Complete Series: Eighth Annual Asian
Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
THE UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIG
Performed by THE OSAKA GARYOKAI
Sunday Afternoon, October 15, 1978, at 2:30 Rackham Auditorium, Ann Arbor, Michigan
KANGEN GASSO (Instrumental Ensemble)
kakko (hourglassshaped drum).............Ono Setsuryu
laiko (barrelshaped big drum).............Teranishi So'on
shogo (flat gong)...........Tokuyama Gayu and Ishii Entai
biwa (plucked lute)..........Yoshimitsu Hiroaki and Takeda Reido
koto (plucked zither)..........Takaiiasiii Seiryu and Ono Koryu
hosho (mouth organ)......Atomi Horyu, Okamoto Shoji and Ishihara Haruo
hichiriki (doublereed oboe) .... Shimada Daito, Ueki Hosen, and Nakamura Nobuyu ryuteki (transverse flute).....Shimizu Osamu, Yoshiura Akira, and Saji Nobuo
HYOJO NO NETORI
Six modal systems are utilized in Gagaku music. Gagaku is the generic term used for all categories of music in the Imperial Court, including instrumental ensemble music, music with dance and music with voice. Each has its own netori (tuning process) for the instruments involved in the ensemble. This process is prescribed according to a melodic and rhythmic pattern. The order of the instruments' "tuning up" is also prescribed. The netori serves as an introduction to a composition in the same modal system, in this case hyojo. The netori, which takes only two minutes, is followed almost without pause by the composition it introduces.
Centennial Season -Thirteenth Concert
Eighth Annual Asian Series
ETENRAKU (in the form of zangaku samben)
Etenraku, one of the most famous Gagaku compositions, is said to have been introduced from China during the T'ang dynasty. It is purely instrumental music in the hyojo mode, with the basic tone on "E." The zangaku samben, a threestage form which can also be applied to other com?positions, is as follows: 1st stage--the whole ensemble performs;
2nd stage--the percussion players stop, and the main wind instruments continue; 3rd stage--the sho (mouth organ) and oleki (transverse flute) stop, and the strings and one hichiriki (doublereed pipe) continue (from the middle part on, the hichiriki performs intermittently, playing only a part of the principal melody, before stopping), then the biwa (plucked lute) stops, and only the koto continues for the ending. One may be reminded of Haydn's "Farewell Symphony." This form was invented in Japan during the Heian period (7941192).
RINKO KOTATSU (in the taishikicho mode)
Rinko refers to an acrobatic dance in ancient China, in which a dancer plays drums set in a circle; Kotatsu was also a dance form popular in China during the T'ang dynasty. This composition might originally have been music to accompany dance. Only the music has been preserved, however. The basic tone of the taishikicho mode is "E" as in hyojo, but the other tones of the two modes do not correspond.
BUGAKU (Dance and Music)
kakko and sannotsuzumi (hourglassshaped drums).......Ono Setsuryu
taiko (barrelshaped big drum)...........Teranishi So'on
shdgo (flat gong).............Yoshimitsu Hiroaki
hosho (mouth organ).........Takeda Reido, Okamoto, Shoji,
Atomi Horyu, and Ishihara Haruo
hichiriki (doublereed oboe):..... . . Shimada Daito, Ueki Hosen,
Nakamura Nobuyuki, Takahashi Seiryu
ryiiteki and komabue (transverse flutes) .... Shimizu Osamu, Yoshiura Akira,
Ishii Entai, Saji Nobuo Dancers:
Atomi Horyu, Tokuyama Gayu, Ono Koryu, Yoshimitsu Hiroaki, Saji Nobuo, Ishii Entai Costumes: Tokuyama Gayu
This danceandmusic composition is usually performed at the beginning of a Bugaku per?formance. Based on Chinese exorcism, it is a prayer to the gods of Heaven and Earth.
Atomi Horyu and Tokuyama Gayu
A composition derived from Koma, on the Korean Peninsula, Hohin (lit., white seashore) may have been a place name in ancient Korea. It is said that this composition was introduced to Japan in the fifth century. During the Heian period it became completely Japanese in style. The costumes represent the court guards of that time, depicting noblemen playing and dancing. It belongs to the repertory of Uho no Mai (Dances of the Right) which came from Korea.
Ono Koryu, Yoshimitsu Hiroaki, Saji Nobuo, and Ishii Entai
The choreography shows a man from Central Asia who is fond of catching and playing with snakes. The composition is said to have come from Rinyu (Vietnam). The rhythmic accompaniment is unique in that it is done in yatara byoshi, i.e., alternation of duple and triple meters. This quintuple meter is said to have been created by a musician from the Shitennoji (also known as Tennoji) Temple, in Osaka.
It is interesting to see ears on the snake. The composition belongs to Salto no Mai (Dances of the Left), which come from China.
According to historical records, this dance was performed in celebration of Prince Shotoku Taishi's victory over the Mononobe clan. Three kinds of weapons are carried by the dancers as they march along triumphantly. This piece belongs to the Dances of the Left. The three sections of the performance are called: (1) jo (introduction), (2) ha (middle), (3) kyii (fast). This form is important in other genres of Japanese music as well as Gagaku.
Nakamura Nobuyuki, Yoshimitsu Hiroaki, Ono Koryu, and Yoshiura Akira
Following this afternoon's performance, concertgoers are invited to remain in the auditorium for a lecturedemonstration by the Osaka Garyokai. Today's events are part of the first United States tour of this troupe, under the sponsorship of the Per?forming Arts Program of the Asia Society.
Highly developed cultures have existed in various parts of Asia for thousands of years. This is also the case with music, for varieties of sophisticated music have been developed in Asian countries with prescribed tonal systems and musical theories. From the fourth century on, Chinese, Indian, and Korean cultures were introduced to Japan. In 612 Mimashi came from Kudara (a country on the Korean Peninsula) to live in Japan, and introduced Gigaku (maskeddance music). Prince Shotoku Taishi (574612), a serious Buddhist scholar, used Gigaku and Bugaku to propagate Buddhism. Thus, in the seventh century, it was common to have performance of Gigaku and Gagaku at the Court and in temples in various parts of Japan. During the Heian period, the Japanese modi?fied and adapted the performing arts to their own tastes; new compositions of music and chore?ography were also attempted. During this period, this revered tradition of Gagaku and Bugaku became extinct in China. Its preservation in Japan is therefore all the more significant.
In the eighth century, Music Departments (Gakusho) were founded in three cities: Kyoto, Nara and Osaka. They were called Sampo Gakusho (Music Institutes in Three Areas). The last of the three, Osaka, was located in the Shitennoji Temple and was the most active in performance and composition. The musicians of the Shitennoji Temple composed, for example, Genjoraku and Bairo. The system of Gakusho lasted until the middle of the nineteenth century, when the Meiji govern?ment abolished it. The musicians of Sampo Gakusho were gathered in Tokyo, where they formed the new Music Department in the Imperial Household, where it remains today.
Gagaku includes music and dance which was introduced from China in the fourth century. Various modifications of performance have been made. At present, in the kangen (pipes and strings) ensemble, wind, string, and percussion instruments are used as in a Western orchestra.
Bugaku denotes those dances which are performed accompanied by Gagaku. There are two streams of source material from abroad, which correspond to the twopart division of the whole repertory. The dances which came from China, India, etc. are called Saho no Mai (Dances of the Left); the music is called Togaku (T'ang music). Those which came from the Korean Peninsula are called Uho no Mai (Dances of the Right); the music Komagaku (Korean music).
About the Troupe
When the Music Institute of the Shitennoji Temple in Osaka was abolished at the close of the Tokugawa Era, after an existence of approximately a thousand years, the townspeople gathered and asked for instruction by the musicians and dancers of the former Gakusho; they wanted to preserve the tradition. A new association, the Osaka Garyokai, was finally established on March 30, 1884. Its 94th anniversary was celebrated this year.
Performances of Gagaku and Bugaku have become increasingly numerous since the establish?ment of the Osaka Garyokai. It is to be noted that the Garyokai preserves unique compositions of music and styles of dance different from those of the Music Department of the Imperial House?hold. The artists of Garyokai perform not only at the Shitennoji Temple but also at the Sumiyoshi Shrine, the Itsukushima Shrine, the Honganji Temple, and others. They also take part in public performances at the National Theatre, Tokyo, and the Festival Hall, Osaka. In addition, they are active in propagating their tradition by means of lecturedemonstrations at small halls and public schools. As a result, the younger generation shows great interest in the work. Broadcast perform?ances have also been presented through NHK and other TV stations. In 1976 the Ministry of Education designated this group an "Important Intangible Cultural Treasure." In commemoration of this occasion, a 16mm film, a record album, and a photograph album have been published. The Osaka Garyokai has often received prizes at the Autumn Festival of Arts in Osaka.
Asian Series "Bonus" Concert
Karyo Yamahiko Shamisen, Music and Dance Concert
Monday, November 6, at 8:30, in Rackham Auditorium
As part of the Musical Society's centennial celebration, series subscribers to the three concerts of the Asian Series are invited to attend this extra concert (free tickets upon request) next month. Remaining tickets will be available to other concertgoers beginning October 30 and at the door the evening of the performance, $4 general admission.
Karyo Yamahiko is one of Japan's most famous performers of rare forms of shamisen music derived from the Edo period (16031868). She will both sing and perform on the shamisen, and will be assisted in this concert by Chie Yamada and Yachiyo Nishikawa. These professional music and dance artists will perform some of the best examples of the 18th and 19th century shamisen traditions of Japan.
This concert is made possible through the cooperation of the University Center for Japanese Studies, the University School of Music, and the Japan Foundation.
Eugene Fodor, Violinist...........October 17
Julian Bream and John Williams, Guitarists.....October 21
Martha Graham Dance Company......October 23, 24, 25
Belgrade Chamber OrchestraLynn Harrell.....October 26
Viennese Gala.............October 27
Murray Perahia, Pianist...........October 30
Dimitri, ClownMime...........November 1
Nathan Milstein, Violinist..........November 5
Karyo Yamahiko, Japan..........November 6
II Divertimento.............November 7
Fred Waring Show............November 9
English Chamber OrchestraVladimir Ashkenazy . . . November 10
Barbara Strzelecka, Harpsichordist.......November 14
New Irish Chamber OrchestraPrieur, Gal way .... November 21
Handel's Messiah...........December 1, 2, 3
Isaac Stern, Violinist...........December 7
Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker Ballet.....December 14, 15, 16, 17
Judith Blegen, Soprano...........January 12
Mozart's Marriage oj Figaro..........January 14
"Pirin," Bulgarian Folk Ensemble........January 16
Philidor Trio.............January 21
Paul Taylor Dance Company........January 26 & 27
Barbara Nissman, Pianist..........February 1
UNIVERSITY MUSICAL SOCIETY
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