorus, and orchestra. The first of these divisions is a very dramatic setting of the text. It is in the key of G minor and introduces vocal and orchestral effects which are startling in their intensity. The second division, "Tuba Mirum" (Hark! the trumpet) (A flat minor) is preceded by a dramatic treatment of the orchestra, in which the trumpet calls in the orchestra are answered in the distance--until a magnificent climax is reached by the ff chords for the full brass, leading into a fine unison passage for male voices, accompanied by
Page Sixty-Eight
SIXTH CONCERT
the full orchestra. In quick succession follows No. 3, solos for Bass and Mezzo Soprano. The words "Mors stupebit" (Death with wonder is enchained) (D minor) and "Liber scriptus properetur" (Now the record shall be cited) involve a change of treatment. An abridged version of the first division follows, to be succeeded in turn by a beautiful trio for Tenor, Mezzo, and Bass (G minor). The next division, "Rex tremendas majestatis" (King of Glory) (C minor), is written for solo and chorus. The solo parts to the text, "Salve me, fons pietatis" (Save me with mercy flowing), introduce a melody entirely distinct from that of the chorus, while the ingenious contrasts of the two leading up to the final blending of both in the "Salve me" are intensely interesting and effective.
The sixth number, a duet for Soprano and Mezzo (F major), is thoroughly Italian in spirit, is beautifully written for the voices, and carries out most perfectly the spirit of the word, "Recordare" (Ah! remember). The Tenor and Bass Solos which now follow, the "Ingemisco" (Sadly groaning) (B flat major) and "Confutatis" (B major), in the opinion of many critics, contain the finest music in the whole work. Be this as it may, this portion is very interesting, and to the musician presents technical points of importance. The "Dies Irse," as a whole, ends with the "Lacrymosa" (Ah! what weeping) (B flat minor), a tender setting of these words. A wonderful crescendo in the word Amen is to be noted.
Dies irae, dies ilia, Solvet saeclum in favilla, Teste David cum Sibylla. Quantus tremor est futurus, Quando Judex est venturus. Cuncta stricte discussurus! Tuba mirum spargens sonum, Per sepulchra regionum, Coget omnes ante thronum. Mors stupebit et natura, Cum resurget creatura, Julicanti responsura. Liber scriptus proferetur, In quo totum continetur, Unde mundus judicetur. Judex ergo cum sedebit, Quidquid latet, apparebit, Nil inultum remanebit. Quid sum, miser! tune dicturus, Quern patronum rogaturus, Cum vix Justus sit securus
Day of vengeance, lo! that morning, On the earth in ashes dawning, David with the Sibyl warning! Ah! what terror is impending, When the Judge is seen descending, And each secret veil is rending! To the Throne, the trumpet sounding, Through the sepulchres resounding, Summons all with voice astounding. Death and Nature, 'maz'd, are quaking, When the grave's deep slumber breaking, Man to judgment is awaking. Now the written book containing Records to all time pertaining, Opens for the world's arraigning, See the Judge, his seat attaining, Darkest mysteries explaining, Nothing unavenged remaining! What shall I then say unfriended, By what advocate attended, When the just are scarce defended
Page Sixty-Nine
OFFICIAL PROGRAM
Rex tremendae majestatis! Qui salvandos salvas gratis, Salve me, fons pietatis! Recordare, Jesu pie, Quod sum causa tuae viae; Ne me perdas ilia die. Quaerens me, sedisti lassus; Redemisti crucem passus; Tantus labor non sit cassus. Juste Judex ultionis, Donum fac remissionis Ante diem rationis. Ingemisco tanquam reus, Culpa rubet vultus meus: Supplicanti parce Deus. Qui Mariam absolvisti, Et latronem exaudisti, Mihi quoque spem dedisti. Preces meaa non sunt dignae, Sed tu bonus fac benigne, Ne perenni cremer igne. Inter oves locum praasta, Et ab hoedis me sequestra, Statuens in parte dextra. Confutatis maledictis, Flammis acribus abdictis, Voca me cum benedictis. Oro supplex et acclinis, Cor contritum quasi cinis, Gere curam mei finis. Lacrymosa dies ilia! Qua resurget ex favilla Judicantus homo reus. Huic ergo parce Deus. Pie Jesu Domine, Dona eis requiem. Amen.
King of Majesty tremendous, By thy saving grace defend us ; Fount of piety, safely send us. Jesus, think of thy wayfaring For my sins the death-crown wearing; Save me in that day despairing. Worn and weary thou has sought me, By Thy cross and passion bought me, Spare the hope Thy labors brought me, Righteous Judge of retribution, Give, O give me absolution, Ere that day of dissolution. As a guilty culprit groaning, Flushed my face, my errors owning, Spare, O God, Thy suppliant moaning. Thou to Mary gav'est remission, Heard'st the dying thief's petition, Bad'st me hope in my contrition. In my prayers no worth discerning, Yet on me Thy favor turning, Save me from Thy endless burning! Give me, while Thy sheep confiding Thou art from the goats dividing, On Thy right a place abiding. When the wicked are rejected, And to bitter flames subjected, Call me forth with thine elected. Low in supplication bending, Heart as though with ashes blending, Care for me when all is ending. When on that dread day of weeping, Guilty man in ashes sleeping Wakes to his adjudication, Save him, God, from condemnation. Lord Jesus, all-pitying, Grant them rest. Amen.
III. DOMINE JESU
As a contrast in form and style to the varied and extended "Dies Irae," the composer treats the next division of the mass, "Domine Jesu Christe" (A flat major), in the manner of quartet, each of the four solo voices by its unique timbre contributing to the simple beauty of the melodic and harmonic conception.
Page Seventy
SIXTH CONCERT
Domine Jesu Christe, Rex glorise, libera anitnas omnium fidelium defunctorum de poenis inferni et de profundo lacu: libera eas de ore leonis, ne absorbeat eas tartarus, ne cadant in obscurum. Sed signifer sanctus Michael reprsesentet eas in lucem sanctam. Quam olim Abrahae promisisti et semini ejus.
Hostias et preces tibi, Domine, laudis offerimus, tu suscipe pro animabus illis, quarum hodie memoriam facimus; faceas, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam; faceas, Domine, faceas de morte.
Lord Jesus Christ, King of Glory, deliver the souls of all the faithful dead from the punishment of hell, and from the deep lake:
Deliver them from the lion's mouth; let not hell swallow them, let them not fall into darkness; but let Saint Michael, the standard bearer, bring them into the holy light which once thou didst promise to Abraham and his seed.
Offerings of prayer and praise we bring Thee, O Lord; receive them for those souls whom today we commemorate. Let them go, O Lord, from death to life.
IV. SANCTUS
The "Sanctus" (F major) is an exalted inspiration of genius. With its glorious double fugue, its triumphal antiphonal effects at the close leading into a soul-uplifting climax, it would, of itself, make the reputation of a lesser composer.
Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, Domine Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunt cceli et terra glorise tuae. Osanna in excelsis.
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Osanna in excelsis.
Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts! Heaven and earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest!
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord. Hosanna in the highest!
V. AGNUS DEI
If the "Sanctus" is sublime in its grandeur, no less so in its pathos is the "Agnus Dei" (Lamb of God) (C major), written for solo voices (Soprano and Contralto) and chorus. A simple melody with three different settings is the basis of this important number, and in originality and effectiveness it is not at all inferior to the inspired "Sanctus" which precedes it.
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem sempiternam.
Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world, grant them rest. Lamb of God, that taketh away the sins of the world, grant them rest everlasting.
Pge Seventy-One
OFFICIAL PROGRAM VI. LUX JETERNA
The "Lux aeterna" (Light eternal) (B flat) calls for no extended notice. It is written for three solo voices in the style which we find in Verdi's later works.
Lux aeterna luceat eis, Domine, cum Sanctis tins in seternam, quia pius es.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Let perpetual light shine on them, O Lord, with thy saints forever, for thou art gracious.
Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them.
VII. LIBERA ME
The closing number (7), "Libera Me" (C minor), begins with a recitative (Soprano), "Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterna" (Lord, deliver my soul from eternal death), interrupted by the chorus, which chants these words, and, introducing a fugue of stupendous difficulty, gives us a repetition of the beautiful introduction to the whole work (B flat minor), and ends with the repetition of the recitative, while the chorus holds out a sustained chord (C major) ppp. In the repetition of the introduction to the chorus just alluded to, the solo voice (Soprano) takes the melody originally played by the violins, with a cappella chorus accompaniment. The ending of the work is very dramatic. Everything seems to be hushed while the awful significance of the words is impressed upon the mind with irresistible force.
Libera me, Domine, de morte aeterna, in die ilia tremenda, quando cceli movendi sunt et terra. Dum veneris judicare speculum per ignem.
Tremens factus sum ego et timeo, dum discussio venerit atque ventura ira, quando cceli movendi sunt et terra.
Dies irae, dies ilia, calamitatis et miseriae, dies magna et amara valde.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, et lux perpetua luceat eis.
Vage Seventy-Two
Deliver me, O Lord, from eternal death, in that dread day when the heavens and the earth shall be moved, when thou shalt come to judge the world by fire.
I am full of terror and fear at the judgment that shall come and at the coming of thy wrath, when the heavens and the earth shall be moved.
Day of wrath, dread day of calamity and misery, dread day of bitter sorrow.
Eternal rest give unto them, O Lord, and let perpetual light shine on them.
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra
FOUNDED BY THEODORE THOMAS IN 189I
FREDERICK STOCK, Conductor
ERIC DeLAMARTER, Assistant Conductor
HENRY E. VOEGELI, Manager
Thirty-Ninth Season--1929-1930
CONCERTMASTER Gordon, J.
VIOLINS
Weicher, J. ) Â

Download PDF