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UMS Concert Program, April 24, 25, 26, 27, 1969: The Seventy-sixth Ann Arbor May Festival -- The Philadelphia Orchestra

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Season: Ninetieth
Concert: FIFTH
Hill Auditorium

of The University of Michigan
The Seventy-Sixth
Five Concerts
April 24, 25, 26, 27, 1969 Hill Auditorium
Published by the University Musical Society, Ann Arbor. Michigan
Gail W. Rector and Dr. Charles A. Sink (photograph)............... 4
University Musical Society, Board of Directors..................... 5
Performing Artists......................................................... 7
Festival Programs.......................................................... 9
First Concert............................................................... 17
Si-cond Concert............................................................ 2!S
Third Concert.............................................................. 39
Fourth Concert............................................................. 49
Fifth Concert............................................................... 58
The Philadelphia Orchestra and May Festival Artists............. 66
The University Choral Union............................................ 72
The Philadelphia Orchestra.............................................. 74
I lie I nivci sit Music al Soc iet........................................... 75
The Ann Arbor May Festival............................................. 77
Choral Union Repertoire................................................. 78
Gift Program .............................................................. 81
Contributors............................................................. 1
International Presentations for the 1969 -70 Season.............. 85
Gail W. Rector, President oj the University Musical Society, with
Dr. Charles A. Sink, who became President
Emeritus on November 5, I96S
Board of Directors
Gail W. Rector................................................ President
Roscoe O. Bonisteel...................................Vice-F'resident
Erich A. Walter...............................................Secretary
E. Thurston Thieme.........................................Treasurer
James R. Breakey, Jr.
Douglas D. Crary Robben W. Fleming
Harlan Hatcher
Paul G. Kauper
Wilbur K. Pierpont
Daniel H. Schurz
Stephen H. Spurr
Directors Emeritus
Oscar A. Eberbach Thor Johnson Alexander G. Ruthven
Charles A. Sink E. Blythe Stason Henry F. Vaughan
Eugene Ormandy, Orchestral Conductor
Thor Johnson, Guest Conductor
Lester McCoy, Chorusmaster
The Philadelphia Orchestra The University Choral Union
Regine Crespin.................................................. Soprano
Maria Stader.................................................... Soprano
Joanna Simon .............................................Mezzo-soprano
Richard Tucker................................................... Tenor
John McCollum....................................................Tenor
Willis Patterson................................................... Bass
Hans Richter-Haaser..........................................Pianist
Zara Nelsova................................................Violoncellist
(For biographical sketches of all performers, seepages 66 to 71)
The Slrinway i the official piano nf the I 'niversity Musical Sanely.
Thf ttuldwm Piano h the official piano of the Philadelphia Orchestra.
The Philadelphia Orchestra records exclusively far RCA Red Seal.
Thursday Evening, April 24, at 8:30
"Classical" Symphony in I) major. ()p. '25....................... Prokofiev
Gavotte: non troppo allegro Finale: molto i,ie
Concert aria and recitative,
"Misero! sogno, o son desto" (K. 431).........................Mozart
Recitative and aria, "Sound an Alarm."
from Judas Mticcalmeus....................................................Handel
Richard Tickkr
"Iberia" ("Images" for Orchestra) No. 2........................... Debussy
In the Streets and byways
I'ti Fumes ol the Nighl
I he Morning of a Feast-da)
"() Paradiso" from L'Africaine........................................... Meyerbeer
"No! pazzo son! guardate" from Manon Lescaut.........................Puccini
Mr. Tickkr
Symphonic Poem. "The Pines of Rome".......................... Respighi
The Pines ol the Villa Borghese The Pines near the Catacombs The Pines of the j.uiu iiluni The Pines of the Appian V,n
? U.iil.iW....., ( nlumhi.i Ritnids
Friday Evening, April 25, at 8:'W
JOANNA SIMON. Mezzo-soprano
Psalm 150, for Mixed Chorus and Orchestra, Op. 5..............GlNASTERA
University Choral Union
Pantasilea's aria from Bomarzo............................................Ginastera
Joanna Simon
"Fern Hill" for Mixed Chorus, Mezzo-soprano,
and Orchestra.................................................Corigliano
University Choral Union and Joanna Simon
Concerto No. 1 in K minor for Piano
and Orchestra, Op. 11 .............................................Chopin
Allegro maestoso
Romanze; larghetto Rondo: vivace
Hans Rk:hter-Haaser
Saturday Evening, April 26, at 8:30
PROGRAM Prelude to Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg.................................Wagner
Symphony No. 3, "The Camp Meeting".................................Ives
Old Folks Gatherin" Children's Day
Symphony No. 1 in D major ("The Titan")..........................Mahler
I.angsain; jjemiic hlic li
Andante ("Blumine") Kraftig bewegt
Iciiilii h mid geincssen Sliirmisch bewegt
K( Red Seal R.c.uilv
1 1
Sunday Afternoon, April 27, at 2:30
ZARA NELSOVA, Violoncellist
Mass in A-flat major. No. 5.......................................... Schubert
Agnus Dei
University Choral Union and Soloists
Concerto in E minor for Violoncello
and Orchestra, Op. 85 ..............................................Elgar
Adagio; model ii
Lento; allegro molto Adagio
Allegro; moderate); allegro, nia nun iroppo
Zara Nki.sova
Sunday Evening, April 27, at 8:30
PROGRAM ?Symphony No. 31 in D major, K. 297 ("Paris")....................Mozart
Allegro assai Andantino
Scene and aria, "Ah, perfido," Op. 65............................Beethoven
Regine Crespin
"Sheherazade" --Three Poems for Voice
and Orchestra........................................................Ravel
I.a Flute enchamee L'lndiHi-ient
Miss Crespin
"La Mer" -Trois esquisses symphoniques......................... Debussy
De I'aube a midi sur la mer
Jeux de vagues
Dialogue (111 vent et de la mum
Available on Columbia Recordi
Author af the annotations expresses his appreciation to FEROL BRINKMAN for her editorial sen'ices.
Thursday Evening, April 24
"Classical" Symphony in D major, Op. 25.......... Prokofiev
Ser({e) Scrjjcvcvitiii Prokolie was Ixmm in Sontsmska, Russia. April '_'S. IH'.M; died in Moscow, March 5. 1953.
Sergey Prokofiev, a senior member of a very significant group of Soviet Republic composers, of whom Dmitri Shostakovich is perhaps the most sensational member, after a few startling excursions into the grotesque and only an occasional sojourn into the cacophonous realm of the musical modernism of his day, produced music that was not merely interesting and clever but brilliantly effective.
At a period when European audiences either were being doped into a state of insensibility by the vacuity of the Post-Impressionists, incensed to riots by the shocking barbarisms of Stravinsky, or baffled into boredom by the mathematical cerebration of Schonberg (whose music seemed, as far as emotional expression was concerned, to be hermetically sealed), the spec?tacle of a composer who was still able to create music that had natural ease and fluidity, and a freshness and spontaneity that was essentially "classi?cal." was as surprising as it was eventful.
Dining a protracted absence from his native land between 1918 and 1932, at which time he traveled in Japan and the United States and lived in Paris. Prokofiev won a tremendous reputation as an international composer. Such works as the Classical Symphony (191617), the Scythian Suite (1916). the opera Love of Three Oranges (1921), which he composed for the Chicago Opera Association, and the ballet Chout (1921) had. with their driving energy, clear designs, bright colors, and ironic overtones, carried his name throughout the musical world. Upon his return to Russia in 1934, and his identification with Soviet cultural life and its rigid proscription on free expression, he steered a cautious course between his own artistic instincts and the demands of the State. Gradually, a shift was noted from his former rather abstract and sometimes abstruse manner to one more immediate and acceptable to Russian audiences. In a tempered frame of mind he wrote, among other works. Lieutenant Kije in 1934. the Second Violin Concerto in 1935. a Russian Overture and Peter and the Wolf, both in 1936. incidental music for the film Alexander Nevsky, and a cantata dedicated to Stalin. Zdraxitsa, in 1939. an opera based upon Tolstoy's War and Peace in 1940, his Fifth Svmphonv in 1945 (his Fourth Svmphonv had been written seventeen years before), and the Sixth Symphony in 1947.
Aside from Russian folk-song sources to which he turned for these works, a new romantic idiom began to shape itself. In spite of his con-
scious attempts to abide by the dictates of the State, he, along with Shostakovich and Khatchaturian, was attacked by the Communist Party's famous decree of February 11, 1948, for writing music that "smelled strongly of the spirit of modern bourgeois music of Europe and Amer?ica," and again later in the year by Tikhon Khrennikov, secretary-general of the Soviet Composers' Union, for his "bourgeois formalism." In spite of these reprimands, Prokofiev, to the end of his life five years later, continued to produce works of high individuality and artistic value. He never lost entirely the clear, terse style and motoric drive he revealed in his earlier works, and although in his compositions after 1935 there was a new emotional quality, an almost romantic richness of melody, and the fulfillment of a latent lyricism, the old style was still definite and clearly defined. This continued to give to his music the same sureness and spontaneity that has always been its chief distinction. At the time of his death he was at the very height of his creative powers. He had become infinitely more than a clever composer who delighted in the grotesque; his music is, according to Leonid Sebaneyev and many other critics, the most original and valuable that Russian art of this century has produced.
It was not without a provoking wit, and just a little satire, perhaps, that Prokofiev ever so politely thumbed his nose at the young radical "mod?erns" for a moment, and with his tongue in his cheek deluded the staid traditionalists by creating the impression that the "good old classicism" of the past was as alive as ever. The "Classical" Symphony, produced in 1917, has all the polished craftsmanship and mannered elegance of a true eighteenth-century composition.
Employing an orchestra typical of Haydn or Mozart, and adhering religiously to the formal symphonic traditions of their time, Prokofiev has almost outdone his models in charm, elegance, and nice proportion. Throughout the work, however, there are, here and there, sly intrusions of daring harmonic progressions, and pointed misshapings of phrases that would certainly have taken the curl out of the periwigs of an eight?eenth-century audience. These moments, however, provide delightful zest, engaging interest, and no little humor to those who know well their classic composers.
Concert Recitative and Aria "Misero! o
sogno, o son desto" (K. 431) ........................ Mozart
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg,
January 27. 1756; died in Vienna, December 5, 1791.
I like an aria lo fit a singer as perfectly as a well-made suit of clothes.
In its diversity and scope, the music of Mozart is one of the most astonishing achievements in the history of European art. Wherever he directed his pen, to the creation of opera, serious or comic, to cantata,
Mass, chamber music, sonata, or symphony, he left imperishable master?pieces. In more than six-hundred works, created at a breathless speed during less than thirty-six years, Mozart revealed a universality unknown to any other composer, for his art was founded upon a thorough assimila?tion and sublimation of the prevailing Italian, French, and German styles of his period; he carried to perfection all instrumental and vocal forms of his day. No composer ever revealed simultaneously such creative affluence and such unerring instinct for beauty. Few artists in any age have been so copious and yet so controlled, or have so consistently sustained through?out their creative lives such a high level of artistic excellence.
"Is not almost all of the instrumental music of the second half of the eighteenth century in general, and that of Mozart in particular, pene?trated through and through with spirit of opera," wrote the great Mozart authority Alfred Einstein. "Nowhere does the purely Italian derivation of Mozart's style show more clearly than in the aria and all other forms that have more or less to do with opera." In truth, Mozart's manifold genius is more fully exploited in the opera than in any other form. His amazing sense of dramatic veracity, his uncanny insight into the psychological aspects of character, and the unbelievable aptness with which he mani?fested these in his music, not only proved his natural talent for the theater, but established him as one of the foremost composers of opera in the world.
Nowhere is the indebtedness of instrumental forms to the opera more evident than in the aria. By 1750 it had become a miniature concerto for voice and orchestra. "The strange thing about its development historically speaking," wrote Einstein, "is that the form ... was perfected in the work of [the Italian composers] Stradella and Alessandro Scarlatti earlier than the concerto, so that the concerto was actually fashioned after the aria and not vice versa, "t
Mozart's concert arias were occasional works either to be inserted into his own operas, or those of other composers commissioned by famous singers of his time, or simply written by choice for singers who possessed voices he particularly admired. In the fifty odd concert arias he composed throughout his life (from the age of nine to the year of his death in 1791), he followed models established by his Italian predecessors, and upon them he bestowed his richest melodic gifts and the wealth of his in?strumental craftsmanship.
The Recitative, "Misero, o sogno, o son desto," and the Aria, "Aura, che intorno speri," was written in Vienna in December, 1783, for Valentine Adamberger, a German dramatic tenor for whom Mozart created the part of Belmonte in Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail. The occasional references to him in Mozart's letters reveal an affection that reflects personal as well as professional regard. Adamberger was born in Munich, July 6, 1743, and died in Vienna, August 24, 1804. During his early career in Italy, he was
Alfred Einuein, Mount. Hb ChancierandHis H'" iNV York: (Klcinl Univenit) Prb, 1945), p. 355. tlkiil.. p. S57.
known as Adamonti.
The text of the Aria concerns itself with the self-torturing imagination of a condemned prisoner. The scene is in three parts. In an agitated Recitative the singer bemoans his fate at finding himself a prisoner; in the Aria his thoughts turn to his beloved, and in the final section, they return to his hopeless situation. A condensed version of the text follows:
Recitative: Where am I"" Am 1 dreaming Unhapp) mortal all alone in (his dreary prison! the abodes of horror and silent sorrow. Waitings lill the il.n kness. and me with lerroi. Must 1 languish all nn life in this place 1 ji ,i grant me release, give me lac k m Freedom. No one hears me. Only echoes send back m words in answer. Musi 1 die alone
Aria: Oli my beloved, to know that 1 have lost you. To think thai never again, oh heaven, shall I behold you, nor caress you in a lingering Farewell. Wild and eerie shadows, and dismal voices lill my soul with Fear. With sighing and
weeping, my senses fail, all hope is gone.
Recitative and Aria, "Sound an Alarm"
from Judas Maccabaeus ............................... Handel
Georg Friedrich Handel was bom in Halle, Germany, February 23. 1685; died in London. April 14, 17f9.
Georg Friedrich Handel, one of the titans of music, is today one of the most shamefully neglected of composers. Although Messiah is known throughout the civilized world and is perhaps the most beloved of all choral works, we must agree with Bukofzer that "its immense public knows it more for its religious appeal than for its musical excellence." It must be admitted that Messiah has won its place in our affections largely by habit, custom, and association. A huge part of its faithful public is unaware of the fact that Handel wrote thirty-one other oratorios, to say nothing of forty-six operas and a staggering amount of instrumental music. Furthermore, he composed in every form known to his age. Be?sides the incredible number of operas at id oratorios, he produced Passion music, anthems, Te Dennis, cantatas, duets, trios, songs, pasticcios, in?cidental music for the stage, serenades, and odes. His output of in?strumental music was equally fabulous. Numbered among bis complete works are sonatas, trios, organ concertos, suites, concern grossi. overtures, and music for the harpsichord, harp, and ballet. Thus there is available for opera houses, choral societies, individual singers, and instrumentalists throughout the world an almost inexhaustible wealth and variety of prac-tically unknown music by this, the last great master of the Baroque era. Three countries have a national justification for claiming him: Germany, the land of his birth; Italy, where he received his early training and experience; and England, the land of his adoption, where he created most of his music over a period of a half century and where he lies buried in
the poets corner of Westminster Abbey among the immortals of English letters.
Handel produced Judas Maccabaeus at Covent Garden on April 1, 1747, and from the first night it was a success. In later revivals --and Handel performed it some thirty times --he made additions which ultimately brought the work to the form in which we know it.
According to The Bible (I Mace, ii; 4), the name Maccabaeus was originally the surname of Judas, the third son of the Jewish priest, Matthias, who struck the first blow for religious liberty during the per?secution of Antiochus IV in his attempt to thrust Hellenism upon Judea. Judas Maccabaeus became the leader in this campaign, which is the most thrilling chapter in Jewish history.
The Recitative and Aria on tonight's program is sung by Judas in Part II of the Oratorio, which celebrates his heroic valor in overcoming the Syrian armies of Apollonius and Seron. Renewal of war by a division of the Syrian Army from Egypt has caused great despondency among the Israelites. In "Sound an Alarm" Judas arouses the failing courage of his people and exhorts them to again meet their enemy.
"Iberia" ("Images" for Orchestra, No. 8) ............ Debussy
Claude Debussy was born in Saint Germain-en-I.aye on August 22. 1862; died in Paris. March 25, 1918.
He painls with pure colors --with that delicate sobriety that spurns all harshness and ugliness.
France had no music of a real national character for over a century before the advent of Debussv. While the nationalization of music in France was not the work of Debussy alone, certainly no one approached the expression of so truly a French musical spirit with greater success than he. His style reveals the purest craftsmanship, impeccable taste, and above all a finesse and lucidity in execution.
In our concert halls today, Debussy is definitely out of fashion. Yet among musicians of this generation, his star is in the ascent. They are re-evaluating his position in music history at a time when their art is floundering in a welter of experimentation some of which has already led to a complete annihilation of former expressive and formal values. De?bussy emerges today as one of music's most original composers and effective liberators. In emphasizing sound for sound's sake, he destroyed the old rhetoric of music and invented a contemporary approach to form. He was the first of the really great moderns who prepared the way for the "atonalists" by introducing chords outside of the key signature, creating a vague feeling of tonality without actually rejecting it. His conscious reac?tion against Romanticism, and especially Wagner, rejected the grandiose.
the epic, and the aggressive and substituted discreet, subtle, and evanes?cent moods for strong personal emotionalism. Preceded by minor com?posers like Satie, and followed by the major masters of our day-Schonberg, Stravinsky, Webern, Berg --he led music into a new world of enchantment and discovery.
Debussy's music is invariably identified with Impressionistic painting. In truth, they both created similar worlds of vagueness, atmosphere, and vibrant color. The Impressionist painters-Monet, Manet, Degas, and Re?noir-who saw the world as a dynamic, constantly changing reality, offer an interesting parallel to Debussy whose music gives the most fleeting existence to immaterial abstract ideas. While they negated all the estab?lished rules of painting by reducing evenly colored surfaces to spots and dabs of color, or with abrupt short brush strokes shattered forms into fragments, so Debussy, through his unresolved dissonances, sensitive awareness of delicate instrumental combinations, fragmentary themes, flexible and even vague rhythms, forsook established musical forms in the interest of atmosphere. Debussy, in truth, knew very little about these painters. As has been pointed out by Alfred Frankenstein, there is no evidence that he found any direct inspiration in their paintings. Nowhere in his extensive writing is there any statement that he was conscious of their existence, far less that he acknowledged any indebtedness to them. The Impressionist painters were all of a generation older than Debussy. Frankenstein further points out that their important exhibition was held in 1874 when Debussy was only twelve years of age; that Impressionism as a movement was over before he had seriously begun to compose; that although he was more strictly contemporary with the Post-Impressionists --Van Gogh, Cezanne, and Gauguin --he shared none of their violence; and that the neo-primitivism of Picasso, which found such a striking parallel in Stravinsky's Sacre du printemps, left Debussy untouched. His relationship to the Symbolist movement in literature was much closer. The fluid mysterious imagery of Maeterlinck drew him to the creation of Pelleas et Melisande; Mallarme's "network of illusion," as he referred to poetry, inspired him to compose "Prelude a l'apres-midi d'un taune"; and to the sensuous poetry of Paul Verlaine ("Les Fetes galantes" and "Ariettes oubliees") he added a prolonged eloquence in his music.
Debussy created two sets of piano compositions and a group of three orchestral works under the title. Images. The first series for piano, com?posed in 1905, comprised the well-known "Reflets dans l'eau," "Hom-mage a Rameau," and "Mouvement." Two years later, the second set appeared, made up of three pieces: "Cloches a travers les feuilles," "Et la lune descend sur le feuille qui jut," and "Poissons d'or."
The orchestral Images have nothing in common with the piano pieces, except their generic title. Debussy gave them the following names: "Gigue triste," "Iberia," and "Ronde de printemps."
Alfred Frankenstein. "The Imagery from Without." High Fidrlitj, September, 1962.
Iberia was composed in 1909, and received its first presentation at one of the Concerts Colonne in Paris, February 10, 1910. As at previous performances of works by Debussy, it was received with a mixture of warm applause, shrill whistling, and cat calls. The concert public, even in Paris, had not yet fully accepted Debussy's "modern" idiom.
The first American performance was given by the Philharmonic Society of New York, January 3, 1911. Gustave Mahler conducted.
Iberia was the ancient Greek name for the country known to the Ro?mans as Hispania (Spain). In this Suite we find a Debussy quite different from the composer of Pelle'as et Me'lisande or L'Apres-midi d'un faune. These Spanish sketches abound in abrupt juxtaposition of apparently unrelated and sharply contrasted ideas, riotous colors, and shifting rhythms. Only in the second section does the placid, reflective atmos?pheric style of the composer find sustained expression.
The orchestra called for in the score of Iberia comprises piccolo, three flutes (one interchangeable with a second piccolo), two oboes, English horn, three clarinets, three bassoons, double-bassoon, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba, kettledrums, side drum, tambourine, castanets, xylophone, celesta, cymbals, three bells, two harps, and strings.
Iberia is divided into the following sections:
1. "Par les rues et par les chemins" ("In the Streets and Byways"). Assez anime (dans une rythme alerte mais precise).
2. "Les Parfurns de la nuit" ("Perfumes of the Night") Lent et reveur. The movement leads into
3. "Le Matin d'un jour de fete" ("The Morning of a Feast-Day") Dans une rythme de marche lointaine alerte et joyeuse.
"O Paradiso" from L'Africana...................... Meyerbeer
Giacomo Meerbeer was born September 5. 1791, in Berlin; died May 2, 1864. in Paris.
During the second quarter of the nineteenth century the operatic "czar-dom" of Meyerbeer reached its apogee, not only in Paris and Berlin, but indirectly throughout the provincial theaters. Although he was not a composer of the first rank, he possessed a keen understanding of the taste of the public which he served and a peculiar gift for exaggeration and effective contrast in his music for the stage. Some beautiful cantilena passages occur in often bizarre and trivial arias in his operas, which tend to create, in concert performances, a higher evaluation of his work than the dramatic productions in their entirety justify.
The aria on tonight's program is taken from the last of his dramatic works, The African, text by Scribe, which was produced at Paris, April 28. 1865. The story deals with the period and experiences of Vasco da Gama, the explorer, and hence is quasi-historical in its appeal. The aria occurs in
Act IV, in the Temple of Brahma. The beauty of the Indian landscape inspires da Gama to voice his admiration and to hail this land as an earthly paradise. To a shimmering accompaniment high in the woodwind, he sings a broad sustained melody expressive of his almost religious exaltation. The music then takes a more martial turn as he is rilled with patriotic fervor by the thought that he will give this tropical paradise he has discovered to Ins native countn :
Hail fruitful land of plenty, beauteous n.iult 11
An earthly paradise art Thou!
The azure sky. the fragrant air enchant my heart.
Thou fair new world art mine.
Thee, .1 radiant gift on my native land I'll bestow.
O beauteous country, Thou art mine at last.
"No! pazzo son! guardate"
from Marion Lescaut .................................. Puccini
Giacomo Puccini was born in Lucca, Italy, December
22. 1858; died in Brussels. November 29. 1924.
Called by Verdi the most promising of his successors, Puccini justified his master's faith with a career of uninterrupted success from his first venture, Le Villi (1884) to his last unfinished work, Turandot (1924). Marion Lescaut (1893) was his third opera, and in it he revealed that unique talent for the lyric theater that was to come to full fruition three years later in La Boheme (1896) and ultimately to win for him the rank of foremost composer of Italian opera in the first half of the twentieth century.
Manon Lescaut was originally a novel by the .bbe Prevost, published in 1731. In 1765 it was turned into a play by one J. Charles Brandes. Scribe made it the basis of a ballet by Halevy (1830); Auber converted it into an opera (1866); and the English composer, Balfe, drew upon the story for his Maid of Artois (1836). But it was Jules Massenet, who in 1884, pro?duced his phenomenally successful Manon at the Opera Comique in Paris, and with it conquered the opera houses of the world. In writing another opera on the same story only nine years later, while he was still a young and relatively unknown composer, Puccini displayed not only a bold and reckless spirit, but an unquestioned confidence in his own talents. "Masse?net feels it as a Frenchman, with the powder and minuets. I shall feel it as an Italian, with desperate passion," he once remarked.
Massenet's Manon is a masterpiece. Puccini's Manon Lescaut is not. Masse?net was Puccini's senior by sixteen years and had reached the very zenith of his career when he wrote his opera in 1884, while Puccini was just getting into his stride. Unlike Massenet, he did not succeed in recapturing the peculiar French atmosphere of Prevost's novel, which took place in the corrupt Paris of the Regency during the second half of the eighteenth
century. This demanded a composer born and bred in the author's own country and instinctively at one with his mentality. Puccini's opera fails to radiate the true Gallic spirit of the subject. His work, however, is superior by virtue of the inexhaustible fund of Italian melody which it contains, by the sensuous warmth and tenderness that characterizes his music in gen?eral, and by the comparative modernity of his harmonic and orchestral idiom. In Marion Lescaut Puccini first found himself as a musician, and while some of the mature characteristics of his style, found in La Boheme, Madama Butterfly, and Tosca, are in full bloom, others are still inchoate. Puccini, always at odds with his librettist, took three years to compose the work, and engaged the services of five writers before he was satisfied. His publisher, Ricordi, first commissioned the playwright, Giuseppi Giacosa, whose efforts he rejected. Ruggiero Leoncavallo, the future composer of Pagliacci, and Maro Praya, a playwright of some repute, with the aid of the poet, Domenico Oliva, met the same fate. The final product was the result of the combined efforts of Giuseppe Giacosa, Luigi Illica, and Puccini, himself. To list the names of its five authors on the score would have appeared ridiculous. The opera therefore, was published merely as "Manon Lescaut, Lyric Drama in Four Acts; music by Giacomo Puccini." The original creator of the fascinating Manon, the Abbe Prevost, was men?tioned only once --in an anonymous preface to the published libretto. The opera was performed for the first time at the Teatro Regio, Turin, February 1, 1893, eight days before the premiere at La Scala of Verdi's swan song, Falstaff. Its success was sensational. At its conclusion, Puccini and the cast received over thirty curtain calls. With Manon Lescaut Puc?cini's international fame was assured.
The story in brief is as follows: Manon, a beautiful young girl from Amiens, on her way to a convent, elopes with the handsome Chevalier des Grieux, whom she later deserts to become the mistress of the elderly, but wealthy, Geronte de Ravoir. Soon tiring of the life of luxury and boredom with her aging lover, she returns to the arms of des Grieux. Geronte, in a rage of jealousy, denounces her to the police as a prostitute, and she is banished to the French province of Louisiana. Des Grieux is smuggled aboard the ship that is to take her to America. On a desolate plain which borders the territory of New Orleans, she and Des Grieux, in desperate need of food and shelter, wander aimlessly until Manon, exhausted, dies in his arms.
The Aria "No, pazzo son guardate" is sung by Des Grieux at the end of Act III. Manon is about to be deported. Des Grieux and Lescaut have planned to abduct her from prison, but their plot has been discovered. Soldiers are leading a band of condemned women aboard the ship, and Manon among them sobs farewell to Des Grieux. In desperation he implores the captain of the ship to allow him to accompany her into exile. His plea takes the form of an impassioned largo sostenuto over insistent and accented triplets. It is one of the most genuine scenes Puccini ever wrote; never in his later operas did he write a more compelling moment.
So eloquent is his grief ("See, how franticI am-how I weep and implore you ...") that the captain consents to take him on board as the curtain descends.
Symphonic Poem: "The Pines of Rome" ............ Respighi
Ottorino Respighi was born in Bologna. July . 1879; died in Rome. April 18. 1936.
In an article in La Revue muskale for January, 1927, G. A. Luciani wrote of Respighi:
Of all the contemporary Italian musicians, Respighi has had the most ample and varied output. He has Heated all genres with such technical resource thai one can hardly say which best reveals the personality of the composer. . . . He stands always in the first rank ol those Italian musicians who have contributed to the renascence of symphonic music in Italy. In "The Fountains of Rome" he has succeeded in realizing .1 personal form of symphonic poem, where descriptive color blends intimately with sentiment and lyricism, where the classical line is unbroken by modern technical usage. He returns to this form in "The Pines of Rome" which culminates in a triumphal march, rich and powerful in sonority.
As Alfredo Casella has aptly observed, the more recent musical output of Respighi is characterized In a new classicism which consists of a harmonious fusion of the laiest musical tendencies of all countries. This tendency is nowhere better realized than with Ottorino Respighi. To the success of his work, moreover, are added two traits which are eminently Latin: a feeling for contraction, and a serenity, the expression of which is rare in the music of our day.
"The Pines of Rome" is the second of a cycle of three compositions dealing with the Eternal City. The first, "The Fountains of Rome," was written in 1916; eight years later, in 1924, he produced "The Pines of Rome"; and in 1928, the "Roman Festivals." Shortly after composing "The Pines of Rome," Respighi wrote to Lawrence Oilman: "The sym?phonic poem, 'The Pines of Rome' was composed in 1924 and performed for the first time at the Augusteo, Rome, in the season of 1924 --25. While in the preceding work, 'The Fountains of Rome,' the composer sought to reproduce, by means of tone, an impression of nature, in 'The Pines of Rome' he uses nature as a point of departure in order to recall memories and visions. The century-old trees which dominate so characteristically the Roman landscape, become testimony of the principal events in Roman life."
When Respighi arrived in America in 1925, he was interviewed by a representative of Musical America and made the following reference to this work:
I do not believe in sensational effects for their own sake. It is true that in my new orchestral poem. "The Pines of Rome," which Toscanini will introduce to you with the New York Philharmonic, some of the instruments play B sharp, and others B Hat in the same passage. But this is not obtruded upon listeners; in the general orchestral color it simply provides a note which I wanted.
Yes, there is a phonograph record of a real nightingale's song used in the third move?ment. Il is a ihm mine, and the dreamy, subdued air of the woodland at the evening hour is ? iiii Hired in the scoring lor the orchestra. Suddenly there is silence, and the voice of the real bird arises, with its liquid notes.
(iu that device has created no end of discussion in Rome, in London--wherever the work has been played. It has been styled radical, a departure from the rules. I simply realized that no combination of wind instruments could quite counterfeit the real bird's song. Not even a coloratura soprano could have produced an effect other than artificial. So I used the phonograph. The directions in the score have been followed thus wherever it has been played.
As in the case of the "Fountains." the "Pines" is written in four move?ments. In a program book of the Philadelphia Orchestra, Mr. Oilman added the following explanation to the printed description which formed the preface to the score:
The Pinks ok the Villa Hokchksk (Allegretto vivace, 2-8). Children are at play in the pine-grove of the Villa liorghese, dancing the Italian equivalent of "Ring Around the Rosy"; mimicking marching soldiers and battles, twittering and shrieking like swallows at evening; and they disappear. Suddenly the scene changes tcj
The Pines Near a Catacomb (Lento, 4-4) beginning with muted and divided strings,
muted horns (pianissimo). We see the shadows of the pines which overhang the entrance to a catacomb. From the depths rises a chant which re-echoes solemnly, sonorously, like a hymn, .Hid is then mvslei ioush silenced.
Tin: Pinks in i ii k anic ri rM I Lento, 4-4. piano cadenza; clarinet solo). There is a thrill in the air. The lull moon reveals the profile of the pines of Gianicolo's Hill. A nightingale sings (represented by a gramophone record of a nightingale's song heard from the orchestra).
The Pines of thi Amman Way (Tempo di mania). Mistv dawn on the Appian Way. The tragic country is guarded by solitary pines. Indistinctly, incessantly, the rhythm of innumer?able steps. To the poet's phantasy appears a vision of past glories; trumpets blare, and the army of the consul advances brilliantly in the grandeur of a newly risen sun toward the s.k i (il w.n . mounting in triumph the Capitoline Hill.
I he unique feature of (his section ol the icore is the tust instance in symphonic music ol the use ol i lecoid
A......ipanying the bird's song arc crills in muted violins, ppp. a chord in the cellos and .mil some notes From ihc
Friday Evening, April 25
Psalm 150, Op. 5, for Chorus and Orchestra.......Ginastera
Alberto Ginastera was born April 1 1, 1916, in Buenos Aires.
Alberto Ginastera's paternal grandfather came to Argentina from Cata?lonia. Spain; his maternal grandfather from Lombardy, Italy. His parents were among the many second generation Argentines who ultimately set?tled in Buenos Aires. Although the family was not musical, Alberto from the age of five displayed remarkable talent. When he was twelve he entered the Williams Conservatory of Buenos Aires and in 1936 the National Conservatory of Music from which he was graduated with high honors. Three years later he returned to the Conservatory as professor of composition. In 1946, on a Guggenheim Foundation Grant, he came to the United States where his works were first made known through the League of Composers in New York City and the Pan American Union in Washington, D. C.
With such compositions as Panambi and Argentine Dances (1937); Songs of Tucuman and Dos Canciones (1938); Three Pieces for Piano (1940); a one act ballet, Estancia (1941); Danzas Criollas, a Suite for Piano (1946); Pampeana No. 1 for viola and piano (1947); Pampeana No. 2 for cello and piano (1950); and especially Pampeana No. 3 for orchestra (1954), Ginastera definitely established himself as the leader of the nation?al movement in Argentine music
He continued a trend noted in Twelve American Preludes for Piano (1944); the first String Quartet (1948); Sonata for Piano (1952); the Variaciones concertantes (1953),t and several other works, toward a counterbalancing of folk and nationalistic idioms with modern technical procedures of polytonality and twelve-tone writing. Gradually his pre?occupation with local folklore material lessened, yet he was able to distill the essence in his thematic textures, rhythms, and melodic motives. As he assimilated contemporary international techniques, there always re?mained, however, a continuity of subjective Argentine character.
Because of his position today as South America's most eminent contem?porary composer, many of Ginastera's early works, such as Psalm 150, have been appearing with increasing frequency on programs in the
'Albert Williams (1H62-I952) in IHiio suited the trend toward a hijrhlv nationalist!! movement iii Argentine muiic. He was Followed b) such Folklorisu composers as Julian Agutne, Carlos Lopes Iiu hardo. LuisCianneo, and juan ose Castro. This movement was dominant when (iinastera tame to musical maturil.
f Performed at the I9S0 May Festival.
United States. The result has been stimulating and rewarding, for they have brought novelty and freshness to our concert audiences surfeited with many of the over-exposed masterworks of the past.
Psalm 150 was written in 1938, when Ginastera was a young man of twenty-two and had just been graduated from the National Conservatory of Music. In it he already showed a remarkable command of a large orchestra, and a most effective manner of combining it with mixed cho-i uses. In spite of its allusions to music that was being written in the 1930's-Stravinsky's Symphony oj Psalms in particular-it maintains a charac?ter of its own. Through its dense texture, stately tempos, and key-oriented harmonies, one is aware of Ginastera's masterly orchestral techniques and his strange and highly individualized sonorities. It is written, for the most part, in a conservative modern idiom that stresses long melodic lines entering at different points. It begins quietly with a choir of boys (sopranos in this performance) singing in unison to the accompaniment of harp and celesta. Gradually men's voices, flutes, strings, women's voices, and full orchestra enter and its climax is reached most dramatically in an alleluia that evokes celebratory bells. A four-note motive, repeated continuously and constantly modulating upwards in pitch, reaches a stunning climax prepared with great craft and imagina?tion. The work had its first performance at the Teatro Calon in Argentina on April 7, 1945, and its American premiere under the direction of Eugene Ormandy and the Philadelphia Orchestra at the Saratoga Per-forming Arts Center, August 2, 1968.
Laudatt Dominum in sanctis ejus: laudaU turn in firmamento virtutis ejus.
LaudaU nun in virtutUnts ejus: laudato eum secundum multitudinem magnitudinis ejus.
Laudate rum in sono tubae: laudatr rum in psatUrio, el cithara.
Laudate rum in tympana, rt choro: laudaU eum in chordis, et organo.
Laudate rum in nmlxilu benesonantibus:
laudate eum in cmlalis jubilationis.
Omnis spiritus laiulet Dominum. Alleluia.
Praise ye the Lord. Praise God in his sanctuary: praise him in the firmament of his power.
Praise him for his mighty aits: praise him according to his excellent greatness.
Praise him with the sound of the trum?pet: praise him with the psahen and harp.
Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organs.
Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals.
Let everything that hath breath, praise the Lord. Praise ve the Lord. Alleluia.
Pantasilea's Aria, from Bomarzo.......................Ginestera
It was on February 22, 1966, that Ginestera's name was spread afar in our land, when he received extravagant accolades from the press for his fiercely modern and jaggedly atonal opera, Don Rodrigo, performed at the
New York State Theatre, Lincoln Center. In the New York Herald Tribune, February 23, Allan Rich wrote:
It was altogether one of the great dazzling evenings in the history of the city's musical life. For the first time in memory, a contemporary opera made a terrific impact upon audiences and critics alike .. . Mr. Ginestera has created the kind of contemporary opera for everyone, at least those with some degree of faith in the musical language of our times knew would some time appear. Don Rodrigo is a masterpiece, as compelling a piece of musical dramaturgy as the past few decades has produced. It is today's grand opera, very grand, and very much of today.
Two years later Ginestera brought forth another equally stunning score. Bomarzo had its world premiere May 19, 1968, in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the Washington Opera Society, upon whose com?mission it was written. Without slavish adherence to tonal traditions or reliance upon conventional musical derivation, Bomarzo added a new dimension and communicative power to the lyric theatre. With it, as with Don Rodrigo, Ginestera has confirmed the contemporary concept of opera as a total theatrical experience. He has achieved this by weaving a com?posite musical fabric of arresting tonal sonorities. Atonality, aleatory forms (random tones), microtonalism, speech, sprechstimme (speech song), carefully notated vocal lines, and metrical rhythms merge to create a formidable surrealistic world. The richly varied instrumental textures which he employed earlier in Psalm 150, now reach superb realization. His orchestra can splatter colors in myriad profusion, or surge with opulence, as the situation demands. His vast musical vocabulary has created an opera that has made a definite impression on the general public, dis?couraged by so many abortive modern works of good intention but little appeal. It has gained enthusiastic acceptance and even the "snobbish approbation from the musical culturati" to whom opera has always been considered to be the lowest form of art. There is no doubt, however, that much of its initial success must be shared with the expert direction of Tito Capobianco, the fantastic scenic designs of Ming Lee, the daring costumes of Jose Varona, the exotic choreography of Jack Cole, and the electrifying conducting of Julius Rudel. Whether or not Ginestera's music could survive alone, only time will determine. His vocal writing, upon which any opera will ultimately succeed or fail, is not the real source of his memo?rable achievement according to some discerning and knowledgeable crit?ics; not because his music is largely atonal or serial, but because he is still unclear as to how the human voice may be exploited to the greatest advantage. Because he has aimed at a synthesis of all of the arts of the theater, to some Bomarzo is "a major production of a minor score" or "effect rather than substance." All agree, however, that he has created a work that exercises a theatrical spell which is constantly absorbing and provocative and perhaps prophetic of the direction contemporary opera is to take. A short excerpt, out of context, such as the Pantasilea scene on tonight's program, can give little idea of the terrific culminative force and relentless mood sustained throughout the work. It does demonstrate
momentarily, however, how Ginestera can mask a tonal vocal passage with an atonal orchestration.
The libretto of Bomarzo by Manual Mujica Jainez (based upon his own novel) is an unabashed melodrama that belongs to the genre of the Gothic Romance, replete with all the paraphernalia of romantic tragic opera. Its action takes place in the sixteenth century--near Rome and in Florence. Pier Francesco Orsini, Duke of Bomarzo, twisted in body and spirit, lies dying from poison administered to him by his nephew. In a series of fifteen scenes he looks back upon his depraved life, baring his malignant and tortured soul in search of immortality. In the throes of death he recalls, in a series of flashes into his childhood, the mockery of his father for having a hunchback for a son; the cruelty and insults of his two brothers; his terrifying encounter with a courtesan; the violent death of one of his brothers and of his father which brought him the Dukedom; his fruitless marriage with the beautiful Julia Farnese, and her illicit love with his remaining brother; his nightmarish dreams which constantly haunt him; and the screaming of the peacocks which prophecy his doom. There is a coronation scene with big chorus and bells; an astrolo?ger's incantation, a dance of a skeleton, an orgy, murder, seduction, homosexuality, and adultery --a shocking libretto on the surface, but no more so than is Wagner's Der Ring des Nibelungen to which must be added incest. The story, like most red-blooded nineteenth century tragic operas is propelled by violence and elementary passion. In Verdi's Rigo-letto, a hunchback deals with seduction and murder; Trovatore with unrelenting violence; Leoncavallo's Pagliacci with adultery and murder; Strauss' Salome reeks with perversion; Puccini's Tosca is saturated with carnal desire, torture, murder and suicide. Even Mozart's Don Giovanni begins with rape and continues through two acts of attempted seductions. As Anna Russell has so aptly expressed it, "In opera, you can do anything as long as you sing it."
The portion of the opera on tonight's program is from Act I, Scene 4, titled "Pantasilea." In the libretto, each scene is described in the words of Bomarzo:
The Duke wouldn't see me, and sent me to Florence to a famous courtesan, Pantasilea. perhaps to make fun of me. The courtesan awaited me, thinking that the Orsinis were sending her a gallant prince, and she was naturally disappointed when she saw a hunchback enter her chamber, where she was singing to Love, which was King in Florence. 1 was attended by Abdul, my slave, whom I loved dearly. I remember the terror I felt when I was left alone with Pantasilea in a room of mirrors peopled by my shameful image. My terror grew as Pantasilea redoubled her passionate requests. I fancied that the small monsters in the mirrors were mocking the afflicted visitor. I gave the voluptuous creature my sapphire necklace, and I asked her to let me go. Half in jest, hall in earnest, she answered that she would, but that she would give me a present in return. She led me to a cupboard and I was revolted by its contents: skulls, bones, embalmed beasts, and the dreadful liquids they used to Ian the flame ol iailing love. I couldn't stand it, and I ran away, as the peacocks echoed the ominous cry I had heard in the castle.
Florence: In the chamber of the courtesan, Pantasilea, furnished with a sumptuous bed and a large cupboard. The room is surrounded by mir?rors. The courtesan, seated, is singing, accompanying herself on a lute. The peacocks' cries are heard from time to time in the distance:
Florence alone
knows how to love,
nor Constantinople, nor Rome
nor Venice nor Granada.
No city knows how to love
as Florence loves.
My Florence knows loves
that shine like pearls.
My bare breasts are
like pearls, like pearls.
and on them lie pillowed
all Florence's loves
(The peacocks cry.)
What's the matter with the peacocks
of Florence today What madness makes them cry so Is it for the young virgin boy whose
visit has been announced to Pantasilea
Pier Francesco Orsini. ..
a beautiful name, really. Will he, too,
be beautiful, be very handsome,
the prince whose father sends him to me
(Returning to her song)
Florence alone
knows how to love
the river, the stones
are in love, teach us love.
Embraced are the stones of Florence;
embraced in the trembling arms
of the river whose clear waters say
Pantasilea, Pantasilea,
Pantasilea, Pantasilea.
Ninguna ciudad del mundo sake amar Como Florencia, m Roma, Constantmopla, ni Granada, ni Venecia. Ninguna ciudad del mundo sabe amar como Florencia. Mi Florencia sabe amores que brilian como las perlas. Mis pechos desnudos son como perlas., como perlas, V sobre ellos se reclina lodo el amor de Florencia.
iQue tienen hoy las pavos realesflorentinosf
IQuelocura los hace gritas asi iSera por el joven senor virgen cuya visita le han anunciado a Pantasilea
Pier Francesco Orsini... hello nomine,
en verdad. iSera hello el tambien, sera muy
hello el prtneipe que su
padre me envta
Ninguna ciudad del mundo
sabe amar como Florencia,
porque aqui tws ensenaron
a amar, el rio y las piedras.
El rio estd enamorado
de las piedras de Florencia;
la tiene loda cenida
entre sus brazo que liemblan,
v el claro rio me dice:
Panlasilea, Pantasilea,
Pantasilea, Panlasilea
Bomarzo, 1967, by Boosey and Hawkes. Inc. Reprinted by permission. English translation by Hoban A. Spalding from the libreno by Manuel Mujica Jainez.
s l( ) i (: o c k k i
"Fern Hill" for Mixed Chorus,
Mezzo-soprano, and Orchestra...................Corigliano
ohn Corigliano was born February 16, 1938, in New York City.
John Corigliano attended Columbia College (B.A. 1959 cum laude),ma-joring in music composition. He studied with Otto Luening, Paul Creston, and Vittorio Giannini. Among his awards and commissions were the first prize in the Spoleto Festival Competition in 1964 for his Sonata for Violin and Piano; three ASCAP awards in 1965, 1966, and 1967, and a commis?sion by Lincoln Center to write a chamber work for the opening season of the Alice Tully Hall in the new Juilliard School of Music (1969). In the field of radio and television he has acted as Music Director of WBAI-FM, worked as a writer and program arranger for WQ_XR, and served as Assistant Director for many outstanding television shows, including the New York Philharmonic Young People's Concerts and the Vladimir Horowitz TV recital. At present he is President of Music for the Theater, a rental library of incidental-music scores and recordings.
"Fern Hill," set to the poem by Dylan Thomas, was composed in 1960--61, when the composer was twenty-two years old. It was written for and dedicated to Mrs. Bella Tillis, Corigliano's music teacher, and was first performed by her chorus in the spring of 1961. Hugh Ross gave the work its first performance with orchestra in December of that year in a concert in Carnegie Recital Hall sponsored by the National Association of American Composers and Conductors.
Since then, "Fern Hill" has had several hundred performances in the United States and Europe, in both the full orchestral version, performed at this concert, and in a chamber arrangement for strings, harp, and piano. These included performances by the Washington (D.C.) Choral Society and National Symphony Orchestra under Paul GaJIaway and the St. Cecelia Chorus and Orchestra under David Randolph. In this latter performance, Joanna Simon performed the mezzo solo.
The follow ing notes were provided by the composer:
Set in the "Pastorale" key of F major. "Kern Hill" attempts to capture the nostalgia of the Thomas poem in its first bars. The composer uses the form and dynamic structure implied in the lyrics of the poem to shape his piece. The form of the work (a large A-B-A) is indicated in the metrical structure of the poem, with the change of pulse in the third and fourth verses indicating a major subsection, and the return to the original metric scheme of the first two verses in the fifth verse, indicating an obvious recapitulation to the original musical material.
The six verses of the poem are separated by short orchestral interludes. A mezzo-soprano solo sings the middle two verses, with the chorus entering shortly before the end of the lourth verse to comment on the preceding solo.
There are many references to "time" as the governing force of the poem (and the poet"s life) --a force which "held him green and dying" throughout his life. This is pictured in the
theme which opens the work --a theme given only to the orchestra, never intruding into the choral verses, but governing their harmonic and melodic actions.
The choral and orchestral writing in "Fern Hill" is extremely uncomplicated, and the direction "with simplicity" appears in the score more than once. The work can le thought of .is an extended choral "song," rather than a secular cantata, lor its effect lies in under?statement and simplicity, and its success depends on the directness of its message, not on the kind ol theatricality which choral-orchestral works usually possess.
Now as I was young and easy under the apple boughs About the lilting house and happy as the grass was green. The night above the dingle starry, lime let me hail and climb Golden in the heydays of his eyes.
And honoured among wagons I was prince ol the apple towns And once below a time I lordly had the trees and leaves Trail with daisies and barley Down the rivers of the wind Tail light.
Instrumental Interlude
And as I was green and carefree, famous among the barns
About the happy yard and singing as the farm was home.
In the sun that is young once only.
Time let me play and be
Golden in the mercy of his means.
And green and golden I was huntsman and herdsman, the calves
Sang to my horn, the foxes on the hills barked clear and cold.
And the sabbath rang slowly
In the pebbles of the holy streams.
Instrumental Interlude 11
All the sun long it was running, it was lovely, the hay
Fields high as the house, the tunes from the chimneys, it was air
And playing, lovely and watery
And fire green as grass.
And nightly under the simple stars
As I rode to sleep the owls were bearing ihfarm away.
All the moon long I heard, blessed among stables, the nightjars
Flying with the ricks, and the horses
Flashing into the dark.
Instrumental Interlude Mezzo-soprano:
And then to awake, and the farm, like a wanderer white
With the dew. come back, the cock on his shoulder: it was all
Shining, it was Adam and maiden.
The sky gathered again
And the sun grew round that very day.
So it must have been after the birth of the simple light
In the first, spinning place, the spellbound horses walking warm
Oiu of the whinnying green stable
On to the fields of praise.
Instrumental Interlude
III Choki s:
And honoured among foxes and pheasants by the gay house
Under the new made clouds and happy as the heart was long,
In the sun born over and over
I ran my heedless ways.
My wishes raced through the house high hay
And nothing I tared, at my sky blue trades, that time allows
In all his tuneful turning so few and such morning songs
Before the children green and golden
Follow him out ol grace.
Instrumental Interlude Semi-Chorls:
Nothing I cared, in the lamb white days, that time would take me
I'p to the swallow thronged loll In the shadow of my hand,
In the moon that is always rising.
Nor that riding to sleep
I should hear him fly with the high fields
And wake to the farm forever fled from childless land.
Oh as I was young and easy in the mercy of his means.
Time held me green and dying
Though I sang in my chains like the sea.
Concerto No. 1 in E minor, Op. 11
for Piano and Orchestra..............................Chopin
Frederic Francois Chopin was born in Zelazowa Wola, Po?land. February T2. ISK(;lied in Paris. October 17. 184(1.
In Chopin, all that was subjective and sensitive found a lyrical voice. He, like the other Romanticists, was a product of" what the French called le desenchantement de la vie. He suffered from the malady of the century, indeterminate longing and unquenchable desire -la vague des passions, which became such a strong element in the formation of French Romantic thought.
Otherwise he shared little in the activities of the Romantic movement. Being a creature of superfine sensibilities, he never identified himself with the radical element or took an active part in the progressive life of his time. His art, therefore, is not marked by the usual romantic excesses; he never submitted, as did Tchaikovsky, to overwhelming grief and dead?ening depression. In his personal reserve and artistic restraint, he re?mained a classicist, at least in spirit. He stayed aloof from the whole trend
toward programmatic and descriptive music, adamantly resisting the infiltration of drama and "story painting" into music. He ever retained his dignity as an absolute and true musician.
He did share, however, in thai paradox of personality that gives such color and interest to the typical Romantic figure. Artistically and emo?tionally he was of course a true Romanticist, creating music with the soul of a sensitive poet; yei his music, foi all its twilight glamor, reveals within the small framework he chose an instinctive sense of form, a coherence of structure which, although fluent, suggests a conscious discipline of mind. He remained throughout his artistic career an intense patriot and nation?alist who infused into his music, with great independence, the melodic and rhythmic idioms of his native land, singing into the ears and heart of Europe the lament of his ravished Poland. Yet he spent most of his creative life in Paris, a pampered celebrity. He became the voice of a nation but remained always an individualist. Sensitive and introspective by nature, with a decided aversion for the public, he became ultimately a composer for the multitudes, through a music that transcended all nation?al boundaries in the universality of its appeal. An extremely limited composer, not only in the quantity of his output but in the variety of his media, having written exclusively for the piano, he created with in?exhaustible variety and unlimited imagination and resourcefulness the most individual style ever evolved for this instrument. Paradoxically again, in creating with rigorous self-discipline perhaps the most self-conscious and artful music ever conceived, he appears before the world, through the directness and spontaneity of his expression, the most artless of artisans, making an analysis of his music the most futile of intellectual exercises.
Chopin chose not to cast his art in the epic or sublime mold; he sought his inspiration not in a Byron or in the rugged individualistic style of the revolutionary Beethoven, as did Berlioz, but in the lyricism of De Mussel and Lamartine and the cantabile style of the Italian composers, partic?ularly Bellini, whose admirer and intimate friend he was. He possessed a profound respect for and an intimate knowledgeof the art of the singer and the great vocal tradition of his day. Avoiding all of the Italian operatic vulgarities, he distilled from the style its singing essence, and this became the very core of his art. He created, with Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann, an era of lyricism in music that became the highest accomplishment of the musical Romantic movement and an exact parallel of what was achieved in literature by such poets as Lamartine, Heine, Wordsworth. Keats, and Shelley.
Chopin produced two concertos for piano and orchestra. Both were composed when he was twenty years of age. and belong to the period of his triumphs as a young virtuoso concert pianist. The E minor, numbered Opus 11, is in reality a later work than the F minor. Opus 21, but because of the fact that it was published first, it is always referred to as Number 1.
We know that Chopin was working on the E minor in March 1830, for on the 27th of that month, he referred to it in a letter, hoping that he would soon finish the first movement. He did not succeed, however, for from a letter written on May 25, 1830, we read:
The rondo for im concerto is not vet finished because the right inspired mood has always been wauling. If I have only the Allegro and the Adagio completely linished I shall be without anxietv alxiut the finale. The Adagio is in K major, and of a romantic, calm, and partly melanchol) character, li is intended to convey the impression which one receives when the eye rests on a beloved landscape that calls up in one's soul beautiful memories-for instance, on i fine moonlit spring night. 1 have written for violins with mutes as an accompaniment to it. I wonder if thai will have a good effect. Well, time will show.
The work was finally completed in August and performed for the first time, October 11, 1830.
As in all of Chopin's major works, analysis is a frustrating procedure; to try to capture the secret of this capricious arbitrary art by systematic analytical means is about as futile as attempting to explain the beaut) of a butterfly in flight while dissecting it under a microscope. To analyze the tremulous vaporous harmonies, to attempt to explain how the graceful, smoothly molded melodies often grow impassioned and rhapsodic, to catch the lambent, coruscating ornamentations and hold them long enough to discover their harmonic moorings would be about as rewarding as would a detailed analysis of the individual spots of a Monet canvas.
Any formal examination of this concerto would again present us with the admitted fact that Chopin was an inadequate and insecure orches-trator, and that he was often embarrassed in the manipulation of the classic forms.
In writing of the sonatas and concertos. Liszt regretted that Chopin ever felt compelled to employ or tried to adhere to them:
His beauties were onlv manilesled fullv in entire freedom. We believe heoffered violence to the character of bis genius whenever he sought to subject it to rules, to classifications, to regulations noi his own. and which he could not force into harmony with the exactions of his own mind. He was one of those original beings, whose graces are onlv fully displayed when iluv c in themselves adrift from all bondage, and Boat on at their own wild will, swayed onlv by the ever undulating impulses of their own mobile natures. He could not retain, within the square of an angular and rigid mould, that floating and indeterminate contour which so fascinates us in his graceful conceptions. He could not introduce in its unyielding lines that shadow) and sketch) indecision, which, disguising the skeleton, the whole framework of form, drapes it in the mist of floating vapors, such as surround the white-bosomed maids of )ssian, when the) permit mortals to catch some vague yet lovely outline, from their home in the changing, drifting, blinding clouds.
There is no point, then, in applying analytical methods that often aid us in understanding some of the marvels of musical expression attained by the "large-dimensional architecture" of a Beethoven or a Brahms. Chopin
Fran; l.isc. Life of Chopin, mm. l Martha v. Cook cm. rev. ed.; N York: F. W. Chrisiern. IMS).
created his own musical universe and it is not subject to the laws that govern any other. In the words of Daniel Gregory Mason, "In the firma?ment of music, he will continue to shine, a fixed star, not perhaps of the first magnitude, but giving a wonderfully clear, white light, and, as he would have wished it, in peerless solitude."
Danifl Gregory Maion. Tin Rmanlu Compmrn (NYork: Macmiltan. 19(16). p. 252.
Saturday Evening, April 26
Prelude to Die Meistersinger ............................ Wagner
Richard Wagner was born in Leipzig, May 22, 181:1: died in Venice, February 13, 1883.
To the opera-going public, particularly in Germany, Wagner's single comedy Die Meistersinger is the most beloved of all his works. The gaiety and tunefulness of the score, the intermingling of humor, satire, and romance in the text, are all reasons for its universal popularity.
As a reconstruction of the social life in the quaint medieval city of Niirnberg, its truthfulness and vividness are beyond all praise. In its harmless satire, aimed in kindly humor at the manners, vices, and follies of the "tradesmen-musicians" and their attempt to keep the spirit of minstrelsy alive by dint of pedantic formulas, the plot is worthy to stand beside the besi comedies ol the world. Certainly, with the possible ex?ception of Verdi's Falstajj, it has no equal in operatic literature.
Among the great instrumental works whose fundamental principle is thai of polyphony, the Prelude to Die Meistersinger stands alone. Polyphon?ic music, formerly the expression of corporate religious worship, now becomes the medium for the expression of the many-sidedness of individ?ual character and the complexity of modern life. What a triumph for the man who was derided for his lack of scholarship because he had no desire to bury himself alive in dust, but who constructed, with a surety of control of all the resources of the most abstruse counterpoint, a monument of polyphonic writing reminiscent of Palestrina and Bach, and with no sac?rifice of naturalness, simplicity, and truthfulness.
Like Beethoven in the "Leonore'"' overtures written for his opera Fidelio, Wagner constructed the symphonic introduction to his comedy so as to indicate the elements of the dramatic story, their progress in the devel?opment of the play, and finally the outcome.
The overture begins with the theme of the Meistersingers in heavy chords, which carry with them all the nobility and dignity indicative of the character of the guild members, with their steadfast convictions and adherence to traditional rules. The theme is an embodiment of all that was sturdy, upright, and kindly in the medieval burgher.
The second theme, only fourteen measures in length, heard alternating in llute. oboe, and clarinet, expresses the tender love of Eva and Walther. With a flourish in the violins flaunted by brass, another characteristic Meistersinger theme appears in the woodwinds, indicating the unanimity
of the guild, symbolized in their banner whereon is emblazoned King David playing his harp.
In an interlude the violins sing the famous "prize song" in which, in the last act, the whole work, finds its highest expression. This section is abruptly ended with a restatement of the Meistersinger theme, now in the form of a short scherzo in humorous staccato notes. A stirring climax is reached with the simultaneous sounding of the three main themes: the "prize song" in the first violins and hist horns and cellos; the banner theme in woodwinds, lower horns, and second violins; the Meistersinger theme in basses of all choirs. There is little music so intricate, yet so human. In the words of Lawrence Oilman:
The great, golden laughter that Wagner releases in Die Meistersinger is a thing apart. So, too. is its enamoring blend of poetry and humor --we realize that there is nothing in music to SCI beside this lovable masterwork, with its beauty and serene philosophy, its delicate, exact recapturing of the hue and fragrance of a vanished day. its perfect veracity and transcen?dent art. This utterance of a rich and tranquil spirit, so warm and humorous and so deeply wise, must remain among those things which live for the unfailing reassurance of the minds of men.
Symphony No. 3 "The Camp Meeting" ................... Ives
Charles Ives was born in Danbury, Connecik ut. on October '_(). 1874; died in New York, Ma) 19, 1954.
Like the ever widening circles that appear when .i stone is thrown into a pool of water, his music proceeds from the local to the regional, thence to the national and finally to the universal.
Charles Ives received his early musical training from his father George E. Ives, a bandmaster who, at the age of sixteen, organized a Civil War band and won personal commendation from both Lincoln and ('.rant. With true Yankee ingenuity he experimented in novel and fantastic ac-coustical effects undreamed of in his time. From the age of five, his son, aware of a world of strange and bizarre sounds, became, nonetheless, under his father's tutelage, moderately proficient in performing con?ventional music on various instruments and thoroughly disciplined in traditional harmony and counterpoint. At the age of twelve he was organ?ist at the Danbury West Street Congregational Church, and by fifteen he had composed a startling work combining a Stephen Foster-like tune with "barn dances, jigs, gallops and reels." His Song for Harvest Season (1894) for voice, coronet, trombone, and organ, each in a different key and produced when he was twenty, proclaimed him to be, like his father, a Yankee musical rebel. He entered Yale University at the age of
Lawrence Oilman. Vagner Oprrw, (New York: Karrar and Kim-han. Inc. 19.17). pp. 214-15.
twenty-one, dutifully submitted to the academic demands of his dis?tinguished, German-trained teacher Horatio Parker, but continued in his own recalcitrant way to stretch the limits of musical expression to the utmost, avoiding all the habitual practices found in the "acceptable" music of his time.
Charles Ives entertained no illusions about himself or his music. He realized early that what he felt, and was compelled to express, would find no audience. Knowing that composition would never lead to financial independence, he decided to make music his avocation and entered the business world. After an apprenticeship to an insurance company, he organized, in 1909, the firm of "Ives and Myrick" with which he remained until 1930, achieving great success in the venture. Not only did he and his associates add about $450,000,000 worth of new business to the Mutual Life of New York alone, but he showed as much initiative in this venture as in music, pioneering in such new insurance ideas as family protection and provisions to meet inheritance taxes, etc. There was no dichotomy in his attitude toward his profession and toward his art. He wrote:
1 business experience revealed life to me in many aspects I might otherwise have missed. In it one sees tragedy, nobility, meanness, high aims, low aims, brave hopes, ",i i-.ii ideals and one is able to watch these work inevitable destiny ... It is my impression that there is more openmindedness and willingness to examine carefully the premises underlying a new and unfamiliar thing, before condeming it, in the world of business than in the world of music ... 1 have experienced a great fullness of life in business. The fabric of existence weaves itself whole. You cannot set art off in the corner and hope for it to have vitality, reality and substance. There can be nothing exclusive about a substantial art. It comes directly out of the heart of life and thinking about life and living life. My work in music helped my business and m work in business helped my music
If ever music came "directly out of the heart of life" it is that of Charles Ives. In his art he assimilated and sublimated all of the divergent indigenous music of America: folk and popular tunes, New England psalms, minstrel songs, barn dances, gospel hymns, patriotic marches, and early ragtime.t Treating this multifarious material with astonishing creat?ive inventiveness, weaving it all in a rhapsodic manner into the most complicated fabric of unorthodox patterns, he created works that antici?pated what were to become the most radical developments of twentieth-century composition. He remains the most audacious pioneer in music this country has ever produced. For all its conglomeration of material sources, and its uncompromising complexities, Ives' art commu?nicates with disarming directness. It is, as Nicolas Slonimsky stated "at once complex and appealingly simple."
As he continued to compose, he found greater and greater freedom, and exerted more and more independence and daring, as unconcerned
IIciiiv Bellermann, "Charles Ivra. I hMan and His Mu$k." Musical QvartrHy (Vol. XIX; January 19331.47.
t In the index of tunes included in John KirLpatrick's Catalogue of the Music of Ives. his source material shows over 30 In inns, more than 25 patriotic songs and military tunes, some 35 popular songs, over a dozen popular tunes, college songs, quotations from Handel, Haydn, Beethoven. Brahms. Tchaikovsky, Debussy, and the music of his father.
with the almost insuperable technical challenges to those who attempted to perform his music as he was indifferent to whether or not he had audiences to listen. "I seem to have worked with more natural freedom when I knew that the music was not going to be played, at least publi-cally," he once wrote. He avoided all active participation in America's musical life and was totally unaware of the contemporary music that was coming from Europe. Until the age of seventy-one, he had never heard any of his compositions performed by a full orchestra. His stubborn indifference is stated in his volume of 114 songs which he published in 1922 at his own expense. "As far as the music is concerned, anyone (if he be so inclined) is free to use it, copy it, transpose or arrange it for other instruments. The book is privately printed and is not to be sold or put on the market. Complementary copies will be sent to anyone as long as the supply lasts."
Again in the dedication of the first edition of the Second Sonata (Con?cord, Massachusetts, 1840-1860) he appended a series of Six Essays. "These prefatory Essays," he wrote, "were written by the composer for those who can't stand his music; and for those who can't stand his essays; to those who can't stand either, the whole is respectfully dedicated."t
It is impossible to place Ives' music m niiv historical sequence. It was almost thirty years, after he had virtually stopped composing, before the world began to become aware of its existence. His Second Symphony, composed in 1902, was not performed until 1951; the Second Piano Sonata had its initial hearing in 1939; the Fourth Symphony, written between 1910 and 1916, had its first complete performance as recently as 1965! In the meantime Stravinsky and Schonberg had won worldwide recognition unknowingly employing so main of his audacious devices. Nothing in the area of dissonance, polytonality, or atonality now disturbs us unduly. Confronted with the era of electronic sounds, even these masters are received with relative composure. Had Ives not chosen to isolate himself from the main stream of music's advancement, he might very well have become the most infamous enfant terrible in music's history. But the boldness of his pioneer spirit still amazes and sometimes bewil?ders us. Late recognition of his adventurous music has not yet diminished our startled reactions to his more advanced achievements, nor rendered us insensitive to his fierce devotion to his art.
The Third Symphony is not entirely representative of the Ives we have been describing. Compared with the startling effects of the Concord Sonata, the panoramic Three Places in New England (1903--1914), and other major works, it sounds very conservative today. It was begun in 1901, at the time Ives was employed at the Mutual Life Insurance Com?pany of New York and was serving as organist of the Central Presbyterian
Chaifcl ln, Euav Before a Sonata(Sm York: Arrow Music Press. Inc. 1947). t Ibid.
Church in Manhattan, and was completed in 1911. The thematic mate?rials are mostly based upon hymns and organ pieces he played in church around 1901. It was first performed on May 5, 1947, when Ives was seventy years old, by the New York Little Symphony under the direction of Lou Harrison. That year it won the Pulitzer Prize, thirty-five years after it was written! According to Ives, the direct inspiration for the symphony came from his memories of the post-Civil War period, when camp meet?ings, originating in Kentucky, were inspired by the preaching of James McCurdy. In every small village crowds congregated and set up camps during his stay. Soon they spread to all parts of the nation and in the ensuing years became a familiar American institution. Woven into the fabric ot this quietly devotional work can be heard such old hymns as What a Friend We Have in Jesus, For a Thousand Tongues to Sing, Just as I Am Without One Plea, and There Is a Fountain Filled with Blood.
Although the Third Symphony does not reveal the revolutionary Ives, who still can fill us with amazement and bewilderment with his rugged audacity and sometimes gigantic broodings on old hymn tunes, references to village bands, and pithy bits of popular ditties, it is always received with growing respect and increased affection for the most unique composer America has produced. In the words of Gilbert Chase, "it is a work of quiet charm, mostly meditative in mood, devoid of sensational effects, appealing by its integrity and restrained eloquence ... It sums up in sym?phonic form the deep tradition of American hymnody from which our musical impulse sprang for upwards of three centuries, and it stands as a classic in the American grain.
The symphony is scored for a small orchestra, comprising Mute, oboe, clarinet in B-flat. bassoon, two horns in F. trombone, strings, and bells (ad libitum). Its final measures, with the strings and bells, is the only touch of polvtonality in the work.
Symphony No. 1 in D major ("The Titan") .......... Mahler
Gustav Mahler was born in Kulischt. Bohemia. ul 7. ISiiO; died in Vienna, Austria, May 18,1911.
Sensibility which no words can express --charm and torment of our vain years --vast consciousness of a nature everywhere greater than we are, and everywhere impenetrable.
-Sen alcou R
Near the end of Mahler's life tremendous changes were taking place in the world. It was inevitable that the changing currents in European
thought at the end of the nineteenth century would affect music. The romantic spirit that had given the art its tremendous vitality was fading
'Gilbert Ch.isr, Amrruim AfuMi (NY Yoik: Md.i.iu Hill BH)k Company; rev. 2(1 cd.. 1955) p. 413.
before the advance of the realistic, the logical, and the scientific. Between the end of the romantic nineteenth and the beginning of the scientific twentieth century, music was experiencing a period of the greatest in?tellectual fermentation and creative fertility. Mahler found himself sur?rounded by numerous composers who seemed to have discovered un-trammeled ways into the future of their art. On every hand, in every field of re-creation, he heard about him a host of the most technically skilled performers, and he beheld such huge and eager audiences as the world of music had never before known. Vet before his untimely death in 1911, the first year of what was to be a tragic decade, this active spring of inspiration began to grow sluggish. German music had grown weary of perpetuating the principles of romanticism, and her composers had, by 1911. begun to forsake the past and to follow their new leaders. Reger and Schonberg. The composers of the post-Wagnerian period in Germa?ny were not writing the last chapter of romanticism; they were writing its epilogue.
It was for Mahler alone, among German composers of his period, to reach full maturity while the romantic point of view still survived as a potent source of musical fecundity; his mind, like that of Wagner and Brahms, was nurtured by the rich blood of German romanticism. But with keen instinct and sensitive awareness, he felt that he was ex?periencing the end rather than the climax of a great era. His peculiar position --as the last real romanticist who lived on into the twentieth century, forming, as it were, a bridge between a dying tradition and the birth of a new scientific ideology --is what gave to his art its peculiar distinction and character. His voice echoed from a vanishing world, a world that was becoming increasingly remote, still beheld in the mists of distance, but irrecoverably lost. Yet, with the soul of a mystic, Mahler continued to seek after deeper realities than appeared in the immediate and material world; with the mind of a philosopher he probed the depths of human experience and tried to relate the values he found there to those that were already superseding them.
The overwrought pathos, the impassioned eloquence, and fitful in?tensity found in his art have often been accredited to his Jewish origin, but the desperate nostalgia, the restless longing that surges through his pages, is not to be explained merely in terms of race. It was the gloomy premonition of the approaching death of the romantic world view that haunted Mahler. In the wake of an advancing machine age and its insistence upon scientific reality, he was troubled by the fading away of illusion and the loss of the picturesque, disturbed by the slow emascula?tion of the magic, the supernatural, and the mythical symbols that so vitalized the music of the world he knew. It is the consciousness of this receding world, this slipping away of old values, that gives to such works as Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, Das Lied von der Erde, and Kind-
fwool the longi 1mm [In (v l.inused M.ihk-r it) this svmphonv. 11
ertotenlieder among others, their deeply nostalgic color and their troubled, poignant feeling. Yet Mahler had little in common with the earlier and fully-formed romanticists; he shared their sensitivity and burning passion, but he lacked their fervor and strength, their "soaring flight in grief." There is in him none of the heroic and epic pathos of Wagner; there is only an unconquerable melancholy and infinite regret, a heartfelt protes?tation against the fleetingness and pain of life. As Santayana wrote of those philosophers who, like Mahler, believed that existence was an illu?sion, he was "without one ray of humor, and all persuaded that the universe, too, must be without one."
This symphony, Mahler's first large orchestra composition extant, was composed between 1883 and 1888, and had its world premiere Novem?ber 20, 1889. in Budapest. It was programmed as "a Symphonic Poem in Two Parts," each of its five movements having a descriptive title. From all accounts the Budapest audience, despite their admiration and respect for their opera conductor, were not enthusiastic over his work as a composer; they found this composition strange and confusing, which was partial!) due to the title and program attached to the work.
Through the influence of Richard Strauss, the composition received its third complete performance (there had been a second in Hamburg in 1892) at the festival of the "Allgemeiner Deutscher Musikverein" at Wei?mar on June 3, 1894. Though still designated as a "symphonic poem." it was now given the name "Titan," with reference to the highly romantic novel of Jean Paul Richter. one of Mahler's literary heroes. The original two-part division was retained, with titles, and each section was elaborated upon in the following manner:
Part I. The Days of Youth. Youth, flowers, and thorns.
Firsl Movement. Spmifi Without End. The introduction represents the awakening of nature at early dawn. ln Hamburg it was called "Winter Sleep."]
Sec oiid Movement. A Chapln Flourr (Andante)
I'hird Movement, hull Sail! (Scherzo) Part II. Commedia umana.
Fourth Movement. Stranded. A funeral march a la ('.allot [at Weimar. "The Hunter's Funeral Procession"]. The following remarks m.i serve as an explanation ij necessary. The author received the external incitement to this piece from a pictorial parody well-known to all children in South Germany, "The Hunter's Funeral Procession." The forest animals accompany the dead forester's coflin to the grave. The hares carry Hags; in front is a hand of Kps musicians and music-making cats, frogs, crows, etc.; and deer, stags, foxes, and other lout-looted and leathered denizens of the forest accompany the procession in comic pos?tures. In the present piece the imagined expression is partly ironically gay, partly gloomil) brooding, and is immediate!) followed by:
Fifth Movement Dall'lnferno al Paradiso (Allegro furioso), "the sudden outbreak of a profound!) wounded heart."
Judging from contemporary accounts, the work continued to cause considerable controversy among both the critics and the public. The
;uqur C:.illui (1593Hi:")). Fifin h p.iinu-r .mil engraver.
writer for the Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik seemed confused by the inconsist?ency of the program, the title "Titan," and the music itself, and asked if this was intentional--as a jibe by the composer at all programme music--or really intended to be taken seriously. The first movement lie considered an imitation of the "worst Music" of Beethoven; and other influences he pointed to were "Haydn-like" motifs, the "romanticism" of Weber (scherzo), and Bizet (the Funeral March). Of all the factors thai may have contributed to the controversy caused by this "symphonic poem," the program was perhaps the most damaging, for it immediately offended the upholders of absolute music, and disappointed those who sought literal enactment of the literary program in the music.
Mahler himself felt that the extra-musical appendages had considerably hampered rather than aided the audience in an understanding of the music, for when the composition was published four years later (1898), all traces of a program had disappeared and the work was simply called. as it is today, Symphony No. I. He had also removed the second move?ment, the Andante ("Blumine," A Chapter of Flowers), after the Weimar performance in 1894. Many critics had considered it unworthy and no doubt Mahler's publishers influenced him in making this omission.
Mahler himself was apparently pleased that his work had at least brought forth some discussions. He wrote to a friend at the time:
h symphony mil on the one side with unqualified recognition. Opinions were aired on the open street and at private gatherings in a most edifying manner. "When the dogs liegin to hark, we know we're on the way!" Of course, I'm the victor (that is, in rnv estimation. though the opinion is shared by hardly anyone else)...
The First Symphony bears a definite relation to the earlier song cycle, Lieder eine fahrenden Gesellen, not only because it was written in the same period of Mahler's life but because it makes use of thematic material from two of the songs.
In the first movement, the second song of the cycle ("Ging heut' mor-gen iibers Feld") furnished the principal theme of the movement. There is no second subject as such. As a result, lyricism dominates the ex?position, and the element of contrast which was vital to the original conception of the symphonic first movement, and which was constantly undermined during the nineteenth century, has now virtually dis?appeared.
Such incorporation of pure song material in a sonata allegro design creates, as Dika Xewlin points out, a "symphonic problem of the first magnitude."t There is little that can be done with such a purely lyrical theme in the manner of development, and consequently Mahler was forced to introduce contrasting material elsewhere. Thus he begins the movement with a long introduction which contains several terse rhythmic motifs, and repeats this material at the opening of the development section which considerably hampers the flow of the movement. According
Gabriel Engel. Gutievr MahUr, Song Symfluitul (New York: Bruckner Sociel) of America. 19321. p. 90. + Dika Newlin. Hrurknrr. Mfihlrr. Schonbrrg (New York: Kins Chorus Press. 1947).
to Bruno Walter, "The voice of a cuckoo announcing the advent of Spring had enchanted Mahler. He chose it as a "Leitmotiv" of the first movement (originally entitled "Spring Without End") and in a sense, of the whole Symphony. The first movement sings of innocent youthful days, of love for nature, of joy of life and ends in an outburst of jubila?tion." No real "development" occurs until the introduction of a new motif which, combined with fragments of the introductory material and contrasted with the main theme, eventually evokes into a new idea which is to become the subject of the fifth movement. The recapitulation, which scarcely concerns itself with this material, is simply a shorter version of the exposition.
The second movement ("Blumine"), removed after the Weimar per?formance, and from the published version, is restored in this perform?ance. Of the thirteen available recordings of the Symphony listed in current catalogues, only the latest in 1968 (Odyssey 32 16 0286) per?formed by the New Haven Symphony Orchestra, Frank Brieff conductor, contains the original five movements. In High Fidelity for November 1968, Bernard Jacobson, reviewing the recording, summarized its complicated history thus:
Odyssey's new release has one very special thing going for it. This is the first time the Symphony has been recorded in its original five-movement form, with an Andante allegretto under the c ryptic lille "Illumine"' separating the first movement from the scherzo. The 1893 in,muse i ipi oi "Illumine. " offered for auction by Sotheby's of London in 1959, was bought l Mrs. aines M. Osborn of New Haven, and it was her local patriotism that resulted in the New Haven Symphony's being offered the rights to the first contemporary performance. An exception was made for a single separate performance of the movement under Benjamin Britten ai the 1967 Aldeburgh Festival in Suflold. Kngland. But apart from that, the modern premiere, complete with the rest oi the Symphony, was given in New Haven on April 9. 1968, under Frank BriefTs direction. Mrs. Osborn also agreed with the New Haven Sym-phony that no performances by other orchestras be permitted until alter September 15 of this year, or within a 50-mile radius of New York Cilv. until after April I, 1969.
If one were to prove Mahler's relation to the Viennese tradition, or to Schubert, he would need go no further than the fluent dance movements which are to be found through many of the symphonies. In the Third Movement this penchant for the easy grace of the Ldndler is unmistakable. Little else need be said of the movement for the music itself is dear and concise. It is cast in a free Song and Trio design, the middle section particularly being marked by a lightness of scoring which heigh?tens the charm of its flowing lines. To quote again from Bruno Walter:
The music of Moravian peasant dances, to which Mahler often had listened in his childhood, we find raised to .i symphonic level in the third movement, whose rough vigor is answered by a Boating waltz-like theme in the Trio. From tunes like this we learn that there song in the depth "f Mahler's soul. They reveal his affinity with Schubert and Bruckner, and in his singing themes, like in those of his great predecessors, we hear the musical voice of a timeless Austria.t
'Quotes from Bruno Walter, taken from the notes he provided for his recording of the Symphony by Columbia Muterworks SL-218 (M14958). top. i a
As traditional and perhaps eclectic as the dance movement may be, the uniqueness of the fourth movement is undisputed. Its satirical, almost grotesque character has lew parallels in music literature. This is certainly a piece of music which he wrote with a definite program in mind. The entire symphony of course was given titles, but the fourth was the only movement of the work to be suggested by a very definite pictorial idea. "The muted kettledrums of the Fourth Movement." writes Bruno Waller in the Columbia Masterworks recording, "begin to beat their relentless marching rhythm over which the spectral chant of a canon rises and falls, and we are lead through an inferno ... In its center it is interrupted by a moving lyric episode; then the march starts again with increased bitter?ness and it ends in a mood of annihilation."
The principal theme is the old French canon, "Frere Jacques," first intoned very slowly in the double bass in a minor key. The satire and irony which he obviously wanted to convey-that of the animals of the forest attending the hunter's funeral-escapes the listenei who has no idea of the program. In the same fashion, the meaning of the subsection of the principal song, marked in the score "Mit Parodie" (cymbals and bass drum; sticks of bows on strings) is lost; it simply sounds, as it is supposed to, like rather trite band music. Mahler of course intended parody but without some hint to that effect, he is apt to be taken seriously and the entire point missed by the listener. The Trio section, which affords con?siderable contrast and has little relation to the rest of the movement, is based on the second part of the last song of Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen ("Die zwei blauen Augen").
It is the fifth movement of the Symphony that is most distinctive from the point of view of purely musical construction. A sonata-allegro design is the basis of the movement, and here, unlike the first, the traditional conception of the use of two contrasting ideas is observed. References to the second movement are heard, a logical justification for its restoration. Bruno Walter writes:
In the fifth movement we witness an heroic fight to titanic dimensions, a violenl and
continuous rebellion against the powers of darkness and against the foe in the breast, and .11 the end the movement rises to a hymn of final triumph. Whatever went on in Mahler's volcanic: nature and kindled his musical fantasy, it was sublimated into genuine mu?sic . . . Approximately in 1909. one and a half years beforehis death. Mahler wrote me from New York, after a performance of his First Symphony that he had conducted: "I was quite satisfied with this youthful venture. I am strongly affected when I conduct one of those works of mine. There is crystallizing a burning pain in my heart. What a world is this that casts up such sounds and reflections of images Things like the Funeral March and the outburst of ihcstorm whi h iollows il sec-ms to me like ,1 Naming ac usation of the Creator." Certainly Mahler rebelled against God when he wrote this Symphony. But ii was the rebellion of a fiery young heart torn by inner conflicts and doubts. His later works show him on an ascending path gradually leading upwards and opening to his searching mind wider horizons and higher aspects than those darkened b passionate youthful experiences. His First Symphony, in which that tempestuous epoch of his life found an expression in art, will, in its musical richness and originality, remain an historic milestone in music
'Columbia Maiierwoi ks. op. at.
Sunday afternoon, April 27
Mass in A-flat major....................................Schubert
Franz Schubert was lxrn in l.i luenthal, a suburb of Vienna, January 31, 1797; died there November 19, 1828.
A blissful instrument of God, like a bird of the fields. Schubert let his songs sound, an invisible grey lark in a plowed field, darting up from the earthy furrow, sent into the world for a summer to sing. -Friedell
Fran Schubert belongs to that galaxy of youthful romantic prodigies who died at the height of their careers, basing reached a state of per-fection in their art but before their greatest potential had been realized. Schubert was dead at the age of thirty-one.
There is no need to recount the dreary details of his short and unevent?ful life, filled with poverty, humiliation, and disappointment. His whole tragic story of neglect and failure to receive recognition is recorded in his own words. Two-and-a-half years before his death, he applied for a position of Vice-Capellmeisier at the Court of Emperor Francis I. In a pathetic letter dated April 7. 1826. he reviews his qualifications:
1. The undersigned is a native of Vienna, son of a schoolmaster, and twenty-nine years of age.
2. As a court chorister, he enjoyed the supreme privilege of being for five years a pupil at the Imperial Choir School.
3. llreceived a complete course in composition from the late First Court Capellmeister, Anton Salieri, and is thereby qualified to fill am post as Capellmeister.
4. Through his vocal and instrumental compositions, his name is well-known, not only in Vienna, but also in all Germany.
."). He has in readiness, moreover, live masses for either huge or small orchestra, which have been performed in various churches in.Vienna.
. Finally, he now enjoys no appointment whatsoever, and hopes in the security of ibis permanenl position to be able .it least to attain completely the artistic goal which he has set lor himself.
His request was ignored, as was every application for a position he ever made. He was, furthermore, never associated with the great publishing houses of Germany -Breitkopf and Hartel, Schott, or Peters. Unlike Mo?zart, he was not a virtuoso performer on any instrument and had no means of earning money from that source. He was unduly sin and retiring, and. with the exception of a small dose group of friends, he shunned society. His life, with the exception of a few journeys into lower Austria, was confined to the city of Vienna. Alter the age of twenty-one.
Alfred Einttein. Murir m tht Romtwlu Era (cu York: W. W. Norton ami Co., Inc. 1947), p. Nti.
the only position he still had was that of a teacher. In the summers of 1818 and 1824, he taught piano to the daughters of Count John Esterha-zy, for free maintenance and two gulden (less than one dollar) a lesson! His whole heart and soul were dedicated to composition. A momentary insight into his loneliness and desperation is to be found in a letter to Leopold Kupelwieser, March 31, 1824:
Think oi a man whose health can never be restored, and who from sheer despair makes matters worse instead of better. Think. I say, of a man whose brightest hopes have come to nothing, to whom love and friendship are but torture, and whose enthusiasm lor the beautiful is last vanishing; and ask yourself if such a man is not truly unhappy.
Iii a letter to his friend Schober, he enclosed a poem he had written in 1824. titled "Complaint to the People." In part it read:
() youth of tin's our time, you lade and die!
And squandered is the strength of men unnumbered--
Too great the pain by which I am consumed.
And in me. but one dying ember flashes;
This age lias turned me. deathless, into ashes--
To this 'tis given, holy Art and great.
To figure forth an age where deeds could flouish
To still the pain, the dying hope l" nourish--t
To his "holy Art and great" he dedicated ten symphonies and other orchestral works; seventeen operas, mostly fragmentary; fourteen siring quartets and other chamber music; twenty-two piano sonatas; many in?cidental pieces for the piano and over six hundred songs! Schubert's gift for spontaneous melody and his insatiable desire and capacity to compose has never been surpassed. Art for him was an escape from the grim realities of his life, and his immortal melodies his only fulfillment.
The Mass. themost solemn service of the Catholic rites commemorating the sacrifice of Christ on the cross, reached the height of its development in the Middle Ages, and a glorious fulfillment in the Renaissance with such composers as Palestrina, Lassus, and Gabrieli. The significance of this venerable form, with its objective representation of holy events, grad?ually faded away, as composers treated its austere text with greater musi?cal freedom and subjectivity.
The early nineteenth century was not an age distinguished for its church music. The prevailing tendency was to turn back to Palestrina in the Catholic church, and to Bach in the Presbyterian. The best works of the period came from the pens of Luigi Cherubini in Paris and Franz Schubert in Vienna. Schubert wrote six Masses, climaxing his efforts in that form with the great Mass in E-ilat major, completed in the final year of his life. In his time, and in Vienna particularly, attitudes toward ecclesiastical concepts had become very lenient. The church authorities did not always respect the aged text and were not too concerned about
(Irove'l Dutimar) ofMuiit and Afuiiriom; 3rd cd. (New York: Macmillan Co., 1935) Vol. IV, 604. t Einslrin. vp. at.
the intrusion of secular music to accompany it. The composer was free to express himself in as individual a manner as he desired, and the general public, which sought its relaxation in the opera house and concert halls where the music was becoming more and more stimulating and exhibi-tionistic, did not resent the most subjective, melodramatic or operatic effects in the music for the church. In the middle of the century, a musical reform attempt within the Catholic Church (later called the "Ceci-lian movement" after Saint Cecilia, patron saint of music) had little effect in introducing new significant works.
Schubert's Masses, like those of his time, generally contain liturgical omissions and highly individualized treatment of the text. Early writers attributed this practice to carelessness, but the omission of the same words in all of the Masses is more than coincidence. Schubert was a religious man but not absolutely orthodox. His art was too personal, too spon?taneous to submit to rigorous traditions in the setting of the Mass. But he possessed a kind of clairvoyance (as his many songs attest) in penetrating to the very heart of the text, giving to its verbal meaning a vivid, highly distinctive protraction in his music. Perhaps he does not possess the profound insight of a Beethoven (Missa Solemnis), but for sheer melodic beauty, for deep humanity, and for genuine sincerity, Schubert has no peer.
Paul Nettl wrote the following to accompany the Vox (PL 9760) record?ing of the A-flat major Mass:
Franz Schubert in his Masses appears as a rationalist and realist. He docs not write for an invisible communit) of Saints but for people of flesh and blood, for an audience Ixmnd to enjoy unsurpassed beaut) in sound and melody. Among his six Masses, written between 1811 and 1828. the one in A-flat major--often called bis "Missa Solemnis"--was composed between 1819 and September 1822. Schubert's intention to dedicate the work to the Aust?rian Emperor Fran I and to his wile Carolina Augusta clearly indicates the significance he attributed to the work. This is also obvious bv the facl thai be wrote two versions of the "Gloria" and of the "Osanna" in the "Sanctus." The value of the A-flat major Mass was not recognized unanimously. Whereas Schnerich, an expert in, ecclesiastical music, fails to recognize its grandeur because ol its liturgical insufliciencv, Hermann Kretzsclunar points out that the composer, with the possible exception of the D-minor suing quartet never reached the spiritual height of this Mass: "Nobod) knows Schubert who does not know the A-llal major Mass."
Schubert was burn into an atmosphere ol rationalism which was rooted in the political philosophy of Emperor Joseph 11. Many of Schubert's statements prove a certain animosity toward the clergy. In a letter to his brother Ferdinand of September 12, 1828. he exclaims, "How shameful!) is Thy image misused. () Christ!" In another letter he expresses his satisfaction about the disappearance t the power of bigotry. On the other band his friend Anselm Huettenbrenner tells us :hat the compose] firmly believed in God and the immortal-it) ol the soul. We might compare Schubert's religious feelings with those of Moart and Beethoven who lth followed the philosophy of Deism as propounded by such minds as ; and Moses Mendelssohn. In his masses we recognize his critical point of iew toward
Laler it) the cenlury, lift tin Berlioz' Rtqutrm Man (1K37I. Ctiniiuul's 15 masses (Saint Crtttui Maw, 1S55). Franz Lis7C OH.)!) ami his Aims for the Coronation oj thr King oj Hungary (1H(7) .nut Verdi'l magnificent Krquirm Maa (1874) others, vsete. Ih-c.mimot theii n M.tln ami ii.un.uu iilusu. altogether in.tppr41pri.ilf lot pel tmm.uiie in ihe chimh.
some liturgical aspens inasmuch as he omits conscious!) or unconsciously the passage "Credo in imam Sanctam Catholicam," a fact considered as an obstacle For liturgical per?formances according to a decree of Pope Leo XIII of 189 I
Schubert's masses, as manv of those of his contemporaries ami even of Moan and Ha vein, are structurally closely connected with the symphony and sonata form. There is a permanent influx of the Lied, Schubert's most important creative medium. A broad melodic flow permeates the whole work. The "Kyrie" scored for oboes, clarinets, bassoons, horns and Strings plus soli and chorus expresses a lender prayer for mercy. The simple melod) expressing a deep devotion is sung alternately by the trebles and altos on one hand, tenors and basses on the oilier hand, lioili groups are united in a simple homophonic statement followed by the more affirmative "Christe Eleison." The following "Gloria" characteristically written in the sharp contrasting E-tnajor key adds to the orchestration of the Kyrie trumpets, trombones and kettle-drums. Grandiose passages with rapidly rolling basses, storming strings and sonorous chords in the winds express overwhelming joy and jubilation to the Almiglm. The exuberant jo of the chorus is interrupted only by short episodes with the accompaniment of a reduced orchestra. The sharp dactylic accents of the "Gloria" are contrasted by the following "Gratias agimus"-an andantino in A-major. scored for chamber ensemble and solo voices alternating with tutlis. It is one ol the most beautiful melodies evet composed by the Viennese master. The accompanying triplets ol the clarinets evoke a touching effect. There is a permanent alternation between tuttis and solos recalling the old Venetian bichorale technique. The "Domine Deus" in .1 moderate alia breve meter expresses a powerful tension from a harmonic point ol view. It reaches a climax with two solos in ' Altissimus." The passage "Quoniam tu Solus Sanctus" with its mystii harmonies written in a highly elevated style forms the bridge to the fugue, the extension of which frequently presented an obstacle for the performance of the Mass.
The following "Credo" is introduced by .1 powerful chord, lust played b horns and trombones, later by the winds. This instrumental motif appears in ea h new enir of the chorus, introducing the corresponding articles of Faith. This majestH item is followed by the "El incarnatus est", a Grave for eight pans. There is a deep mysticism expressed in the passage: "Ex Maria Virgine." These invstic feelings are intensified in the "Homo lac ins est" and in the pictorial polyphonic "Crucifixus." This section has ,111 overwhelming almost shaking ellec t. The following 'Et resurrexil " uses the Credo-motif, but distinguishes itself l faster moving fourths, symbols of the mystery ol resurrection. Attention should be called also to the passage "F.t iterum Venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos" with the striking contrast of the living and the dead. The initial Credo-motif appears again in "El in Spiritum.' in "Confiteor," "El especto" and "Kt viiam Venturi." An extended homophonic "Amen" lightens the tension of thai powerful and vet tender pail of the Mass.
It is worthwhile to mention that Schubert in the "Credo," as indicated above, (hanged the authentic Mass text. The word "Credo" is repealed again and again as a kind of "leitmotif". It is obvious that he made this unaiuhetitic addition from a purely structural point ol view. Furthermore, Schubert introduces the beginning ol the item with "('.redo in I mini Deuni. facioreum Coeli and Terri" instead of the authentic "l'atrein Omnipotentem." Other slighi changes might be detected bs comparison ol Schubert's version with the authentic Mass text given below. These changes also include the omission ol "Et L'nam Sanctum Catholicam."t
The "Sanctus" in K-major in 128 meter lasc inates b daring harmonies as i.e. augmented triads. The three-fold "Sanctus" exclamation evidently inspired Si huberl 10 the triplet motif. As Bach in the "Sane uis" of his B-minor Mass was influenced In the description of the Biblical events In the Prophet Isaiah. Schubert as well seems to portray the living angels I he call of the angels increases in power and is climaxed in thethird call "Dominus Deus Sabaoth" which after bold modulations returns to the original F-major. "I'leni sum Coeli" and the "Osanna" belong to Schubert's most beautiful inspirations. The tender "Osanna"
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ill.lisi ici-lh in lorlwlfll'll."
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grows more and more powerful. A completely new world opens up in the "Benedictus" written in the original A-flal major key. Soft harmonies played by the winds and acompanied l pizzicati of the celli introduce this new section. The introduction is followed by a vocal solo trio without hass. Occasionally sections ol the chorus are inserted. Finally the chorus takes over. A short interlude forms the bridge for the "Osanna", a repetition of thai item from the "Sanctus." The "Agnus Dei" in A-llat major is full of melodic expression. The solo-cuartet modulates directly to E-major. The following "Miserere," sung in unison, leads to F.-flat major. After a short interlude the "Agnus" is repeated twice according to the liturgical demands. The "Dona nobis Pacem" uses melodic material from the "Benedictus" and is a determined prayer for peace. Its simplicity reflects the liturgical atmosphere of the Viennese suburban Catholic congregations. Its mood recalls the Kyrie thus giving an impres?sion of unity to the whole ecclesiastical work.
I he A-llat major Mass certainly shows a great deal of independent e. No other Mass of the cniiicliterature shows more melodic beaut) than Schubert's "Missa Solemnis".
Kyrie, eleison. Chrisle, rleison. Kyrie, rlnm.
Gloria m Excelsis Deo. El in terra pax hominibus bonae voluntatis.
Laudamus le. Benedichnus te.
Adoramus te. Glorijicamus te.
Gratias agimus iiln propter magnam gloriam tuam. Domine Deus, Rex coelestis, Dem Pater omnipotens.
Domine Fili unigenite, Jesu Chrisle. Domini' Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. Qui lollis Inn aid mundi, miserere nobis. Q tollit peccaia mundi, wscipe deprecationem nostram.
Q_nt edes (id dexteram Patris, miserere nobis.
Qiionian in solus Sanrtus. Tn iln Dominus. In solus Altiwimus.Jesu Christe. Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. Amen.
Cri do
Credo in Umim Drum, I'nlnm otnnipotentem, factorem coeli el terrae, visibilium omnium, el itwisibilium. El
Lord, have mercy on us. Christ, have mercy on us. Lord, have men on us.
Glon to God in the highest. And on earth peace lo men of
good will.
We praise I "lice. We l)lcss l'liee. We adore Thee. We glorify Thee.
We give Thee thanks tor I In great glory. () lord God. heavenly King. God the Father almighty.
() Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son. Lord God. Lamb of God. Son of the Father. Who takesi away the sins of the world, have mercy on us. Who takest away the sins ! the world, rei ci e our prayei
Who sittest at the right hand ol the Father, have mere) on us.
For Ihou alone art holy. Thou alone art Lord. Thou alone, () esus Christ, an most high. Together with the Holy Ghost
in the glon ol God. the Father. Amen
1 licliec in one Cod. the Father
Maker ol heaven and earth, and ol .ill things visible and in isible.
in union Dommum Jesum Christum, l-'ilium Dei unigenitum. Et ex Patre uatum ante omnui virntla. Deum de Deo. lumen de lumme, Deum verum de Deo vero. Genitum, turn factum, consubstantiaiem Patri: per tjiinn omnia acta sunt, Qtti propttr nos homines, el propttr nostrum salutem descendil de coelis.
Et mcarnatus est de fpiritu sancto ex Mann Vhrgine; et homo faclii" est.
('mi ifixui etiam pro nobis: sub Pontio Pilalo passus, et fepuUus est.
Et resurrexil lertia die, secundum Scripturas.
El ascendil in coelum: sedet ad
dexteram Dei Patris. Et iterum venturus est cum gloria judicare vivos et mortuos: ciijus regni rum em finis.
Et in Spiritum Sanctum, Dommum, et viviftcanttm: Qui ex Patre, Filique pTocedil.
Qiii cum Patre, Filio umul adoratur, et conglorificatur:
ijin In, nttf est per Prophetas.
Et imam, anetam, catholiccm et aposttdiram Eeriesiam.
ConJUeor unum baptisma m remissionem peccaUn urn.
Et expertt} resurrectionem moTtuonim.
Et vitam venture sarculi. Amen.
And in one Lord, Jesus Christ, the
oiily-legolten Son ot God. Born of the Father before all ages.
God of God, light of light, true
God of true God. Begotten, not made; of one being
with the Father; by whom all things
are made. Who lor us men, and lor out salvation
came down from heaven.
And was made llesh by the Hoi) Ghost, of the Virgin Mats; and was made man.
1 le was also crucified lot us. sulleicd under Pontius Pilate, and was buried.
And on the third dav He arose again, according to the Scriptures.
And ascending into heaven, He sitteth .n the first hand of the Father.
And 1 le shall connagain with glory to judge the living and tindead: and of His kingdom there shall be no end.
And in the Holy Ghost, the Lord and Givei of Life, who proceeded] horn the Father and the Son.
Who together with the lather and the Son is no less adored and gloi ified: who spoke by the prophets.
And in one holy, catholic and
apostolic Chun h.
I confess one baptism lor the remission of sins.
And I look lor the resurrection of the dead.
And the lite ol the world to runic. Amen.
Sam: i i s
Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus,
Dominus Deus, Salmolh.
I'lnii Mini coeli el terra gloria lua.
Hosanna in excehis.
Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini.
Hosanna in excehis.
A(.M S 1)1 I
Agnus Dei, qui Inllis peccala mundi: miserere nobis.
Agnus Dei, qui lollis peccata mundi: dona nobis pacem.
Holy, Holy, Holy, Lord God of hosts.
1 le.iven .iikI in ih arc filled with Thy glory.
Hosanna in the highest!
Blessed i I le thai nines in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest!
Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy on us.
LaniO oi God, who takesl away the sins of the world, grant us peace.
Concerto for Violoncello and
Orchestra in E minor, Op. 85...........................Elgar
Edward Elgar was born in Broadheath. England, June 2, 1857; died in Malvern, England, February 23, 1934.
The great school of English composers, which began with John Dan-stable (died in 1453), and continued through the Madrigalian Period with William Byrd (1543-1623) as its supreme figure, had finally come to an abrupt end with the death of Henry Purcell in 1695. When the German, Italian-trained Georg Friedrich Handel arrived in London in 1710, Eng?lish national music was quite dead. Not a single composer of stature had appeared in the interim. This period of sterility, as far as native-born composers were concerned, continued for almost two centuries, and Eng?lish music sank, to its lowest level, which led Nietzsche, Heine, and the world at large to refer to England as "a land without music."
Toward the end of the nineteenth century, however, three figures appeared who exerted a tremendous influence over the musical destiny of their country: Herbert Parry, Charles Villiers Stanford, and Edward El?gar. These men possessed remarkable creative gifts and a wide-ranging scholarship. But it was Elgar whose loftiness of purpose and tenacity of true genius made him the musician laureate of the late Victorian and Edwardian eras and that ultimately won for him a knighthood in 1904.
It is not possible to rate too highly his importance in the history of his country's music. Without his copious output, the state of music in Eng?land would have remained pathetically provincial. His intellectuality was
evident in his wide acquaintance with history, literature, and art; and his music reflected a versatility and a new sense of values that were imme?diately discerned; it was "like a fresh breeze blowing stagnation away." He not only restored a continuity to English music, but he freed it from the stilted, decadent domination, and anemic imitation of foreign composers. His place in history is secure whatever the ultimate fate of his music will be. Since his time, his position at the head of English music has been challenged by such composers as Gustav Hoist (1874-1934), Frederick Delius (1862-1934), Arnold Bax (1883-1953), Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), William Walton (1902), and Benjamin Britten (1913).
Elgar was as truly a product of his age and his race as were Byrd and Purcell. Ho expressed not only a strong personality, but the aspiration and sorrows of his generation, and is the lesser and the greater for doing so. He revealed at times the sell-conscious restraint of his country's music, for the Victorian age liked complacent, modest, sentimental art of careful deportment. Cecil Gray, an English critic, sensed in some of his music an atmosphere of "pale cultured idealism" and an "unconsciously hypocritic?al, self-righteous, pharisaical gentlemanliness" which was so characteristic of British art in the nineteenth century. Philip Hale, American critic, referred to his music at best as "respectable in a middle-class man?ner ... the sort of music that gives the composer a degree of Mus. Doc. from an English University."
It is true that Elgar had his platitudinous, pedantic, and stilted mo?ments. But we should not judge him by his weakness alone. "Salul d'Amour," "Land of Glory," "Pomp and Circumstance," pieces by which the world at large has come to know him, are not representative of the real Elgar. We do not judge Tennyson as a poet by his "Charge of the Light Brigade." Elgar too had his "In Memoriam" in his "Dream of Gerontius" and in the exquisite lyricism of the slow movement of his two symphonies, in the violin and cello concertos, and in the Enigma Variations there is rare beauty which the world does, and should, cherish. Elgar's music, even in its unprecedented sweep and majesty, was never disturb?ing, or excessive in feeling. After all, he was not writing for a mad world. Harmony of spirit, fought for and won, is the essence of his art.
The cello concerto on this afternoon's program was Elgar's final major work. He began composing it in London during the winter months of 1918 and completed it in Sussex in August 1919. Because of too few rehearsals its premiere performance at Queen's Hall on October 26, 1919, conducted by the composer, was not an auspicious success. Although the audience was in general disappointed, expecting the luscious profusion of his typical, highly romantic style, it received the work warmly. It heard instead a work of quiet meditation, constructed without elaboration and with unusual conciseness. Neither was the form of the concerto orthodox;
Performedat formci Ma) Feuivalsin mill. 1912.and 1(117.
it did not, like those of such masters as Mozart, Beethoven, Schumann, Brahms, have distinctly separate movements with clearly articulated themes. Its four short movements are linked together in pairs. Both the first and second begin with the solo instrument playing a slow declamato-ry-like introduction, and the third movement moves directly into the finale. A full orchestra is used, but with the utmost economy, allowing the solo instrument, which plays almost continuously, to be clearly heard throughout. In spite of the inauspicious reception it at first received, the concerto soon won its position as one of the finest works in its genre.
The following analysis was written by Mr. Porte in his biography of the English master:
1 Ikwhole aspen of the cello com cm is generally tranquil, yel n i obviousl) inspired b) ihe deepest Feelings of luiinanity. There is no xasion foi external display, the whole woi k is indicative oF earnestness and a wistful realization oF life's beauties. It is an extremely sensitive recording oF the composer's later mentality; there is no thought or claim for popularity, but there is understanding in it For all of us who look out on life in an esthetical, yet problematical sense.
I. The concerto opens with a short recitative For the soloist. The emotional aspect is at once serious and expressive oF the term nobilimente, which is prefixed to the score. The ensuing Moderate presents a more pastoral character, which is. however, strongly romantic and inclined to be mysterious. After some repetitions, a new idea enters. It is more prepossessing in appearance and decidedly welcome. The whole soon becomes serious, the cello having passages of impassioned thoughiFulness. Finally the first theme reappears and the movement dies softly away. There is no break between this movement and the rest.
II. A few introductory bars For the soloist and also some awakening pizzicati from the orchestra usher in the scherzando-like theme, the chief Feature and the effect of which is the reiterated note idea. Soon a change of mood is expressed in a lovely cantabile melody, embraced by both soloist and orchestra. The soothing calmness of this new theme is Felt to the end of the movement, even through the liveliness of the foregoing melody, which, of course, returns with all its vivacity.
III. The slow movement of an Elgar work always arouses within us the thoughts of exquisite beauty and penetrating emotion. In the present work it comes as a pure song-like utterance, the climax of the spiritual attitude presented to us at the opening bars oF the work. It is one comparatively short flow of lyrical beauty, from which no definite melody may easily be plucked. The air is at first tranquil, but soon the expressive strains of the solo instrument prepare for the broadening-out. which culminates in a superbly emotional climax. The calmer mood, however, returns and continues to the end of the movement, which is a very mirror ol the new Elgar. It proceeds without break into the Finale.
IV. The opening recitative appears again at the commencement of the Finale, but now more powerful in appearance. The principal theme soon enters und is at once strong and quasi-humorous. After some discussion of this, the second subject appears and this in turn leads to a bravura passage for the solo cello. The latter occasion is an exceptional one and a concession of the composer. The first theme now reappears in unified cellos, later aug?mented by the full orchestra. The second theme also reappears and is subjected to some of the familiar orchestral tints of Elgar. The music becomes calmer, but the coda brings a sudden change. The solo 'cello gives out a striking phrase and the whole becomes intense, almost despairing in quality. The restful mood returns, however, and with it there soon comes the serious tones of the opening recitative. A final statement of the principal subject is made in an impressive manner and the work ends with loud, incisive chords."
J. F. Pone. Sir Eduvri Elgar (London: Kcjjan Paul. Trench. Truliner iCo., Ltd., 1921) pp. 194-9ti.
Sunday Evening, April 27
Symphony No. 31 in D major, K. 297 ................ Mozart
Many of Mozart's early instrumental works resist classification because the distinctions of form we make today were not known in his time. The symphony was in the process of evolving from the Italian sinfonia or opera buffa overture, which was characterized by two fast movements separated by a contrasting slow one. It presented no other problem of formal construction and had no obligation to the work it preceded. It was purely light, gay, ceremonial music, and thus it remained in the hands of the Italians themselves until German composers in Vienna began to expand its form, about 1760, by inserting a minuet between the slow second and final fast movements, and evolving in general a more aggressive style. Mozart's various visits to Vienna, especially during the year 1767 and again briefly in 1773, made him increasingly aware of the changes that were taking place in the Italian sinfonia at the hands of his own coun?trymen. The influence of the Viennese school upon Mozart, especially that of Franz Joseph Haydn, prevailed until 1777 when he visited Mann?heim and heard its famous orchestra. In the Symphony in G minor, No. 25, K. 183, of 1773, he broke away noticeably from his earlier Italian models. His themes became more significant and their treatment more logical and dramatic; there was evidence that he was moving to greater freedom and individuality in the use of his instruments and that he was becoming more aware of effective balance'between movements.
The four years between Mozart's seventeenth and twenty-first birthdays (1773-77) were spent in Salzburg. We know less about this period in his life than any other. Since he was at home with his family most of the time, there were few personal letters, which are the chief and most reliable source of all biographical information concerning him. There is, however, a record of his compositions during these years that gives us some in?dication of his musical development. In the year 1774 alone, he created, besides the G minor, K. 183, three other symphonies --the C major, K. 200; the A major, K. 201; and the D major, K. 202. Of the three, the D major was the last one composed and the only one actually dated (May 5, 1774). These symphonies are particularly significant for they embody characteristics of his youth and promises of his maturity; they form the beginning of a transition to the monumental symphonies at the end of his life, the E-Hat major, K, 543; the G minor, K. 550; and final C major, "Jupiter," K. 551. This transition is not an even one. Occasionally there are reversions to the operatic overture style, but the symphonies of 1774
represent a peak of achievement that, at that period of his life, could not be surpassed. For the next four years he wrote no symphonies. He remained in Salzburg writing incidental music --serenades, divertimenti, operatic arias, miscellaneous works for the church, clavier sonatas, and his first significant piano concertos.
It was on September 23, 1777, that Mozart left Salzburg with his mother on a grand tour to Mannheim and Paris, hoping to gain fame and permanent employment. From the moment he arrived in Paris on March 27, 1778, to the time of his return in January, 1779, his life was filled with anguish and frustration. He experienced a series of degrading failures in his attempt to find an appropriate position worthy of his talents; he was lost in the intrigue of court politics; exploited yet unrewarded; and he was desperateK in love with Aloysin Weber (sistei ol Constance, whom In-later married) whose indiHerence plunged him into deep depression. His mother died suddenly and had to be buried on foreign soil. He composed little in Paris: eight miscellaneous pieces for a Miserere by Holzbauer, for which he received no gratuity. A Concerto for Flute and Harp in C major (K. 299) was written early during his stay. There followed a quartet, five clavier sonatas, including the familiar one in A major (K. 331) with the "Turkish March" as its final movement; a Sinfonia concertante for flute, oboe, horn, and bassoon (K. 297 Anh. 9), which was never per?formed and has not survived in its original form; music for a ballet "Les petits riens" which appeared in Piccinni's opera Le Finte gemelle but for which he received no acknowledgment and no fee; and the symphony on tonight's program.
In his letters, his father was constantly exhorting his son to seek a position at court and to study the French taste and comply with its demands. But Mozart was in no mood to do either. He was offered, but refused, a position as organist at Versailles. He found France thoroughly uncongenial; he despised its people and particularly its music which he found vacuous and superficial.
In the summer of 1778, Le Gros, director of the Concerts Spirituale, commissioned him to compose a symphony for the opening of the Corpus Christi programs. He complied with what is now known as the "Paris Symphony." Although he had written no symphonies for four years, as previously stated, he had in the meantime visited Mannheim, the leading musical city of the Empire, made famous throughout Europe by its remarkable orchestra and a group of composers who were experimenting in new techniques for composing for it. In a letter from Mannheim. November 4, 1777, he wrote, "The Orchestra is excellent and very strong. I lure are ten or twelve violins on either side, lour violas, two oboes, two Mutes, and two clarinets, two horns, four violoncellos, lour bassoons and four double basses, also trumpets and drums." The experimental
?Emih Vndenon. Thr Lrtlm of Mozart and Hit Family (London: Macmillan ;uicl Cn., Ltd.. 1938) pp. S5S H
?'Mannheim Symphonies" of Holzbauer, Cannabich, Toeschi, and Eichner exploited solo effects, experimented with the crescendo, and in general broadened the scope of the Symphony. Mozart had been alerted to new expressive techniques before he arrived in Paris. Here he found a com?parable orchestra, and he wrote his "Paris Symphony" for a body of performers who prided themselves, above all, on their technical precision. Referring to his new symphony, he wrote in a letter of June 12. 1778. "I cannot say it will be popular --and, to tell the truth, I care very little for who will not like it I can answer for its pleasing the few intelligent French people who may be there --and as for the stupid ones, I shall not consider it a great misfortune if they are not pleased. I still hope, how?ever, that even asses will find something in it to adminand moreover I have to be careful not to neglect le premier coup a' achet (the opening of a symphony with a powerful tutti passage, generally unison)-and that is quite sufficient. What a fuss the oxen here make of this trick! The devil take me if I can see any difference! They all begin together, just as they do in other places. It is really too much of a joke." It was Mozart's first symphony to include clarinets, and was written in the Mannheim-Fans style. Einstein writes:
In the first movement it even parodies thai style to .1 slight degree, ii lupins with the lortissimo-unisono precision in which was a threat point of pride with the Paris orches?tra ... He continues with the pompous nms in the strings characteristic ol the French overture, and docs not forgel to write impressive unison passages for the strings against sustained tones in the winds. But that is where the parody, or the contrivance to please the French taste, ends. Mozart's ambition was far too great, and there mo much dependent on the success ol the work, for him not to take it scrioush . . I.e l.ros was probably right when he said thai this, the first great' symphony ol Moart, was the best symphony ever written for the Concerts Spirituale.t
Scene and Aria: "Ah! Perfido," Op. 65 ........... Bkethoven
Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Bonn. De?cember Hi. 1770; died in Vienna, March L'li. 1K127.
There has been some discussion among musical scholars as to the date of the composition of this work and Beethoven's intentions regarding it. It has been asserted that it was composed in 1796 at Prague, and that Beethoven wrote it for Madame Josephine Duschek, a notable singei. pianist, and composer, and the wife of the eminent pianist Franz Dus?chek. Another authority held that the aria was begun at Vienna in 1795 and was intended for Countess Clari, a well-known amateur. As a matter of fact there appears on the first page of Beethoven's revised score a
' Hml.. pp. H17IK.
t Alfred Einstein, M,,uirl.Hi Chamrtri amiHi II"'' ii Ot,.il UniverMI) Previ, 1945). pp. 227-28.
dedication to the Countess Clari. It is probably true that Madame Dus-chek was the first person to sing the aria at a concert on November 21, 1796, at Leipzig. The music was published in 1805. The source of the text is unknown; it may have been taken from an old libretto. The music is not excerpted from anything; it is a complete work in itself. It is like a miniature melodrama set to music; a few moments, highly charged with emotion, that might in themselves be the nucleus of some great classic tragedy. The orchestration is for flute, two clarinets, two bassoons, and horns, and the usual strings. The following is a free translation of the text:
Ah Faithless one, how can ou leave me sn cruelly The jicls w'H smite you. Where'er miii go, inj shade will Follow you and gae upon your torture. Yet no! Smite me in-,ieadl For you I lived and For you I'll perish.
Oh do not leave me I implore you! Surely I deserve some pity-so basely, SO cruelh betrayed.
"Sheherazade"-Three Poems for
Voice and Orchestra ................................... Ravel
Maurice Ravel uas Ixun in Ciboure, March
7. 1H7"; died in I'.uiv December 2.S. 1):57.
Ill contrast to the ecstatic impressionism of Debussy, the art of Maurice Ravel appears more concrete. Although he was at home among the colored vapors of the Debussyan harmonic system, Ravel expressed him?self in a more tangible form and fashioned the same materials into set designs. His art. in this connection, stands in much the same relationship to musical impressionism as the art of Renoir does to the same style in painting; it restores formal values. In this structural sense he differs from Debnssv. But, like Debussy, he reveals the typical French genius, an exquisite refinement, unerring sense of form, purest craftsmanship, at?tention to minute details, impeccable taste, and a finesse and lucidity in execution.
In the exacting art of song writing. Maurice Ravel evolved, as he did in every medium lie touched, a highly individual style. His vocal line, a quasi-parlando quite distinct from the free recitative of Italian opera or the Sprechstimme of Arnold Schonberg. has often been characteristically re?ferred to as "Ravelian declamation." The melodic content in his songs invariably lies in the accompaniment, where the independent piano or instrumental parts, subtly rhythmic and highly developed harmonically, carry the main musical interest. In contrast to his contemporary coun-trymen, Claude Debussy, Ernest Chausson. and Henri Duparc. Ravel was not a born song writer. He must be classed with those composers whose
style was essentially instrumental. His precise, witty, and ironic ex?pression, and particularly his penchant for clarity and compactness of form, often counteracted the mutability of conventional vocal melody. It did, however, assure the most intimate relationship between word and tone. In all of Ravel's songs, the subtle inflections of the French language are as precisely duplicated as possible vocally. For this reason, translation into another language, always a moot question aesthetically, is in their case unthinkable. Sheherazade is Ravel's only orchestral song cycle, and in this genre, it has few rivals. In 1903, he set three poems from a volume of verse by a young poet-painter-musician (Tristan Lecierc) who wrote un?der the nom de plume of Tristan Klingsor. Both he and Ravel belonged to a wild avant garde group called "Les Apaches," which included, among others, the youthful Manuel de Falla and Igor Stravinsky, an aviator Maurice Tabuteau, and a mathematician Josquin Bocata. They seemed to share a common dread of indulgent self-expression, emotional excess or any hint of the ordinary or the literal. Ravel, then twenty-eight years of age, and at the height of his cultural rebellion against bourgeois taste, is described by Roland-Manuel:
The Ravel of sidewhiskers and discrete bin careless c oik essions to (he demands of fashion presents a perfect type of Baudelerian dand). elegantly frigid, with a horror of triviality, and
all effusions of feelings. He had the proud reserve ol a with .1 message, whose secret hi' had not yet divulged.
But Ravel, like Chopin and his teacher Fame, found his unique style from the beginning, and attained perfection as a craftsman with remark?able rapidity. Sensitive to an unusual degree to all the changing currents in poetry and painting that were swirling about him, he submitted to none. He began composing with a clear vision of his own purposes and aims and never faltered. Nonconformist and fiercely independent, he hungered for novelty in his art and achieved it with Gallic grace. "Sheherazade" (1903) is a youthful work, full of brilliant, if at times self-conscious, artifice. Ravel himself acknowledged the obvious influence of Debussy. It comes from the same period in which he produced the better known Pavane pour une infante defunte (1899); Jeux d'eau (1901); the String Quartet in F major (1902); and the Sonatine (1905). It is a kind ol symphonic poem for voice and orchestra in which Ravel evokes a myriad of exotic and multicolored moods in a kind of rhapsodic voyage through the Orient.
Tristan Klingsor. the author of the poems, has explained how he came to write them and how Ravel set them to music:
The Orient was in the air; through Bakst. Rinisky and Dr. Mardrus, who translated The Thousand and One Nights. The symbolists had transposed their feelings In presenting them through a veil ol legendary fiction. I thought of presenting -.iine through a Persian veil. A
Maurice Roland-Manud. Ravel(l.ili.mnGullermard, 19481 p. 41.
Persia of fantasy, of course. The well-chosen word would suffice, the happy resonance. the touch of color ...
Ravel was delighted by the melodiousness of these poems. They had the advantage moreover, of being subordinate to a musical sense of metre. While adopting vers librr I took pains to ensure that, more than ever, the rhythm should be skillfully affirmed. I (bought that the verses should be spoken-1 won't say to the metronome-but while marking the lime. More than once, I've composed m verses while walking...
It was in 1902 thai Ravel achieved his goal of adorning some of them with music. His choice of poems is surprising, lie chose not those with a lyrical shape which might easily have been turned into songs, but rather those with a more descriptive allure, such as A sir, with length) developments which did not seem to lend themselves in such a purpose.
Ravel, in selling a poem to music, transformed it into expressive recitative, exalting the inflections of the text into song, exalting all the work's possibilities, but not subjugating it. Ravel made himself the servant of the poet... In order to be sure of not mistaking the author's intentions, he made me read the poem aloud. And. as usual with him, without saving a word, he retained all was essential. He was like a hunter following a trail, ready in advance to panv any surprise, having already dec ideel his path, and having only to guard against an) false sup. A servant, but not a slave. Thus, when I repealed three times the initial Asie, I lowered my voice a degree each time, as is usual if one wishes to avoid any affectation. Ravel, on the contrary, causes this word to be sung in a rising pattern. On all counts, he was right. This ascent calls inc leasing attention to the phrase "marvellous old land of fairy tales..." This is what I call logic and refinement. I iniisi add that Ravel has been able throughout to set in rcliel the slightest inflections of the poems, and to adorn them with all the colors of an cue best! a .is in li as it is delicate
The text has no connection with the well-known story of Sheherazade .Hid her fabulous tales of adventure and bears little resemblance musically to Rimsky-Korsakofrs brilliant symphonic suite. Through his orchestra Ravel paints a panorama of bizarre effects, in turn shimmering and limpid, voluptuous and sensual. Ephemeral and evasive impressions are created through glittering cascades of trills, arpeggios, tremolos and glis-sandos, mystical and luminous sonorities, prosadic polyrhythms, or labyrinthine but transparent textures, while the voice in unfettered de?clamation, yet full of song, now tender, now dramatic and exuberant, sketches the exotic imager) suggested b) the words.
Its premiere performance in 1904 at a Societe Nationale Concert con?ducted by Alfred Cortot was not a success. Even today, with the exception of "La Flute enchantee," which is often heard with piano accompaniment on concert programs, it is seldom performed in its entirety. It is an exquisite work and deserves a better fate.
The following translation of the text is taken from Columbia Records-4289:
Asia (LAsir)
Asia! the wonderful old land of nurses' tales, where lantasv dwells like an empress in a forest lull of mystery. 1 should like to take Might on the vessel that rocks this evening in the mysterious and solitary port and that present!) will unfold its violet sails like a huge night-bird in the golden skv.
I should then go toward flower-covered isles, while listening lo the wayward sea sing in an old enchanting rlivthm. I should see Damascus and the Persian cities, with their delicate
Ncui's l Felix Aprahamian 1963 (Angel RecnnJinR SfiliiS)
minarets, the fine silk turbans on black faces with luminous teeth, ihdark amorous eyes with pupils that glitter joyfully in skins yellow as the orange, the velvet cloaks and the garments with long fringes.
I should see the long-stemmed pipes in mouths surrounded by white beards, the sharp merchants with their suspicious glances, and the cadis and vizirs who, with the single gesture of a finger, gram life or death according to their desire.
1 should see Persia, and India, then China, corpulent mandarins under (heir umbrellas, and princes with slender hands; and the learned who debate among themselves on the subject of poeti and lc.ui[.
I should loiter in enchanted places and. like a foreign traveler, contemplate at leisure those landscapes painted on fabric framed in fir-wood, with a figure standing in the midst of an orchard. I should see assassins smiling at the executioner who cuts an innocent neck with his large, curved Oriental sivord. I should seepaupers and queens, loses and blood, those who die out ( hatred. Then I should return later to recount m adventure to those curious about dreams, raising from time to lime, like Sinbad. m old Arabian cup to my lips, artfull) to interrupt m tale.
The Enchanted Flute (La Flute enchantie)
1 he shade is sweet and m master sleeps, his head covered with a pointed .i. and his long yellow nose in his white beard. Bui I am still awake, and outside 1 hear a Mute pouring oui .in alternate!) and joyous song. An air now langourous, played 1 m beloved; and when I approach the window, each note seems sent from the flute to n cheek like a mysterious kiss.
The Indifferent One (L'Indiffcrent)
Your eyes are as gentle as a girl's, young stranger, and the fine curve ol your handsome
lace, shadowed with down, is even more seductive. At m door a song rises from oin lips In a language as strange and e harming as music out of tune. Enter, and let nn wine cheei you. But no. you pass on. and 1 see you recede from ui threshold, waving a graceful farewell. your torso inclined l sour womanish and wear gait.
"La Mer"-Trois esquisses symphoniques ............ Debussy
An analysis of the three movements of "The Sea" is neither possible nor desirable. Form, as such a thing was understood by the classical masters, did not ordinarily enter into Debussy's artistic calculations. Debussy set forth his attitude toward academic music in statements made in l'.lll to an interviewer for the Paris paper Excelsior: "No fixed rule," wrote the composer of "La Mer," "should guide the creative artist; rules are estab?lished by works of art, not for works of art. One should seek discipline in freedom not in the precepts of a philosophy in its decline --that is good only for those who are weak. I write music only in order to serve Music as best I can and without any other intention; it is natural that my works should incur the risk of displeasing people who like 'certain' music, and perseveringly stick to it alone."
"It is for love of music," he said, "that I strive to rid it of certain sterile traditions that enshroud it. It is a free, a spontaneous art, an open-air art, an art to be measured with the elements --the winds, the sky, the sea. It iiiusi mii be made confined and scholastic." I bis doctrine sounded more revolutionary in the early years of the century than it does today; the
music of "La Mer" itself will prove similarly clear and reasonable by comparison with many more adventurous pieces which have since been produced.
We have never been able to translate into words the tongue of winds and waves, bin it may be that Debussy, through the mysterious power of music, lias here caught for us the true intimations of its meaning.
For those who prefer a verbal description of music, Charles O'Connell has written the following:
L'aube a mult sur la mer ("The sea from dawn until noon")
The ocean, mothei ol myriad immemorial dawnings, slowly heaves and writhes in a mysterious quiet, and another day is born. Muted strings and murmuring drums, and ascending notes ol the harp merge into a mist that lies over the orchestra. A single Hash of the awakening sun is reflected in the vaguely shimmering waters, and the light glows. Mined horn and mr anglais against descending Miings suggest the limitless line of the horizon as it materializes through the mist, and the shadowed hues of the darkness before dawn are dissipated, with the clinging mists, in the broad light ol morning.
The music shifts in color and transparency like the sea itself, and it is no more possible to separate from its curiously incorporeal and amorphous structure the myriad beauties of ulnc h ii is compounded, than to regard, in the wide expanse ol ocean, the gleam, and pla) ol each individual wave. But nowhere in music is there so magical a suggestion of the sea, with its incredible blues and greens, its sparkle and motion and clear depths, its mysterious and unforgettable mm minings and its power.
nix di vogues ("Sport of the waves")
The mocking. Stormy, placid, deceiving monster is revealed here in vet another mood. The ocean merrily disports itself, and in the orchestra a seeming thousand voices entangle ind collide and sparkle like the oceans own waves and wavelets. Frisky waters throw themselves glittering against the blue air: long rollers rush toward the shore and dissolve in snowx loam; vagrant winds snatch the white caps from tossing billows, and fling the wet spray across the sky. There are little solos for cor anglais and horn, for oboe, and for violin; and finally the music, stirred up gradually by its own sportiveness, rises to a brilliant climax of revelry, then wearily subsides into calm.
Dialogue ilu nut it de la met ("Dialog of the wind and the sea")
Now the ocean is not playful, but lashed to wild fury by fierce winds descending upon it from the endless reaches of heaven. Madly it heaves itself against the blast; roaring, the invisible demons of the air hurl its waters into its distorted face. Throughout the movement --here in the climax of the stormy dialog as well as in the sometimes angry concluding passages --strings and wind instruments are played against each other in bewil?dering and wonderful fashion.
"La Mer" was given its first performance at the Concerts Lamoureux in Paris, on October 15, 1905. It is scored for piccolo, two flutes, two oboes. English horn, two clarinets, three bassoons, and contrabassoon, four horns, three trumpets, two cornets-e-fiistons, three trombones, bass tuba, kettledrums, bass drum, cymbals, tarn tarn, glockenspiel, two harps and strings.
ChartetO'Connell, Thr Virtm .... ih. Smplum (o York: Simon .mil Schuster, I"l:i4). pp. 173-74.
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA, with the five concerts of" the 1969 May Festival, performs here for the thirty-fourth consecutive year.
The Orchestra was born at the turn of the century, when a group ol music lovers determined that Philadelphia should have its own profes?sional symphony orchestra and asked the German musician, Fritz Scheel, to become permanent conductor. Both Scheel and his successor, another German, Carl Pohlig, laid the firm foundations for a great orchestra. In 1913, at the beginning of the Orchestra's thirteenth season, Leopold Stokowski was engaged, and remained in Philadelphia for almost a quar?ter of a century. Eugene Ormandy, who in 1966 observed his 30th anniversary year on the Philadelphia podium, became the Orchestra's fourth conductor. Ormandy and Stokowski are credited with having built The Philadelphia Orchestra into a world renowned ensemble. Ormandy's unique contributions are his superb judgment in maintaining a balanced repertoire for the Orchestra's audiences and a special gift for selecting distinguished first-desk personnel whose musicianship and personalities blend into the tradition of "The Philadelphia Orchestra sound."
The Orchestra is probably the world's most traveled symphonic organiza?tion. In addition to extensive touring throughout the United States and Canada, il has played the role of musical ambassador to Europe on three different occasions. In 1949 the Orchestra toured Creat Britain, and in 1955 and 1958, all of Europe, including Russia, where its triumphs were certain proof that the United States had sent its very finest. In May and June, 1966, the Philadelphians presented their first concerts in Latin America, during the course of a brilliant five-week, 15,000-mile tour. A year later, in May, 1967, during a three-week trip to Japan, the Orchestra made its debut in the Far East.
The Philadelphia Orchestra was the first to make recordings under its own name with its own conductor; it was the first major orchestra to broadcast over a radio network for a commercial sponsor; it was the first symphonic organization to be televised nationally and the first to be featured in films. The Orchestra records exclusively for RCA Red Seal and, with hundreds of LP's in current catalogues, surely qualifies as the world's most recorded orchestra. Three of its recordings have each topped the million dollar mark in sale, an unprecedented achievement in the recording industry for classical music artists. Mr. Ormandy and The
Philadelphia Orchestra have thus earned three of the six Gold Records ever awarded for classical recordings by the Record Industry Association of America.
The Orchestra will be in residence at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center during August for their fourth season at that Festival.
EUGENE ORMANDY, Musk Director of the Philadelphia Orchestra, has appeared annually at these May Festival concerts since 1937. During the 1968 -69 concert season, Eugene Ormandy celebrated his thirty-third year on the podium of The Philadelphia Orchestra, a record unequaled by any living conductor of any other major orchestra. Born November 18, 1899, in Budapest, he entered the Budapest Royal Academy of Music at five as a child prodigy violinist, receiving his professor's diploma at the age of seventeen. Between concert tours, he taught at the State Con?servatory, and he came to the United States in 1921 as a solo violinist. Mr. Ormandy performed and conducted in New York, becoming an Ameri?can citizen in 1927. In 1930 he directed his first concerts with the Phila?delphia Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic. Music Director of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra between 1931 and 1936, he was ap?pointed Music Director and Conductor of the Philadelphia Orchestra in 1936. With this Orchestra he has toured Western and Eastern Europe on three occasions since World War II, has traveled many thousands of miles throughout the United States, and has toured to both Latin America and Japan. He and the Orchestra are represented in the catalogue 1 nearly four hunched long-playing recordings. As a guest conductor, he has led every major European orchestra and has appeared also in South America and Australia. Among the main awards bestowed upon Maestro Or-mandv are: the Commander of the French Legion of Honor, a Knight of the Order of theWhite Rose of Finland, and a holder of the medals of the Mahler and Bruckner Societies. He also holds the highest award the Austrian government can bestow upon a civilian, the Honor Cross for Arts and Sciences, First Class.
Mi. Ormandy has also been awarded honorary doctoral degrees from twelve leading universities, including The University of Michigan (at the May Festival of 1952).
THOR JOHNSON, Guest Conductor of the May Festival, has conducted the University Choral Union performances with the Philadelphia Orches?tra since 1940, except for four years when he was serving with the United States Army. He is now Music Director of the Nashville Symphony Or?chestra. Johnson lived most of his early life in Winston-Salem. North Carolina. He was graduated from the University of North Carolina and latei received ;i master's degree in music at I'he University of Michigan. In 1935, under a Beebe Foundation Scholarship, he studied in Europe
with conductors Weingartner, Abendroth, Malko, and Bruno Walter. Upon his return he became conductor of the University Symphony Or?chestra, organized and conducted the University Little Symphony which toured throughout the country, founded the Mozart Festival in Asheville, North Carolina, and also served as conductor of the Grand Rapids Sym?phony. During World War II, as Warrant Officer in the United States Army, Johnson conducted the first Symphony Band and taught for the Armed Services at Schrivenham, England. Upon discharge he conducted the juilliard Orchestra for one year before accepting the directorship of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, a position he held for eleven years. During that period he made special guest conductor appearances with the Symphony of the Air, including its Far Eastern tour. From 1959 to 1964 he was head of orchestral activities at Northwestern University. From 1964 to 1967 he was Director and Vice-President of the Interlochen Arts Academy. As a member of the President's Advisory Committee on the Arts, he was sent to Iceland, Czechoslovakia, Korea, the Philippines, and Japan for guest conducting and surveys. He is also Director of the Penin?sula Music Festival in Wisconsin and the Moravian Music Festivals.
LESTER McCOY, Conductor of the University Choral Union since 1947, prepares the chorus in the works performed in the May Festival and each Advent season conducts the Choral Union, the Interlochen Orchestra, and guest solo artists in the traditional Messiah concerts. He received his Master of Music degree from The University of Michigan in 1938. Before coming to Ann Arbor he trained and taught at Morningside College in Sioux City. Iowa. He served as Minister of Music of the First Methodist Church in Ann Arbor, from 1947 to 1967, and from 1958 to 1964 he conducted the Michigan Chorale, a group of Michigan high school se?niors, which toured in Europe and South America during the summer as part of the Youth for Understanding Student Exchange Program, spon?sored by the Washtenaw Council of Churches. Beginning in the autumn of 1964, Mr. McCoy became Musical Director of "Musical Youth Inter?national," which toured Mexico and Europe and is scheduled for Japan this summer-.
REGINE CRESPIN was born in Marseilles, the child of an Italian mother and French father. The family settled in Nimes, France, where, after her early studies, she entered a series of competitions where she took all prizes, leading her to enter the Conservatory in Paris. During the same year of her debut there she sang in Strasbourg, Vichy, Lyon, and Mar?seilles. This led in the following year to her debut at the Paris Opera under the baton of Andre Cluytens. She became one of the mosi promi?nent singers at the Paris Opera, at Bayreuth, La Scala, Vienna Opera, Clyndehourne. Berlin, and Coveni Garden. Hei debut al the Metropoli
tan Opera House took place in 1962, as the Marschallin in Der Ro.sen-kavalier. Her appearance at this May Festival will be her first in Ann Arbor.
MARIA STADER, soprano from Switzerland, came to the notice of the public by winning first prize in the "I. Concours international d'execution musicale de Geneve" and she has since appeared in practically every major music festival throughout the world. She began these engagements early by invitation from Pablo Casals to appear at the Prades Festival. In the United States Miss Stader appears repeatedly with all of the major symphony orchestras. For her stylistic interpretations of Mozart she was awarded the Lilli Lehmann Medal. The city of Salzburg awarded her the Silver Mozart Medal and the Austrian Order of Merit for Arts and Sciences as well as the Hans Georg Naegeli Gold Medal. Miss Stader sings ai the May Festival to mark her first appearance in Ann Arbor.
OAWA SIMON is one ol America's foremost young singers. She was brought up in New York City in a family of publishers --all with musical interests, including two sisters. Miss Simon was becoming well-known for her performances of oratorios and other religious music when she re-( rived international acclaim for her voluptuous portrayal of the courtesan Pantasilca in the world premiere of Alberto Ginastera's opera Bomarzo in Washington D.C. in the aria from which she makes her Ann Arbor debut. She has appeared in Spoleto, Berlin, and will, after this Festival, sing with the Israel Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta and later at the Saratoga Music Festival this summer.
RICHARD TUCKER, Brooklyn-born and entirely American-trained, is acknowledged as the Number One "Italian" tenor in all of the great opera houses of the world today. His historic Metropolitan Opera House debut in La Gioconda in 1945 began a career of international stardom. He has sung from the Vienna Staatsoper to the Middle and Far East, including Israel and Ghana. The highest cultural and civilian awards have honored him. He has appeared in Ann Arbor on two previous occasions in recital, in the Choral Union Series in 1952 and 1959. After this May Festival debut he goes to Milan, Italy, where he will make his debut at La Scala Opera House.
JOHN McCOLLUM, American tenor, who is currently chairman of the Voice Department of the Music School at the University of Michigan, began a music career fifteen years ago, following a brief career as a journalist in San Francisco. Beginning his opera experience at Tan-glewood under Boris Goldovsky he has since appeared in many leading roles at the New York City Opera and with prominent engagements in concert performances with the major symphony orchestras across the
country. He has appeared in previous May Festivals including the role of the priest in "Persephone" conducted by Igor Stravinsky here in 1964. This marks his eighth appearance under the auspices of the University Musical Society.
WILLIS PATTERSON, bass, was born and educated in Ann Arbor and received both his bachelor's and master's degrees in music from the University of Michigan School of Music. He was the winner of the Marian Anderson Award for Young Singers in 1958, first runner-up in the National Association of Teachers of Singing "Singer of the Year" contest, winner of Fulbright award for further study in southern Germany where he studied at the school of music in Freiburg, before joining the faculty of the University School of Music. This is Mr. Patterson's first appearance at the May Festivals.
HANS RICHTER-HAASER was born in Dresden, Germany, where he grew up and received his early training. After World War II, which had interrupted this young artist's career, he settled in the small capital of Detmold, where he became professor of the State Music Academy and conducted the local symphony through 1947. Thereafter, a prominent recital career culminated in touring six continents. He made his American debut tour in the fall of 1959. This concert season began with numerous recitals in Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, and Holland. In mid-January he began a tour of Japan where he played the entire cycle of Beethoven's thirty-two sonatas and the five piano concertos with orchestra. Highlights of this season included four Mozart concertos performed with the Washington National Symphony. After this Ann Arbor Festival debut he returns to Amsterdam to appear with the Concertgebouw Orchestra, the New Philharmonia Orchestra of London, the Stuttgart Philhar monic, and the Leipzig State Radio Orchestra.
ZARA NELSOVA, cellist, was born in Canada, educated in England, and is now a citizen of the United States. Miss Nelsova has just returned from a two-month tour of Europe that took her to London, Berlin, Munich, Bayreuth, Zurich, Copenhagen, and Stockholm. During June and July the internationally-celebrated musician will perform in South America with concerts and recitals scheduled for Buenos Aires and Rio de Janeiro. She will return to London in August to take part in the Proms Concerts, where she will present the world premiere of Hugh Wood's cello con?certo, especially commissioned by the BBC. Her early conceit career centered in London. In 1943 she made her American recital debut. In 1966 she appeared first in Ann Arbor in joint recital with her husband Grant Johannesen.
GLENN D. McGEOCH, program annotator for the annual May Festival Program Book, has been associated with the University School of Music
since 1931, and is at present Professor of Music Literature and former chairman of the Department of Music Literature and History. He holds two degrees from the University of Michigan and has studied further at Peabody Conservatory, Baltimore, Cornell, New York, and Wayne Uni?versities in this country; and at Cambridge, England, and Munich, Ger?main. He initiated the first extension courses in music literature in the early 193()'s and has since lectured extensively throughout the state under the joint sponsorship of the University of Michigan and the Wayne State University Adult Education division.
Thor Johnson, Guest Conductor Lester McCoy, Conductor Barbara Shafran, Pianist
Bi.iiKiicii. 1 nla M. Colvin, Mvra S. Cook, Shirle) A. Cox. Elaine E. Kenelon, Linda E. Fox, Estelle M. Gockel, Barbara B. (.iiniiii. Annabelle Hanson, Gladys M. Headen. Nancy H. Hesselbart. Susan C. Hinnian. Lillian M. Hiraga. Mary E. Mirth, Dana's. )acobs, Mary Ann Jones, Jacqueline A. Keeler, Ann A. Kn shnci, l.ilv Kraushaar. Doris Lazier. Anita J. Liben. Lynn S. Luec ke. Doris L. Fannie Belle Malila, Elitla M. McDonald. Ruth McLean. Julie C. Myers, Carolyn M. Myers. Meliss.i B. Newman. Judy Outram, Eileen Pearson. Agnes I. Pic ken. ean A. Pitlaway. Louise I) Porter, Mary Burke Richards. Kathleen A Robskv. Edith Rodri(uez, Karen K. Si hilt. Margaret A. Smith, l.uene A. Storm. Cheryl A. Wilson. Miriam L.
WollI, Deborah R. Worst, Ruth A. Yoon, Soon Young
Beltz, Isabclle M. Brown. Rayna F. Buir. Virginia A. Buta. Lucile C. Campbell, Suanne M. Carr, Nan I'. Cornell, Gail A. Foreman. Carol V. Fry. Susannah B. Gustafson, Gretchen R. Hatty. )can D. Horning, Alice R. Horst, Leslie Hunter. Bels I.. Jerome. Ruth O. Johnson. Beverly Keating, l'.iti ii i.i . Lei krone, ]anet G. Leftridge, Sharon L. Lehmann, Judith I. Mi Master, Carolyn J. Miller. Joyce A. Morgan, Mary S. Murray, Marilyn R. Owens. Lavonia C. Over. Thelm.i M. Petty, Eleanor Reed. Lisa. A. Sargent, Nancy L. Sexton. Ebba ]o
Slee. Del..,1.1 A.
Stenson. Judith A. Stewart-Robinson. E.M. Vasaris, Eileen G. Weinman, Susan R. Wilson, Ceorgene Young, anice K.
ikinv Susan K.
Barter, Patricia
Beam, Eleanor P. Brown, Marion W. Chapman. Rebecca J. Chipman. Carolyn A. Cole. Patricia J. Collins. Paula J. Datsko, Deanna K. Davidson, Margaret A. DeVris, Janice F. Donaldson, Kathryn M Emmons, Ann C. Evans, Daisy K. Feldkamp, Lucy (. Fowler, Lucille Green, Jane H. Hall. Doris E. Heilzman. Dicdia Hornet, Janis C. Kempton, Judith A. Kisier, Susan S. Klein. Linda S. kulcnkamp. Nanc) A. Leonard, Wendy L. McAdoo, Harriette P. McArtor, Jane C. McCoy, Bernice Meyer, Susan E. Miller, Florence H.
Mum e. Sh.nun A. Murray. Virginia L. Nininger, 1 lelen L. ()'(ionnor, Barbara A. Otis. Daren J. Reidy, Dorothy E. Schmiege, Susan K. Schuster. Pamela A. Segal, Deborah A. Sir.-. Beth E. Smith. Margeuritc M. Swart, Christine VV.
Thomas, Carren A. Weaver, Kim I'. White, 1..i W. Wolfe, Charlotte A. Wood, D.Jean
Adams, Lorene L. Arnold, Helen M. Band. Marjorie A. Bedell, Carolyn P. Clayton, Caroline S. Crossley, Winnifrcd M. Day, May Luz Deo, Barbara Ann Douglass, Christine C. Duncan, Mary G. Eisenhardt, Elizabeth R. Forsyth, Ilene H. Haai). Man E. Howell, Ruth S. Johnson, Elizabeth . Kubiak. Donna I. Lidgard, Ruth M. Liebscher, Erika M. Lovelace, Elsie W. Mastin, Neva M. Miller, Rene S. Murphy Rosalind. E. Nelson, Lois P. Newton. Dorothy M. Newton. Hollis H. Olson, Constance K. Payne, Ruth C. Penpraze. Nancy A. Pratt, Barbara C. Rector, Ellen M. Richardson, Gloria J. Robberson, Kay D. Roeger, Beverly B. Schenck, Mary L. Schutjer, Marlys E. Sorensen, Cynthia . Steele, Donna L. Taylor, H. Alicia Whitehouse, Amelia M. Wiedmann, Louise P. Wilson. ohanna K. Williams, Nancy P. Woodra, Sandra K.
Baker, Hugh E. Barrett, Martin A. Cathey, Owen B. Chester, Gerald E. DeVries, Robert L. Hammon.John F. Hmay. Thomas J. Kratz, Donald L. I.eckrone, Gerald R. Newton, Clyde A. Reidy, James J. Rossow, Gerald C. Jr. Schultz, Stanley T. Scott, Phillip C. Sprow, Keith R. Steiner. Kenneth ). U'itte, Daryl F.
Abramowitz, Robert L. Aptekar, Kenneth R. Brokaw, Norman T. Clark. Harold R. Dimkoff, Graydon W. Dohse. Craig C. Enns, Philip G. Galbraith. Merle G. Jr. Haines, Michael C. Haworth. Donald I.. Hill. James T. Hyde. Peter D. Mi Murtrie. James H. Outram, Francis H. Petty. Mark A. Repola. Kenneth I.. Schilling. Jesse V. Schmitz, Joel E. Simpson. Gary M. Smith. Douglas I. Taylor, Ralph G. Weamer, Alan P.
Ballard, Gary D.
Beam, Marion L. Benes, ames D. Briel, Steve C.
Brueger. John M. Bun, Charles F. Cameron, Bruce A. Clayton, Joseph F. Cross, Harry L. Currie, William J. Hagerty, Thomas F. Hall. Lawrence E. Haynes, Jeffrey, K. Herren, Donald C. Huff, Charles R. Kays, J. Warren Kissel, Klair H. Leismer, Kenneth H. McMaster, Ronald A. Morris, Robert T. Pearson, John R. Rothenberg, Jeffrey W. Weigl, Robert C. Wilkins, William E. Woltersom, Richard J.
Baskervillc, Andrew R. Block, Kenneth B. DePuit, Gerald A. Dicey, Bruce B. Fisher, Franklin F. Galantay, Eugene D. Hubert, Timothy D. Humsche, David F. Lehmann, Charles F. Lohr, Lawrence L. Jr. Loukotka, Joseph J. Luria, Eric W. Mastin, Glenn G. Maxwell, W. LeGrand Miller, Warren P. Powell, Gregg E. Rutz, Timothy A. Schonschack, Wallace A. Schroeder, Tom L. Silzer, Peter). Slee, Vergil N. Sommerfeld, Roy T. Stegler, Richard E. Steinmetz, George P. Strozier, Robert D. Weber, Mark A.
Eugene Ormandy,Conductor William Smith, Assistant Conductor
Boris Sokoloff, Manager Joseph H. Santarlasci, Assistant Manager
Norman Carol
Concertmaster David Madison
Associate Concertmaster William de Pasquale
Associate Concertmaster Morris Sluilik Owen Lusak David Grunschlag Frank E. Saam Frank Costanzo David Arben Barbara de Pasquale Max Miller Jacob Stahl Ernest L. Goldstein Herbert Light Meyer Simkin Louis Gesensway Cathleen Dalschaert Irvin Rosen Robert de Pasquale Armand Di Camillo Joseph Lanza Julia )anson Isadore Schwartz Jerome Wigler Norman Black living I.udwig George Dreyfus Larry Grika Manuel Roth Louis Lanza Stephane Dalschaert Luis Biava
Joseph de Pasquale James Fawcett Leonard Mogill Gabriel Braverman Sidney Curtiss Darrel Barnes Leonard BogdanofT Paul Ferguson Wolfgang Granat Irving Segall Donald R. Clauser Charles Griffin VIOLONCELLOS Samuel Mayes Elsa Hilger
Harry Gorodetzer Francis de Pasquale Joseph Druian William Saputelli Winifred Mayes Bert Phillips Barbara Haffner Marcel Farago Lloyd Smith Santo Caserta
Roger M. Scott Ferdinand Maresh Neil Courtney F. Gilbert Eney Carl Torcllo Wilfred Batchelder Samuel Gorodetzer Michael Shahan Emilio Gravagno
FLUTES Murray W. Panitz Kenneth E. Scutt Kenlon F. Terry John ('.. Krell. Piccolo
John de l.ancie Stevens Hewitt Charles M. Morris Louis Rosenblatt. English Horn
CLARINETS Anthony M. Gigliotti
Donald Montanaro
Raoul Querze
Ronald Reuben, Bass Clarinet BASSOONS
Bernard H. Garfield John Shamlian
Adelchi Louis Angelucci
Robert J. Pfeufler, Contra Bassoon HORNS
Mason Jones
Nolan Miller
Leonard Hale
John Simonelli
Herbert I'ierson
Glenn Janson
TRUMPETS Gilbert Johnson Donald E. McComas Seymour Rosenfcld Samuel Krauss
TROMBONES Glenn Dodson Tyrone Breuninger M. Dee Stewart Robert S. Harper, B.iss I romlxmi1
Abe Torchinsky
Gerald Carlyss Michael Bookspan BATTERY
Charles E. Owen Michael Bookspan Alan Abel Manuel Roth
William Smith Marcel Karago
Marilvn Costello Margarita Csonka
LIBRARIAN Jesse C. Taynton
Edward Barnes, Manager Theodore Hauptle James Sweeney
Adrian Siegel
Henry Simmons Frieze, 1879-1881 and 18831889 Alexander Winchell, 1881-1883 and 1889-1891 Francis W. Kelsey, 1891-1927
Charles A. Sink (Executive Secretary, 1904-1927); 1927-1968 Gail W. Rector (Assistant to the President, 1945-1954); (Executive Director, 1957-1968); 1968-
Cah'in B. Cady, 1879-1888 Albert A. Stanley, 1888-1921 Earl V. Moore, 19221939
Thor Johnson, 1939-1942 Hardin Van Deursen, 1943-1947 Lester McCoy, Associate Conductor, 1947-1956; Conductor, 1956-
Ross Spence (Secretary), 1893-1896
Thomas C. Colburn (Secretary), 1897-1902
Charles K. Perrine (Secretary), 1903-1904
Charles A. Sink (Executive Secretary, 19041927); President,
1927-1957 Gail W. Rector (Assistant to the President, 19451954); Executive
Director, 1957-1968; President, 1968-
Mary K. Farkas, (Secretary to the President, 19321958);
Administrative Assistant, 1958 --
Rose Marie Hooper, Secretary to the President, 1968 -Sally A. Cushing, Cashier and Accountant, 1968-C. Mae Cotter, Typist-Recorder, 1968 -Harold E. Warner, Head Usher, 1952-
THE UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY, which this year observes its ninetieth season, was organized during the winter of 1879 -80 and was incorporated in 1881. Its purpose was to maintain a choral society and an orchestra to provide public concerts and to organize and maintain a school of music which would offer instruction comparable to that of the University in its schools and colleges. Ars longa vita brevis was adopted as
The "Ann Arbor Sihool of Musii" was organized in IH7;i and in IN02 as reorganized as the "University School of
Music." In IWLM.I the luiwtsiu provided partial support, and students and iacullv were ien limeisiiv status. In 1940 the L'niversin Musiial Scxiel relinquished lull tiiniriil and responsibility for the School to The Univcnity of Michigan.
its motto. In 1894, as a climax to its offerings, the "First Annual May Festival" was inaugurated. Gradually the number of concerts in the Chor?al Union Series was increased to ten, and the May Festival from three to six concerts. In 1946, with the development of musical interest, a supple?mentary series of concerts was added --the Extra Concert Series. Handel's Messiah, which had been performed at intervals through the years, be?came an annual production. Since 1946 it has been given two perform?ances each season; and since 1965, three performances are scheduled each year. Beginning with 1967, the May Festival has comprised five conceits.
From 1941 to 1968 an annual Chamber Music Festival of three concerts was held in Rackham Auditorium: and since 19(2, an annual Dance Festival of three events, which this season became a Dance Series of five events in Hill Auditorium. During the season the Chamber Arts Series of seven attractions takes place; and the Summer Concert Series of four recitals i.s scheduled annually for [ul. (In the summer of 1967, as a special tribute to the University Sesquicentennial Celebration, the elev?en-concert Fair Lane Festival was presented at the site of the Henry Ford mansion, now part of the Dearborn Campus of the University of Michigan). Thus, at the close of its ninetieth year the Musical Society will have presented, throughout the season, thirty-five major events by dis?tinguished artists and organizations from a dozen countries.
THE UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION was an outgrowth of a "Mes?siah Club," made up of singers from several local churches. For a decade and a half, assisted by distinguished professional artists and organizations, it participated in numerous Choral Union concerts. In addition to its Messiah concerts, since 1894 it has performed at the annual May Festivals, offering a wide range of choral literature over the years (see pages 78 to 80). The chorus membership numbers about three hundred sing?ers, including townspeople and students, as well as many singers from out of town. Beginning next August, applications will be accepted for the 1969 -70 membership.
' iMiii.t; cit .ill jrtif. .ind organizations, togeihei with ihc repertoire performed during the1968--69 wason, will ht published anil available lt ul I.
Maintained by the University Musical Society and founded by Albert A. Stanley and his associates on the Board of Directors in 1894
Albert A. Stanley, 1894-1921 Earl V. Moore, 1922-1939
Thor Johnson, 1940-1942 Hardin Van Deursen, 1943-1946 Thor Johnson (Guest), 1947 -
(iustav Hoist (London, England),
1923, 1932 Howard Hanson (Rochester), 1926,
1927,1933,1935 Felix Borowski (Chicago). 1927 Percy Grainger (Australia), 1928 Jose Iturbi (Philadelphia), 1937
Georges Enesco (Paris), 1939
Harl McDonald (Philadelphia),
1939,1940,1944 Virgil Thomson (New York),
Aaron Copland (New York), 1961 Igor Stravinsky (Los Angeles),
1964 Robert Craft (Los Angeles), 1964
The Boston Festival Orchestra, Emil Mollenhauer, Conductor, 1894-1904.
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra, Frederick Stock, Conductor, 1905-1935. Eric DeLamarter, Associate Conductor. 1918-1935.
The Philadelphia Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski, Conductor, Saul Caston and Charles O'Connell, Associate Conductors, 1936; Eugene Ormandy, Conductor, 1937, 1938; Eugene Ormandy, Conductor, Saul Caston, Associate Conductor, 1939--1945: Eugene Ormandy. Conductor. Al?exander Hilsberg, Associate Conductor. 1946-1953. and Guest Con?ductor, 1953; Eugene Ormandy. Conductor, 1954 -; William Smith. Assistant Conductor, 1957 -.
The University Choral Union, Albert A. Stanley, Conductor, 1894--1921; Earl V. Moore. Conductor, 1922--1939; Thor Johnson, Conductor, 1940-1942; Hardin Van Deursen, Conductor, 1943-1947; Thor Johnson, Guest Conductor, 1947 -; Lester McCoy, Associate Con?ductor, 1947-1956, and Conductor, 1957-.
The Festival Youth Chorus, trained by Florence B. Potter, and conducted by Albert A. Stanley, 1913--1918. Conductors: Russell Carter. 1920; George Oscar Bo wen, 1921-1924; Joseph E. Maddy, 1925-1927; Juva N. Higbee, 1928-1936; RoxyCowin. 1937; Juva X. Higher. '1938; Roxy Cowin, 1939; uva X. Higbee, 1940-1942; Marguerite Hood, 1943-1956; Geneva Nelson, 1957; Marguerite Hood, 1958.
Bach: Mass in B minor (excerpts)1923, 1924, 1925 (complete), 1953 Magnificat in D major1930, 1950 Sleepers, Wake (Cantata 140)1964
Beethoven: Missa Solemnis in D major. Op. 1231927, 1947, 1955
Symphony No. 9 in D minor. Op. 125-1934, 1942, 1945. 1966 Berlioz: The Damnation of Faust 1895, 1909. 1920. 1952
Bernstein: Chichestcr Psalms-1966 Bizet: Carmen1904, 1918. 1927, 1938 Bloch: "America," An Epic Rhapsody-1929
Sacred Service (Parts 1, 2, 3)1958 Bossi: Paradise Lost1916 Brahms: Requiem. Op. 45-1899 (excerpts), 1929. 1941, 1949
Alto Rhapsodic Op. 531939 "
Song of Destiny, Op. 54-1950
Song of Triumph, Op. 55-1953 Britten: Spring Symphony-1965 Bruch: Arminius1897, 1905
Fair Ellen, Op. 24-1904, 1910
Bruckner: Te Deum laudamus-1945 Carey: "America"-1915
Chabrier: Fete Polonaise from Le Roi malgre lui-1959 Chadwick: The Lily Nymph1900 Chavez, Carlos: Corrido de "El Sol"1954$. 1960 Corigliano, John: "Fern Hill"-1969 Demvs: Sea Drift1924
Requiem-1966 Dvorak: Stabat Mater, Op. 58-1906
Requiem Mass. Op. 89-1962 Elcar: Caractacus-1903, 1914, 1936
The Dream of Geronlius, Op. 381904. 1912. 1917 Finney, Ross Lee: "Still Are New Worlds"1963
"The Martyr's Elegy"1967 1 ?)(.(.: The Seasons1937 Franck: The Beatitudes1918 Gabrieli: In Ecclesiis benedicio domino-1958 Giannini: Canticle of the Martyrs-1958 Ginastera, Alberto: Psalm 150. Op. 5-1969 Cluck: Orpheus1902
Goldmark: The Queen of Sheba (March)-1923 Gomer, Llvwelvn: Gloria in Excelsis-1949 Gounod: Faust-1902, 1908, 1919
World picmicic
tl lined Slates ptrrnin c
Graingek, Percy: Marching Song of" Democracy1928 Hadley: "Musk," An Ode. Op. 751919 Handel: Judas Maccalieus-1911
Messiah1907, 1914
Solomon1959 Hanson, Howard: Songs from "Drum Taps"-1935
Heroic Elegy-1927
The lament for Beowulf1926
Merry Mount1933
Haydn: The Creation-1908. 1932, 1963
The Seasons1909, 1934 Heger: Ein Friedenslied, Op. 191934t Holst: A Choral Fantasia1932t . A Dirge for Two Veterans1923
The Hymn of Jesus1923t
First Choral Symphony (excerpts)-1927t HONEGGER, Arthur: King David1930, 1935, 1942
"Jeanne d'Are au bucher"-1961 Kooalv: Psalmus Hungaricus,Op. 13--1939
Te Deum-1966
Lambert, Constant: Summer's Last Will and Testament-195It I.ockwood, Normand: Prairie-1953 McDonald, Harl: Symphony No. 3 ("Lamentations of Fu Hsuan")--1939
Mendelssohn: ?rt)aA-1901, 1921. 1926. 1944, 1954, 1961 St. Paul1905
Mennin, Peter: Symphony No. 4. "The Cycle"-1950 Moussorcsky: Boris Godunov-1931. 1935 Mozart: Grcal Mass in C minor, K. 427-1948
Requiem Mass in D minor, K. 626-1946
"Davidde penilente"-1956 Orff. Carl: Carmina Bui ana-1955 Parker: Hora Novissima, Op. 301900 Pierne: The Children's Crusade-1915
Saint Francis of Assissi-1928. 1931 Ponchielli: I.a Gioconda-1925 Pot'i.ENc: Secheresses-1959
Prokofiev: Alexander Nevskx. Op. 781946 Rachmaninoff: The Bells1925. 1938. 1948 Respighi: La Primavera-1924t Rimski-Korsakov: The Legend of Kitesh 1932t Rossini: Stabai Mater-1897
Saint-Saens: Samxon and DWifaA-1896, 1899. 1907. 1912. 1916. 1923, 1929. 1940. 1958 Schonberg: Gurre-Lieder-1956 Schubert: Mass in A-flat-1969
WinId pirnlirlr tAmCI li .in pirmiri c
Schuman, William: A Free Song (Cantata No. 2)-1945 Sibelius: Onward Ye Peoples1939, 1945 Smith, J. S.: Star Spangled Banner1919, 1920 Stanley: Chorus Triumphalis. Op. 141897. 1912, 1921
Fair Land of Freedom-1919
Hymn of Consecration-1918
"Laus Deo," Choral Ode1913. 1943
A Psalm of Victory, Op. 8-1906 Stock: A Psalmodic Rhapsody1922. 1943 Stravinsky: Symphonie des psaumes-1932. 1960
"Persephone"-1964 Sullivan: The Golden Legend-1901 Tchaikovsky: Episodes from Eugen Onegin-1911, 1941 Thompson, Randall: Alleluia-1941
Vardei.l, Cantata, "The Inimitable Lovers"-1940 Vauchan Williams, Ralph: Five Tudor Portraits-1957
"Flos Campi"-1959
Dona nobis pacem-1962 Verdi: Aida1903, 1906. 1917, 1921. 1924 (excerpts). 1928, 1937, 1957
La Form del Destino (Finale, Act ID1924
Requiem Mass-1894, 1898. 1913, 1920, 1930, 1936. 1943, 1951, 1960. 1967
Stabat Mater-1899
TeDeum-1947, 1963
Villa-Lobos, Heitor: Choros No. 10. "Rasga o coracao"-1949. I960 Vivaldi: Magnificat-1967 Vivaldi-Casella: Gloria-1954 WAGNER: Die Jliegende Hollander1918
Lohengrin-1926; Act. I1896. 1913
Die Meutersinger, Finale to Act III1903, 1913; Choral, "Awake." and Chorale Finale to Act III-1923
Scenes from Parsifal-1937
Tamihauser1902. 1922; March and Chorus1886; "Venuslcrg" Music1946 Walton, William: liehhazzar Feast1933. 1952 Wolf-Ferrari: The New Life, Op. 9-1910, 1915. 1922. 1929
At the Annual Meeting of the University Musical Society, held Novem?ber 5, 1968, a Gift Program was established to build a reserve fund to offset any annual deficit and to ensure the future of the traditional presentations. Contributor categories subsequently were designated as Guarantor, Sponsor, Patron, and Sustaining Member.
All contributions to the University Musical Society from June 1, 1968, to April 7, 1969, inclusive, have been credited to this special reserve fund. The donors' names, together with anonymous gifts, are hereby gratefully acknowledged. Another complete listing to include all subsequent donors will be published next September at the first concert of the Choral Union Series, and again in November following the Annual Meeting.
Miss Esther Bet
Mr. and Mrs. Harlan Hatcher
Mr. and Mrs. Peter N. Heydon Mrs. Dana E. Seeley
Mrs. Charles I. Campbell
Mr. Lou M. Dexter
Mr. and Mrs. Robbcn VV. Fleming
Mi v Waltei I aubengayei
Mr. and Mrs. John M. McCollum Mr. Mack Rvan Mr. and Mrs. Neil Staebler Mrs. Victoria S. Wege
Wagner and Company
Mi. and Mrs. Edward Adams,Jr.
Mi. and Mrs. Wvctli Allen
Miss Henricka Beach
Mr. and Mrs. Leslie R. Beals
Mr. C.John Blanklej
Mr. and Mrs. Mil ford Boersma
Mr. and Mrs. Rosioc O. Bonisteel
Mrs. George Granger Brown
Mr. George H. Brown
Mr. Robert M. Brown
Dr. and Mrs. K. M. Brownson
Mr. and Mrs. George (.'. Cameron
Mi. .ind Mrs. Robert M. Campbell
Mr. and Mrs. John Alden Clark
Mr. and Mrs. Gage R. Cooper
Mr. and Mrs. A. II. Copeland
Mr. Karl H. Cress
Dr. and Mrs. Clarence Crook
Prof, and Mrs. William M. Cruikshank
Dr. and Mis. Russell Dejong
'A kI( in mentor) ? t tin late husband. Mi. Waltci Laubengayer
Mr. and Mrs. William G. Dow
Dr. Joseph Eschbach
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Evans
Mr. and Mrs. George H. Forsyth
Mr. Dale P. Fosdick
Miss Phyllis W. Foster
Dr. and Mrs. Alexander Gotz
Miss Elsa Haller
Mr. and Mrs. Elmer F. Hamel
Mr. and Mrs. J. D. Hanawalt
h s. Joseph R. I laxdiii
Mr. Joseph C. Hooper
Dr. and Mrs. F. W.Jeffries
Mr. and Mrs. Irvin W. Kay
Mrs. Grace Kehl
Mr. Charles R. Kellerman, Jr.
Miss Ida Kemp
Mr. William R. Kinney
Mr. Edwin E. Meader
Mr. Jesse Ormondroyd
Mr. and Mrs. William B. Palmer
Dr. and Mrs. Bernard Patmos
Mr. and Mrs. W. K. Pierpont
Dr. and Mrs. H. Marvin Pollard
Mr. and Mrs. Warren E. Poole
Mr. and Mrs. John J. Porter
Mr. and Mrs. Millard H. Pryor
Mi. and Mrs. Michael Radcx k
Mr. Harrison M. Randall
Dr. and Mrs. Theophile Raphael
Dr. and Mrs. Rigdon K. Ratliff
Mr. and Mrs. Howard Reed
Prof, and Mis. I . V. Ri hail
Mr. E. B. Rickard
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis Rigan
Miss Sara I.. Rowe
Mr. Carl F. Schenim
Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Sergeant
Mrs. Frank Siller
Mrs. James H. Spencer
Mr. and Mrs. E. Blythe Stason
Mrs. Dorothy F. Stolpin
Mr. J. Wilner Sundelson
Mrs. Elizabeth K. Swisher
Dr. and Mrs. E. Thnrston Thieme
Miss Virginia W. 1 ihbals
Mrs. John E. Tracy
Dr. Paul M. Vanek
Mr. and Mrs. Erich A. Walter
Mrs. Russell West
Mr. W. Scott Westerman, r.
Mi. .ind Mrs. Boyd W. Yard
Ann Arbor Bank
Ann Arbor Federal Savings and
Loan Association Ann Arbor Trust Company
Bay's ArcadeJi-wt-h
Hi Fi and TV Center, Inc.
National Bank and Trust Co.
Miss Victoria Abdella
Miss Adelaide A. Adams
Mr. and Mrs. Francis A. Allen
Mr. and Mis. J. H. Allington
Dr. and Mrs. David G. Anderson
Dr. Oliver C. Applegaie
Mr. and Mrs. Thomas M. Atkins
Mrs. Stephen S. Attwood
Mr. and Mrs. Max K. Aupperle
Mrs. Noyes L. Avery, r.
Mi. and Mrs. Donald II. Bacon
Mis. A. W. Baker
Mr. and Mrs. Burton I.. Baker
Mis. Jean Lynn Barnard
Mrs. R. W. Barnard
Mrs. Floyd K. Baricll
Mr. and Mrs. Raymond (). Bassler
Dr. and Mrs. Gerhard II. Bauer
Mr. and Mrs. Harry B. Benford
Mr. and Mrs. Elmer G. Berry
Mr. and Mrs. V. T. Bibicoff
Mr. and Mrs. William W. Bishop, Jr.
Dr. A. James Blair, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Harlan Bloomer
Dr. and Mrs. Giles G. Bole, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Jay A. Bolt
Mrs. C. E. Bottum
Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Bottum, Jr.
Miss Lola M. Bradstreet
Mr. and Mrs. E. F. Brater
Mr. Allen P. Britton
Mr. and Mrs. George W. Brooks
Prof. Robert H. Brower
Dr. and Mrs. Gordon C. Brown
Mr. and Mrs. Robbins Burling
Mrs. H. S. Butz
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Cannell
Dr. Ruth Cantieny
Mr. and Mrs. David Catron
Mr. and Mrs. Walter Chambers
Dr. and Mrs. Alfred Y. T. Ching
Miss Hope H. Chipman
Mr. Carl Cohen
Mr. and Mrs. Hubert Cohen
Mr. and Mrs. W. Oscar Collins
Mrs. Lester V. Colwell
Mrs. Will Connelly
Mr. and Mrs. George D. Coons
Dr. and Mrs. Leslie Corsa, Jr.
Mr. .md Mrs. Glenn M. Coulter
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Dak-Mr. Paul A. Daniells
Miss Sarita Davis
Dr. .ind Mrs. I. J. DeKornfeld
Prof. Julio del Toro
Mi. and Mrs. G. E. Densmore
Mr. and Mrs. W. de St. Aubin
Mi. .md Mrs. E. 1). Ditto
Mr. John S. Dobson
Dr. Edward R. Doezema
Dr. Bruce1 Draper
Mr. EricS. Eklund
Mi. and Mrs. Robert C. Elderfield
Mr. .md Mrs. John F. Kiev
Mr. and Mis. John H. Enns
Mr. Nicholas 1). Falcone
Mr. IrvingJ. Feinberg
Mr. and Mrs. Robert S. Feldman
Mrs. Alice T. Ferguson
Mr. and Mrs. F. A. Filie
Mr. and Mrs. Carl H. Fischer
Mr. Howard P. Fox
Dr. and Mrs. Thomas Francis, Jr.
Mrs. William A. Frayer
Mrs. Charles C. Fries
Mr. and Mrs. Victor Gallatin
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard A. Caller
Mr. S. H. Garland
Dr. and Mrs. Ralph M. Gibson
Mr. and Mrs. Philip H. Gillies
Miss Pearl Graves
Mr. and Mrs. G. Robert Greenberg
Miss Dorothy Greenwald
Miss Barbara J. Gross
Mr. Robert C. Hansen
Dr. and Mrs. Henry L. Hartman
Miss Margaret Harwick
Mr. Harold Haugh
Miss Ethel Hedrick
Mr. Albert E. Heins
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Henderson
Mr. and Mrs. S. H. Henry
Mrs. Robert J. Hesse
Mr. Charles A. Highhill
Mrs. Leonard E. Himler
Mr. Norman Ho
Dr. F.J. Hodges
Mr. and Mrs. David 1). Hunting
Miss Dorothy A. Huskey
Prof, and Mrs. Max L. Hint
Mr. Raymond F. Hutzel
Miss Ella M. Hymans
Dr. and Mrs. Hideo Itabashi
Mr. and Mrs. Emil Jebe
Mr. and Mrs. Herbert Johe
Mr. and Mrs. Phillip S. Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Robert I.. Kahn
Mis. Gunnar Karlstrom
Mr. and Mrs. J. Warren Kays
Mrs. Ted Kennedy. Jr.
Dr. William W. Kimbrough
Mr. Robert Klein
Dr. Karl S. Klic ka
Mr. and Mrs. Harry J. Klinger, Jr.
Mr. Samuel Krimm
Mr. and Mrs. Geoffrey E. Krone
Mr. and Mrs. S. R. I.amperl
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur T. Lanning
Mrs. Gertrude I.eidy
Mr. and Mrs. John I.eidy
Miss H. M. Lloyd
Miss Mildred Loeffler
Mr. .mil Mrs. 1). S. 1 .owe
Mr. and Mr--. )olin Dun I udlow
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Marias
Miss Ella A. Mahnken
Dr. and Mrs. I). W. Martin
Dr. Josip Matovinovic
Mr. and Mrs. Wesley H. Maurer
Dr. Wolfgang W. May
Mr. and Mrs. Allen L. Mayerson
Mr. John A. McMillan
Mr. F. N. McOmber
Mr. and Mrs. E. W. Meranda
Dr. and Mrs. Clarence J. Messner
Mr. and Mrs. Robert Metcalf"
Rev. and Mrs. Frederick R. Meyers
Mr. and Mrs. Keith ('.. Mickelson
Mr. Robert Rush Miller
Mr. John Mohler
Dr. and Mrs. Robert P. Montgomery
Dr. and Mrs. Joe D. Morris
Dr. and Mrs. James N'eel
Mrs. Clifford T. Nelson
Miss Geneva Nelson
Mr. and Mrs. K. K. Neumann
Mrs. George Stribling Newell
Mr. and Mrs. Robert ). Niess
Mrs. Roland (). Nissle
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick C. O'Dell
Dr. and Mrs. F. I). Ostrander
Mrs. David Owen
Mr. James R. Packard
Dr. Beverly C. Payne
Mr. and Mrs. Pedro Paz
Mr. and Mrs. I). Maynard Phelps
Dr. and Mrs. Richard A. Pollak
Dr. and Mrs. David Ponitz
Prof", and Mrs. Philip Potts
Mr. and Mrs. Emerson F. Powrie
Dr. T. A. Preston
Mr. Robert E. Rann
Prof. Lawrence L. Rauch
Mr. Gerald M. Rees
Dr. and Mrs. Melvin J. Reinhari
Mr. Arthui I). Robinson
Mr. Richard M. Robinson
Mr. and Mrs. Fred H. Rogers
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur M. Ross
Mr. Clarence Roy
Mr. Frank E. Royce
Prof. Mabel E. Rugen
Mrs. Margaret R. Runge
Dr. David W. Schmidt
Mr. Keeve M. Siegel
Miss Evelyn L. Smith
Mr. and Mrs. Ira M. Smith
Miss Beatrice A. Snider
Mrs. Helen M. Snyder
Mr. W. Allen Spivey
Mr. Russell Stevenson
Mr. George B. Stipe
Mrs. Mira Stoll
Mr. and Mrs. William H. Stubbins
Dr. and Mrs. Walter A. Swart
Mrs. Florence T. Thomas
Dr. and Mrs. Wallace Tourtellotte
Mr. and Mrs. Lynn A. Townsend
Mr. Paul W. LJngrodt.Jr.
Miss R. Vainsiein
Mr. and Mrs. B. Condii Valentine
Mr. and Mrs. Barry D.
Van Koevering Mr. and Mrs. W. Russell Virt Mrs. George Wadley Mr. and Mrs. Paul C. Wagner Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Warchausky Mr. and Mrs. Meruin H. Waterman Mrs. Ralph N. Watkins Mrs. Paul S. Welch Mrs. B. T. Whipple Mrs. Albert E. White-Mr, and Mrs. W. C. Wins Mr. George A. Wild Mr. and Mrs. Geo. W. Willard Mr. and Mrs. Edgar E. Willis Dr. S. B. Winslow Mrs. E. S. Wolaver Dr. and Mrs. [ose E. Yanez Mr. Chia-Shun Vih Mr. and Mrs. Paul F. Youngdahl
NINETY-FIRST SEASON International Presentations for the 1969-70 Season
Rackham Auditorium Four Piano Recitals --Artists to be announced June 1.
CHORAL UNION SERIES NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC............ 2:30, Sunday, September 21
Seiji Ozawa, Conducting
Andre Wai is. Pianist (Rachmaninoff Concerto No. 8)
MISHA DICHTER, Pianist.................................Monday, October 6
DI SANTA CECILIA, ROME................ Thursday, October 23
Fernando Previtali, Conducting
Bolshoi Opera and Russian Dancers)......Thursday, November 13
NHK SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, Japan....... Tuesday, November 25
HlROYUKI IWAKl, Conducting
JOAN SUTHERLAND, Soprano, with
RICHARD BONYNGE. Pianist......................Friday, January 30
VLADIMIR ASHKENAZY, Pianist.....................Monday, February 9
Canadian Opera Company ....................Saturday, February 14
ANDRES SEGOVIA, Classical Guitarist..............Thursday, February 19
NATIONAL BALLET OF CANADA ................. Friday, October 17
JOSE LIMON DANCE COMPANY .............. Saturday, November 1
?NIKOLAIS DANCE COMPANY ................. Wednesday, January 21
DANZAS VENEZUELA ............................. Tuesday! February 17
AMERICAN BALLET THEATER....................Tuesday, March 17
For these iwii modem Dance Companies, Lecture-demonstrations will Ikn lied u led and announced m a lain dale. Season k-i mi Km ribers ti ihe Dam e Sei !(?? will receive complimentan id mission.
MADRIGAL, from Bucharest..........................Sunday, October 12
Marin Constantin, Conductor PRAGUE CHAMBER ORCHESTRA.............Monday, November 10
Pianist (duo from Italy).........................Monday, November 17
NEW YORK PRO MUSICA...........................Monday, January 12
MUSIC FROM MARLBORO..................... Wednesday, January 28
ROBERT VEYRON-LACROIX, Keyboard ..Thursday, February 5 PHAKAVALI DANCERS, from Bangkok.............Monday, March 2
'Messiah" (Handel) --Three Performances............Friday, December 5
Saturday, December 6 (2:30) Sunday, December 7
Soloists to be announced The University Choral Union
Members of The Interlochen Arts Academy Orchestra
Mary McCall Stubbins, Organist
Lester McCoy, Conductor
ANN ARBOR MAY FESTIVAL1970 April 23, 24, 25, 26-5 Concerts, Thursday through Sunday
The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy, Conductor; Thor Johnson, Guest Conductor, and soloists.
(All Concerts begin at 8:30 unless otherwise indicated.)

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