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Day
4
Month
March
Year
1982
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Detroit Symphony Orchestra
x0stagebill
stagcbill
C_J WINTER 1982
CONTENTS
7 MAHLER MANIA
by David Hamilton
10 "POPS"
by Michael Fleming
15 PROGRAM
March 4. 5 & 6, 1982
Cover photograph by Yoichi R. Okamoto
Joseph P. Barbieri, President & Publisher
Theodore P. Langdon, Senior Vice President
William J. Kofi, Jr., Production Manager
Barry Laine, Managing Editor
Mary Ann Zmudzinski, Program Editor
Meg M. Reynolds, Assistant Program Editor
David W. McCracken, Editorial Assistant
Stephen Greco, Art Associate
Kathi F. Rerek, Production Coordinator
Jane Murphy, Advertising Representative
STAGEBILL is published in Detroit, Chicago, Dallas, Philadelphia, San Francisco, St. Louis, New York's Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts and Carnegie Hall, and Washington's Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Stagebill is published by B&B Enterprises, Inc., 500 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111., 60611. (312) 5650890. Copyright B&B Enterprises, Inc., 1980. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
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Mahler Mania
My own case of Mahlermania began in January 1948, on my thirteenth birthday. My musical experience at that time was limited to the radio, and in those days the Sunday afternoon programs (broadcast by the New York Philharmonic) were fre?quently purged of anything too adven?turous, lest conservative listeners tune out. Mahler's Das Lied von der Erde was deemed uncontaminating, though (unlike his Sixth Symphony, which had just received its American premiere under Dmitri Mitropoulos), and January's per?formance, led by Bruno Walter, with Kathleen Ferrier and Set Svanholm as soloists, went out over the airwaves. Some?where between the opening horn call and
the final release of the violins' yearning high E into the shimmering C major tapestry of "Die liebe Erde Alluberall Bluht auf im Lenz...," I was hooked--as were, I have since learned, not a few others of my generation.
It was the right moment. Bruno Walter and the Philharmonic musicians had recently recorded the Fourth and Fifth Symphonies, to go along with Walter's prewar Viennese liveperformance re?cordings of the Ninth and Das Lied. These were complemented by Eugene Ormandy's recording of the Second, with Minne?apolis, and Mitropoulos' Minneapolis First Symphony. In their 78 RPM form, these albums were bulky and cumbersome
David Hamilton
Before the performance, take your tickets to the Summit fora special meal at a special price.
Next evening out, take our tickets to the Summit
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t 11 11 ir
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to play, their frequent side breaks inimical to Mahlerian time spans. Very soon came the LP record, fortunately, bringing seamless continuity and ease of handling-and a freshet of new recordings. At last 1 did hear the Sixth Symphony, a sufficient?ly terrifying emotional experience in this form, although only later, in live perform?ance did I fully receive the special impact of say, that unearthly sound that begins the last movement: the celesta and harp arpeggios, the string tremolos, and then that upreaching line that falls again to thuds of doom while major turns to minor as if it may never turn back again.
It was wonderful to have these record?ings. Some of those first Mahler LPs came from obscure, probably pseudonymous Viennese orchestras, or from live perform?ances imperfectly captured, but they served at least to sharpen the ears for the next concert performances. And these, happily, were becoming more frequent; the contagion was spreading. The Mahler epidemic was on.
Surfeited as we may be by multiple complete recordings of the symphonies, by their accompanying liner notes, by learned (and not so learned) arguments about performances and editions, by Baron la Grange's exhaustive compilation of every biographical scrap, the living sound of the symphonies, heard in close succession, is still a special event. It is a rare live performance at which I have not received some new insight into these works, an insight that recordings could not have given. The Eighth Symphony is impressive enough, God knows, but only in the flesh can you feel the entire scale of the music-not just the big climaxes, but the special weight of enormous forces operating at the lowest dynamic levels, as when the full chorus whispers the beginning of Goethe's paean to the "Ewigweibliche."
An audience matters, too. The stillness of thousands of people is vastly more breathcatching than that of a few people gathered around a loudspeaker (there's no surface noise or tape hiss, either). Any recording producer will tell you that certain things, marvelous in the hall,
cannot be brought off on a record: long pauses that can stretch out with an at?tentive audience, or extremes of tempo. There was a Rozhdestvensky performance of the Fourth, about ten years ago, so slow that it outran the tape allotted by a bootleg recordist of my acquaintance; yet it worked perfectly in the hall because the details of Mahler's orchestration, dy?namics shifting to change the colors of chords, were so carefully attended to that the tone itself, constantly in subtle flux, became a new dimension of musical movement.
These are vast and complex works, and their performance history is still rather brief--about a century shorter than that of the Beethoven symphonies, for example-and there is much less consensus about their shape and significance. The internal balance of the classical symphony, already given, by Beethoven's Fifth and Ninth, such an influential shove in the direction of the last movement, was for Mahler an open question, as was indeed the matter of "How many movements" He experiment?ed endlessly with this, from six movements in the Third Symphony to two in the Eighth, each presenting its own dilemmas of thrust, climax, and coherence. The last movement of the Seventh has always struck me as a problem, an illogical consequence of what has preceded, palat?able even on its own terms only if taken as a kind of appended showpiece for virtuoso orchestra (one with an exceptionally secure trumpet section!). But I hope that some day, a performance will show me that it does fit, after all--that I was asking it the wrong questions. (It's probably no coin?cidence that the Schubert piano sonatas have emerged into wider public favor during the same years as the Mahler symphonies, as audiences learned to appreciate a continuity based on some?thing other than Beethovenian concision.)
As might be inferred from all the above, my own case of Mahlermania is doing quite well, thank you. So, it would seem, is nearly everyone else's. There must be a lot of us out there.. David Hamilton is music critic of The Nation.
x0?Pops?
"The musichall singer attends a series
of masses and fugues and "Ops"
by Bach, interwoven
with Spohr and Beethoven,
at classical Monday Pops."
(Gilbert and Sullivan, The Mikado, 1885)
If Gilbert and Sullivan weren't pulling our leg, pops concerts in London in the 1880s have about as much in common with those today as the bustle does with the mini?skirt. The first concerts to bear the name "Pops" were the Monday and Saturday
concerts in St. James's Hall in London, organized to bring great music, especially chamber music, to a mass audience. The concerts, which ran from 1859 to 1898, fitted the Victorian view of music as an agent of moral uplift.
At the same time, quite a different pops tradition was established in the United States. When Henry Lee Higginson found?ed the Boston Symphony Orchestra in 1885, he made provision for "as many serious concerts of classical music as were wanted, and also...at other times, and more especially in the summer, concerts of a lighter kind of music."
Thus were born the Boston Symphony Promenade Concerts, later renamed Bos?ton Pops, which from the beginning aimed at entertainment rather than edification. In its first fortyfive years of existence, the Boston Pops had its ups and downs. But with the accession of Arthur Fiedler in 1930, the Pops became a national institu?tion setting the pattern for similar concert series across the country.
Fiedler retained the format he inherited from his predecessors--two segments of light classical music, and a concluding section of popular music. It was here that Fiedler broke new ground. Dissatisfied with the prissiness of the oldfashioned pops conceit, Fiedler scoured the field of popular music for material that could be played by a symphony orchestra. Nothing fell outside his grasp, from Leroy Ander?son to the Beatles, and he had a knack for striking an ideal balance between levity and seriousness.
Among those following in Fiedler's footsteps today is Richard Hayman, who was for many years the principal arranger for the Boston Pops, and who now has an active career as a pops conductor. "Fiedler had a successful formula at the Boston Pops," Hayman says. "It was like a meal, with a light appetizer, a steak in the middle and a little dessert at the end. Of course each conductor has his own way of doing things, but good music is good no matter (continued on page 44)
Miehael Fleming
ALLEN PARK
ANN ARBOR
ARMADA
BELLEVILLE
BERKLEY
BEVERLY HILLS
BIRMINGHAM
BLOOMFIELD HILLS
CARLETON
CENTER LINE
CLARKSTON
CLAWSON
DEARBORN
DEARBORN HEIGHTS
OETROIT
EAST DETROIT
ECORSE
FARMINGTON
FARMINGTON HILLS
FERNDALE
FLAT ROCK
FRANKLIN
FRASER
GARDEN CITY
GIBRALTAR
GROSSE POINTE
GROSSE POINTE FARMS
GROSSE POINTE PARK
GROSSE POINTE SHORES
GROSSE POINTE WOODS
HAMTRAMCK
HARPER WOODS
HAZEL PARK
HIGHLAND PARK
HUNTINGTON WOODS
INKSTER
KEEGO HARBOR
LAKE ANGELUS
LAKE ORION
LATHRUP VILLAGE
LEONARD
LINCOLN PARK
LIVONIA
LUNA PIER
MADISON HEIGHTS
MAYBEE
MELVINDALE
MEMPHIS
MILAN
MILFORD
MONROE
MOUNT CLEMENS
NEW BALTIMORE
NEW HAVEN
NORTHVILLE
NOVI
OAK PARK
ORCHARD LAKE VILLAGE
ORTONVILLE
OXFORD
PLEASANT RIDGE
PLYMOUTH
PONTIAC
RICHMOND
RIVER ROUGE
RIVERVIEW
ROCHESTER
ROCKWOOD
ROMEO
ROMULUS
ROSEVILLE
ROYAL OAK
ST. CLAIR SHORES
SOUTHFIELD
SOUTHGATE
SOUTH LYON
SOUTH ROCKWOOD
STERLING HEIGHTS
SYLVAN LAKE
TAYLOR
TRENTON
TROY
UTICA
WALLED LAKE
WARREN
WAYNE
WESTLAND
WIXOM
WOLVERINE LAKE
WOODHAVEN
WYANDOTTE
YPSILANTI
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC.
FORD AUDITORIUM DETROIT, MICHIGAN 48226
198081 OFFICERS
Robert B. Semple, Honorary Chairman William C. Ferguson, Office oflhe Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer Walter B. Fisher, Office of the Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer Thomas H. Jeffs II, Office of the Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer Donald R. Mandich, Office of the Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer Alan E. Schwartz, Office of the Chairman and
Chief Executive Officer
William C. Ferguson, Vice President and Chairman
of Personnel Walter B. Fisher, Vice President and Chairman
of Financial Management
Morton E. Harris, Vice President and Chairman
of Marketing Pierre V. Heftier, Vic President and Chairman
of facilities
Thomas H. Jeffs II, Vice President
Ralph Mandarine Treasurer
Donald R. Mandich, Vice President and Chairman
of Development
Walter J. McCarthy, Vice President Ralph T. McElvenny, Vice President John McNulty, Vice President of Public Affairs
and Communications Gerald C. Meyers, Vice President Paul S. Mirabito, Vice President Walter T. Murphy, Vice President William C. Rands III, Assistant Treasurer Alan E. Schwartz, Vice President and Chairman
of Nominating Peter P. Thurber, Vice President and Chairman
of Bylaws & Secretary
Mrs. R. Jamison Williams, Vice Presiaent Mrs. R. Alexander Wrigley, Vice President
BOARD OF DlKtC 1 UKb
Thomas B. Adams lames A. Aliber Louis G. Allen Andrew W Barr Donald C Becker" William Bec)iham Herbert Beyer Theodore A. Bintz H. Glenn Bixby Dr. Eileen Blumenthal Thomas N. Bonner Paul Borman Rinehart S Bright Ramon M Brinkman 1 Lawrence Buell, ]r. Mrs. C Henry Buhlt lohn T. Caldwell, ]r. Philip Caldwell E. Paul Casey Dr. Joseph Champagne Ferdinand Cinelli Walker L. Cisler Mrs. Avern Cohn Mrs. Abraham Cooper Michael N. Counen Rodkey Craighead Alexander A Cunningham Frederic DeHaven Robert Dewar Frank W. Donovan Walter E. Douglas Mrs Charles H Endicott Mrs. Bernard Fauber William C. Ferguson Mrs Robert Fife Peter R Fink
Mrs Charles T. Fisher IllMax M. Fisher Walter B. Fisher Mrs Edsel Ford II Gordon T. Ford Mrs. Henry Ford II Mrs. )ohn B. Ford, Jr Glen W. Fortinberry Mrs. Harold L. Frank Samuel Frankel Edward P Frohlich David L. Gamble Mrs. Frank A. Germack, r. William E. Giles A R. Clancy III William T. Gossett Walter R. Greene
12
John C. Griffin
Karl Haas
David Handleman
Lee C. Hanson
Mrs. Hugh Harness
Morton E. Harris
Martin Hayden
Pierre V. Heftier
Hon. Erma Henderson
Frank M. Hennessey
Lee Hillst
Lee A. lacocca
William R James
Dr. Arthur Jefferson
Thomas H. Jeffs II
Arthur L. Johnson
Mrs. Henry C. Johnson
Ernest A. Jones
Maxwell Jospey
Austin Kanter
John Karmazin, Jr.
Dr Rachel Keith
Robert Lambrecht
Kenneth B. Lange
Walton A. Lewis
Thomas V. LoCicero
Harry A. Lomason
Wilber H Mack
Louis A. MacKenzie
Ralph J. Mandarino'
Donald R. Mandich
Harold M. Marko
Robert E. McCabe
Walter J. McCarthy, Jr.'
Amy McCombs
Ralph T. McElvenny
John McNulty"
Richard L. Measelle
Philip I. Meathe
Gerald C. Meyers"
Dr. Marjorie Peebles Meyers
Milton j. Miller
Hon. William G. Milliken
Paul S. Mirabito
Rev. Robert A. Mitchell. 5.).
Ken Morris
Rev. J. Stanley Murphy, C.S.B.
Walter T. Murphy"
Robert J. Mylod
Miles M. O'Brien, Sr.
Peters Oppermann
W. Calvin Patterson
Robert E. L. Perkins, D.D.S.
Kaymond T. Perringt
Ralph L. Polk
John Prepolec
Mrs. Edith Seyburn Quintana
Mrs. Jerome H. Remick. Jr.
Dean E. Richardson
Thomas Ricketts
Irving Rose
Robert D. Rowan
Thomas F. Russell
Mrs. Samuel G Salloum'
Alan E. Schwartz"
Rabbi Dannel Schwartz
Fred Secrest
Arthur R. Seder, Jr.
Robert B. Semple Mrs. Allan Sheldent
Dr. Harold Skramstad, Jr.
Otis M. Smith Mrs. Roger Smith Herbert Sott Hon. Peter Spivak Frank D Stella Marc Stepp Robert Stewart Gari M. Stroh. Jr. Joe H. Stroud Robert M. Surdam Most Rev. Edmund C. Szoka Pnter P. Thurber" Mrs. Howard M. Tischler Mrs. S. Pinkney Tuckt Mrs. Richard W Tucker Thomas Turner" Mrs. Joseph A. Vance, Ir. Mrs. Richard Van Dusen Harold G. Warner Jervis C. Webb H. Martin Westfall Hon G. Mennen Williams Mrs. R. Jamison Williams" Richard E. Williams Mrs. Eric A. WiltshireMrs. Isadore Winkelman Mrs. R. Alexander Wrigley" Mrs. Theodore O. Yntemat Hon. Coleman A. Young Donald S. Young Mrs. John E. Young, )r. Paul Zuckerman
'rxtculirt tommilltt honorary board mtmbrr
THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA, INC. (cont.) ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
Andrew Raeburn
Artistic Administrator Sylvia Espenschade
Director of Public Affairs Steve Haviaras
Director of Audience Development Stevan Davis
Communications Manager Zhuck Dyer
Assistant Director of Audience Development
Michael A. Smith
Orchestra Manager Peter G. Remington
Director of Development Robert J. Jones
Director of Finance Susan Martin
Associate Director of Development Carlene Bonner
Assistant Director of Development Vernon C. Allen,
House Manager
It is the policy of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Inc., that all its employment opportunities, concerts, activities, and services be offered equally without regard to race, color, religion, national origin, handicap, age or sex.
Activities of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra are made possible in part with the support of the State of Michigan through funds from the Michigan Council for the Arts. For further information on available services and programs, contact the Michigan Council for the Arts, 1200 Sixth Ave., Detroit, MI 48226.
Steinway pianos are supplied to the Detroit Symphony Orchestra each season by arrangement with Hammell Music, Inc., of Livonia. Hammell Music is southeastern Michigan's only factoryauthorized Steinway dealer.
Ford Auditorium Directory
TELEPHONE NUMBERS
24Hour Concert
Information.............9617017
Box Office.................9625524
Underground Garage.......9649657
Symphony Office ..........?610700
Emergency Number
(during concerts).........2241055
The HOUSE MANAGER'S OFFICE is located at the west end of the vestibu' (street level), next to the BuX OFFICE.
The UNDERGROUND GARAGE is open from 6:30 a.m. to 2:30 a.m., Monday through Saturday,, and on Sunday from 2 p.m. to 2:30 a.m. Enter the garage from Jefferson Avenue. There is an escalator down to the garage just outside the main entrance to the Auditorium--to your right as you leave the vestibule. The CHECK ROOM is in the lounge
area adjoining the main lobby.
REFRESHMENTS are available from one hour before concert time through intermission, at the bar in the main lobby lounge and at the snack b.ir in the social room downstairs. CHIME TONES signal that the concert is about to begin or resume. REST ROOMS are located downstairs and on the mezzanine (balcony) level. For LOST AND FOUND items, consult the House Manager's office. PUBLIC TELEPHONES are at the west end of the social room downstairs.
For FIRST AID, ask the nearest usher to obtain help.
Doctors expecting calls should leave seat locations at the House Manager's office.
Please smoke downstairs or in the vestibule only.
13
HCNKY& I DM I IOKD ALDIIOHILM
Detroit
Symphony Orchestra
GARY BERTINI, Music Adviser ANTAL DORATI, Conductor Laureate
Weekender Pops
Thursday evening, March 4, 1982 at 8:30
Friday evening, March 5, 1982 in Hill Auditorium, Ann Arbor at 8:30
Saiurday evening, March 6, 7982 at 8:30
ERICH BERGEL, conductor RADU LUPU, piano
SCHUBERT Symphony No. 8 in B minor, D. 759 ("Unfinished")
Allegro moderato Andante con moto
BEETHOVEN Concerto No. 2 for Piano and Orchestra in B flat Major, Op. 19
Allegro con brio
Adagio
Rondo: Allegro molto
Radu Lupu Intermission
LUTOSLAWSKI Concerto for Orchestra
Intrada: Allegro maestoso Capriccio notturno e Arioso: Vivace Passacaglia, toccata e corale: Andante con moto
Mr. Lupu plays the Steinway Piano.
Steinway Piano London Records
Activities of the Detroit Symphony Orchestra are made possible with the support of the State of Michigan through funds from the Michigan Council for the Arts.
15
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PROGRAM NOTES
Symphony No. 8 in B Minor, D. 759 ("Unfinished")
FRANZ SCHUBERT
Born Lichenthal, near Vienna, 1797
Died Vienna, 1828
Schubert began this symphony on 30 October 1822. It was first performed on 17 December 1865, at a concert of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde, conducted by Johann Herbeck.
First performance in this series: 5 November 1916; Weston Gales conducted. Last DSO performance 2 November 1978, Schubert Festival; Antal Dorati conducted.
The work is scored for 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, 2 trumpets, 3 trombones, timpani, and strings.
Schubert's Unfinished Symphony has been so well known and so well loved for over a century that it is sometimes difficult to believe that it was lost to the world for more than 40 years.
Schubert dated the manuscript of the symphony fragment 30 October 1822. he
wrote two movements, as nearly perfect as any in all musical literature, made some sketches for a third and then, for reasons that have been the subject of endless conjecture, put the score aside.
The following April (1823) some friends of the composer proposed his name for honorary membership in the Styrian Music Society of Graz. Schubert was duly elected, and in a letter of acceptance written in September, he wrote, "To express my gratitude with music, I shall take the liberty of sending your honorable society, as soon as possible, a full score of one of my symphonies." It was this that sent the Unfinished Symphony into 42 years of oblivion.
The two men most responsible for promoting Schubert's election were his friends, Josef and Anselm Hiittenbrenner. In 1865, Josef Hiittenbrenner approached Johann Herbeck, conductor of the concerts of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde
17
(Society of Friends of Music) in Vienna, and tried to interest him in performing a composition by his brother, Anselm. Perhaps to bait Herbeck's interest, he also told him that Anselm had in his possession a number of unperformed Schubert manuscripts, among which was a fine symphony in B Minor, unfortunately incomplete.
Herbeck needed no further persuasion. In no time at all, he set out for Graz on the pretense of accompanying a relative to a health resort. Once there, he ran into Anselm at an inn and told him that he might be interested in playing one of his works. Anselm was delighted, and took the conductor home and showed him ten overtures he had written. After selecting one and promising to perform it, Herbeck asked him if, perchance, he had any Schubert manuscripts.
Concerto No. 2 for Piano and Orchestra in B flat Major, Op. 19
LUDWIG VAN BEETHOVEN Born Bonn, 1770 Died Vienna, 1827
This concerto was composed in 1794. The first performance probably took place on 29 March 1795, at the Burgtheater in Vienna; the composer was the soloist. Beethoven revised it and performed it again in Prague three years later. The original version is not extant. The revised version was published in 1801. The manuscript bears a dedication to Karl Niki, Lord of Nikelsberg.
First performance in this series: 13 December 1956; Paul Paray conducted; Leon Fleisher was the soloist. Last performance in the Ford Auditorium series: March 1977. James Laughram conducted; Emanuel Ax was the soloist.
The work is scored for flute, 2 oboes, 2 bassoons, 2 horns, and strings, in addition to the soloist. Performance lasts about 30 minutes.
According to the accounts of his contemporaries, Beethoven was as great a pianist as he was a composer, and there are many tales of famous pianists of the time who avoided competition and comparison with him. Carl Czerny (17911857), Beethoven's pupil and Liszt's teacher, who is remembered now only as the composer of a great quantity of piano study material, wrote that "Beethoven's playing was notable for its tremendous power, unheardof bravura and facility....He had practiced day and night during his youth and worked so hard that his health suffered. Beethoven's playing of slow and
sustained music made an almost magic impression on the listener and, so far as I know, has never been surpassed."
Early ;n his career, Beethoven took Mozart's Piano Concertos as his model, expanded and adapted their form and idiom to his own style of execution and to the piano of the time. Mozart had been the greatest pianist of his but his playing was weakened, Beethoven told Czerny, by his having started on the harpsichord, in his youth, before pianos were widely available. Beethoven's first three Piano Concertos are amplifications and, to a degree, modernizations of Mozart's.
When young Beethoven made his first appearance in Vienna, on March 29, 1795, at a concert for the benefit of the Widows and Orphans Fund of the Society of Musicians, he played this Piano Concerto. He had probably begun to work on it in 1794, but two days before the concert, according to an account of the event by one of his friends, he had still not written out all the music. He worked on the last movement "while suffering from a severe colic, which frequently afflicted him. I relieved him with simple remedies as best I could, while in the next room sat four copyists to whom he handed page after page of music" from which they prepared the parts for the accompanying orchestra.
After the hurried preparation of this premiere, Beethoven revised the Concerto and put it into its final form for his visit to Prague in 1798. It was first published in 1801. Beethoven often played it in later years, too, and around 1809 he wrote out a long firstmovement solo cadenza, which until then had usually been improvised at each performance.
The three movements of this Concerto are a long and symphonically developed Allegro con brio, a serious and expressive Adagio that is a dialogue of soloist and orchestra on a single subject, and a highly rhythmic final rondo, Molto allegro.
Mr. Lupu plays his own cadenza.
Concerto for Orchestra
WITOLD LUTOSLAWSKI Born Warsaw, 1913
Lutoslawski began his Concerto for Orchestra in 1950 and completed it four years later. The first performance took place in Warsaw under the direction of Witold Novicki, on 26 November 1954. The first performance in the United States took place in Cleveland on 4 December 1958; Stanislaw Skrowaczewski conducted the Cleveland Orchestra.
First performances in this series: January 1 and 2, 1971; Sixten Ehrline conducted.
The score calls for three flutes, 2 piccolos, 3 oboes, English horn, 3 clarinets, bass clarinet, 3 bassoons, contrabassoon, 4 horns, 4 trumpets, 4 trombones, tuba, timpani, bass drum, snare drum, 3 side drums without snares (soprano, alto, tenor), military drum, 3 cymbals, tamtam (gong), tambourine, xylophone, bells, celesta, piano, 2 harps, and strings.
It bears a dedication to Witold Novicki.
Witold Lutoslawski is recognized as one of the eminent figures in twentiethcentury Polish music and has been a significant force in the musical resurgence that has taken place in that country since World War II.
For those listeners familiar with Bartok's famous composition bearing the same title, written eleven years earlier, the principles of Lutoslawski's Concerto are easily grasped. He utilizes the Baroque concept of the concerto grosso in which small groups of players (referred to as concertare or principale) compete with the full orchestra (ripieni or tulti). He also attempts to display the infinite possibilities of each instru?ment--in solo, combined with the other instruments of its section, as well as with all other workable combinations with other kinds of instruments. He thereby creates a virtuosic instrument out of the orchestra itself as well as each of its components and their combinations. This technique demands a composer of tremendous instrumentational knowledge and orchestrational ability, and Lutosawski succeeds admirably. And incidentally, as Bartok infused his work with Hungarian folk music, Lutoslalwski spices his with Polish folk melodies and rhythms. It is in three movements:
Movement I. lnlrada: Allegro maestoso. The word "Intrada" signifies an opening section, festive in character. The movement is in three distinct sections.
Movement II. Capriccio Notturno e Arioso: Vivace. Also in three sections, this movement begins with a nocturnal evocation, leads into the middle arioso section, Slavic in quality, and returns to the Capriccio.
Movement III. Passacaglia. Toccata e Corale: Andante con Molo. Again, the movement consists of three sections as spelled out in its title. The Passacaglia begins tra?ditionally with the bass theme set forth by the harp and pizzicato basses. There follow fifteen brilliant variations. The toccata which follows is marked allegro guisto. It develops a theme derived from the passacaglia subject. The composition ends with a Bachian chorale and an extensive, exciting coda.
20
BEETHOVEN ON COMPOSING
I carry my thoughts about me for a long time, often a very long time, before 1 write them down; mean?while my memory is so faithful that I am sure never to forget, not even in years, a theme that has once occurred to me. 1 change many things, discard, and try again until I am satisfied. Then, however, there begins in my head the development in every direc?tion, and, inasmuch as I know exactly what I want, the funda?mental idea never deserts me--it arises before me, grows--I see and hear the picture in all its extent and dimensions stand before my mind like a cast, and there remains for me nothing but the labor of writing it own, which is quickly accomplished when I have the time, for I sometimes take up other work, but never to the confusion of one with the other. You will ask me where I get my ideas. That I can not tell you with certainty; they come unsummoned, directly, indirectly--I could seize them with my hands-out in the open air; in the woods; while walking; in the silence of the nights; early in the morning; incited by moods, which are trans?lated by the poet into words, by me into tones that sound, and roar and storm about me until I have set them down in notes. Said to Louis Schlosser. a young musician, whom Beethoven honored with his friendship in 182223.
(MEET THE ARTISTS cmlinurd on pagr 29)
No fewer than eight solo violinists are featured in this winter and spring's DSO programming.
fiddles
and fiddlers
Dr. Samuel Johnson, although he was lit?tle accomplished in music, once made a shrewd observation about violinists to James Boswell: "There is nothing, I think, in which the power of art is shown so much as in playing on the fiddle. In all other things we can do something at first. Any man will forge a bar of iron, if you give him a hammer; not so well as a smith, but tolerably. A man will saw a piece of wood, and make a box, though a clumsy one; but give him a fiddle and a fiddle?stick and he can do nothing."
In other words, as many a boy or girl (not to mention their nextdoor neigh?bors) have discovered to their sorrow, learning the violin is far from a short or simple task. Anyone can make an instant beginning upon the piano keyboard; it's possible to draw respectable sounds from a number of wind instruments within a reasonable time. But hand a violin and bow to a neophyte and ask him to play and he is as helpless as if you put him in?side a space capsule and bid him fly to the moon.
This is true even though the scientific
Herbert Kupferberg
principles by which a violin emits sounds are easily understandable, and the basic materials of the instrument are simple al?most to the point of hominess. A bit of 19th century doggerel describes the pro?cedure and the component parts this way:
A squeak '$ heard in the orchestra, The leader draws across The intestines of the agile cat The tail of the noble boss.
Cat and hoss notwithstanding, the violin itself is perhaps the most expres?sive, sensitive and versatile instrument ever devised by man. It is beautiful to the eye no less than to the ear; like the egg or the scallop shell it has a shape unique?ly and unmistakably its own. Its ela?borate curvature, its narrow fshaped openings, its richly burnished coloration all give it--along with the other members of the string family, which it heads--an air of somehow possessing a hidden mu?sical depth and wisdom. The feeling is enhanced by the antiquity of many of the violins still in use today, for no one has ever surpassed, or even equalled, the art of the violinmakers of 17th century Brescia and Cremona. Violinists today are invariably eager to play old instru?ments whenever they can find or afford them; wind and brass players, on the other hand, prefer their instruments new.
The mystic lure of the violin is reflect?ed in its manifestations in stories and novels. For a character in a work of fic?tion to play the fiddle can almost always be taken as a sign of superior, or even superhuman, attainments. In E.T.A. Hoff?man's fantasy, Antonia's Song, Councillor Krespel is a learned lawyer who for a hobby makes his own violins--the finest in the world--and then after playing each instrument once, hangs it alongside the others, never touching it again. The lar?gerthanlife hero of Saul Bellow's Hen?derson the Rain King, in his pursuit of sanity, takes up the violin: "One day as I was poking around in a storeroom I found the dusty case and I opened it, and there lay the instrument my father
26
used to play, inside that little sarcopha?gus, with its narrow scrolled neck and in?curved waist and the hair of the bow un?done and loose all around it."
Probably the most remarkable of all literary violinists is Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's great detective Sherlock Holmes. His mastery of the instrument is such that, according to his companion and bi?ographer Dr. John H. Watson, he can ev' en play "sonorous and melancholy" chords with his Stradivarius not in its normal position under the chin but care?lessly "thrown across his knee"--an amaz?ing feat. Clearly the violin is symbolic of Holmes' eccentric but awesome intellect; it is no surprise to find that he makes in?genious use of the instrument to help him run down a notorious jewel thief in The Adventure of the Mazarin Stone.
But the image of the violinist as a fi?gure of extraordinary artistic prowess and personal magnetism is by no means a fic?tional affair; it is reflected in the actual careers of dozens of performers who have become almost legendary over the years. While illustrious keyboard players have existed at least since the days of the Bach family, the great solo bravura pianist did (continued on page 46)
Kathleen Winkler performs the Mozart Violin Concerto No. 4 on January 14 & 16.
ERIC BERGEL, conductor
Eric Bergel was born in Romania to a family that was as cosmopo?litan as it was musical: his father, a violinist, was a native of Luxembourg and his mother was Spanish. At an early age, Bergel joined his father and
two musical brothers in a family string quartet. In addition to the violin, which his father taught him to play, Bergel has studied the flute, trumpet, French horn, and percussion, although the pipe organ has been his major performing instrument. From 1959 to 1971, he was chief conductor of Romania's finest orchestra, the State Philharmonic of Cluj.
As an organist, Bergel naturally had a great affinity for the music of Bach, which led him to analyze the master's "Art of the Fugue" and to complete the final, unfinished fugue. This outstanding musical scholarship came to the attention of Herbert von Karajan, who invited Bergel to come to West Germany and to make his first of many appearances with the Berlin Philharmonic. Currently, in his additional roles of scholar and teacher, Bergel is University Professor of Berlin's Hochschule der Kunste. Also an author, the first volume of his JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH--DIE KUNST DER FUGE has recently been published by the prestigious Brockhaus Musikverlag.
Since he made his U.S. debut with the Houston Symphony in 1975, Erich Begel has conducted the Chicago Symphony and the orchestras of Buffalo, San Diego, San Francisco, St. Louis, and Toronto. In May 1979, immediately prior to his leading that orchestra on a highlyacclaimed tour to Mexico, Begel was named Principal Guest Conductor of the Houston Symphony.
Although Bergel continues to build an extraordinary career in the United States, he is becoming equally wellknown overseas, where he has appeared with such august European ensembles as the Orchestre de Paris, Madrid Philharmonic, Rome's Santa Cecilia, Vienna, Berlin, Royal Philharmonics and London Sym
phony. He is also much in demand as a leader of urope's major radio orchestras, notably & .1 of Bavaria, Berlin, Hamburg, Rome, So ..and, and the B.B.C. Welch, of which he is chief conductor. As his reputation grows worldwide, he has now conducted orchestras in Israel, Japan, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Maestro Bergel made his DSO debut appearances in April 1981.
RADU LUPU, pianist
Following his first major American ap?pearances with the Cleveland Orchestra and Daniel Barenboim in New York in 1972, and an enormous suc?cess with the Chicago Symphony under Carlo Maria Giulini, Mr.
Lupu has appeared and been reengaged in every important American city, including Los Angeles, New York, Washington, D.C., Boston, Detroit, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. In Europe, he is a regular visitor to all the great music centers--both in recital and orchestral concerts. He has been a soloist with the Berlin and Vienna philharmonics, and has performed with the Concertgebouw as well as l'Orchestre de Paris. He also appears regularly with the Israel Philharmonic.
Radu Lupu was born in Romania and began studying the piano at age six. He made his public debut with a complete program of his own music at twelve. He continued his studies for a number of years with Florica Muzicescu and Cella Delavrancea. In 1961 he was awarded a scholarship to the Moscow Conservatory and remained there for seven years. During this formative period, his teachers included Heinrich Neuhaus and his son, Sviatoslav Neuhaus. While still at the Moscow Conservatory, he won First Prize in thr'ee competitions: the 1966 Van Cliburn, the 1967 Enesco International and the 1969 Leeds Piano Competition.
His last appearances with the DSO were on March 21 and 22, 1980.
29
DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
GARY BERTINI
Music Adviser
KENNETH JEAN
Resident Conductor
ANTAL DORATI
Conductor Laureate
MURRAY GROSS
Assistant Conductor
FIRST VIOLINS
Gordon Staplest Conurtmaster
Bogos Mortchikian Associate Couctrtmasler
Joseph Goldman Gordon Peterson
Assistant Concertmasters
Misha Rachlevsky Linda SneddenSmith Derek Francis Alan Gerstel Nicholas Zonas LeAnn Toth Beatriz Budinszky Malvern Kaufman Richard Margitza Margaret Tundo Glenn Basham Elias Friedenzohn Santo Urso Ronald Fischer
SECOND VIOLINS
Edouard Kesnert Felix Resnick Alvin Score Lillian Fenstermacher )ames Waring Lenore latzko Walter Maddox Roy Bengtsson Thomas Downs Robert Murphy Sofia NovakTsoglin Joseph Striplin Bruce Smith Gabriel Szitas Ann Alicia Ourada Geoffrey Applegate
VIOLAS
Nathan Gordont David Ireland" Philip Porbe Eugenia Staszewski LeRoy Fenstermacher Hart Hollman Walter Evich Anton Patti
Gary Schnerer Catherine Compton Glenn Mellow
VIOLONCELLOS
Italo Babinit
James C. Gordon Chair Marcy Chanteaux John Thurman Mario DiFiore David Levine Kevin Plunkett Barbara Fickett Debra Fayroian David Saltzman Paul Wingert Carole Gatwood
BASSES
Robert Gladstonet Raymond Benner Stephen Molina Maxim Janowsky Linton Bodwin Stephen Edwards Albert Steger Donald Pennington Craig Rifel
HARP Elyse Ukut
FLUTES Ervin Monroet Shaul BenMeir Robert Patrick Clement Barone
PICCOLO
Clement Barone
OBOES
Donald Bakerf John Snow Robert Sorton Treva Womble
ENGLISH HORN Treva Womble
CLARINETS
Paul Schallert Douglas Cornelsen Laurence Liberson Oliver Green
EFLAT CLARINET
Laurence Liberson
BASS CLARINET
Oliver Green
BASSOONS
Robert Williamst Atsuko Sato Paul Ganson Lyell Lindsey
CONTRABASSOON
Lyell Lindsey
FRENCH HORNS
Eugene Wadet Fergus McWilliam Edward Sauve Willard Darling Corbin Wagner Keith Vernon
TRUMPETS
Donald Greent Kevin Good Alvin Belknap" Gordon Smith
TROMBONES
Raymond Turnert Joseph Skrzynski Nathaniel Gurin Thomas Klaber
TUBA
Wesley Jacobst
TIMPANI Salvatore Rabbiot Robert Pangborn
PERCUSSION
Robert Pangbornt Norman Fickett Raymond Makowski Sam Tundo
LIBRARIAN
Albert S"teger
Charles Weaver, assistant
PERSONNEL MANAGER Oliver Green
Principal 'Assistant Vrindval
31
Next Week's Concerts
Erich Bergel returns to the DSO podium next week in Ford Auditorium to conduct a program which includes Vaughan Williams' Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallisfor Double Siring Orchestra and the Franck Symphony in D Minor. Guest soloist will be violinist Edith Peinemann, who will perform Khatchaturian's Concerto for Violin and Orchestra. Performances are scheduled for 8:30 p.m. on Thursday, March 11 and 10:45 a.m. on Friday, March 12.
The Artists
Eric Bergel was born in Romania to a family that was as cosmopolitan as it was musical: his father, a violinist, was a native of Luxembourg and his mother was Spanish. At an early age, Bergel joined his father and two musical brothers in a family string quartet. In addition to the violin, which his father taught him to play, Bergel has studied the flute, trumpet, French horn, and percussion, although the pipe organ has been his major performing instrument. From 1959 to 1971, he was chief conductor of Romania's finest orchestra, the State Philhar?monic of Clui.
As an organist, Bergel naturally had a great affinity for the music of Bach, which led him to analyze the master's "Art of the Fugue" and to complete the final, unfinished fugue. This outstanding musical scholarship came to the attention of Herbert von Karajan, who invited Bergel tocome to West Germany and to make his first of many appearances with the Berlin Philharmonic. Currently, in his additional roles of scholar and teacher, Bergel is University Professor of Berlin's Hochschule der Kunste. Also an author, the first volume of his JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACHDIE KUNST DER FUGE has recently been published by the prestigious Brockhaus Musikverlag.
Since he made his U.S. debut with the Houston Symphony in 1975, Erich Begel has conducted the Chicago Symphony and the orchestras of Buffalo, San Diego, San Francisco, St. Louis, and Toronto. In May 1979, immediately prior to his leading that orchestra on a highlyacclaimed tour to Mexico, Begel was named Principal Guest Conductor of the Houston Symphony.
Although Bergel continues to build an extraordinary career in the United States, he is becoming equally wellknown overseas, where he has appeared with such august European ensembles as the Orchestre de Paris, Madrid Philharmonic, Rome's Santa Cecilia, Vienna, Berlin, Royal Philharmonics and London Symphony. He is also much in demand as a leader of Europe's major radio orchestras, notably those of Bavaria, Berlin, Hamburg, Rome, Scotland, and the B.B.C. Welch, of which he is chief conductor. As his reputation grows worldwide, he has now conducted orchestras in Israel, Japan, New Zealand, and South Africa.
Maestro Bergel made his DSO debut appearances in April 1981.
Edith Peinemann, violinist, was born in Mainz, Germany, where her father, Robert Peinemann, was concertmaster of the Mainz Symphony Orchestra. She was tutored by her father until she was 14 and then by the great German violinist Heinz Stanske. A scholarship to study with Max Rostal in London followed, and from 1953 to 1956 she continued her training there. Her career moved ahead steadily with recitals and concerts in and around London and Europe. Then in 1962 she made her American debut with the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra with Max Rudolf.
Her distinguished career since that time has brought her to every major orchestra in the United States and Europe, including the Vienna Symphony, Munich Philharmonic, Zurich Tonhalle Orchestra, Concertgebouw Orchestra, Royal Philharmonic, Stuttgart State Orchestra, Berlin Philharmonic, the Cleveland Orchestra, the Chicago, Cincinnati, Detroit, Pittsburgh, and National symphonies, and the Los Angeles Philharmonic.
Miss Peinemann plays the Guarneri del Sesu violin. Her last appearances with the Detroit Symphony were on March 1 and 3, 1978, under the baton of Warner Torkanowsky.
WOMEN'S ASSOCIATION FOR THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
Board of Directors
Mrs. Eric A. Wiltshire. Prrsidtnl
Mrs. Frank A. Germack, Jr., First Vice President
Mrs. Mary Lou Bagley, Vice President
Mrs. Kim K. Lie, Vice President
Mrs. Felix Resnick, Vice President
Mrs. Robert Allesee
Mrs. Charles Kessler
Mrs. J. Roy Henry
Mrs. Henrv Simons, Director
Mrs. Henry Domzalski, Recording Secretary
Mrs. Gordon Gideon, Assistant Recording Secretary
Mrs. Richard Schlitters, Corresponding Secretary
Mrs. Walter Greene, Treasurer
Mrs. Ben Lowell, Endowment Chairman
Mrs. Harry W. Taylor, Parliamentarian
Mrs. Winfield S. Jewell, Jr., President Emeritus
DETROIT SYMPHONY LEAGUE
Board of Directors
Mrs. Samuel G. Salloum, Pmidenl
Mrs. Howard M. Tischler, Presidinl Elect
Mrs. David Ong, Vice President. Projects
Mrs. Leonard ]. Prekel, Vice President, Membership
Mrs. Waller B. Harris, Vice President. Boutique
Mrs. Wayne G. Wegner, Secretary
Mrs. lames A. Sellgren, Treasurer
Mrs. Oliver A. Green, Jr., Mailing Mrs. Fred Goldberg, ProgramSocial Mrs. Edward S. May, PubUcilyHislorian Mrs. Robert W. McCaffrey, Records Mrs. Edward F. Posch, Jr., Special Projects Mrs. David D. Patton, Yearbook
The Critics Cornered
Whether you like them or not, whether you agree with them or not, the Critics-individually.and in a body--will be with us for a long time. Here is a roundup of critical opinion on the creatures themselves: praise and scorn, analysis and definition, truth and hyperbole.'
Compiled by Paul Steiner
"A critic is a man who knows the way but can't drive the car." --Kenneth Tynan
"It is through criticism that the race has managed to come out of the wood and lead a civilized life. The first man who objected to the general nakedness, and advised his fellows to put on clothes, was the first critic." -E.L. Godkin
"Criticism is a disinterested endeavour to learn and propagate the best that is known and thought in the world." --Matthew Arnold
"A critic is a man whose
watch is five minutes ahead
of other people's watches."
--Saint Beuve
"1 find that when 1 dislike what 1 see on the stage that I can be vastly amusing, but when I write about some?thing I like, I find I am appallingly dull."
-Max Beerbohm
"People want critics to be more and more one of them ... .Critics may wind up becoming Gallup Polls ra?ther than dispensers of judg?ment." --Judith Crist
"There are two kinds of dramatic critics: destructive and constructive. There are two kinds of guns: Krupp and pop."
--George Jean Nalhan
"To many, dramatic criticism must seem like an attempt to tattoo soap bubbles." --John Mason Brown
"A dramatic critic is a person who surprises the playwright by informing him what he meant." -Wilson Mizner
"The critic leaves at curtain fallTo fiud, in
starting to review itHe scarcely saw the
play at all For watching his reaction to it."
--E.B. While
"Theatrical criticism is a branch of reporting. Like every other branch, it can, in general, only give to one ephemeral moment of life a second ephemeral moment of revival in print."
--Eric Benley
"You don't expect me to know what to say about a play when 1 don't know who the author is, do you... If it's by a good author, it's a good play, naturally. That stands to reason."
--George Bernard Shaw
"You just shut up and take your lumps (from the cri?tics). When they liked you, you took it, when they hate you, you have to take it too." --Roben Aldrich
"If Attila the Hun were alive today, he'd be a drama critic." --Edward Albee
"It's much easier to satisfy the reviewers than to satisfy an audience."
-Menasha Skulnik
"When critics disagree, the artist is in accord with himself." --Oscar Wilde
Playwright and critic Oscar Wilde
CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DETROIT SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
The Board of Directors of the Detroit Symphony gratefully acknowledges and thanks all Orchestra benefactors whose contributions help insure the continuity and growth of the Symphony. During the course of the season, we print 'mSlagebill names of major contributors by categories. For your understanding, we do not publish a complete list ing of all categories in every edition of Slagebill because of space limitations.
MAJOR SPONSORING MEMBERS OF THE MAESTRO'S CIRCLE
Business, Labor and Societies
Detroit Symphony League
Ford Motor Company
General Motors Corporation
State of Michigan
Women's Association for the Detroit Symphony
Foundations
McGregor Fund
Webber Foundations
SPONSORING MEMBERS OF THE
MAESTRO'S CIRCLE Business, Labor and Societies American Natural Resources Bendix Corporation Bundy Corporation Burroughs Corporation Chrysler Corporation The Detroit Edison Company DETROITBANK. Corporation Kmart
). L. Hudson Co. Michigan Bell Telephone Co. National Bank of Detroit Foundations
Benson and Edith Ford Fund The Caroline R. Goadby Memorial
Trust Individuals
Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ford, II Mrs. John B. Ford, Jr. Mrs. S. Pinkney Tuck--Katherine
Tuck Fund Mr. and Mrs. Richard C. Van Dusen
ASSOCIATE SPONSORING
MEMBERS OF THE
MAESTRO'S CIRCLE Business, Labor and Societies The Detroit News FederalMogul Corporation Fruehauf Corporation Metropolitan Detroit Council of
Board of Realtors Masco Corporation Foundations
Eleanttr and Edsel Ford Fund Philip L. Graham Fund James and Lynelle Holden Fund The Elizabeth, Allan, and Warren
Shelden Fund Skiltman Foundation R.H. and E.J. Webber Foundation Individuals
Mrs. J. Lawrence Buell, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Ford, II Mr. and Mrs. Maxmilian Shaye Mr. and Mrs. C. Theron Van Dusen
BENEFACTORS OF THE
MAESTRO'S CIRCLE Business, Labor and Societies Handleman Company Hiram Walker & Sons Manufacturers National Bank McCord GroupExCellO
Corporation
R. P. Scherer Corporation Foundations
Deroy Testamentary Foundation Individuals
Mr. and Mrs. F. Charles Duryea, Jr. Mrs. Charles T. Fisher, Jr. Mr. and Mrs. Max Fisher Mr. and Mrs. Morton Harris Mrs. Roger M. Kyes Mr. and Mrs. Ray W. Macdonald Mrs. Leola S. McGraw Mr. and Mrs. Ralph L. Polk Mrs. Edith S. Quintana Mr. and Mrs. Robert B Semple Mr. A. Alfred Taubman Mr. and Mrs. Alan E. Schwartz Mr. and Mrs. R. Jamison Williams MAESTRO'S CIRCLE Business, Labor and Societies BASF Wyandotte Barris Sott Denn & Driker Douglas & Lomason Company Frank's Nursery & Crafts, Inc. Karmazin Products Corporation Saks Fifth Avenue Stan Sax Corp Foundations
Edward & Ruth Diehl Foundation Ida M. Faigle Charitable Fund Fruehauf Foundation The Lenora and Alfred Glancy
Foundation
Milton M. Ratner Foundation Lillian H. & Karl W. Scott Foundation David M. Whitney Fund Individuals
Mr. and Mrs. George J. Bedrosian Mr. and Mrs. Philip Caldwell Mr. and Mrs. Gordon T. Ford Mr. David Gamble Mr. and Mrs. Alfred R. Glancy, III Mr. William T. Gossett Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Hamburger Mr. and Mrs. David Handleman Mrs. Robert G. Hartwick Mr. and Mrs. Henry Clyde Johnson Mr. and Mrs. Louis A. Mac Kenzie Mr. and Mrs. Ralph J. Mandarino Mr. and Mrs. Gerald C. Meyers Mr. and Mrs. Paul S. Mirabito Mr. and Mrs. Peters Oppermann Mr. and Mrs. Irving Rose Mrs. Walter E. Simmons Mr. and Mrs. Robert Vlasic Mrs. Richard H. Webber
Mr. and Mrs. Richard E. Williams Mrs. Isadore Winkelman Mr. and Mrs. R. Alexander Wrigley Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Yntema CONCERTMASTER'S CLUB Business, Labor and Societies Advance Mortgage Corporation American Airlines, Inc. BirminghamBloomfield Board of
Realtors
H. L. Blachford, Inc. Butzel, Long, Gust, Klein & Van Zile Champion Spark Plug Company Coopers & Lybrand Core Industries Delta Model Company Detroit Board of Realtors Dickinson, Wright, Moon, Van
Dusen, Freeman Downriver Board of Realtors Dykema, Cossett, Spencer, Goodnov
& Trigg Eonic, Inc.
Harness Dickey & Pierce Highland Appliance Company Honigman, Miller, Schwartz and
Cohn
Kenyon & Eckhardt Advertising, Inc. North Oakland Board of Realtors ParkeDavisWarner Lambert Peat, Marwick, Mitchell & Co. Pulte Home Corporation Raymond, Rupp & Wienberg Shell Oil Company South Oakland Board of Realtors 5tandard Federal Savings and Loan
Association
Young Woman's Home Association Foundations
AcmeCleveland Foundation The Awrey Foundation Theodore and Mina Bargman
Foundation Joesph E. Beauchamp Charitable
Trust
Alvin M. Bentley Foundation Gerald W. Chamberlin Foundation Detroit Community Trust George R. and Elise M. Fink
Foundation
Clarence k Jack Himmel Foundation The Holley Foundation Stanley Imerman Foundation PPG Industries Foundation Quaker Chemical Foundation Harold & Carolyn Robison
Foundation Leon and Josephine Winkelmaii
Foundation Winkelman Brothers Apparel
Foundation Individuals
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Allesee Mr. and Mrs. E. Bryce Alpern
39
Mr. and Mrs. J. Denton Anderson
Mr. and Mrs. Clark Andreae
Mrs. William B. Bachman, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Andrew W. Barr
Mr. and Mrs. S. Brooks Barron
William J.Beckham, Jr.
Mr. Mandell L. Berman
Mr. and Mrs. H. Glenn Bixby
Mrs. John W.Blanchard
Mrs. Eileen Blumenthal
Mr. and Mrs. Paul Borman
Mr. and Mrs. Rinehart Bright
Mr. and Mrs. Ramon M. Brinkman
Mr. and Mrs. Henry C. Buhl
Margaret and Toby Citrin
Judge and Mrs. Avern Cohn
Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Colombo
Mrs. Abraham Cooper
Mr. and Mrs. Rodkey Craighead
Mr. and Mrs. Alex A. Cunningham
Mr. and Mrs. John R. Davis
Mr. and Mrs. Stanley R. Day
Mrs. Albert H. (Peggy) De Salle
Mr. Benjamin Dembinski
Mr. and Mrs. Robert E. Dewar
Mr. Wilfred B. Doner
Mr. and Mrs. Frank W. Donovan
Mr. JoelDorfman
Mr. and Mrs. Eugene Driker
Mr. and Mrs. Robert A. Dryden
Mr. and Mrs. Cameron B. Duncan
Mrs. Loyal A. Eldridge
Mr. and Mrs. Charles Endicott
Mr. and Mrs. Dennis J. Eynon
Mr. and Mrs. Bernard Fauber
Mr. and Mrs. William C. Ferguson
W. Hawkins Ferry
KathrynFife
Mr. and Mrs. Peter R. Fink
Mr. and Mrs. Walter B. Fisher
Mr. and Mrs. Edsel Ford, II
Mr. Emory M. Ford, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Ford, III
Mr. Glen Fortinberry
Mr. and Mrs. Harold L. Frank
Mr. and Mrs. Samuel Frankel
Dr. and Mrs. Joel E. Freedland
Mr. Gilbert M. Frimet
Mr. Edward Frolich
Mr. and Mrs. Frank Germack, Ji
Mrs. Louis C. Goad
Mr. Martin R. Goldman
Mr. and Mrs. Alan L. Gornick
Mrs. Robert N. Green
Mr. and Mrs. John C. Griffin
Dr. and Mrs. Joel I. Hamburger
Mr. and Mrs. Firman H. Hass
Mr. and Mrs. Pierre Heftier
Mr. and Mrs. Frank H. Hennessey
Mr. and Mrs. Ernest A. Jones
Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell Jospey
Mr. and Mrs. A. Randolph Judd
Mr. and Mrs. Austin A. Kanter
Mr. and Mrs. John Karmazin, Jr.
Mr. and Mrs. Marvin Katke
Dr. and Mrs. Marvin Klein
Mr. and Mrs. Richard Kughn
Mr. and Mrs. Harold Kulish
Mr. and Mrs. Rober P. Lambrecht
Mrs. Samuel J. Lang
Dr. and Mrs. Melvin A. Lester
Mrs. Edward C. Levy
Mr. and Mrs. Harry A. Lomason, II
Mr. and Mrs. Donald Mandich
Mr. and Mrs. Rogers I. Marquis
Walter and Alice McCarthy
Mr. and Mrs. Philip J. Meathe
Dr. and Mrs. Donald A. Meier
Mr. and Mrs. Milton J. Miller
J. M. Moore
Mrs. Stanley N. Muirhead
Mr. and Mrs. Spencer Patrick
Mr. and Mrs. John B. Poole
Mr. and Mrs. John Prepolec
Mr. and Mrs. Peter G. Remington
Mr. Robert D. Rowan
Mr. Thomas F. Russell
Mrs. Emma Schaver
Mr. and Mrs. Arthur R Seder ]r.
Mr. and Mrs. Irving Seligman
Mr. and Mrs. Alger Shelden
Mr. Raymond C. Smith
Mrs. Toba Smokier
Mr. Robert Sosnick
Mr. Herbert Sott
Mr. and Mrs. Frank D. Stella
Mr. and Mrs. Mark C. Stevens
Mr. and Mrs1. Theodore Souris
Judge and Mrs. Peter B. Spivak
Dr. and Mrs. Sheldon D. Stern
Mr. Robert M. Surdam
Most Reverand Edward Szoka,
Archbishop of Detroit Mrs. William C. Tost Mr. and Mrs. Emmet E. Tracy Mr. and Mrs. Richard W. Tucker Mrs. Richard Wagner Mr. and Mrs. Harold G. Warner Mr. Jervis C.Webb Justice and Mrs. G. Mennen Williams Mr. and Mrs. Eric A. Wiltshire Mr. and Mrs. John E. Young Mr. and Mrs. Erwin C. Ziegelman G. H. Zimmerman
Memorial
Joan Katherine Rossi INTERVAL CLUB Business, Labor and Societies Acme Mills Company Detroit Board of Realtors
Commercial--Investment
Division
Garden State Tanning General Motors Men's Club Grow Group, Inc. Automotive
Division
H & L Tool Company, Inc. International Nickel Co., Inc. Albert Kahn Associates, Inc. Lacey &lones Mayfair Plastics Inc. Monroe County Board of Realtors Pontiac State Bank Ritter Smith, Inc. St. John Medical Staff Sears & Roebuck Foundations Amoco Foundation, Inc. Tom and Sarah Borman Foundation The Clarence and Grace Chamberlin
Foundation
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MAHLER MANIA (com. from p. 10)
when or where it's done."
Not every musical work will fit into this scheme, Hayman says. The longer sym?phonies and concertos of the classical repertoire would strain the patience of an audience expecting to be entertained, so the classical segments of Pops programs draw heavily on overtures and dance music from the classical repertoire, with a sprinkling of the more tuneful symphonies or concertos.
According to a survey of 94 American orchestras conducted last season by the American Symphony Orchestra League, Tchaikovsky is the classical composer most often represented on Pops programs. From the light music field, the Viennese waltzes and polkas of such composers as Lehar and Strauss are often programmed, as is the music of George Gershwin.
Just where to draw the line between classical and popular music is a perpetual problem for conductors, and its location may be altered by circumstances. For example, the introduction to Richard Strauss's Also Sprach Zarathustra became a hot item on pops concerts after its inclusion in the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey, although Strauss's lugubrious score is the last place one would have expected to unearth pops material.
The popular segment of the program is even more subject to change. When Latin American music or disco rhythm is "in," it will show up on orchestral pops programs; the next year, a new style takes its place. Of course, there are perennial favorites: the Big Bands, Broadway musicals, the mar?ches of John Philip Sousa. But even these are brought up to date by new arrange?ments, since nothing dates a piece as surely as yesterday's style of orchestration.
According to Hayman, the arranger's style "gives individuality, like handwriting or the way you dress. But you have to stay with the times, so that you don't sound oldfashioned, unless you're reviving a period style, like the big bands. Then you would stick to the original charts."
For some classically trained musicians, like Peter Nero and Mitch Miller, pops conducting has provided a lucrative career. 44
And for many popular artists, symphony pops concerts have offered virgin territory. (Ethel Merman, to name just one, has built a flourishing second career singing in pops concerts.) But for many orchestral musi?cians, the time devoted to preparing pops concerts can be the straw that breaks the camel's back.
Most players realize, however, that a successful pops season can make the difference between a full year's employ?ment and a shorter season, and so they take pops concerts in stride. "There is always a certain faction that doesn't enjoy popular music," Hayman says, "But they look out and see a full house, and think, 'Will, there must be something to it.' "
If the pops in Gilbert and Sullivan's London struck a lofty tone, today's pops concerts frankly aim at giving the public what it wants. "I'm there to entertain people, rather than to provide a musical education," Hayman explains. And if today's audience is short on "Musichall singers" sentenced to a term at hard listening, it is packed with people who might never otherwise set foot in a concert hall or hear a symphony orchestra.
The ASOL survey has confirmed what orchestra managers long admitted--that there is little overlap between pops and classical audiences, and that attendance at the pops seldom lures listeners into the regular subscription season. For the orchestra, pops concerts are, cynically considered, a means of slowing the drain on the orchestra's budget, and more altruistically, a service to a portion of the public not reached by the regular concerts.
For some members of the audience, however, Hayman says, the first exposure to a symphony orchestra is an education in itself. "Lots of people say, 'Gee, I didn't know a full orchestra coudl be so thrilling.' I try to give the management what they hire me to do," he explains, "And at the same time, to work in some of the classics, to let people hear symphonic music. Pops con?certs draw a whole new audience to the symphony, and the whole season benefits. Perhaps we can even make a few converts."
Michael Fleming is music editor of the Fort Worth StarTelegram and a former St. Louisan.
Josef Suk offers March 25 & 27performances of Mozart's Violin Concerto No. 3.
FIDDLES & FIDDLERS (com. from p. 22) not arrive on the scene until well into the 19th century, being most notably em?bodied by Franz Liszt.
But by the time Liszt began making listeners alternately cheer and swoon, vi?olin virtuosi had already been a Europe?an phenomenon for 150 years, with Corelli, Torelli, Tartini and others perform?ing works--usually written by themselves --that combined passionate utterance with prodigious technique. Niccolo Paganini, who lived from 1782 to 1840, repre?sented the culmination of the Italian vir?tu osic school; his performances were so incredible that there were witnesses rea?dy to swear they had seen the Devil him?self standing at his side to assist with the more difficult passages.
Especially from the 19th century on, great violinists have been the monoply of no single country or school. Names like Bull (Norway), Enesco (Romania), Joachim (Germany), Kreisler (Austria), Sarasate (Spain), Spalding (United States), Szigeti (Hungary), Thibaud (France), Wieniawski (Poland) and Ysaye (Bel?gium) attest the universality of the art. This list has been drawn from the dead, in the hope of minimizing complaints of inadvertant omissions, but virtually eve?ry country in the Western world (and, more recently, in the Eastern as well) has
46
produced violinists of commanding tech?nique and talents.
But the greatest concentration in the 20th century has come, for reasons that never have been satisfactorily explained, from eastern Europe, especially Russia. One famous story, perhaps apocryphal, relates to the sensational Carnegie Hall debut on October 27,1917 of the 16yearold Jascha Heifetz. As the audience erupt?ed in an ovation, Mischa Elman turned to Moriz Rosenthal and remarked, "It's very warm in here." "Not for pianists," replied Rosenthal. Heifetz--and for that matter, Elman--was part of a great violinistic migration to this country that continued into the 1920s and later re?ceived new impetus when the Nazis be?gan driving musicians from Germany.
Russia continues to be a breeding ground for great violinists, as was evi?denced when the late David Oistrakh made his first visit to the United States after World War II, opening the way for many others. Isaac Stern, who was born in the Soviet Union in 1920 but was tak?en to the United States as an infant, once described the U.S.U.S.S.R. cultural ex?change program succinctly as: "They send us their Jews from Odessa and we send them our Jews from Odessa."
Today more than ever violinists seem to transcend their national origins as they transport their art, along with their fid?dlecases, throughout the world. Brazil, Israel, Japan, Korea, Mexico and other countries that scarcely were part of the world musical picture a few decades ago now are making notable contributions to the violinistic art.
Best of all, young players of surpass?ing quality continue to arrive on the scene, carrying on a tradition of virtuo?sity that shows no sign of dimming. "I continue to be amazed at the way in which the younger generation continues to play the fiddle," wrote Bernard Shaw --in 1893. Let us hope that listeners of fu tu re generations will be equ ally amazed.
Herbert Kupferberg, a senior editor of Parade, is a frequent contributor to these pages.
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