Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor
clelroit symphony orchestra 1973-1974 season aim arbor, sept. 30
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The Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Inc.
(Founded 1914) ALDO CECCATO. principal conductor
John B. Ford, chairman "Robert B. Semple, president
Walker L. Cisler, vice president William M. Day, vice president ?Pierre V. Heftier, vice president Ralph T. McElvenny, vice president Raymond T. Perring, vice president Alan E. Schwartz, vice president
"Harold G. Warner, vice president
Mrs. Theodore O. Yntema, vice president
David D. Williams, treasurer
Donald S. Green, assistant treasurer C. Grant Barnes, secretary
Peter P. Thurher. assistant secretary
BOARD OF DIRECTORS 1973-74
Philip C. Baker C. Grant Barnes
Andrew W. Barr
Edward A. Baumann Norman A. Bolz
Eugene Bordinat Jr.
Lem W. Bowen Rinehart S. Bright
J. Lawrence Buell. Jr.
Mrs. C. Henry Buhl
Ferdinand Cinelli Walker L. Cisler
Mrs. Frank W. Coolidge
Mrs. Abraham Cooper
Harry B. Cunningham William M. Day
Frank W. Donovan
Mrs. Charles M. Endicott
Mrs. Robert Fife
Mrs. Charles T. Fisher III
Max M. Fisher
Mrs. Edsel B. Ford
Gordon T. Ford John B. Ford
Edward P. Frohlich David L. Gamble
Mrs. Daniel W. Goodenough
Berry Gordy, Jr.
William T. Gossett
Hon. Roman S. Gribbs
Mrs. Tobey Hansen
Mrs. Hugh Harness
G. Robert Harrington
Firman H. Hass Pierre V. Heftier
Hudson Holland, Jr.
Mrs. Horace R. Holloway
Mrs. Henry C. Johnson
Ernest A. Jones
Mrs. Harry L. Jones
Mrs. Tom Killefer
Mrs. Kim Khong Lie
Thomas V. Lo Cicero
Harold O. Love
Wilber H. Mack
Hon. Wade H. McCree, Jr. "Ralph T. McElvenny
Dr. Marjorie Peebles Meyers
Hon. William G. Milliken
Rev. J. Stanley Murphy, C.S.B.
Miles M. O'Brien
Donald D. O'Dowd
W. Calvin Patterson "Raymond T. Perring
Hon. Mel Ravitz
Mrs. Jerome H. Remick, Jr.
Dean E. Richardson
Mrs. Joseph B. Schlotman, honorary member
Alan E. Schwartz Arthur R. Seder, Jr. S. Prewitt Semmes
?Robert B. Semple Nate S. Shapero Mrs. William R. Shaw Mrs. Allan Shelden Walter J. Simons Mrs. Florence Sisman Dr. Austin Smith Mrs. Howard F. Smith Bert L. Smokier Arthur F.F. Snyder Gari M. Stroh, Jr. Robert M. Surdam Mrs. S. Pinkney Tuck Mrs. Richard W. Tucker Mrs. Joseph A. Vance, Jr. Mrs. Richard Van Dusen Jack J. Wainger
Harold G. Warner
David D. Williams Mrs. Delford G. Williams Hon. G. Mennen Williams Mrs. R. Jamison Williams Richard E. Williams Mrs. Eric A. Wiltshire Mrs. Isadore Winkelman Mrs. Leon G. Winkelman
Mrs. R. Alexander Wrigley
Mrs. Theodore O. Yntema
Marshall W. Turkin, executive director
. . . THE DEIROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA. INC.
Norman A. Bolz
Rinehart S. Bright
Walker L. Cisler
Mrs. Abraham Cooper
William M. Day
Frank W. Donovan
Mrs. Robert Fife
John B. Ford
Edward P. Frohlich
David L. Gamble
Mrs. Daniel W. Goodenough
Mrs. Hugh Harness
Pierre V. Heftier
Mrs. Henry C. Johnson Ernest A. Jones Mrs. Tom Killefer Mrs. Kim Khong Lie Thomas V. Lo Cicero Harold O. Love Wilber H. Mack Ralph T. McElvenny Miles M. O'Brien Donald D. O'Dowd W. Calvin Patterson Raymond T. Perring
Alan E. Schwartz
Robert B. Semple
Walter J. Simons
Bert L. Smokier
Mrs. Joseph A. Vance, Jr.
Harold G. Warner
David D. Williams
Mrs. R. Jamison Williams
Richard E. Williams
Mrs. R. Alexander Wrigley
Mrs. Theodore O. Yntema
FINANCIAL POLICY COMMITTEE
Clinton J. Allen, Jr. C. Grant Barnes Richard H. Black Norman A. BolZ, choirman James B. Bonner Joseph G. Conway Mrs. Charles M. Endicott John B. Ford
Charles C. Gale Alfred R. Glancy Hon. Roman S. Gribbs Robert W. Hartwell Ray Kooi Robert F. Magill W. Calvin Patterson Hon. Mel Ravitz
Dean E. Richardson
Robert B. Semple
Walter J. Simons
C. Boyd Stockmeyer
Gari M. Stroh, Jr.
Gordon A. Weller
Mrs. R. Alexander Wrigley
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF Marshall W. Turkin, executive director
Michael A. Smith, operations manager
Noel F. Duncan, development director
Sylvia Espenschade, communications manager
Rose Dabanian, executive secretary
Haver E. Alspach, business manager Thomas B. Johnson, public relations director Joseph Variot, box office manager Isabel Cleveland, season tickets administrator
Wayne Brown, administrative assistant
MICHIGAN OUTSTATE ASSOCIATES
The Detroit Symphony Orchestra continues to bring its accomplishments to other Michigan communi?ties and is expanding its outstate activities. Appreciation is extended especially to those individuals and organizations listed below who are this season presenting the Detroit Symphony Orchestra in concerts in their communities.
Mr. Stanley Beck, president
Thunder Bay Arts Council
Mr. Archie Best, music supt., Alpena Public Schools
Mr. Gail Rector, president
University of Michigan Musical Society
Dr. Dacho Dachoff, chairman
General Education Convocation Council
Ferris State College
Mr. Robert Hooker, president
Grand Rapids Symphony
Dr. Roger E. Jacobi, president
National Music Camp
Mr. Alfred Pipho, music superintendent
Monroe Public Schools
Mr. John Wismer, president, WHLS Radio Stations
Dr. James B. House, chairman Department of Music Eastern Michigan University
Mrs. John A. Rapanos, president Michigan Orchestra Association
Women's Association for the Detroit Symphony Orchestra
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Mrs. Robert Fife, president
Mrs. William R. Shaw, first vice president
Mrs. Robert B. Healy, vice president
Mrs. John T. McMullen, vice president
Mrs. Harry Taylor, vice president
Mrs. Joseph Jennings
Mrs. Sterling Sanford
Mrs. Joseph E. Risdon
Mrs. Joseph H. Spitzley
Mrs. Pierre V. Heftier, recording secretary
Mrs. John E. Young, Jr., ass't recording secretary
Mrs. Robert E. Dewar, corresponding secretary
Mrs. John D. French, treasurer
Mrs. H. Wayne Nelson, ass't treasurer
Mrs. Joseph A. Vance, Jr., endowment chairman
Mrs. John W. Griffin, parliamentarian
Mrs. Winfield S. Jewell, president emeritus
Mrs. Thomas V. Lo Cicero, maintenance fund chairman
Junior Women's Association for the Detroit Symphony Orchestra
BOARD OF DIRECTORS
Mrs. Kim Khong Lie, president
Mrs. Eric A. Wiltshire, first vice president
Mrs. John H. Fildew, second vice president
Mrs. Eugene W. Blanchard, third vice president
Mrs. William M. Harber, recording secretary
Mrs. William S. Fiscus, corresponding secretary
Mrs. John C. Prost, treasurer
Mrs. John E. Young, Jr., Symphony co-ordinator
Mrs. William J. Hamel, yearbook chairman
Mrs. William J. Rice, records chairman
Mrs. Don O. Stanitzke, social arrangements
Mrs. Frederick C. Hertel, program chairman
Mrs. William Beach, publicity chairman
Detroit Symphony Youth Orchestra
Paul Freeman, conductor Raymond Turner, administrator
THE T YPOCR JFT COM [P ANY
Printers -- Publishers
OF FSET LETTERPRES S
445 YORK STREET TRinity 2- 2501
DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
Gordon Staples Concertmaster
Richard Roberts Andrew Zaplatynsky
Santo Urso Jack Boesen Emily Mutter Austin Derek Francis Alan Gerstel Nicholas Zonas Gordon Peterson Beatriz Budinszky Ralph Shiller Richard Margitza Linda Snedden Smith Paul Phillips Elias Friedenzohn
SECOND VIOLINS Edouard Kesner Felix Resnick Alvin Score Lillian Downs James Waring Margaret Tundo Malvern Kaufman Walter Maddox Roy Bengtsson Thomas Downs Larry Bartlett Joseph Striplin LeAnn Toth Robert Murphy
Nathan Gordon David Ireland Philip Porbe Eugenia Staszewski LeRoy Fenstermacher William Hollman Walter Evich Anton Patti Gary Schnerer Catherine Compton
Italo Babini Thaddeus Markiewicz Edward Korkigian Mario DiFiore David Levine John Thurman Barbara Fickett Susan Weaver William Graham Clinton Andrews
PAUL FREEMAN Conductor-in-Residence
Robert Gladstone Raymond Benner Frank Sinco Maxim Janowsky Christopher Brown Donald Pennington Stephen Edwards Albert Steger
Elyze Yockey Ilku Carole Crosby
Ervin Monroe Shaul Ben-Meir Robert Patrick Clement Barone
Donald Baker Ronald Odmark Theodore Baskin Steven Labcner Harold Hall
ENGLISH HORN Steven Labiner
Paul Schaller Douglas Cornelsen Brian Schweickhardt Oliver Green
BASS CLARINET Oliver Green
BASSOONS Charles Sirard Philip Austin Paul Ganson Lyell Lindsey
Eugene Wade Charles Weaver Edward Sauve Willard Darling Keith Vernon Lowell Greer
TRUMPETS Frank Kaderabek Gordon Smith "Alvin Belknap
Raymond Turner Joseph Skrzynski Elmer Janes
TIMPANI Salvatore Rabbio Robert Pangborn
PERCUSSION Robert Pangborn Norman Fickett Raymond Makowski Sam Tundo
PIANO Marcy Schweickhardt
ASSISTANT LIBRARIAN Elmer Janes
PERSONNEL MANAGER Oliver Green
HILL AUDITORIUM, ANN ARBOR
Sunday afternoon, September 30 at 2:30
Aldo CeccatO, conductor
FRANCO GULLI, violinist
ilSAIJATA Jiivcntii.s, Symphonic Poem
PAGANINI Concerto lo. 2 for Violin and Orchestra, B minor, Opus 7
Rondo: Andantino allegretto moderato
Symphony No. 1, F minor, Opus 10
Allegretto -Allegro non troppo Allegro Lento -Allegro molto
The Steinway is the official piano of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra This afternoon marks the Orchestra's fifty-first appearance in Hill Auditorium
OUR PRINCIPAL CONDUCTOR
After his initial studies in Milan. Aldo Ceccato completed his musical training at the Hochschule fiir Musik in Berlin and at the Accademia Chigiana in Siena. A successful European career began immediately, with appearances at La Scala, Covent Garden, Glyndebourne, and the Edinburgh Festival, conducting all the important European orchestras. His North American debut took place with the Lyric Opera of Chicago in 1969, and his extraordinary success there catapulted him virtually overnight into being one of the most sought-after guest conductors among the major American orchestras. He has conducted scores of concerts with each of them, including the New York Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, the Chicago Symphony, the Cleveland Orchestra, and the Philadelphia Orchestra, and has been repeatedly invited back. He is also a best-selling artist on records, as his recording of La Traviata bears witness.
Maestro Ceccato was appointed Principal Conductor of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra in May of 1972, effective with the 1973-74 season. He is married to the former Eliana de Sabata, daughter of the famous conductor Victor de Sabata, and they have two young sons, Cristiano and Francesco.
by Robert Holmes
Dean, College of Fine Arts, Western Michigan Universily
JUVENTUS, SYMPHONIC POEM........VICTOR DE SABATA
Born Trieste, 1892; died Santa Margherita Ligure, 1967
De Sabata completed this composition in 1919 The first performance took place at the Teatro del Popolo in Milan on May 25, 1919; Toscanini conducted.
The first performance in the United States took place in Chicago on November 5, 1920; Frederick Stock conducted the Chicago Symphony Orchestra.
The work has been performed once before in this series, on February 14. 1935; Victor Kolar conducted.
The score calls for 2 flutes and piccolo. 2 oboes and English horn. 2 clarinets and bass clarinet. 2 bassoons and contrabassoon, 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 4 trombones. 4 timpani, triangle, side drum, bass drum, cymbals, gong, glockenspiel. 2 harps. celeste, and strings.
Victor de Sabata conducted Juventus several times in the United States during the twenties and thirties. For a performance with the Cincinnati Symphony in November, 1927, he wrote the following annotation:
"In the Symphonic Poem Juventus, the composer wished to depict the clan and the impetuous desires of youth: its restless dreams of conquest, its bold march toward the light of joy and of dominion. -and all the dazzling chimeras that call in the heart of every man . . .
"But to feverish exaltation succeeds depression, dull, listless. At the first shock of the wretched realities of the life of every day the triumphal dream falters, hesitates, -and vanishes. Mortal gloom descends upon the soul, which weeps, bereft of hope. The songs of the Ideal are transmuted now into mocking laughter and into funeral knell. Silence envelops" all, annihilation that it seems must endure forever . . .
"But behold, of a sudden, the resilience of youth, revived by the fervor of its own blood, still rich in all its untouched strength. It believes, it hopes again, -risen anew, stronger for all the adversity and all the bitterness . . . And intoxicated it flics once more to the conquest of life!"
He then illustrated the six principal subjects with their descriptive titles: "Youth's Vigor,' 'The Conquest of Life,' "Aspiration,' 'Joyous March,' 'Toward the Ideal," and 'Love.'
The same program book included the following analysis by James G. Heller. One might assume that it had the composer's authorization.
"The poem begins Allegro impetuoso with great decision and force, leading at once into a rugged theme for strings in unison. This dies away with reminiscences of the opening measures. Soft syncopated chords for woodwinds follow, then a brief snatch of song in violins, then woodwinds. A sudden climax
DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA CONCERT CALENDAR FOR THE COMING WEEKS
Thursday evening, October 4 at 8:30 Saturday evening, October 6 at 8:30
SAMUEL JONES, conducting JOHN BROWNING, pianist
BEETHOVEN PROKOFIEV MOZART BARTOK
Leonore Overture No. 3 Piano Concerto No. 2 Symphony No. 34 "Miraculous Mandarin" Suite
Sunday afternoon, October 7 at 3:30 (Kresge "Omnibus" Family Concert)
ARTHUR FIEDLER, conducting RICHARD ROBERTS, violinist
HANDEL BRUCH WEBER RODGERS and
HAMMERSTEIN air. MILLER KING
Overture to "Euryanthe"
Excerpts from "The Sound of Music"
Song of the Volga Boatmen I feel the earth move
Thursday evening, October 11 at 8:30
Friday morning, October 12 at 10:45 (NBD Coffee Concert)
RAFAEL FROHBECK de BURGOS, conducting HORACIO GUTIERREZ, pianist
RACHMANINOFF STRAVINSKY RAVEL
Overture to "Russian and Ludmila" Piano Concerto No. 2 "Petrushka" Suite Bolero
Saturday morning, October 13 at 11 o'clock Saturday afternoon, October 13 at 2 o'clock Young People's Concerts
SAMUEL JONES, conducting
Storm Music, from "Peter Grimes"
And God Created Great Whales
The Ruined River
Like a Sick Eagle
Desolation, from "The Plow that Broke the Plains"
The Sorcerer's Apprentice
The Promise of Living, from "The Tender Land"
America the Beautiful
PROGRAM NOTES -continued
introduces a powerful melody for horns and trombone. The preceding melodies are sung again, now in the fuller tones of violas and 'cellos. The passion of the opening measures returns, culminating in a final enunciation of the main theme by all strings except contrabasses. But the triumph is short-lived, and brass bray discordant and shrill chords. A few broad strains for strings, dying, dying, and then a new section, Moderato molto.
"'The mood is now softer and more contemplative. First violins sing softly but with lyric fervor. Woodwinds continue the song, against fuller orchestration, then strings again. From voice to voice it leaps in rising exaltation and beauty, faster and faster, until calm once more ensues. For some measures peace, tranquil and even somewhat languid, spreads over all. In gasps between the calm measures, the power and frenzy of the main theme burst forth. It is as though a lethargy had descended upon the energy and wild dreams of youth, as though youth were struggling to throw off the chains.
"After a last furious effort comes sadness, Andante sostemttissimo. Horns, trombones seem to groan. Woodwinds and strings sink in downward sighing thirds. There is despair and gloom. Softly between sounds the peaceful melody. And thus for some minutes alternate gloom, frenzy, and hope. At last, when the sounds sink almost to silence, and the dull tones of the kettle-drums throb sullenly, the wild strength of the opening of the poem is recapitulated. The repetition is substantially accurate, with some development of the themes, until the orchestra whips itself into the full storm of its force, and to the clatter of all the percussion shrills to its end."
The Straussian program will be obvious to all. It should also be pointed out, however, that Strauss himself thought well of this work and conducted it on more than one occasion.
Mr. Ceccato conducted performances of this composition with the Cleveland Orchestra in January, 1972. On that occasion Klaus G. Roy, that orchestra's superb annotator, wrote the following comprehensive biography of the composer:
"Victor de Sabata was so outstanding a conductor that his accomplishment as a composer has become overshadowed and neglected. We are indebted to Aldo Ceccato for bringing us an example of the extensive creative work by the man who encouraged his early career and later became his father-in-law.
"Dc Sabata played the piano at four and composed at six. At nine he entered the Milan Conservatory and studied with Saladino and Orefice; at his graduation, he won the school's gold medal. He then became conductor of the Monte Carlo Opera and conducted symphony concerts in the major Italian cities as well as in Brussels and Warsaw. In 1927 he was engaged as the chief conductor of La Scala, Milan, whose opera performances under his direction gained for him world renown. In the same year, de Sabata made his U.S. debut with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, where he was listed as regular guest conductor; he subsequently visited the United States several times. He was especially active in England, appearing at Covcnt Garden, London, and at the Edinburgh Festival. He appeared as guest conductor in Vienna, Berlin, Bayreuth, Stockholm, and other European capitals, both in opera and in concert. As a conductor of
NEW! ZODIAC CONCERTS
Friday evenings at 8:30
A symphonic adventure designed especially with students, mods, singles and the under-30 crowd in mind. This series will be presented in a casual, informal setting -and the audience will be welcome backstage for a visit after each performance. Concert hour remains 8:30 . . . however, as a special added Zodiac attraction, a 7:30 Prelude will be offered before each program
Rafael Friihbeck de Burgos,
Enrique Perez de Guzman, pianist Ruth Welting, soprano Michael Best, tenor Peter Binder, baritone University of Michigan Choir Boy Choir of Christ Church, Episcopal,
Falla Nights in the Gardens of Spain
Orff Carmina Burana
"The Art of Spanish Piano" Enrique Perez de Guzman Montsalvatge Sonatina para Ivette Granados 3 Goyescas
Paul Freeman, conducting
Sanford Allen, violinist
St. Georges Sinfonie No. 1 in G
Cordero Violin Concerto
Respighi Ancient Airs and Dances
Barber Medea's Dance of Vengeance
"The Black Influence on
Symphonic Music" Panelists: Josephine Harreld Love,
Your Heritage House
Dr. Dominique Rene deLerma,
Roque Cordero, composer
Season tickets for all four concerts are available at the Ford Auditorium Box Office at $10, $15, and $20. Student subscriptions half price.
Erich Kunzel and
Don Th. Jaeger, conducting
Dave Brubeck & Sons New Heavenly Blue Charlene Peterson, soprano University of Michigan Choral Union
Brubeck Program including: Fugal Fanfare Brandenburg Gate: Variation for Jazz
Combo, Strings and Horn Three Excerpts from oratorio "The Light in the Wilderness" "Out of the Way of the People" "Truth" and selections by Dave, Darius, Chris & Dan Brubeck
Prelude: 7:30 "Jazz in Art" Dave Brubeck
Aldo Ceccato, conductor Michele Campanella, pianist Stravinsky Symphony No. 1 Bartok Piano Concerto No. 3 Ravel Rapsodie espagnole
String Quartet by Claude Debussy Performed by members of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra: Bogos Mortchikian, violin; James Waring, violin; David Ireland, viola; and Mario DiFiore, cello.
bung Pepple's Concerts
4 Super Saturdays
Earlybird Series at 11 a.m. Lazybird Series at 2 p.m.
ECOLOGY IN MUSIC
OCTOBER 13 SAM JONES conducting
Opening concert of the series raises the ecology
flag through a musical program paying tribute to nature and the world around us.
AN ORCHESTRAL ODYSSEY
FEBRUARY 23 MICHAEL PALMER conducting
A musical exploration of the Orchestra's various
choirs and how they interrelate to
produce symphonic sound.
DETROIT SEVERO BALLET COMPANY
SAM JONES conducting
A Christmas sugar plum treat: Tchaikovsky's
"The Nutcracker" in a sparkling production staged by Sandra Severo's famous ballet company.
BOB McGRATH SHOW
MARCH 30 PAUL FREEMAN conducting
The delightful songs of TV's "Sesame Street" will
be presented at an in-person concert appearance by the show's super-popular host.
Season tickets for all four concerts are available at the Ford Auditorium Box Office at $4, $6, and $8.
PROGRAM NOTES -continued
Verdi's operas and the Requiem he was often compared with Toscanini, but his performances of Beethoven's symphonies and the Missa Solemnis were also regarded as extraordinary.
"At 17, when still a student, de Sabata made a name for himself with his Suite for Orchestra, conducted by Tullio Scrafin at La Scala. Guido Gatti writes in Grove's that this early work was "already to a great extent free of scholastic rules and admirably constructed" and showed 'signs of the influence of German romanticism and especially of Richard Strauss. These traits became even more strongly marked, as regards melodic material, orchestration and general conception on programmatic lines, in the symphonic poems Juventus (1919), La nolle di Platon (1924) and Gethsemani (1925) which were successfully performed.7 There are also an opera of 1917 and a ballet of 1931, as well as incidental music to Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice. Several of his works have been heard in the United States, performed by the orchestras of New York, Cincinnati, Chicago, and Minneapolis [and Detroit]. When Toscanini brought the La Scala Orchestra to the U.S. for a tour in 1925, he performed Juventus numerous times. As a personal sidelight, it can be reported that Mr. Ceccato's direction of the work in Rome in 1966 was the occasion of his meeting de Sabata's daughter, Eliana -whom he married a few months later."
CONCERTO NO. 2 FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA,
B MINOR, OPUS 7..........NICCOLO PAGANINI
Born Genoa, 1782; died Nice, 1840
Paganini composed his Second Violin Concerto in 1826 The first performance probably took place in Naples at the Teatro San Carlo early in 1827; the composer was the soloist.
This is the first performance in this series.
The score calls for 1 flute. 2 oboes. 2 clarinets. 2 bassons. 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, and strings.
Like all of Paganini's concertos, it was published posthumously, in 1851.
Paganini was the greatest of all musical showmen. He was not above, for example, using frayed strings so that one or two might snap during a concert, thus forcing him to play the remaining passages on two or three strings. Nor did he hesitate to write a concerto in F-sharp, a difficult key for stringed instruments, and then tuning his own instrument up or down a half-step so that he himself played the solo part in an easier key. Further, he was never known to practice between concerts and he referred mysteriously to a "secret" by which he had acquired and maintained his technique. No one ever set eyes on the scores of his solo parts during his lifetime and he did not allow publication of most of his works until after his death. He never played a cadenza at a rehearsal for fear that musicians might discover some of his tricks, and he refused to talk about his music. To crown everything, he left the concert stage suddenly while still at the peak of his powers, returning only on rare occasions to play for charitable causes.
Some claimed that he had entered into a pact with Satan, who was believed to hover backstage every time he played. He did nothing to dispel the association. He himself looked like a skeleton, as tall and skinny as one could imagine, with jet black eyes and hair, and a hawk nose, and phenomenally long fingers. He looked like a veritable apparition. All of which was good box office.
But he was a good deal more than a charlatan; Paganini was unquestionably the greatest violinist, and quite possibly (except for Liszt) the greatest virtuoso on any instrument who ever lived. He brought violin technique to an unsurpassable peak of development. Running octaves, left-hand pizzicato, artificial harmonics, all types of bowing, double, triple, and quadruple stops, while not all his own innovations, were developed to a point never known before.
As a result he astonished everyone, including the greatest musicians of his era. For Mendelssohn and Moscheles words could not be found to describe his genius. Indeed, Moscheles, a great piano virtuoso, claimed he was so bewildered that for several days afterwards his head seemed to be on fire and his brain reeled. Liszt, not one to praise other virtuosos, said that one could not believe unless one had heard it. And he wrote from Paris: "What a man, what a fiddler, what an artist! Heavens! What suffering and misery, what tortures dwell in those four strings."
Goethe said: "His trills are clouds of incense." Heine captured an unforgettable impression of Paganini's appearance in his Florentine Nights. Meyerbeer concluded: "Where our reason ends, there Paganini begins." It is said that the same composer was so enthralled with Paganini's playing that he followed him from town to town and could not go to the opening of one of his own operas until he had heard 18 of the concerts.
Finally, it is significant that Paganini's playing moved everyone, artist and peasant alike. Stephen Stratton, an early Paganini biographer, wrote: "Most virtuosi play for the learned, but his playing was understood by businessmen and scholars, by children and grownups alike. It was felt and loved by all. This," Stratton added, "is the distinctive characteristic of all that is great in music."
Paganini's violin concertos served as the showcase for his virtuosity; and all of the techniques and characteristics just mentioned are evident here. There are three movements: Allegro maestoso, B minor, 128; Adagio, D major, 44; Rondo "La Campanella," B minor, 68." The opening movement is dramatic in nature: its themes and mood might well have found an operatic framework at the hands of another composer. The middle movement is no less theatrical but is a reasonably serene cantabile. The Finale presents the well-known "La Campanella" theme and in format is a typical, academic rondo. The soloist is hyperactive throughout.
Like other writers, this annotator is not immune to cliches, and one of the most common in writing about concertos is, for example: "Although this work offers sufficient opportunity for the soloist to demonstrate his virtuosic capabilities, it is not at the expense of genuine musical substance, for this concerto, etc., etc. . . ." or: "Despite the gratifying solo part, this concerto remains one of the most respected, etc., etc." With this Paganini concerto, the converse is true, and it is good to lay it out in the open: vis-a-vis the art of musical composition, the superficiality and histrionics of this composition will be easily recognized by all. But that's not the point. The point is that this is an opportunity to hear and
THIS WEEK'S SOLOIST
Franco Gulli makes his debut appearances with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra at these concerts. He was born in Trieste and was well known to Americans through his recordings before he made his first tour of this country in 1968-9. Recognized as one of the great artists in Europe, he has scored triumphs with every major orchestra in Europe, the Soviet Union, and the Orient. Although he specializes in the classical and early romantic repertory (he gave the 20th-century premiere of Paganini's Fifth Concerto, playing Paganini's own Guarncrius), one of his more intriguing discs is in fact a recording of Vivaldi's The Four Seasons -with the Angelicum Orchestra of Milan under Aldo Ceccato.
Mr. Gulli lives in Milan with his wife, pianist Enrica Cavallo, with whom he regularly appears in recital; audiences at the University of Michigan and at Michigan State have been among those privileged to hear them.
LECTURE OPEN REHEARSALS
Three Wednesday afternoons at 1 o'clock
Presented under auspices of the Junior Women's Association for the Detroit Symphony Orchestra
February 27: April 13:
STANISLAW SKROWACZEWSKI, conducting MAYUMI FUJIKAWA, violinist
ANDRE PREVIN, conducting
ALDO CECCATO, conductor MICHELE CAMPANELLA, pianist
Each Open Rehearsal (beginning at 2 p.m.) is preceded by an explanatory lecture (beginning at 1 p.m.) given by Mrs. Robert Kaiser. Tickets are $2 per person (SI for students and senior citizens) for each afternoon, avail?able by writing LectureOpen Rehearsals, 899 Briarcliff Rd., Grosse Pointe 48236. Series ticket, $5. Group discounts available (phone 823-2144).
Proceeds to Orchestra Supplemental Pension Plan
watch an eminent violinist accept one of the greatest technical challenges available to him. It should be experienced as such -an opportunity to witness a technicalmusical feat, a conquest, a marvelous example of what commitment, hard work, and talent are capable of achieving.
SYMPHONY NO. 1, F MINOR, OPUS 10......DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH
Born St. Petersburg, 1906
Shostakovich began his First Symphony in 1924 and completed it in 1925 The first performance took place in Leningrad on May 12. 1926; Nikolai Malko conducted ihe Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra The first performance outside the Soviet Union was directed by Bruno Walter in Berlin in November. 1927 The American premiere ? was presented by Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra a year later.
First performance in this series: November 18. 1943: Karl Krueger conducted Last performance in this series: January 29, 1970; Thomas Schippers conducted.
The score calls for 2 flutes and piccolo. 2 oboes. 2 clarinets. 2 bassoons. 4 horns. 3 trumpets. 3 trombones and tuba, timpani, triangle, snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, piano, and strings.
Little ""Mitya" Shostakovich led a cultured and sheltered life at first. His father was a successful chemical engineer and his mother was a capable pianist who had studied at the Petersburg Conservatory. As the son of upper-class intellectuals, he attended an exclusive private school, started studying piano at the age of 13, enrolled in the Leningrad Conservatory, studying composition with Glazunov and Maximilian Steinberg. But the Bolshevik Revolution and his father's sudden death changed things, drastically and tragically.
He, his mother, and his two sisters were forced to move to a small slum flat in Leningrad, and Madame Shostakovich began working, when she could, as a stenographer to try to keep her children clothed and fed. They were often cold and more often hungry. And by the time the sensitive Mitya had turned 18, his health was so affected that tuberculosis appeared inevitable and he was sent to a sanitarium.
He responded to treatment. Upon returning, they were poorer than ever and even lost their beloved piano to bill collectors. But, resolved to continue his music education at any cost, the young genius took a job playing the piano in a movie theatre. Seroff describes his situation.
"Down in front below the screen sat Mitya, his back soaked with perspiration, his near-sighted eyes in their horn-rimmed glasses peering upwards to follow the story, his fingers pounding away on the raucous upright p.ano. Late at night he trudged home in a thin coat and summer cap, with no warm gloves or galoshes, and arrived exhausted around one o'clock in the morning ... It was in the midst of this that Mitya began composing his First Symphony."
The First Symphony is, then, the work of a gifted teen-ager, completed when he was but 19, as a kind of graduation thesis from the conservatory.
FIRST KRESGE "OMNIBUS" FAMILY CONCERT
Arthur Fiedler will conduct the Detroit Symphony Orchestra at the first concert of this season's new Kresge "Omnibus" Family Series next Sunday afternoon, October 7, at 3:30. Richard Roberts, one of our new Associate Concertmasters, will make his Detroit Symphony Orchestra debut, performing Bruch's Scottish Fantasy, and the program -in the favorite Fiedler "Pops" style -will include Handel's Water Music, the overture to Weber's Euryanthe, excerpts from The Sound of Music, and Carole King's "I feel the earth move."
Arthur Fiedler's conducting career has taken him to all corners of North America, and he has conducted orchestras in five of the other six continents as well. In his hometown of Boston he is a revered institution. In 1915, as a 21-year-old violinist, he joined the Boston Symphony Orchestra under Karl Muck. His urge to conduct led him in 1924 to form the Boston Sinfonictta, a chamber orchestra composed of his colleagues. In 1929. he launched the first of the now famous Esplanade Concerts. He showed such ability in attracting and holding the interest of huge throngs that he was appointed the 18th conductor of the Boston Pops Concerts in the following year. Fiedler has been a regular visitor to the Detroit Symphony "Pops" each year since 1967.
Violinist Richard Roberts comes to us from two years with the Toronto Symphony. A native of Minneapolis, he studied first with Norman Carol, now conccrtmastcr of the Philadelphia Orchestra, and then attended Indiana University, where his teacher was Josef Gingold, former concertmastcr of the Detroit Symphony. He then joined the Minnesota Orchestra and soloed with them several times. In 1970 he studied with Henryk S.cryng in Geneva.
PROGRAM NOTES -continued
And, though it may seem curious, considering both socialist ideology and the fact
that we are dealing with the arts, the composition symbolizes the classic
transformation from suffering artist to celebrity, a kind of proletkult Horatio Alger story.
The conservatory administration decided to support their young genius, and paid to have the parts of the symphony copied; probably through the encouragement of Steinberg, Nikolai Malko agreed to conduct the composition with the Leningrad Philharmonic. It received a tremendous ovation, and Mitya (now Dmitri) became something of an instant folk hero. Subsequently, Bruno Walter heard about the "'miracle" and produced the symphony in Berlin, thereby starting Shostakovich's Western fame; shortly thereafter the American premiere was presented by the Philadelphia Orchestra. Thus, within two years, the starving silent film piano player became an international figure, the Mozart of socialist realism, the very embodiment of Lenin's artist-hero.
The First Symphony is eclectic. There are evidences of the influence of Glazunov, Prokofiev, and even Tchaikovsky. Further, we know that Hindemith had been in Leningrad and his music as well as that of Mahler, Berg, and Stravinsky was certainly not unknown there, and their influences might also be detected. Yet the work has distinctive qualities which were to become Shostakovich trademarks: the epochal concept; the Mahlerian contradictions with a Dostoevskian tone; the loftiness beside peasant vulgarity; romantic desolation mixed with delightfully naive humor, as well as with relentless logic; and beyond all, the one trait that was to save his symphonies time and again from political polemics though not always from obtuse mundanity: a simplistic nationalism. It is an incredible first symphony. It is, perhaps, Shostakovich at his purest, for his muse was still exempt from political doctrine.
Following is the most recent interview by an American with Dmitri Shostakovich. This interview, by Stephen Rubin, appeared in The New York Times on June 24, 1973.
"Overpowering tension emanates from Dmitri Shostakovich, charging the atmosphere with wildly alternating currents. The 66-year-old Russian musician, perhaps the world's greatest living composer, apparently wants to be polite, patient and even sporting. But nerves override his good intentions.
"Pale and sickly-looking. Shostakovich has a frail body, visibly scarred from years of illnesses, which cannot withstand much actual physical movement. Yet he is consumed by pent-up energy which is unleashed in a series of continuous twitches and tics. His right hand, which seems partially paralyzed, is clenched in a tight fist. In contrast, his left hand gesticulates every which way -pushing at his unusually thick and heavy glasses, pulling at his suspenders, plucking at his tie, and patting his sparse gray hair.
"The composer's staccato, breathless and impassioned manner of speaking coordinates perfectly with his quirky bearing. He rarely smiles, and his quivering lips appear permanently drawn in an unhappy frown. When talking, he tends not to look in the listener's eye, and therefore seems remote. He is an imposing figure, yes, in a frightcningly intense way.
PROGRAM NOTES -continued
"Shostakovich has obviously learned his lessons well. Six years ago he became the first composer to be awarded the Soviet Union's highest title. Hero of Socialist Labor. In no way does he play the part externally -his manner is extraordinarily modest -but when it comes to speaking in generalities, to saying the 'right things,' then he is indeed heroic.
"The musician came to New York on the Soviet liner Mikhail Lermontov, accompanied by his wife. Irina. He was on his way to Evanston, Illinois, to receive an honorary doctorate of fine arts from Northwestern University on June 16. The week-long trip was his first to the United States since 1959. Considering his poor health, he was remarkably active. As well as sightseeing and attending luncheons in his honor, a visit to the Met to hear Aida and a look at the opening Rug Concert of the New York Philharmonic were on the agenda for his first two evenings here.
"He had initially declined interviews. But with the help of the State Department and Vladimir Orlov, a cultural secretary with the Russian Embassy in Washington, an exclusive meeting with the composer was arranged. There was little of the usual red tape. The State Department did politely warn, "Only questions regarding music, please,' but that was the extent of the briefing. All Mr. Orlov had to say was that Shostakovich could only spare a half hour at 9:30 in the morning.
"The composer himself opens the door to his St. Moritz suite, mumbling amenities in Russian. I am quickly introduced to Mrs. Shostakovich, who then disappears into the bedroom. The interview commences with the subject enthroned on two sofa cushions. Shostakovich speaks little English and talks through his American interpreterescort, Professor Alexander Dunkel of New York University. Orlov often assists with the translating but never in any way prompts his comrade.
"In answering questions, Shostakovich tends to be brief, formal, innocuous and particularly at odds with queries of a personal nature. 'I am unable to characterize myself,' he says flatly.
"He is more comfortable chronicling the advantages for a composer of working under a socialist system. 'In our country,' he says, "they are very concerned with our everyday life as well as our creative works. An organization called the Musical Fund has perhaps two dozen homes where composers can write their works and can receive separate dwellings. No one interferes with them and they don't bother anyone, either. There are such houses in the Crimea, Caucasus, Siberia, Leningrad and the suburbs of Moscow. They are very convenient and comfortable. This is the most valuable thing we get.
"Of course, we get other everyday things too, like the apartment. If a young beginning composer has to buy a piano, he can be aided materially in purchasing it on the installment plan or in renting it. Our responsibility as Soviet composers is to justify the faith they have in us. It would be a sin to write bad music."
"Are there any disadvantages for the composer working under a socialist system 'Nyet.'
"Shostakovich explains how a Soviet composer earns his living. 'Each composer who has written a worthy work which deserves the attention of the
listener is paid for the work of having composed the piece by the state, the Ministry of Culture. Then if it's published, the publishing firm also pays him royalties. Finally, if the work is performed publicly, he receives a specific percentage -I don't remember what it is -from the proceeds of the concert. In general, the work of composers is well paid for.
" 'Works are either commissioned or written on the initiative of the composer. For many years, I didn't write commissioned works out of fear of not completing them, but at one time I did write them. Many composers today write commissioned works if the commissions arc interesting and in line with their creative drives.'
"Shostakovich is dressed, startlingly, in a Western-looking gctup: brown sports jacket, brown slacks, a bold, box-print brown and white shirt, and a patterned tic of various hues that doesn't match. Since he seems perpetually ill at case, it is difficult to judge what topics of conversation please or displease him.
"In the United States, Shostakovich is a popular, much-played composer. If he lived here, he'd be something of a celebrity. Docs he have similar status in the Soviet Union 'Our composers are treated with great respect. But this star business is exaggerated. Each composer should be a humble and intelligent person in the best sense of those words. If he's a star, with his nose pointed to the sky, this is not good for the composer or his public. My basic purpose is to present pleasure to my listeners, and this is what I strive for.'
"Does Shostakovich himself receive pleasure from any particular Western composers 'I like very many Western composers of the past,' he says, 'and feel that there are very many interesting and talented contemporary Western composers. To say that this composer is my favorite, well I can't say that. I like very many, and if I can express myself in such a fashion -from Bach to Offenbach.' His play on words evokes laughter. 'I think that if someone selects one composer for himself as his most favorite, that person impoverishes himself, because there are marvelous works of very many composers. I consider myself quite fortunate to receive so much happiness from communing with so many different composers.'
"Do these composers influence his work or the work of his Soviet colleagues "Probably, but it's hard for me to judge. Probably Western composers influence Soviet composers the same way Soviet composers influence Western composers. To determine this very specifically is very difficult.'
"Is Shostakovish familiar with the Western avant-gardists 'Yes.' Does he enjoy their works 'Not everything.'
"There was a time, during the Twenties and Thirties in particular, when he was considered something of an avant-gardist himself. In the words of Pravda, he wrote 'a confused stream of sounds.' Others took admiring note of his dissonances and often abrupt and daring rhythms. Then came his opera, Lady Macbeth of Mzensk, and the young composer was severely criticized for its being 'un-Soviet, eccentric and leftist.' That was in 1936. Twelve years later, he really came under fire, with the Central Committee of the Communist party calling his music, among other uncomplimentary things, an expression of "bourgeois decadence.'
"Since then he has, in the opinion of most critics, played it safe. The eternal question is, how would he have developed had he not gone the way of the State
PROGRAM NOTES -continued
It is the last question one can ask the composer himself, particularly when one is interviewing him under the aegis of the State Department and the Soviet Embassy.
""Returning to safer territory, docs Shostakovich adhere to any particular regimen while working "If I am composing, I do it around the clock. Unfortunately, I have not been able to develop a regimen for myself. Sometimes 1 am asked, "What do you need in order to compose Perhaps you have to go to the seashore." Of course I'd like to go to the seashore, but if some sort of idea has come to your mind, you could sit in a dog house and be quite comfortable because everything is inside your head.'
"Shostakovich has en enormous catalogue of works including 15 symphonies as well as chamber pieces, choral works, concertos and film scores. Is there still in his mind an unfulfilled desire to compose something special 'I always dream,' he says. "If any of my dreams cease, I'll cease being a composer. The reason I compose a current work is that I'm unhappy with a preceding one. If I would say, "Well, this I composed beautifully," then I'm finished as a composer.
" 'I like my works, not that I want that to be considered a lack of humility. But I also see their shortcomings. Before my arrival here, I completed my 14th string quartet. Each day I think of it, and already I see its shortcomings. When I return home, perhaps I'll revise it.'
"Toward the close of the brief interview, Shostakovich, perhaps relaxed by the fact that the ordeal is soon coming to an end, relates what, for him, seems an expansive account of his feelings about music per se. 'I feel the same way about music as I did in my childhood. I'm overjoyed within myself by the fact that I can listen spontaneously as any listener can. Then I can take a score and critically evaluate it.
"'My musical activity began in such a fashion: In the neighboring apartment, musicians played often. My parents noticed that I frequently stopped in the corridor and leaned my head toward the door and listened for hours to how they played. I think I have the same feeling today. One must be professional, and yet at the same time not lose the spontaneity.
" 'I was always in a musical environment at home. My mother was a music teacher and my father sang. The first time I was taken to a theater, I was seven years old and heard The Tale of the Tsar Saltan. I was astounded by the sound of the orchestra. This was my first major 'impression.'
"Shostakovich has often been described as a Romantic and, in this sense, has been likened to Gustav Mahler. Does he agree with the comparison 'For me this is very pleasant. I like Mahler very much. He's one of my favorite composers.'
"The half hour is up, Mr. Orlov is quick to point out. And it is up, to the dot. But before we stop, is there anything more Shostakovich would like to say 'I'm very happy to come to the United States and have the opportunity to become acquainted with the musical life of your country. I'm very hopeful that this is not my last visit, and that I'll come once again to the United States for a longer period of time. I'm sorry I can't stay longer this time. I extend my best wishes to your readers.' "
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