(This is the program provided by the Boston Symphony Orchestra for this concert. You can also view the UMS program).
Hill Auditorium Ann Arbor
HILL AUDITORIUM . . . ANN ARBOR
Tuesday Evening, October 27, 1931, at 8.00
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON 1931-1932
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA: 188M931"
By M. A. De WOLFE HOWE
It is seventeen years since M. A. De Wolfe Howe's history of the Boston Symphony Orchestra was published. The Fiftieth season of the Orchestra seemed a fitting time to re-publish this prized narrative of its earlier days, and likewise to record, in additional chapters, the last years of Dr. Muck's conductorship, and those of Henri Eabaud, Pierre Monteux, and Dr. Serge Koussevitzky.
New appendices include a complete list of the music played at the regular concerts, giving the dates of performances. The soloists and the personnel through fifty years are also recorded, and the address on Henry Lee Higginson made by Bliss Perry at the Bach Festival, March 25, 1931.
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HILL AUDITORIUM ANN ARBOR
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON, 1931-1932
Boston SymphOmiy Orchestra
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor
TUESDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 27, at 8.00
WITH HISTORICAL AND DESCRIPTIVE NOTES BY PHILIP HALE
COPYRIGHT, 1931, BY BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC.
THE OFFICERS AND TRUSTEES OF THE BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Inc.
FREDERICK P. CABOT........President
BENTLEY W. WARREN......Vice-President
ERNEST B. DANE........Treasurer
FREDERICK P. CABOT ERNEST B. DANE N. PENROSE HALLOWELL M. A. DE WOLFE HOWE FREDERICK E. LOWELL
ARTHUR LYMAN WILLIAM PHILLIPS EDWARD M. PICKMAN HENRY B. SAWYER BENTLEY W. WARREN
W. H. BRENNAN, Manager
G. E. JUDD, Assistant Manager
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY
Fifty-first Season, 1931-1932
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor
Burgin, R. EIcus, G. Gundersen, R. Sauvlet, H. Cherkassky, P.
Concert-master Kreinin, B. Kassman, N. Hamilton, V. Eisler, D.
Hansen, E. Pinfield, C. Thillois, F. Mayer, P. Bryant, M. Murray, J.
Lauga, N. Mariotti, V. Zung, M. Diamond, S. Beale, M. Del Sordo, R.
Fedorovsky, P. Leveen, P. Knudson, C. Zide, L. Stonestreet, L. Erkelens, H.
Leibovici, J. Tapley, R. Gorodetzky, L. Fiedler, B. Messina, S. Seiniger, S.
Lefranc, J. Artie'res, L.
Bedetti, J. Zighera, A.
Kunze, M. Vondrak, A.
Flutes. Laurent, G. Bladet, G. Amerena, P.
Piccolo. Battles, A.
Fourel, G. Cauhape, J.
Langendoen, J. Barth, C.
Lemaire, J. Oliver, F.
Oboes. Gillet, F. Devergie, J. Stanislaus, H.
Van Wynbergen, C.
Grover, H. Werner, H.
Deane, C. Jacob, R.
Violoncellos. Chardon, Y. Droeghmans, H.
Stockbridge, C. Warnke, J.
Fabrizio, E. Marjollet, L.
Basses. Ludwig, O. Frankel, I.
Girard, H. Dufresne, G.
Moleux, G. Kelley, A.
Clarinets. Polatschek, V. Mimart, P. Arcieri, E. Allegra, E.
Bassoons. Laus, A. Allard, R. Panenka, E.
English Horn. Speyer, L.
Bass Clarinet. Bettoney, F.
Contra-Bassoon. Piller, B.
Horns. Boettchcr, G. Pogrebniak, S. Van Den Berg, C. Lorbeer, H.
Sidow, P. Adam, E.
Valkenier, W. Schindler, G. Lannoye, M. Blot, G.
Harps. Zighera, B. Caughey, E.
Trumpets. Mager, G. Lafosse, M. Grundey, T. Perret, G. Voisin, R. Mann, J.
Timpani. Ritter, A. Polster, M.
Trombones. Raichman, J. Hansotte, L. Kenficld, L. Adam, E.
Percussion. Stcmburg, S. White, L.
Celesta. Fiedler, A.
Librarian. Rogers, L. J.
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Fifty-first Season, 1931-1932
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor
TUESDAY EVENING, OCTOBER 27 AT 8.00
Handel ..... Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra in
B minor, No. 12
Largo--Allegro--Larghetto e piano--Largo--Allegro Wagner ....... Prelude to "Lohengrin"
Ravel ..... "Daphnis et Chloe," Ballet: Suite No 2 Lever du Jour--Pantomime--Danse Generate
Beethoven .... Symphony No. 7 in A major, Op. 92
I. Poco sostenuto; Vivace.
III. Presto; Assai meno presto: Tempo primo.
IV. Allegro con brio.
There will be an intermission of ten minutes before the symphony
Concerto Grosso, No. 12, in B minor . . George Frederic Handel
(Edited by Gustav Friedrich Kogel) (Born at Halle on February 23, 1685; died at London, April 14, 1T59)
Handel's twelve grand concertos for strings .were composed between September 29 and October 30, 1739. The London Daily Post of October 29, 1739, said: "This day are published proposals for printing by subscription, with His Majesty's royal license and protection, Twelve Grand Concertos, in Seven Parts, for four violins, a tenor, a violoncello, with a through-bass for the harpsichord. Composed by Mr. Handel. Price to subscribers, two guineas. Ready to be delivered by April next. Suscriptions are taken by the author, at his housef in Brook Street, Hanover Square, and by Walsh." In an advertisement on November 22 the publisher'added: "Two of the above concertos will be performed this evening at the Theatre Royal, Lincoln's Inn." The concertos were published on April 21, 1740. In an advertisement a few days afterwards Walsh said, "These concertos were performed at the Theatre Royal in Lincoln's Inn Fields, and now are played in most public places with the greatest applause." Victor Schoelcher made this comment in his Life of Handel: "This was the case with all the works of Handel. They were so frequently performed at contemporaneous concerts and benefits that they seem, during his lifetime, to have quite become public property. Moreover, he did nothing which the other theatres did not attempt to imitate. In the little theatre of the Haymarket, evening entertainments were given in exact imitation of his 'several concertos for different instruments, with a variety of chosen airs of the best masters, and the famous Salve Regina of Hasse.' The handbills issued by the nobles at the King's Theatre make mention also of 'several concertos for different instruments.' "
The year 1739, in which these concertos were composed, was the year of the first performance of Handel's "Saul" (January 16) and "Israel in Egypt" (April 4),--both oratorios were composed in 1738,--also of the music to Dryden's "Ode for St. Cecilia's Day" (November 22).
M. Romain Rolland, discussing the form Concerto Grosso, which consists essentially of a dialogue between a group of soloists, the
Kogle was born at Leipsio on January 16, 1849. He died at Frankfort-on-the-Main in November, 1921. Having studied at the Leipsic Conservatory (1863--67), he taught music in Alsace, until the Franco-German War, when he began to work for the Peters Publishing House. From 1874 he conducted opera at Nuremberg, Dortmund, GhSnt, Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Leipsio (1883-86). In 1887 he conducted the Philharmonic Orchestra in Berlin and from 1891 till 1903 the Museum concerts at Frankfort. He also traveled widely as guest conductor, directing certain concerts of the Philharmonic Society, New York, in 1903-4 and 1904-5. From 1908 he was conductor of the Cecilia Society at Wiesbaden. He composed some pianoforte pieces, edited operas, and arranged four of Handel's Concertos for concert use.
tThis was the little house, No. 25, in which Handel lived for many years, and in which he died. In the rate-book of 1725 Handel was named owner, and the house rated at Â£35 a year. W. H. CumminB, about 1903, visiting this house, found a cast-lead cistern, on the front of which in bold relief was "1721. G.F.H." The house had then been in possession of a family about seventy years, and various structural alterations had been made. A backroom on the first floor was said to have been Handel's composition room.
concertino (trio of two solo violins and solo bass with cembalo) and the chorus of instruments, concerto grosso, believes that Handel, at Rome in 1708, Avas struck by Corelli's works in this field, for several of his concertos of Opus 3 are dated 1710, 1716, 1722. Geminiani introduced the concerto into England,--three volumes appeared in 1732, 1735, 1748,--and he was a friend of Handel.
Handel's concertos of this set that have five movements are either in the form of a sonata with an introduction and a postlude (as Nos. 1 and 6) ; or in the form of the symphonic overture with the slow movements in the middle, and a dance movement, or an allegro closely resembling a dance, for a finale (as Nos. 7, 11, and 12); or a series of three movements from larghetto to allegro, which is followed by two dance movements (as No. 3).
The seven parts are thus indicated by Handel in the book of parts: Violino primo concertino, Violino secondo concertino, Violino primo ripieno, Violino secondo ripieno, viola, violoncello, bass continuo.
Prelude to the Opera "Lohengrin" .... Kichard Wagner (Born at Leipsic, May 22, 1813; died at Venice, February 13, 1S83)
"Lohengrin," an opera in three acts, was performed for the first time at the Court Theatre, Weimar, August 28, 1850. The cast was
The Germans in the concertino sometimes coupled an oboe or a bassoon with a violin. The Italians were faithful, as a rule, to the strings.
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as follows: Lohengrin, Beck; Telrainund, Milde; King Henry, Hoier; the Herald, Patsch; Orturd, Miss Fastlinger; Elsa, Miss
Agthe. Liszt conducted.
Liszt described the prelude as "a sort of magic formula which, like a mysterious initiation, prepares our souls for the sight of unaccustomed things, and of a higher signification than that of our terrestrial life."
Wagner's own explanation has been translated into English as follows:-"Love seemed to have vanished from a world of hatred and quarrelling; as a lawgiver she was no longer to be found among the communities of men. Emancipating itself from barren care for gain and possession, the sole arbiter of all worldly intercourse, the human heart's unquenchable love-longing again at length craved to appease a want, which, the more warmly and intensely it made itself felt under the pressure of reality, was the less easy to satisfy, on account of this very reality. It was beyond the confines of the actual world that man's ecstatic imaginative power fixed the source as well as the outflow of this incomprehensible impulse of love, and from the desire of a comforting sensuous conception of this super-sensuous idea invested it with a wonderful form, which, under the name of the 'Holy Grail,' though conceived as actually existing, yet unapproachably far off, was believed in, longed for, and sought for. The Holy Grail was the costly vessel out of which, at the Last Supper, our Saviour drank with His disciples, and in which His blood was received when out of love for His brethren He suffered upon a cross, and which till this day has been preserved with lively zeal as the source of undying love; albeit, at one time this cup of salvation was taken away from unworthy mankind, but at length was brought back again from the heights of heaven by a band of angels, and delivered into the keeping of fervently loving, solitary men, who, wondrously strengthened and blessed by its presence, and purified in heart, were consecrated as the earthly champions of eternal love.
"This miraculous delivery of the Holy Grail, escorted by nn angelic host, and the handing of it over into the custody of highly favored men, was selected by the author of 'Lohengrin,' a knight of the Grail, for the introduction of his drama, as the subject to be musically portrayed; just as here, for the sake of explanation, he may be allowed to bring it forward as an object for the mental receptive power of his hearers."
"Daphnis et Chloe"--Ballet in one act--Orchestral Fragments, Second Series:--"Daybreak," "Pantomime," "General Dance."
Joseph Maurice Eavel.
(Born at Ciboure, Basses-Pyr6n6es, March 7, 1875; now living at Montfortl'Amaury and Paris)
Ravel composed his ballet "Daphnis and Chloe," expecting that it would be performed by the Russian Ballet at Paris in 1911.
Jacques Durand, the publisher, says that Kavel was asked by Diaghilev in 1911 to write this ballet. Others give the year 1910. Durand also says Diaghilev was not at first satisfied with the ballet and hesitated to produce it, but Durand finally persuaded him; that Diaghilev's first unfavorable impression was due to his knowing the music only by the arrangement for piano. At the rehearsals there were violent scenes between Fokine and Diaghilev, which led to the rupture which became "official" after that season of the Ballet Russe. It was not performed until 1912--June 8, according to the Annales du Theatre, June 5, 7, 8, and 10, according to the official programme of the Ballet Russe. The performances were at the Chatelet. Nijinsky mimed Daphnis, Mme. Karsavina, Chloe. Messrs. Bolm and Cechetti also took leading parts. The conductor was Mr. Monteux.
Thf score, however, was published in 1911. Two concert suites were drawn from it. The first--"Nocturne," "Interlude," "Danse Guerriere,"--was performed at a Chatelet concert conducted by Gabriel Pierne' on April 2, 1911.
The first performance of the second suite in Boston was at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on December 14, 1917.
The first suite was played in Boston for the first time at a concert of the Boston Symphony Orchestra on November 1, 1918. Later performances: December 28, 1923; December 3, 1924.
George Copeland played "Danse de Daphnis" at his pianoforte recital in Jordan Hall on November 21, 1917.
The second suite is scored for piccolo, two flutes, a flute in G, two oboes, English horn, a little clarinet in E-flat, two clarinets in B-flat, bass clarinet in B-flat, three bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, four trumpets, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, triangle, tambourine, two side drums,f castanets, celesta, glockenspiel, two harps, strings, (double-basses with the low C), chorus of mixed voices. This chorus, which sings without words, can be replaced by variants inserted for this purpose in the orchestral parts.
The following argument is printed in the score of the suite to illustrate the significance of the sections in succession:
No sound but the murmur of rivulets fed by the dew that trickles from the rocks. Daphnis lies stretched before the grotto of the nymphs. Little by little the clay dawns. The songs of birds are heard. Afar off a shepherd leads his flock. Another shepherd crosses the back of the stage. Herdsmen enter, seeking Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and awaken him. In anguish he looks about for Chloe. She at last appears encircled by shepherdesses. The two rush into each other's arms. Daphnis observes Chloe's crown. His dream was a prophetic vision: the intervention of Pan is manifest. The old shepherd Lammon explains that Pan saved Chloe, in remembrance of the nymph Syrinx,$ whom the god loved.
See Durand's "Quelques Souvenirs d'un Â£diteur de Husique" (Vol. 2, pp. 15, 16).
fit appears from the list of instruments in French that Ravel makes a distinction between the tambour and the caisse claire. Each is described in French treatises as a side or snare drum, but the caisse claire is shallower than the tambour.
t John F. Eowbotham in his "History of Music" (vol. i., p. 45) makes this entertaining comment on the story of Pan and Syrinx as told by Ovid: "If he [Pan] constructed his Pan-pipe out of the body of the nymph Syrinx, who was changed into a reed, we may be tolerably certain that his views were not limited to playing a requiem over her grave, but
Daphnis and Chloe mime the story of Pan and Syrinx. Chloe impersonates the young nymph wandering over the meadow. Daphnis as Pan appears and declares his love for her. The nymph repulses him; the god becomes more insistent. She disappears among the reeds. In desperation he plucks some stalks, fashions a flute, and on it plays a melancholy tune. Chloe comes out and imitates by her dance the accents of the flute.
The dance grows more and more animated. In mad whirlings, Chloe falls into the arms of Daphnis. Before the altar of the nymphs he swears on two sheep his fidelity. Young girls enter; they are dressed as Bacchantes and shake their tambourines. Daphnis and Chloe embrace tenderly. A group of young men come on the stage.
Joyous tumult. A general dance. Daphnis and Chloe. Dorcon.
The scenario of the ballet was derived by Michael Fokine from the charming romance of Longus. There are stage pictures of Chloe carried away by robbers, rescued by Pan at the prayer of Daphnis, and of the lovers miming together the story of Pan and Syrinx. There are scenes in the grove of Pan and in the pirate camp, besides those mentioned above. The scenery and costumes were designed by L6on Bakst.
Alfred Bruneau, composer, and in 1912 the music critic of Le Matin, wrote that Eavel's score is animated with a vast pantheistic breath. "It will disconcert those who think the author of so many entertaining pages is capable of conceiving only little, bizarre, and humorous things. This score has strength, rhythm, brilliance. Voices mingle with the instruments, mysterious and fervid voices of invisible and eternal divinities who must be obeyed. The liberty of form and of writing surpasses anything that can be imagined. Harmonic and polyphonic anarchy here reigns supreme, and I must confess that I do not accept it without a certain hesitation. However, it would fret me to fix limits for an artist, discuss the means he employs to realize his dream. I should never have the narrowness of mind or the presumption of wishing to impose my ideas on him, and I am very happy when his have a real worth. This is the case here, and I testify with a lively pleasure to the vigorous audacity of. this singularly striking work, justly applauded." Edmond Stoullig stated that the choreography of Fokine, although wholly opposed to Nijinsky's in "L'Apres-midi d'un Faune," was also inspired by attitudes on bas-reliefs or Greek vases. "But the movements are different; they jostle less our preconceived ideas and are undeniably harmonious."
The ballet was produced in London on June 9, 1914, by the Russian Ballet at Drury Lane. Fokine took the part of Daphnis; Mme. Karsavina, that of Chloe. Mr. Monteux conducted. During the season, Mme Fokine was also seen as Chloe.
At the performances in London the unseen choruses were omitted. This irritated Ravel, who wrote a sour letter of protest to the Daily Telegraph (June 9, 1914) of London. Diaghilev replied, saying that
that he had at the same time some other nymph in his eye who was not changed into a reed. If the metamorphosed Syrinx really gave him the first idea of the instrument, the utmost we can do is to say in the words of King James V. of Scotland about a totally different event, 'It began wi' a lass, and it wull end wi' a lasB.' "
See also Jules Laforgue's fantastically ironical "Pan et la Syrinx" ("Moralites le'gendaires"). "0 nuit d'etel maladie inconnue, que tu nous fait mail"--P. H.
the participation of the chorus was proved not only useless but detrimental at the Theatre du Chatelet and the Theatre des Champs-lSlystes. Eavel wrote a second letter (London Times, June 17, 1914), in which he sputtered. He ended by saying: "I must add that henceforth, if M. Diaghilev wishes to produce 'Daphnis' on important stages, an agreement, not verbal, but written, will bind him to produce it with the chorus.'"
Durand, in his "Souvenirs," already cited, says nothing about this correspondence.
Symphony, A major, No. 7, Op. 92. . . . Ludwig van Beethovhi (Born at Bonn, December 16 (), 1770; died at Vienna, March 26, 1827)
The first sketches of this symphony were probably made before 181.1 or even 1810. Several of "them in the sketch book that belonged to Gustave Petter of Vienna and was analyzed by Nottenbohm, were for the first movement.t Two sketches for the famous Allegretto are mingled with phrases of the Quartet in O major, Op. 59, No. 3, dedicated in 1818 to Count Kasoumovsky. One of the two bears the title: "Anfang Variations." There is a sketch for the Scherzo, first in F major, then in C major, with the indication: "Second Part." Another sketch for the Scherzo bears a general resemblance to the beginning of the "Dance of Peasants" in the Pastoral Symphony, for which reason it was rejected. In one of the sketches for the Finale, Beethoven wrote: "Goes at first in F-sharp minor, then in C-sharp minor." He preserved this modulation, but did not use the theme to which the indication was attached. Another motive in the Finale as sketched was the Irish air, "Nora Creina," for which he wrote an accompaniment at the request of George Thomson, the collector of Scottish, Welsh and Irish melodies.
Thayer states that Beethoven began the composition of the Seventh Symphony in the spring of 1812. Prod'homme believes that the work was begun in the winter of 1811-12.
The correspondence in full was published in the Boston Symphony's Programme Book of October 28, 29. 1927.
tSee the Thayer-Krehbiel "Life of Beethoven," Vol. II, pp. 151, 152.
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The autograph manuscript that belongs to the Mendelssohn family of Berlin bears the inscription: "Sinf onie. L. v. Bthvn 1812 13ten M." A blundering binder cut the paper so that only the first line of the M is to be seen. There has, therefore, been a dispute whether the month was May, June, or July. Beethoven wrote to Varena on May 8, 1812: "I promise you immediately a wholly new symphony for the next Academy, and, as I now have opportunity, the copying will not cost you a heller." He wrote on July 19: "A new symphony is now readyAs the Archduke Rudolph will have it copied, you will be at no expense in the matter." It is generally believed that the symphony was completed May 13, in the hope that it would be performed at a concert at Whitsuntide.
Other works composed in 1S12 were the Eighth Symphony, a pianoforte trio in one movement (B-flat major), three Equale for trombones, the sonata in Gmajor for pianoforte and violin, Op. 96, and some of the Irish and Welsh melodies for Thomson.
The score of the Symphony was dedicated to the Count Moritz von Fries and published in 1816. The edition for the pianoforte was dedicated to the Tsarina Elizabeth Alexievna of All the Russias.
The Seventh and Eighth Symphonies Avere probably played over for the first time at the Archduke Rudolph's in Vienna on April 20, 1813. Beethoven in the same month vainly endeavored to produce them at a concert. The first performance of the Seventh was at Vienna in the large hall of the University, on December 8,1813.
Malzel, the famous maker of automata, exhibited in Vienna during the winter of 1S12-13 his automatic trumpeter and panharmoni-con. The former played a French cavalry march with calls and tunes; the latter was composed of the instruments used in the ordinary military band of the period,--trumpets, drums, flutes, clarinets, oboes, cymbals, triangle, etc. The keys were moved by a cylinder. Overtures by Handel and Cherubini and Haydn's Military Symphony were played with ease and precision. Beethoven planned his "Wellington's Sieg," or "Battle of Vittoria," for this machine. Maize] made arrangements for a concert,--a concert "for the benefit of Austrian and Bavarian soldiers disabled at the battle of Hanau."
This Johann Nepomuk Malzel (Malzl) was born at Regensburg, August 15, 1772. He was the son of an organ builder. In 1792 he settled at Vienna as a teacher of music, but he soon made a name for himself by inventing mechanical music works. In 1808, he was appointed court mechanician. In 1S16 he constructed a metronome,f though Winkel, of Amsterdam, claimed the idea as his. Malzel also made ear-trumpets, and Beethoven tried them, as he did others. His life was a singular one, and the accounts of it are contradictory. Two leading French biographical dictionaries insist that Malzel's "brother Leonhard" invented the mechanical toys attributed to Johann, but they are wholly wrong. F6tis and one or two others
For a full account of the bitter quarrel between Beethoven and Malzel over the "S'chlacht Symphonie," see "Beethoven's Letters" edited by Dr. A. C. Kalls-cher (London, 1909), Vol. I, pp. 322-326. The two were afterwards reconciled.
tThere were two kinds of this metronome radically different In construction. "This accounts for the different metronome figures given by Beethoven himself, as for instance for the A major symphony." Beethoven thought highly of the metronome; he thought of "giving up the senseless terms, Allegro, Andante, Adagio, Presto."
MASONIC AUDITORIUM, DETROIT Wednesday Evening, October 28
BOSTON SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
Dr. SERGE KOUSSEVITZKY, Conductor
FIFTY-FIRST SEASON, 1931-1932
Handel Concerto Grosso for String Orchestra in B minor, No. 12 Debussy Two Nocturnes ("Nuages" and Fetes") Ravel "La Valse," Choregraphic Poem
Strauss "Ein Heldenleben," Tone Poem, Op. 40
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state that he took the panharmonicon with him to the United States in 1826, and sold it at Boston to a society for four hundred thousand dollars,--an incredible statement. No wonder that the Count de PontScoulant, in his "Organographie," repeating the statement, adds, "I think there is an extra cipher." But Malzel did visit America, and he spent several years hereHe landed at New York, February 3, 1826, and the Ship News announced the arrival of "Mr. Maelzel, Professor of Music and Mechanics, inventor of the Panharmonicon and the Musical Time Keeper." He brought with him the famous automata,--the Chess Player, the Austrian Trumpeter, and the Rope Dancers,--and opened an exhibition of them at the National Hotel, 112 Broadway, April 13. 1826. The Chess Player was invented by Wolfgang von Kempelen. Malzel bought it at the sale of von Kempelen's effects after the death of the latter, at Vienna, and made unimportant improvements. The Chess Player had strange adventures. It was owned for a time by Eugene Beau-harnais, when he was viceroy of the kingdom of Italy, and Malzel had much trouble in getting it away from him. Malzel gave an exhibition in Boston at Julien Hall, on a corner of Milk and Congress Streets. The exhibition opened September 13, 1826, and closed October 28 of that year. He visited Boston again in 1828 and in 1833. On his second visit lie added "The Conflagration of Moscow,"! a panorama, which he sold to three Bostonians for six thousand dollars. Hence, probably, the origin of the Panharmonican legend. He also exhibited an automatic violoncellist. Malzel died on the brig "Otis" on his way from Havana to Philadelphia on July 21, 1838, and was buried at sea, off Charleston. The United States Gazette published his eulogy, and said, with due caution: "He has gone, we hope, where the music of his Harmonicons will be exceeded." The Chess Player was destroyed by fire in the burning of the Chinese Museum at Philadelphia, July 5, 1854. An interesting and minute account of Malzel's life in America, written by George Allen, is published in the "Book of the First American Chess Congress," pp. 420-484 (New York, 1859). See also "Metronome de Maelzel" (Paris, 1833) ; the "History of the Automatic Chess Player," published by George S. Hilliard, Boston, 1826; Mendel's "Musikalisches Conversations-Lexicon"; and an article, "Beethoven and Chess," by Charles Willing, published in The Good Companion Chess Problem Club of May 11, 1917 (Philadelphia), which contains facsimiles of Malzel's programmes in Philadelphia (1845) and Montreal (1847). In Poe's fantastical "Von Kempelen and his Discovery" the description of his Kempelen, of Utica, N.Y., is said by
Sefior Torre y Quevedo, who claims to have invented a chess-playing machine, had a forerunner in Baron von Kempelen, "who, at the beginning of last century, travelled through Europe with what he described as an unbeatable chess automaton in the likeness of u Turk. Kcmpeli-u used to cnm-piil a mnn in the chest on which the Turk was seated, but so ingenious was the contrivance that for a long time everybody was deceived. Napoleon played chess with the pseudo-automaton when stopping at SchCnbrunn, after the battle of Wagram. He lost the first game, and In the second deliberately made two false moves. The pieces were replaced each time, but on the Emperor making a third false move the Turk swept all the pieces off the board. (.Daily Chronicle, London, Summer of 1914.)
See in "The Life and Writings of Major Jack Downing," by Seba Smith (Boston, 2d ed., 1834), Letter LXIX. (page 231), dated Portland, October 22, 1833, "in which Cousin Nabby describes her visit to Mr. Maelzel's Congregation of Moscow."
some to fit Malzel, but Poe's story was probably not written before 1848. His article, "Maelzel's Chess Player," a remarkable analysis, was first published in the Southern Literary Messenger of April, 1836. Portions of this article other than those pertaining to the analysis were taken by Poe from Sir David Brewster's "Lectures on Natural Magic."
The arrangements for this charity concert were made in haste, for several musicians of reputation were then, as birds of passage, in Vienna, and they wished to take parts. Among the distinguished executants were Salieri and Hummel, who looked after the "cannon" in "Wellington's Sieg"; the young Meyerbeer, who beat a bass drum and of whom Beethoven said to Tomaschek: "Ha! ha! ha! I wap not at all satisfied with him; he never struck on the beat; he was always too late, and I was obliged to speak to him rudely. Ha! ha! ha! I could do nothing with him; he did not have the courage to strike on the beat!" Spohr and Mayseder were seated at the second and third violin desks, and Schuppanzigh was the concert-master; the celebrated Dragonetti was one of the double-basses. Beethoven conducted.
The programme was as follows: "A brand-new symphony," the Seventh, in A major, by Beethoven; two marches, one by Dussek, the other by Pleyel, played by MalzePs automatic trumpeter with full orchestral accompaniment; "Wellington's Sieg, oder die Schlacht bei Vittoria." "Wellington's Sieg" was completed in October, 1813, to celebrate the victory of Wellington over the French troops in Spain on June 21 of that year. Malzel had persuaded
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Beethoven to compose the piece for his panharmonicon. He furnished material for it and gave him the idea of using "God Save the King" as the subject of a lively fugue. He purposed to produce the work at concerts, so as to raise money enough for him and Beethoven to visit London. A shrewd fellow, he said that if the "Battle Symphony" were scored for orchestra and played in Vienna with success, an arrangement for his panharmonicon would then be of more value to him. Beethoven dedicated the work to the Prince Kegent, afterwards George IV., and forwarded a copy to him, but the "First Gentleman in Europe" never acknowledged the compliment. "Wellington's Sieg" was not performed in London until February 10, 1815, when it had a great run. The news of this success pleased Beethoven very much. He made a memorandum of it in the note-book which he carried with him to taverns.
This benefit concert was brilliantly successful, and there was a repetition of it December 12 with the same prices of admission, ten and five florins. The net profit of the two performances was four thousand six gulden. Spohr tells us that the new pieces gave "extraordinary pleasure, especially the symphony; the wondrous second movement was repeated at each concert: it made a deep, enduring impression on me. -The performance was a masterly one, in spite of the uncertain and often ridiculous conducting by Beethoven." Gloggl was present at a rehearsal when violinists refused to play a passage in the symphony, and declared that it could not be played. "Beethoven told them to take their parts home and practise them; then the passage would surely go." It was at these rehearsals that Spohr saw the deaf composer crouch lower and lower to indicate a long diminuendo, and rise again and spring into the air when he demanded a climax. And he tells of a pathetic yet ludicrous blunder of Beethoven, who could not hear the soft passages.
The Chevalier Ignaz von Seyfried told his pupil Krenn that at a rehearsal of the symphony, hearing discordant kettledrums in a passage of the Finale and thinking that the copyist had made a blunder, he said circumspectly to the composer: "Sly dear friend, it seems to me there is a mistake; the drums are not in tune." Beethoven answered: "I did not intend them to be." But the truth of this tale has been disputed.
Beethoven was delighted with his success, so much so that he wrote a public letter of thanks to all that took part in the two performances. "It is Malzel especially who merits all our thanks. He was the first to conceive the idea of the concert, and it was he that busied himself actively with the organization and the ensemble in all the details. I owe him special thanks for having given me the opportunity of offering my compositions to the public use and thus fulfilling the ardent vow made by me long ago of putting the fruits of my labor on the altar of the country."
The symphony is scored for two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two horns, two trumpets, kettledrums, strings.
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