Complete Series: 3777
Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
The University Musical Society
The University of Michigan
NEW YORK PHILHARMONIC
PIERRE BOULEZ, Music Director and Conductor
Saturday Evening, September 16, 1972, at 8:30 Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
?Overture, "Benvenuto Cellini," Op. 23........Berlioz
Symphony No. 31 in D major ("Horn Signal").......Haydn
Allegro Adagio Minuet
Finale: Theme and Variations
Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 120........Schumann
Zicmlich langsam; lebhaft Romanze: ziemlich langsam Scherzo: lebhaft Langsam; lebhaft
?"Daphnis and Chloe," Suite No. 2..........Ravel
Daybreak Pantomime General Dance
Recorded by the New York Philharmonic
The New York Philharmonic records exclusively for Columbia Records
First Concert NinetyFourth Annual Choral Union Series Complete Programs 3777
by Edwakd Downes
Overture, "Benvenuto Cellini," Op. 23.......Hector Berlioz
No wonder Berlioz felt drawn to Benvenuto Cellini! He sensed a kindred spirit. He read the extravagant Memoirs of the adventuresome Florentine goldsmith, musician, military hero, murderer and spinner of incredible yarns, and the three centuries that separated the two men were as nothing. Berlioz had found a dramatic figure with whom he could exult, commiserate, and with whom he could identify himself: a man who had lived as an artisthero, a "genius," to use the Romantic term of Berlioz' time, a superhuman human being who, Prometheuslike, conferred the fiery gift of his art on a dazzled and only partly comprehending mankind. In Cellini, Berlioz also recognized his own feverish intensity of feeling, the same hyperexcitability of the imagination. Cellini was also a skillful flutist and a musician of the Papal court in Rome. In short, he must have seemed to Berlioz the perfect subject for a Romantic opera.
For his libretto Berlioz appealed to Alfred de Vigny. But that pioneer Romantic poet and dramalist, busy with his own work, was willing to contribute only criticism and occasional retouching to the unfortunate libretto finally perpetrated by two respected mediocrities of the Academie franchise.
The premiere at the Paris Opera on September 10, 1838, was "hissed with admirable energy and unanimity," as Berlioz stoically reports. But the Overture was a tremendous success and was greeted with what the composer himself called "exaggerated applause." It has remained very much alive.
It begins, Allegro deciso con impeto, with a theme suggestive of Cellini's fiery temperament. This is followed quickly by melodies from the opera: pizzicatos for the low strings introduce the Cardinal's solemn address of the last act, "A tout peche pleine indulgence," and woodwinds add the melody sung by a Harlequin in the scene of the Roman Carnival. Almost halfway through the Overture the woodwinds introduce a new lyric theme. For a climax and conclusion the Cardinal's pronouncement returns with the brilliance of trumpet sound, supported by heavy brass and sur?rounded by swirling arabesques of the strings.
Symphony No. 31 in D major, "Horn Signal" or "On the Lookout" Joseph Haydn
Among the most popular of Haydn's early symphonies, his No. 31 in D major was composed in 1765, only four years after Haydn joined the domestic staff of Prince Esterhazy. The two nick?names of the Symphony (which do not appear on Haydn's manuscript, but are used on early manu?script copies) refer to the hunt: a favorite pastime not only of the Esterhazy Princes, but also of Haydn himself.
The nickname "On the Lookout" ("Auf dem Anstand") refers to the moment in an original hunt when the prey is first sighted. At this moment a traditional horn signal was blown to alert the waiting hunters. Many of these horn signals were very ancient, and their traditional forms varied from one region to another. The fanfare for solo horn heard almost immediately at the beginning of Haydn's Symphony No. 31 is strikingly similar to traditional hunting signals used in the region where the Esterhazy estates were situated.
The Symphony, though relatively brief, is in four movements beginning with a vigorous Allegro. The second movement is a songful Adagio with an elaborate part for the concertmaster. The third movement takes the traditional form of a minuet and trio with prominent parts for four horns. The finale, a theme and variations, again gives a prominent role to the concertmaster, to the four horns, and also to the principal cellist. The variations are rounded off with a brilliant con?cluding presto.
Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Op. 120......Robert Schumann
Schumann's Dmir.or Symphony was composed during the first ecstatically happy year of his marriage to Clara Wicck. During his long courtship Schumann had suffered agonies from the oppo?sition of Clara's father, who had put every conceivable emotional, moral, and legal obstacle in the lovers' way. After their wedding, the tranquility, warmth and understanding that Clara brought into Schumann's life gave him a tremendous creative impetus.
In ihe diary which the young couple kept jointly, Clara entered, late in the spring of 1841, that Robert had begun another symphony "which is to be in one movement, but will contain an adagio and a finale. As yet I have heard nothing of it, but from seeing Robert's bustling and hearing the chord of D minor sound wildly in the distance, I know in advance that another work is being wrought in the depths of his soul. Heaven is kindly disposed toward us: Robert cannot be happier in the composition than I am when he shows me such a work." A few days later she added, "Robert is composing steadily; he has already completed three movements, and I hope the symphony will be ready by his birthday."
It was not finished for Schumann's birthday but for Clara's, which fell on the September day when they christened their first child, Marie. When he presented Clara with the score he wrote in their diary: "One thing makes me happy: the consciousness of being still far from my goal, of being obliged to keep doing better, and with all the feeling that I have the strength to reach it."
Despite his first intenlion of composing in one continuous movement, only the Scherzo and finale were linked to each other when he completed the original version. And when it was first per
formed at a Leipzig Gewandhaus concert on December 6, 1S41, Schumann did not call it a symphony but "Symphonic Fantasy for Large Orchestra." It was not very successful and Schumann himself seemed dissatisfied. He put the work aside. Ten years later, after publishing two more symphonies, to which he gave the numbers two and three, Schumann revised the Dminor "Symphonic Fantasy" and had it printed as his Symphony No. 4.
The revised edition was first performed at the Spring Festival of the Lower Rhine in Diisseldorf on March 3, 1SS3. Schumann's changes were considerable. He altered the orchestra, made changes in the thematic development, cutting out elaborate contrapuntal work to gain a broader, simpler line, especially in the last movement, and changed the opening of the last movement to give it a stronger thematic link to the first. In his revision Schumann linked all four movements in one unin?terrupted stream of music.
I. ZiemUch langsam; lebhajt. The slow introduction begins with a lovely, reflective melody which returns again and again in various rhythmic and melodic transformations throughout the Symphony. Gradually the music gains momentum. As it nears the principal Lebhajl section, a rush?ing, swirling figure derived from the slow opening, takes shape. This figure dominates the move?ment, which is a free fantasia in symphonic style, but not in traditional symphonic form. As it develops, a striking rhythmic figure emerges: three vigorous chords, harmonic hammerblows, which will return in the opening themes of both Scherzo and finale.
II. Romanze: ziemlick langsam. The second movement follows without pause. A mournful tune sung by oboe and cellos alternates with the languorous melody of the introduction. In a contrasting middle section the melody of the introduction (now in the major mode) is extended and em?broidered by a graceful solo violin.
III. Scherzo: lebhajt. The Scherzo bursts out with the hammerblow rhythm of the first move?ment marking the strong beats of a vigorous threemeasure phrase derived from the melody of the introduction. The more serene middle section recalls the embroidered version of the same melody from the middle of the preceding movement.
IV. Langsam; lebhajl. The bridge to the finale is a pensive transition recalling memories of the first movement (the hammerblow rhythm and the swirling figure) which are now recombined to form the opening of the exultant finale. Two gracefully contrasted singing themes spread through the orchestra. After a traditional development, a partial reprise recalls the two singing themes only. The richly melodious coda ends in a headlong presto.
"Daphnis and Chloe," Suite No. 2........Maurice Ravel
"Daphnis et Chloe," Stravinsky once declared, "is not only Ravel's best work, but also one of the most beautiful products of all French music." For all its intoxicating orchestral color, sensuous harmonies and orgiastic rhythms, Daphnis is a patrician score. Ravel was a spiritual aristocrat, but he knew the elemental drives and could express them in music. His is the supreme artistic achieve?ment of giving them full rein without once relaxing his elegance of form or his fastidious crafts?manship.
The story, based on a pastoral romance of the fourthcentury Greek sophist, Longus, translated by the late Renaissance French poet, Jacques Amyot and recast by the Russian Fokine, had to be still further adjusted by Ravel for his own purpose, which was to compose "a great choreographic symphony ... a vast musical fresco, less scrupulous archeologically than faithful to the Greece of my dreams, which could easily be associated with that Greece which was imagined and depicted by French artists at the end of the eighteenth century."
As a ballet Daphnis never became truly popular. But the music has become a twentiethcentury classic. According to the composer, it is constructed symphonically on a rigorous tonal pattern, with a small number of themes whose development reinforces the homogeneity of the entire score. Two suites have been arranged from the ballet. The first theme of the Suite Xo. 2, used to suggest the growing light or the rising sun at daybreak, is a simple rising sequence. In the scenes that follow, this little figure reappears in many ingenious transformations, among them phrases suggesting first tenderness and later the wild excitement of the concluding General Dance. The Second Suite bears the following descriptive notes in the score:
No sound but the murmur of rivulets of dew trickling from the rocks. Daphnis is still lying before the grotto of the nymphs. Little by little day breaks. Bird songs are heard. In the distance a shepherd passes with his flock. Another shepherd crosses the back of the stage. Herdsmen arrive searching for Daphnis and Chloe. They find Daphnis and awaken him. In anguish he looks around for Chloe. At last she appears, surrounded by shepherdesses. They throw themselves into each other's arms. Daphnis notices Chloe's crown. His dream was a prophetic vision: the intervention of Pan is clear. The old shepherd Lammon explains that if Pan saved Chloe, it was in remembrance of the nymph, Syrinx, with whom the god once fell in love.
Daphnis and Chloe mime the adventure of Pan and Syrinx. Chloe impersonates the young nymph, wandering in the meadow. Daphnis appears in the role of Pan and declares his love. The nymph repulses him. The god grows more insistent. She disappears among the reeds. In despair he plucks some stalks, fashions them into a flute (pipes of Pan) and plays a melancholy tune. Chloe returns and her dance follows the accents of the flute. The dance grows more and more animated and, in a mad whirl, Chloe falls into Daphnis' arms. On two sheep before the altar of the nymphs he swears his fidelity. A group of young girls enters dressed as Bacchantes and shaking their tam?bourines. Daphnis and Chloe embrace tenderly. A group of young men invade the stage. Joyous tumult. General Dance.
INTERNATIONAL PRESENTATIONS -19721973
CHORAL UNION SERIES
Next three concerts in Hill Auditorium:
DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
RAFAEL FRUHBECK de BURGOS, Conductor, 2:30, Sunday, September 24
Beethoven: "Egmont" Overture and Symphony No. 8; Wagner: Orchestral excerpts from the "Ring" cycle
ZUBIN MEHTA, Conductor.....8:30, Thursday, October 5
Josef Tal: Symphony No. 2 (1960); Stravinsky: Symphony in three movements (1945); Dvorak: Symphony No. 7 in D minor, Op. 70
ROYAL PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA
RUDOLF KEMPE, Conductor . . . .8:30, Saturday, November 4
Strauss: Death and Transfiguration; Sibelius: Violin Concerto (Teiko Maehashi, soloist); Shostakovich: Symphony No. 1
Single tickets from $3.50 to $8.50
CHOICE SERIESPOWER CENTER
Ten events: World of Gilbert & Sullivan, Beryozka Dance Company from Russia, Dancers of Mali, Batsheva Dance Company, Mozart's "Cosi Fan Tutte," Alvin Ailey Dance Theater, Lado Folk Ensemble, Marcel Marceau, Angelicum Orchestra of Milan, Tchaikovsky's "Sleeping Beauty" Ballet
Series of any 4 events: $25, $20, $16, $12
Series of any 8 events: $50, $40, $32, $24 Single tickets from $2 to $8, depending upon concert
CHAMBER ART SERIES RACKHAM AUDITORIUM
Seven events: Guarneri String Quartet, Yuval Trio, Paniagua Quartet, Austral String Quartet, Bartok Quartet, Philidor Trio, Aeolian Chamber Players
Series tickets at $28, $22.50, $12.50 Single tickets at $6, $5, $3
EAST ASIAN SERIES RACKHAM AUDITORIUM
Four events: Ah Ahk from Korea, Chinese Skin Shadow Puppets, Saeko Ichinohe and Company from Japan, Topeng Dance Theater of Bali
Series tickets at $10 and S8.50 Single tickets at $5, $4, $2.50 (except for puppets)
GUITAR SERIES RACKHAM AUDITORIUM
Four events: Ernesto Bitetti, Christopher Parkening, Michael Lorimer, Carlos Montoya
Series tickets at $10, $8.50, $6 Single tickets at $5, $4, $2.50
For a new full season brochure, call or write the Musical Society, Burton Memorial Tower, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Phone 6653717
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Gail W. Rector, President Harlan Hatcher, VicePresident Erich A. Walter, Secretary E. Thurston Thiemc, Treasurer
Allen P. Britton William L. Brittain Douglas D. Crary Robben W. Fleming
Paul G. Kauper Wilbur K. Pierpont Sarah G. Power Daniel H. Schurz