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UMS Concert Program, February 25, 1972: P'ansori --

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Concert: Second
Complete Series: 3763
Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan

The University Musical Society
The University of Michigan
Friday Evening, February 25, 1972 at 8:30 Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Young San Hoe Sang (Court Chamber Music Suite) Seh Young San Ta Ryoung Koon Ahk Yang Chung
The "Young San Hoe Sang" suite is an elegunt chamber music work that was enjoyed generally by the aristocracy, the literati, and their companion courtesans during the Yi Dynasty period. It represents a refinement in music that appealed to the Confucianoriented sensibilities of the intellec?tuals just as the works of Haydn and Mozart were appreciated during their time by the European elite. Though the work in its entirety consists of as many as 14 pieces, generally only some of them are played in a single performance.
Tanso (vertical flute)...........Chi Yotjnghee
Kayageum (12stringed zitherlike instrument) .... Sung Keumyun Kuhmoongo (6stringed zitherlike instrument) .... Kim Yoonduk Yanggeum (dulcimer)............KimSohee
Pyungjo Hoe Sang (Suite)
Sang Young San (First Movement)
The p'iri is an oboetype instrument, consisting of a large doublereed and a slender tube of bamboo with seven holes and an additional one in the back near the base of the reed. Probably of Central Asian origin, it is used in all types of Korean music, court, folk, and religious. It is con?sidered indispensable to the orchestral ensemble that accompanies the dance.
P'iri (oboe).............Chi Younghee
Second Concert East Asian Series Complete Programs 3763
P'ansori is a dramatic, narrative, vocal epic. It is the task of one performer alone to sing the entire p'ansori--which may be many hours in length--or a smaller part of it, if less time is avail?able, singing all the dramatic roles and narrative portions, as well as the recitatives. The extraordinary difficulty of this art may be duly appreciated when one realizes that the p'ansori singer must equip herself, entirely by means of her voice alone, without the many accouterments that the opera singer in the West has at her disposal--scenery, lights, costume, makeup, and accompanying orchestra-the sole accompaniment provided the p'ansori singer is the barreldrum, known as the pook. "ShimCh'ungGa" is taken from the story of ShimChung, a girl who sacrifices herself so that her father's sight may be restored. In this scene, ShimChung boards the boat that takes her out to Imdang Soo, the wildest part of the sea, where the Dragon King has been churning the waters in anger, impatiently awaiting the sacrifice of a maiden.
Voice................Kim Sohee
Pook (barreldrum)...........Km Yoonduk
Kayageum Sanjo (Solo Instrumental Improvisational Music)
Korean traditional instruments such as the kayageum (12stringed zitherlike instrument) and kuhmoongo (6stringcd zitherlike instrument) were used only in court and ceremonial music that was generally rather austere in nature until around the latter part of the Yi Dynasty (19th Century) when folk and shaman ritual musicians from the southern part of the peninsula, principally in Chulla Province, began to improvise melodies on these instruments taken from shaman ritual songs and folk tunes. This improvisatory form eventually came to be known as sanjo, which literally means "scattered" or "mixed" melody.
Like the Indian raga, the sanjo begins slowly and very gradually accelerates its tempo until a presto is attained at the finale. Originally, sanjo players never knew specifically what they were going to play before sitting down at a performance. In this sense, they were highly influenced by the mood and atmosphere of the moment, and by their own particular talent as well. As such, it may well be likened to American jazz. Of all Korean traditional instruments, there is none more favored or wellknown than the kayageum. It consists of twelve strings made of tightlywound silk and twelve moveable bridges that are shaped in the form of a bird's foot--reputedly that of the crane, which is the aesthetic symbol of all Korean classical arts. Because the bridges are moveable, the instrument is afforded a wide range of tonal flexibility. The wood used for the kayageum, like the wood of all highquality string instruments and drums, is paulownia wood, which is considered to have excellent resonance and is also light in weight. The kayageum was made about 1300 years ago in the tiny kingdom of kaya (from whence it derives its name) during the Three Kingdoms period. Until the latter part of the Yi Dynasty (19th Century) when the Sanjo was created, it was used only in court and ceremonial music.
Kayageum (12stringed zitherlike instrument) .... Sung Keumyun Changgo (hourglass shaped drum).......Chi Younghee
Haegeum and Kayageum Duo--Folk Songs from Kyunggi Province, Central Korea
Folksongs from Kyunggi Province are characterized by their light and lyrical melodies that are usually cheerful in nature.
Haegeum (2stringed fiddle).........Chi Younghee
Kayageum (12stringed zitherlike instrument) .... Sung Keumyun Changgo (hourglass shaped drum).......Kim Yoomduk
Sinawi and Sae Taryung (Bird Song) Instrumental and Folkmusic of the South
Sinawi is instrumental music of a heterophonic texture that is used to accompany the shaman rituals of the South. In the "Bird Song" various types of birds are described, the cuckoo being the most prominent.
Voice................Kxm Sohee
Ahjaeng (bowed 7stringed instrument)......Sung Keumyun
Kayageum (12stringcd zitherlike instrument).....Kim Yoonduk
Changgo (hourglass shaped drum).......Chi Younghee
P'ansori--"Heung Boo"
This is the story of two brothers, an old wicked one and a young virtuous one. After their father dies, the older brother ousts his younger brother and family from their home. The younger brother is destitute. One day he saves the life of a sparrow and mends its broken leg. In gratitude, the sparrow brings him two gourd seeds. When the gourds have ripened, the younger brother and his wife open them up to find them full of gold and silks. The part of the P'ansori that Miss Kim sings is "Pahk Taryoung," describing the young couple finding the treasure.
Voice................Kim Sohee
Pook (barreldrum)...........Kim Yoonduk
Kuhmoongo Sanjo (Instrumental Improvisational Music)
The kuhmoongo somewhat resembles the kayageum in appearance, but has only six strings. The kuhmoongo's tone has a softer and a more subtle texture than the kayageum, and its bass tones attain a more profound depth. It is also a little larger in both length and breadth. In these several respects, it is not therefore surprising that some have alluded to it as the male and to the kayageum as the female. The kuhmoongo player strikes and plucks the strings with a small plectrum, made usually of horn or bamboo and held in the right hand, to sound the fundamental tone, and utilizes left hand to push the strings forward and backward in executing vibrato. The kuhmoongo is believed to have been made during the Koguryo period some 1400 years ago by a man who was also a min?ister to the king, Wang Sanahk. Legend has it that he was playing the instrument one summer's eve when two black cranes flew in through the open windows and performed a dance. Since then it has also been called the "Black Crane Harp."
Kuhmoongo (6stringed zitherlike instrument) .... Kim Yoonduk Changgo (hourglass shaped drum)........Ktm Sohee
Kayageum Pyungchang (Song with selfaccompaniment on the Kayageum) Tanga (A short narrative lyric poem)
In the kayageum pyungchang, the singer accompanies herself in song on the kayageum, the song usually being a selection taken from either the p'ansori, or folksong material, or as the case is here, from a tanga, a short narrative lyric poem written in the Chinese style.
Voice...............Sung Keumyun
Changgo (hourglass shaped drum).......Chi Younchee
Folk Songs
Yang San Doh (Gathering Grass)
Pae Pyung Ga (Song of Peace)
Chun An Sam Kuh Ri (The Willow Tree)
Flower Song
Voice................Kim Sohee
Changgo (hourglass shaped drum).......Kim Yoonduk
Kayageum (12stringed zitherlike instrument) .... Sung Keumyun Hayageum (2stringed fiddle).........Chi Younghee
The next program in the East Asian Series is Shantung Traditional Music from China, April 7.
NTi: K N A 1 1 O N A I, V U V. S E N 1 A T IONS --197172
Prague Symphony Orchestra.......Sunday, February 27
Jindrich Rohan, Conductor
Smetana: Czech Song (with Festival Chorus of the University Choral Union, Donald Bryant, Director); Peter Eben: Vox Clamantis; Dvorak: Symphony No. 5 in F major.
Julian Bream, Guitarist and Lutenist (Sold Out) . . Wednesday, March 1
Boston Symphony Chamber Players.....Tuesday, March 14
Danzi: Quartet for Bassoon and Strings; Schoenberg: String Trio, Op. 45; Mozart: Quartet in F for Oboe and Strings, K.37O; Beethoven: String Trio in C minor, Op. 9, No. 3. (Please note change in Boston dates from earlier announcements).
Boston Symphony Orchestra,
William Steinberg, Conductor.....Wednesday, March IS
Wagner: Prelude to "Die Meistersinger"; Hindemith: Mathis der Maler; Brahms: Symphony No. 4.
Vienna Symphony Orchestra........Sunday, March 19
Josef Krips, Conductor
Haydn: Symphony No. 93 in C minor; von Einem: Concerto for Orchestra, Op. 4; Schubert: Symphony Xo. 9 in C major.
Shantung Traditional Music from China.....Friday, April 7
Minnesota Orchestra..........Sunday, April 9
Stanislaw Skrowaczewski, Conductor
New York Pro Musica (Sold Out).......Sunday, April 16
ANN ARBOR MAY FESTIVAL......May 4, 5, 6, 7
The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy and Thor Johnson, conductors; five concerts in Hill Auditorium.
Soloists: Dietrich FischerDieskau, baritone; Marilyn Home, soprano; Malcolm Frager, pianist; Mayumi Fujikawa, violinist; Susan Starr, pianist; Noelle Rogers, soprano; Elizabeth Mannion, contralto; Waldie Anderson, tenor; Leslie Guinn, baritone; Willis Patterson, bass.
(Brochures with complete programs and ticket information available at Musical Society offices.)
Burton Memorial Tower, Ann Arbor, Michigan (Phone 66S3717)

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