Complete Series: 4126
Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
The University Musical Society
The University of Michigan
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA
Eugene Ormandy, Music Director and Conductor
Riccakdo Muti, Principal Guest Conductor
William Smith, Associate Conductor
THE UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION
Donald Bryant, Director
ROBERT SHAW, Conducting
Soloist JOHN McCOLLUM, Tenor
Saturday Evening, April 29, 1978, at 8:30 Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
Requiem--Grande messe des morts, Op. 5.......Berlioz
Requiem et Kyrie (Introitus)
Dies irae (Prosa)
Quid sum miser
Domine, Jesu Christe (Offertorium)
(Performed without intermission.)
Available on Columbia Records
Third Concert . Eightfifth Annual May Festival Complete Programs 4126
LouisHector Berlioz (18031869) completed his Requiem on June 29, 1837, and FrancoisAnloine Habencck conducted the first performance on December 5 that year, with GilbertLouis Duprez as tenor soloist. The first American performance was given under the direction of Leopold Damrosch in New York on May 4, 1881. Tonight's concert marks the first performance of the work by the University Choral Union.
Berlioz begins with chorus and an orchestra of woodwinds, French horns, and strings. He proposes specific numbers--four flutes, two oboes, two English horns, four clarinets, twelve French horns, eight bassoons, fifty violins, twenty each of violas and cellos, eighteen basses, and for the chorus, eighty women, sixty tenors, and seventy basses, but adds that these numbers "are only relative, and one can, space permitting, double or triple the vocal forces and increase the orchestra proportionally. If one had an immense chorus of 700 or 800 voices, the entire group should sing only in the Dies Irae, the Tuba Mirum. and the Lacrymosa, using no more than 400 voices in the rest of the score," Berlioz uses both an expressive cantabile (e.g. Requiem aeternam and Te decet hymnus) and a quiet rhythmic declamation (e.g. ct lux perpelua and Kyrie eleison). Indeed, when the voices first enter, he at once suggests both manners, the basses' melody being accompanied by the detached syllables of the tenors, who in turn are doubled by the bassoons playing the same melody legato.
The Dies Irac begins with the same vocal and orchestral forces, and with striking contrast between the stern phrase of the cellos and basses (quite obsessive this will turn out to be) and the plaintive line of the sopranos and woodwinds. With the Tuba Mirum Berlioz, in a dramatic stroke, adds four brass groups, stationed north, cast, west, south at the corners of the grand mass of singers and instrumentalists. As the movement proceeds, Berlioz unleashes as well an immense volume of percussion, four pairs of kettledrums, two bass drums, four tamtams, and ten cymbals. As Death and Nature stand astounded, the music falls into silence. (Some of this music is recycled from a Mass Berlioz wrote about 1824, most of which he destroyed.)
The obsessive bass phrase from the beginning of the Dies Irae continues to sound through Quid sum miser, a brief and quiet movement in which the words are assigned almost entirely to the tenors, who are specifically asked to express humility and fear in their singing. English horns, bassoons, cellos, and basses accompany.
Rex tremendae is another conception on a huge scale, and on the words Ne cadam in obscuruml the Day of Judgment brass and percussion intervene once more. But the thought of the fount of mercy brings quiet.
Quaercns me--these are the lines of text that according to Donald Francis Tovey "Dr. Johnson sometimes tried to quote, but never without bursting into tears"--is sung by unaccompanied voices, and very softly throughout.
Sheer terror whips through the "lamentable day" called up by the Lacrymosa. After the gentle interlude of Pic Jesu, the brass choirs and the percussion join to tie this movement to the earlier parts of the Dies Irae. The idea of thus using extra brass went back to 1831 and a neverexecuted plan for an oratorio on The Last Day of the World; then, too, his letters indicate his concern for presenting this cataclysm with characteristic economy and precision.
The Offertory, Domine, Jesu Christe, is another movement of the greatest delicacy. Almost to the end, the voices sing on two notes, and only the word promisisti releases them.
Hostias is for male voices with instrumental punctuation. But what punctuation it is, that series of chords for high flutes with eight trombones swelling and receding on their deepest pedal notes!
High solo violins, flute, and violas divided into four sections and playing "a very dense tremolo," accompany the tenor solo and the choral responses in the Sanctus. The Hosanna is fugued, and Berlioz implores the chorus to sing "without violence, sustaining the notes well instead of accenting them one by one." For the return of the Sanctus, Berlioz finds yet another of his most extraordinary and new sounds.
In the Agnus Dei, as in several passages of the Dies Irae and the Offertory, Berlioz somewhat reorders the text. This is a movement of summation and of recapitulation of words, musical themes, and textures. Woodwinds, trombones, and voices sing repeated Amcns across the pianissimo arpeggios of the strings and the softly thudding punctuations of eight kettledrums.
Requiem et Kyrie--Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, and let everlasting light shine on them. To thec, O God, praise is meet in Zion, and unto thec shall the vow be performed in Jerusalem.
Hearken unto my prayer: unto thce shall all flesh come. Grant the dead eternal rest, O Lord, and let everlasting light shine on them. Lord, have mercy upon us! Christ, have mercy upon us! Lord, have mercy upon us!
Dies iuae--The Day of Wrath, that day shall dissolve the world in ashes, as witnesseth David and the Sibyl.
What trembling there shall be when the Judge shall come who shall thresh out all thoroughly!
The trumpet, scattering a wondrous sound through the tombs of all lands, shall drive all unto the Throne.
Death and Nature shall be astounded when the creature shall rise again to answer to the Judge.
A written book shall be brought forth in which shall be contained all for which the world shall be judged.
And therefore when the Judge shall sit, whatsoever is hidden shall be manifest, and naught shall remain unavenged.
Quid sum miser--What shall I say in my misery Whom shall I ask to be my advocate, when scarcely the righteous may be without fear
Rex tremendae--King of awful majesty, who freely savest the redeemed, save me, O fount of mercy.
Remember, merciful Jcsu, that I am the cause of thy journey, lest thou lose me in that day.
When the damned are confounded and de?voted to sharp flames, call thou me, and from the bottomless pit and the mouth of the lion, deliver me, lest I fall into darkness, lest Tar?tarus swallow me. Who freely savest the re?deemed, save me, O fount of mercy.
Quaerens me--Seeking me didst thou sit weary: thou didst redeem me, suffering the cross: let not such labor be in vain.
0 just Judge of vengeance, give the gift of remission before the day of reckoning.
1 groan as one guilty; Sparc, O God, me, thy suppliant.
My prayers are not worthy, but do thou, good Lord, show mercy, lest I burn in ever?lasting fire.
Thou who didst absolve Mary and didst hear the thief's prayer, hast given hope to me also.
Give me a place among thy sheep and put me apart from the goats, setting me on the right hand.
Lacrymosa--Lamentable is that day on which guilty man shall arise from the ashes to be judged.
Merciful, Jesu, Grant them eternal rest.
Domine, Jesu Christf.--0 Lord, Jesu Christ, King of glory, deliver the souls of all the departed faithful from torment. 0 Lord, deliver them from the torments of hell and from the bottomless pit. Deliver them, and let Saint Michael the standardbearer bring them forth into the holy light, which thou didst once promise unto Abraham and his seed. Amen.
Hostias--To thee, O Lord, we render our offerings and prayers with praises. Receive them for those souls which we commemorate todav.
Sanctus--Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of Sabaoth. Heaven and earth are full of thy glory. Hosanna in the highest.
Agnus Dei--Lamb of God, that takest away the sins of the world, grant them eternal rest.
To thee, O God, praise is meet in Zion, and unto thee shall the vow be performed in Jerusalem. Hearken unto my prayer: unto thee all flesh shall come.
Grant the dead eternal rest, O Lord, and let everlasting light shine on them. Grant them eternal rest, O Lord, and let everlasting light shine on them with thy Saints for ever, O Lord, for thou art merciful. Amen.
Tonight's concert is performed in memory of Jindrich Rohan, who was born May 14, 1919, and died in Prague on February 14, 1978. Mr. Rohan first conducted in Ann Arbor in 1972, when The Festival Chorus sang with his Prague Symphony Orchestra. He subsequently conducted choral concerts in the May Festivals of 1974 and 1977.
UNIVERSITY CHORAL UNION
Donald Bryant, Director Nancy Hodge, Accompanist Robert Johnson, Manager
First Sopranos Terra Albert Patsy Auiler Patricia Austin Mary Bainton Lola Bradstreet Carol Brcchmin Ann Burke Lctitia Byrd Susan Campbell Susan Clark Elaine Cox Christine Crockett Darcy Duffy Kathryn Elliott Sarah Ely
Elizabeth Engelhardt Estelle Fox Emily Gershowitz Julie Giuliani Barbara Gockel Sheryl Halsey Gladys Hanson Joanne Hoover Karen Huyser Sylvia Jenkins Mclinda Johnston Karol Krohn Carolyn Leyh Kathleen Lin Doris Luecke Lisa Maglott Lois Ann Malthaner Loretta Mcissner Cheryl Murphy Andrea Parmelee Agnes Pearson Karen Pcrsello Sarah Raiss Julia Remsperger Mary Rumman Margaret Schilt Kim Smith Charlotte Stanek Heidi Unger Cheryl Waldenmycr Diane Weil Joanne Westman Denise Rae Zcllner
Second Sopranos Darby Anderson Judy Barber Kathy Berry Joyce Bleby Jessica Briefer Virginia Burr Marilyn Buss Frances Cameron Young Cho Barbara Colwell Jane Conrad Sheila Curran Christine Dindoffer Katharine Fielder Carol Fleeter Melissa Forbes Mary Hiraga Alice Horning Rita Jakubowski June Krenz Louise Kuri Margaret Lamb Judy Lehmann Paula Little Ann Lund Carol Magoon
Marilyn Meeker Charlotte Nametz Eleanor Overdeck Grace Osborn Susan I'etcoff Sara Peth Christine Pierce Virginia Reese Stephanie Rosenbautn Carol Sahakian Susan Schluederberg Marie Schneider Kathleen Sheehy Elizabeth StewartRobinson Patricia Tompkins Rachellc Warren Judith Weber Christine Wendt Cindy Worrell Kathleen Young
Patricia Anderson Margo Angelini Martha Ausc Helen Barcman Claudia Beckwith Phyllis Bogarin Kay Bohn Beth Broad Ella Brown Marion Brown Barbara Burr Alice Cambron Mollie Cameron Susan Cameron Lael Cappaert Julie Cohen Mary Crichton Christine Dailey Kerrie DeLevie Arlene Dobberstein Maureen Duffy Jeanne Erickson Daisy Evans Mary Farrell Lucy Feldkamp Amy Kick Marilyn Finkbeiner Merian Frederick Ruth Gewantcr Nancy Girbach Marilyn Glover Meredy Gockcl Edith Goldman Lesley Haney Laura Hersey Carol Hurwitz Elizabeth Johnson Marilyn Johnson Nancy Karp Geraldine Koupal Wilma Krohn Glenys Lance Kristinc Langabeer Metta Lansdale Rosemary Lewis Kirstcn Lietz Bernice McCoy Jean Morgan Suzanne Mosher Virginia Murray Lois Nelson Pamela Pennington Laurie Peterson Barbara Petoskey Karen Rabc
Hugh Baker Hugh Brown Ken Burdett Steven Fischer Marshall Franke Peter Humphrey Tim Jewell Paul Lowry Robert MacC.regor Duanc Novelly Bernard Patterson Rockwell Scherzcr Richard Schneider Ross Tobliff
Paul Angelo Peter Bleby William Bronson Harold Clark
John Comfort Albert Girod Roy Glover Joseph Gradisher Merle Galbraith Donald Haworth Thomas Hmay Robert Johnson Philip Melcher Ronald Miller Thomas Moga John Pelachyk James Priore Robert Reizner Melbert Schwarz Philip Smith Dennis Zaenger
Richard Andrews Stephen Armstrong Mark Avenmarg Barry Babok Joel Beam Marion Beam Dean Bodley Harry Bowen John Brueger Charles Burr Owen Cathey John Conroy Aaron Ellis Xeale Eyler Win Fairchild Thomas Farrell Thomas Hagcrty Klair Kissel Lawrence Lohr Robert Meader Sol Metz David Mulligan Richard Nicholson Steven Olson Kent Overbey Dennis Powers Bradley Pritts Richard Rector Peter Slutsker Richard Straub Wade Sutton Robert VonderHaar Mark Weadon
Victor Abdella Scott Beam Gary Blacklidge Gabriel Chin Robert Hall David Harari Seth Kivnick Charles Lehmann John Mclntire Alfred Meyer Thomas Rieke Robert Ronis Raymond Schankin Wallace Schonschack Mark Sebastian Vergil Slec Thomas Sommcrfeld Robert Strozier Terril Tompkins John Van Bolt Robert Ziola
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
Burton Memorial Tower, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Phones: 6653717, 7642S38