Complete Series: 3884
Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
The University Musical Society
The University of Michigan
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA
Eugene Ormandy, Music Director and Conductor
William Smith, Assistant Conductor
THE UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION Donald Bryant, Director
JINDRICH ROHAN, Conducting
JANICE HARSANYI, Soprano JOANNA SIMON, Mezzosoprano
KENNETH RIEGEL. Tenor MICHAEL DEVLIN, BassBaritone
Friday Evening, May 3, 1974, at 8:30 Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Requiem Mass, Op. 89............Dvorak
Requiem arternam Requiem aeternam Dies irae Tuba minim
Quid sum miser Recordare, Jesu pie Conjutalis maledictus Lacrymosa
INTERMISSION PART II
Pie Jesu A gnus Dei
Mary McCall Stubbins, Organist
RCA Red Seal
Third Concert Eightyfirst Annual May Festival Complete Concerts 3884
by Glenn D. McGeoch
Requiem Mass............Antonin Dvorak
It is as little known among performing musicians as it is among the general listening public that Antonin Dvorak was one of the most prolific composers of the late nineteenth century. If we judge him only by the extent of his work, he is incontestably a phenomenon in the world of music. Without a doubt Dvorak was one of the most distinguished musical personalities of his period and should take his rightful place beside Brahms, Tchaikovsky, and Franck. He ranks today among the great masters in the copiousness and extraordinary variety of his expression.
As the nineteenth century drew to a close, other European countries besides Germany, Austria, Italy, and France became articulate in music. The period saw the emergence of such nationalistic composers as Grieg in Norway, Moussorgsky and the "Five" in Russia, Albeniz in Spain, and Smetana and Dvorak in Bohemia. The freshness and originality of their musical styles stemmed from their conscious use of folk music sources. The result was an agreeable and popular art, essentially melodic, rhythmic, and colorful. Folk music, consciously cultivated by such artists as Dvorak and Smetana, shed its provincialism but retained its essential characteristics--simplicity, directness, and honesty. It breathed an entirely new spirit into the gloomy romantic period.
As a traditionalist Dvorak accepted the forms of his art without question, but he regenerated them by injecting a strong racial feeling, which gave brilliant vitality, depth, and warmth to every?thing he wrote. Dvorak possessed genuinely Slavonic qualities that gave an imperishable color and lyrical character to his music. With a preponderance of temperament and emotion over reason and intellect, he always seemed to be intuitively guided to effect a proper relationship between what he wished to express and the manner of expressing it. In this connection he had more in common with Mozart and Schubert than he had with Beethoven. Like them he was one of those rare, natural musicians who produced continuously, spontaneously, and abundantly. His expression is fresh and irresistibly frank, and, although it is moody at times and strangely sensitive, it is never deeply philosophical or brooding; gloom and depression are never allowed to predominate. Everything he felt and said in his music was natural and clear. There was no defiance, no mystical ecstacy in his makeup. He had the simple faith, the natural gaiety, and the sane and robust qualities of Haydn. His music, therefore, lacks the breadth and the epic quality of Beethoven's; it possesses none of the transcendent emotional sweep of Tchaikovsky's; but for radiantly cheerful and comforting music, lor goodhearted, peasantlike humor, for unburdened lyricism, Dvorak has no peer.
In 1S91 the committee of the Birmingham Festival commissioned Dvorak to write a work and suggested a setting of parts of Cardinal Newman's Dream of Cerontius. He accepted the commission, but refused the text. Instead he wrote a Requiem. The work was sketched out between January and June, worked over in August and September, and performed for the first time on October 9 at the Birmingham Festival under his direction. It was an immediate success.
Xo external occasion required Dvorak to write a Mass for the Dead, and with his particularly optimistic temperament, it seems peculiar that he did so from choice alone. This beautiful and highly subjective work belongs to his final period and, although he was only fortynine years of age and at the height of his fame, his advancing years had begun to weigh heavily upon him. For all its oppressive and gloomy thoughts, Dvorak could not, like Brahms, look upon the Requiem text with deep penetration or profound introspection, nor could he. like Verdi, seize upon the dramatic and the theatrical suggestions it so amply provides. He could not cry out that all was vanity and death a grim finality; nor had he any gift for expressing the horrors and terror of the Judgment Day. Com?pared with Verdi's vivid and dramatic setting of the Dies irae, Dvorak's march theme may seem slightly naive. He found in the text more an expression of sublimity than of fear, a source for sorrow?ful meditation and devout supplication rather than anguish. His Requiem speaks to us of the unity of God and spirit, which is as genuine as his affirmation of life and the world. It is in the sweetness and elegance of the Pie Jesu quartet, in the moving pathos of the Lacrynwsa that ends Part I, and in the Offertory, as he turns from the horror of death to hopes of salvation, that he is the most expressive.
A detailed analysis of this work would contribute little to our understanding of its meaning. It should be noted, however, that the various sections of each of its two parts are linked together without pause, and that in the alternation of solos and chorus there is little occasion for big solo arias such as are found in Verdi's Requiem. Attention should also be called to the opening theme given out by the cellos at the very beginning of the work. This theme, often referred to as the "Motive of Death," is repeated throughout. Note it particularly as it recurs in the voices near the conclusion of the Kyrie and again in the orchestra at the very end of this section; in the soprano solo voice as it enters at the beginning of the second Requiem aeteniam (in augmented form) ; in the trumpet at the beginning of the Tuba minim and again at the very end; in the basses, sopranos, and orchestra in the Quid sum miser; at the end of the I.aerynwsa as it triumphs over the prayer for peace; in the Pie Jesu in which unaccompanied voices are answered antiphonally by an orchestral version; and most effectively of all, as it finally reappears at the very end of the work, where, after the music has reached a bright climax, it is quietly intoned in the soprano voice to the words Requiem aclernam (as it was at the beginning). The work ends softly, revealing Dvorak's diffident contemplation of death and the reconciling certainty of his unshaken faith.
1. Requiem aeternam (Soli and chorus)
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine; et lux per pet ua eis;
Te decet hymnus, Deus, in Sion, et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem.
Exaudi orationem meam, ad te omnis caro veniet.
Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison.
2. Requiem aeternam (Soprano and chorus)
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine; et lux per pet ua luceat eis;
In memoria aeterna erit Justus: ab audilione mala non timebit.
i. Dies irae (Chorus)
Dies irae, dies ilia, Solvet saeclum in javilla, Teste David cum Sibylla. Quant us tremor est futurus, Quando Judex est vent urns. Cuncta stride discussurus!
4. Tuba minim (Soli and chorus)
Tuba minim spargens sonum, Per sepulchra rtgionum, Coget omnes ante thronum. Mors stupebit et natura, Liber scriptus projeretur, In quo totum continetur, L'nde mundus judicetur. Judex ergo cum sedebit, Quidqwd latet, apparebit, Nil inultum remanebit.
5. Quid sum, miser (Soli and chorus)
Quid sum, miser; tune dictums, Quern patronum rogaturus, Cum vix Justus sit securus Rex tremendae majestatis! Qui salvandos salvas gratis, Salve me, jons pietatis!
6. Recordare (Soli)
Recordare, Jesu pie, Quod sum causa tuae viae; Ac me per das ilia die. Quarens me, sedisti lassus; Redemisti crucem passus; Tantus labor non sit cassus. Juste Judex ultionis, Donum fac rcmissionis Ante Diem rationis. Ingemisco tanquam revs, Culpa rubet vultus metis: Supplicanti parce Deus. Qui Mariam absolvisti, Et latronem exaudisti, Uihi quoque spent dedisti. Preces meae non sunl dignac, Sid tu bonus fac benigne, Xe perenni cremer igne. Inter oves locum praesta, Et ab hoedis me sequestra, Statuens in parte dextra.
Eternal rest give to them, O Lord; and let perpetual light shine upon them.
A hymn, O God, becometh Thee in Sion; and a vow shall be paid to Thee in Jerusalem:
O Lord, hear my prayer; all flesh shall come to Thee; Eternal rest give to them, O Lord; and let perpetual light shine upon them. Lord have mercy on us, Christ have mercy on us, Lord have mercy on us.
Eternal rest give to them, O Lord; and let perpetual light shine upon them.
He shall be just for evermore: He will not fear from evil hearing.
Dreaded day, that day of ire, when the world shall melt in fire, told by Sibyl and David's lyre. Fright men's hearts shall rudely shift, as the Judge through gleaming rift comes each soul to closely sift.
Then the trumpet's shrill refrain, piercing tombs by hill and plain, Souls to judgment shall arraign.
Death and nature stand aghast.
Then before Him shall be placed that where?upon the verdict's based, book wherein each deed is traced. When the Judge His seat shall gain, all that's hidden shall be plain, nothing shall unjudged remain.
Dreaded day, that day of ire, when the world shall melt in fire, told by Sibyl and David's lyre.
Wretched man, what can I plead, whom to ask to intercede, when the just much mercy need
Thou, O aweinspiring Lord, saving e'en when unimplored, save me, mercy's fount adored.
Ah, Sweet Jesus, mindful be, that Thou cam'st on earth for me, cast me not this day from Thee.
Seeking me Thy strength was spent, ransom?ing Thy limbs were rent, is this toil to no intent
Thou, awarding pains, condign, Mercy's ear to be incline, ere the reckoning Thou assign.
I, felonlike, my lot bewail, suffused cheeks my shame unveil: God! O let my prayers prevail.
Mary's soul Thou madest white, didst to heaven the thief invite; hope in me these now excite.
Prayers o' mine in vain ascend: Thou art good and wilt forefend in quenchless fire my life to end.
Place amid Thy sheep accord, keep me from the tainted horde, set me in Thy sight, 0 Lord.
7. Confutatis (Chorus)
Confutatis maledictis, Flammis acribus abdiclis, Voca me cum benedictis. Oro supplex et acclinis, Cor conlritum quasi cinis, Cere curam mei finis.
8. Lacrymosa (Soli and chorus)
Lacrymosa dies ilia! Qua resurget ex javilla Judicantus homo reus. lluic ergo parce Deus. Pie Jesu Domine, Dona eis requiem. Amen.
When the cursed by shame opprest enter flames at Thy behest, call me then to join the blest.
Prostrate, suppliant, now no more, unrepenting, as of yore, save me, dying, I implore.
Dreaded day, that day of ire, when the world shall melt in fire, told by Sibyl and David's lyre.
Mournful day! that day of sighs, when from dust shall man arise, strained with guilt hi doom to know.
Mercy, Lord, on him bestow. Jesus kind! Thy souls release, lead them thence to realms of peace. Amen.
9. Domine Jesu Christe (Soli and chorus)
Domine Jesu Christe, Rex gloriae, libera animas omnium fidelium defunctorutn de poenis injerni et de prof undo lacu; libera eas de ore leonis, ne absorbeat eas tartarus, necadant in obscurum. Sed signifer sanctus Michael repreasentet eas in lucem sanctam. Quant olim Abrahae promisisti et semini eius.
10. Hostias (Soli and chorus)
Solo Bass repeats "Domine Jesus Christe"
Hostias et preces, Domine, laudis ofjerimus, tu suscipe pro animabas illis, quorum hodie memoHam jacimus; fac cos, Domine, de morte transire ad vitam; quam olim Abrahae promis?isti et semini ejus.
Libera animas omnium fidelium dejunctorum de poenis injerni, fac eas de morte transire ad vitam.
11. Sanctus (Soli and chorus)
Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus, Domine Deus Sabaoth. Pleni sunl coeli et terra gloriae tuae. Osanna in excelsis.
Benedict us qui venit in nomine Domini. Osanna in excelsis.
12. Pie Jesu (Soli and chorus)
O Lord Jesus Christ, King of glory, deliver the souls of all the faithful departed from the pains of hell and from the deep pit;
Deliver them from the lion's mouth, that hell engulf them nor, nor they fall into darkness;
But that Michael, the holy standardbearer, bring them into the holy light.
Which Thou once didst promise to Abraham and his seed.
We offer Thee, 0 Lord, sacrifices and prayers oi' praise; do Thou accept them for those souls whom we this day commemorate; grant them, O Lord, to pass from death to the life which Thou once didst promise to Abraham and his seed.
Deliver, O Lord, the souls of all the faithful departed from every bond of sin. And by the help of Thy grace let them be found worthy to escape the sentence of vengeance. And to enjoy the full beatitude of the light eternal.
Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Hosts. Thy heavens and the earth are full of Thy glory. Hosanna in the highest.
Blessed is He Who cometh in the name of the Lord.
Hosanna in the highest.
This is an inserted section, in which the words from No. 8 (Lacrymosa) return to form a transition to the Agnus Dei.
13. Agnus Dei (Soli and chorus)
Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem sempiternam. Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, dona eis requiem sempi?ternam.
Lux aeterna luceat eis, Domine, cum Sanctis tuis in aeternam, quia pius es.
Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine, et lux icrtelua luceat eis.
perpelua luceat eis.
Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world: Rive unto them rest. Lamb of God. who takest away the sins of the world: give unto them eternal rest. Lamb of God, Who takest away the sins of the world: give them eternal rest.
May light eternal shine upon them O Lord, with Thy saints forever, for Thou art kind.
Grant them everlasting rest. O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon them, with Thy saints.
THE UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION
Donald Bryant, Conductor Nancy Hodge, Accompanist
Bittner, Susan Bradstreet, Lola Calvo, Martin Cassis, Odette Cox, Elaine Denner, Phyllis Dworkin, Anita Fenelon, Linda Fox. F.stelle (lallas. ramie Gierman, Susann Gockel, Barbara Hanson, Gladys Hayes. Ruth Holdsate. Claire Hoover. Joanne Keeler, Ann Klepack, Karen Lahodny, Lillian Luecke, Doris Mather. Dianne McLcod. Leslie Newman. Judith Pack. Beth Parkllan, Darcy Pearson, Agnes Phillips. Margaret Phillips. Mary Ann Schilt. Margaret Schneider. Alice Schuler, Ann Simon. Susan Stockhorst, Eva Teichert, Janice Tukel. Susan Watson. Deborah
Allen. Tracy Almuti, Gloria Aprill. Kathy Barden, Ann Berry, Kathy Birdsall, Meredith Burr. Virginia Capalbo, (iina Carr. Nancy Christinas. Kathleen Dennis. Mary Enzmann. Jill Datsko, Doris (JreiK. Laurie Hiraga, Mary Horning. Alice [ngley, Mary Kolasa. Marilyn Kosarin, Stephanie Lehmann. Judith Lifton. Janisse Lyman. Frances Maher. Cindy McCallum, Barbara Murray, Marilyn Oxendine. Jan Petcnff. Susan Peth. Sara Poston. Janet Pratt. Carolyn
Reese, Virginia Sipple, Mary Staebler, Jo Ann StewartRobinson,
Elizabeth Taylor. Susan Thurman, Kunice Tompkins, Patricia Williams. Suzanne Wright, Dcirdrc
Adams. Judie Ause. Martha Barker, Kathy Keam, Eleanor Brace, Virginia Brown, Marion Hulala. Amy Cappaert, Lael Carpenter, Sally Dick. Carol Evans, Daisy ICvich. Nancy Feldkamp, Lucy Finkbeiner, Marilyn Forsblad. Viva Freedman, Robin Gewanter, Ruth doslce. Jeanne Grasmick, Ann Greene, Kathryn Gross, Ellen tiru. Rosalinda Hall. Christine Hath. Judy Haviland. N'aomi Hoexter, Margaret Hofmeister. Norma Hollinshead. Hetsy Hurchik. Xancy Karp. Xancy Keppelman, Xancy Kevorkian. Kathleen Knupal. Geraldine Kratzmiller. Joann Kulenkamp. Xancy I.andon. Joyce Lietz. Kirsten I.inn. Diane McCoy. Rernice McTntire. Joan Miller. Mary Murray. Virginia Xelson. Lois Petoskey. Barbara Rogers, Sally Santolucito, Marcia Schermerhorn. Karen Schneider. Grctchen Slee. Beth Van Bolt, Jane Vlisides. F.lena Wargelin. Carol Wcndt. Christine Whelan, Katie White. Myra Wiedmann. Louise Wortley, Carole
Anderson, Sandra Baird, Marjorie Bedell, Carolyn Clayton, Caroline Frank. Anne Gere, Ann Gelman, Judy Haab, Mary Hagerty, Joan Ham, Nancy Johnson. Elizabeth Lidgard, Ruth Lovelace, Elsie Mayman, Rosemary McKninht. Judith Miller. Rene Nisbett, Susan Norris, Barbara nlhcr. Cathy Olson. Constance Ray, Linda Rider. Hazel Roeger, Beverly Shcvrin, Aliza Stebbins, Katie Thompson, Peg Winder Wai. Delores Wightman, Stephanie Williams. N'ancy Wilson. Johanna Valda, Christine
Baker. Huj;h Butler. Charles Cathey, Owen Dombrowski. Tim Flessa. Stivr Franke, Marshall Cirimrn. Marshall (iross. Myron Lowry, Paul MacGregor, Robert Mitchell. Dennis Sauser, Robert Scicr. Marc Ward. Ken
Barrett Martin Clark. Harold DcLong. Michael Galbraith. Merle (iirod. Albert (Hover. Roy Haworth, Donald Hellstedt. Peter Hmay. Thomas Klettke, Dwight McCarthy. David Melcher. Philip Pelachyk. John Slotnick. Dennis Smith. Lawrence Strauss. David Vcrschaeve. Mike Wahl. Jeff Warren, James
Wcamcr, Alan Wortley, James
First Basses Atkins, Anthony Ballard, Gary Beam, Marion Becvar, Tom Berstis, Viktors Bobde, Matthew Brueger, John Butlday, Jeffery Hurr, Charles Cipriano, John Damashek, Robert Eastman. John Eklund, David Fairchild. Win Feldstein, Hruce Hagerty, Thomas Hamilton, Edgar Haviland, Robert Haynes. Jeff Herren, Donald Holly, Tom Hopkins. John Hountras. John Howard. Tim Jarrett, K. John Kays. J. Warren Kissel. Klair I.am. Sam Lauth. David Lew. Dennis Linn. Thorn Meier, Sidney Muntz. Richard Olson. Steven Ortland, David Pate. Michael Pearson. Raymond Regier, Steve Robinson. Paul Roth. Michael Saslaw, I.ou Shalwitz. Robert Spence. David Sutton, Wade Tajibnapis, William Tompkins. Terril Vocee. Ken Weadon. Mark Williams. Riley
Beach. Tom Kond. W. Howard Chin. Gabriel Lehmann, Charles Linowes, Richard Mclntirc. John McMurtrie. James Pierson. Philip Powell. Gregg Reineck. Roman Schick. Helmut Slee. Vergil Sommerfeld, Thomas Stewart. Arthur Van Molt. John
Choral Union Series Hill Auditorium
London Symphony Orchestra......Saturday, September 21
Jessye Xorman, Soprano.........Saturday, October 5
Warsaw National Orchestra.......Thursday, October 17
Gewandhaus Orchestra from Leipzig .... Wednesday, October 23 Soviet Georgian Dancers and
Tbilisi Polyphonic Choir......Sunday, November 24
Detroit Symphony Orchf.stra.......Saturday, January 11
Czech Philharmonic........Wednesday, February 12
Strasbourg Philharmonic Orchestra.....Saturday, March IS
Boston Symphony Orchestra........Saturday, April 5
Spanish RTV Symphony Orchestra of Madrid .... Friday, April 11
Great Performers Series -"Pianists" Hill Auditorium
Andre Watts...........Wednesday, October 16
Emil Gilels...........Monday, November 25
Vladimir Ashkenazy.........Wednesday, March 19
Choice Series Power Center
Ai.vin Ailey American Dance Theater . . . Friday, Saturday, Sunday,
October 18, 19 & 20
Gregg Smith Singers.........Tuesday, October 22
National Ballet of Washington, D.C.....Saturday and Sunday
October 26 & 27
Slask, Folk Company from Poland.....Wednesday, October 30
Jacques Loussier Trio, Jazzmen "Play Bach" . . Saturday, November 2
Carlos Montoya, Flamenco Guitarist.....Tuesday, November 19
Guarneri String Quartet and Gary Graffman, Pianist . Wednesday, January 8
Marcel Marceau, Pantomimist.....Friday, Saturday, Sunday,
January 10. 11. & 12
Moscow Chamber Orchestra.......Tuesday, February 11
Goi.dovsky Opera Theater.......Thursday, February 13
Hakkness Ballet of New York......Thursday. February 20
Moscow Balalaika Ensemble and Ludmila Zykina . Monday, February 24
Paul Taylor Dance Company.......Wednesday, March 12
Preservation Hall Jazz Band.......Wednesday. April 9
Chamber Arts Series Rackham Auditorium
Concentus Musicus, from Vienna.....Wednesday, October 9
Esterhazy String Quartet.......Thursday, October 24
Cleveland String Quartet......Wednesday, November 13
Juilliard String Quartet........Tuesday, December 3
Syntagma Musicum, from Amsterdam .... Thursday. January 23
Tokyo String Quartet.........Sunday, February 2
JeanPierre Rampal, Flutist, and
Robert VeyronLa Croix, Keyboard .... Tuesday, February 18 Ars Antiqua de Paris.........Saturday, March 29
Asian Series Rackham Auditorium
National Shadow Theater of Malaysia.....Sunday. October 6
Heembaba and Dance Ensemble, Sri Lanka . . . Sunday, October 13
Chhau, Masked Dance of Bengal.....Saturday, February 22
Qawwali Music from Pakistan.......Sunday. March 16
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UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
Burton Memorial Tower, Ann Arbor, Michigan Phone 6653717