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UMS Concert Program, April 27, 28, 29, 30, 1983: Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983 -- The Philadelphia Orchestra

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UMS Concert Program, April 27, 28, 29, 30, 1983: Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983 -- The Philadelphia Orchestra image UMS Concert Program, April 27, 28, 29, 30, 1983: Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983 -- The Philadelphia Orchestra image UMS Concert Program, April 27, 28, 29, 30, 1983: Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983 -- The Philadelphia Orchestra image UMS Concert Program, April 27, 28, 29, 30, 1983: Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983 -- The Philadelphia Orchestra image UMS Concert Program, April 27, 28, 29, 30, 1983: Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983 -- The Philadelphia Orchestra image
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1983
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Concert: Fifty-second
Hill Auditorium

Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival 1983
April 27,1983
Dear Friends,
I am delighted to welcome you to the 90th Annual Ann Arbor May Festival, a milestone that we feel warrants the publication of this special souvenir book. In these pages you'll find complete program information surrounding this year's four concerts, plus a pictorial glimpse into past years of the May Festival.
I feel privileged that my association with the May Festival goes back halfway in its history, to 1938, as a member of the Choral Union. (We gave a concert version of Carmen that year!) Since those musicsaturated student days, and World War II, I have now served the University Musical Society for thirtyfive years. In this long experience, shared with so many of you, there has ahvays been the special anticipation and excitement that one feels when in the presence of a great artist. I'm sure that you, as loyal and responsive concertgoers, also feel this sense of joy and enrichment as you sit in Hill Auditorium during a performance.
The story of the Musical Society's beginning in 1879, and the first May Festival in 1894, has been told many times. It is evident that Ann Arbor is secure in its place among the greatest performing arts centers of the world. This is a rare legacy to nurture and protect for present and future residents of our community.
I join with you -our committed subscribers, our generous contributors and advertisers -in accepting this challenge for tomorrow.
With best wishes,
Board of Directors
Gail W. Rector. President
K. Picrpont. Vice President
Douglas D. Crary. Secretary
Allen P. Britlon, Treasurer
Paul W. McCracken
John D. Paul
Sarah Goddard Power
John W. Reed
Harold T. Shapiro
Lois U. Stcgcmun
E. Thurston Thieme
Jerry A. Wcisbach
In Memoriam
Literally thousands of May Festival patrons remember Glenn D. McGeoch as the official program annotator of the May Festival concerts from 1932 through 1974. His illuminating insights greatly enhanced the enjoyment of those who attended the 200plus concerts during those years.
Mr. McGeoch came to Ann Arbor in 1926. and joined the School of Music faculty after earning a bachelor of arts degree in 1927 and master of arts degree in 1928 from the UM. While an assistant to Dean Earl V. Moore in 1929, Professor McGeoch began and continued the expansion of course and staff in music history and musicology. Through his efforts, a department of music history.
Glenn D. McGeoch
October 3, 1903Januanj 14, 1983
literature, and criticism was established in 1935 and he served as its chairman until 1969. He retired in 1971. Professor McGeoch was one of the bestknown faculty members in all sections of Michigan through his work with the UM Extension Service and Alumni Association. With Earl Moore as coauthor, he wrote a syllabus for a music survey course still in use throughout the country.
Above and beyond this brief chronicle of his professional life. Glenn McGeoch imparted the joy of music and the joy of life to an untold number of students, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances with whom he came in contact over the years. His fine sense of humor, wit. verve, and expertise will long be remembered.
University Musical Society
Administration
Gail W. Rector. Administrator
Barbara L. Ferguson, Editor
Carol G. Wargelin, Secretary to the President
Stephen G. Bates, Operations Manager
Promotion and Development
Nancy Cordiner Judge. Director David J. Kitto, Promotion Coordinator Lorie A. Wayne, Secretary
Sally A. Cushing. Administrative Assistant Michael L. Gowing. Ticket Manager June E. Williams, Ticket Sales
University Choral Union
Donald T. Bryant. Director
Leif Bjaland. Acting Conductor (Spring 1983)
William L. Robertson. Assistant Conductor
Advisory Committee
Lois Stegcman. Chairman
Robert G. Aldrich Joan Anderson Janice Beck David Clyde Millie Danielson Esther Floyd Svea Gray Elmer Hamel Larry Harbeck Geraldine Koupal
Mary Elizabeth Lewis Carl J. Lutkehaus, Jr. Winifred Mayes Mary McCollum Charlotte MeGeoch Dory Paul Peg Pa.ssink Dorothy Reed Donna Richter Ann Schriber
Elizabeth Stranahan
Ron Teigen
Estelle Titiev
Anne Upton
Sue Van Appledorn
Mary Vanden Bell
Alice Vining
Timothy White
Nancy Judge (ex officio)
Acknowledgments
The Musical Society expresses deep appreciation to the following companies for their valuable assistance in the publication of this souvenir book: Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, for a generous grant and design assistance; and Goetzcraft Printers Inc., Ann Arbor, for its contribution ofprepress preparation services.
Historic photographs and visual materials are selected from the archives of the Musical Society.
The flowers in Hill Auditorium are made possible through funds provided by Samuel S. and Nancy L. Corl.
The Ninetieth Ann Arbor May Festival
Four concerts -April 27, 28, 29, 30,1983
Hill Auditorium
The Philadelphia Orchestra Riccardo Muti, Music Director and Conductor
Theo Alcantara, Guest Conductor
Krystian Zimerman, Pianist Gidon Kremer, Violinist Carlos Montoya, Guitarist
Mary Burgess, Soprano Rockwell Blake, Tenor J. Patrick Raftery, Baritone
The Festival Chorus of the University Choral Union
Donald Bryant, Director Leif Bjaland, Acting Conductor
The Battle Creek Boychoir Charles Olegar, Director
CONTENTS
Ten Commandments of Concert Etiquette................... 13
Philadelphia Orchestra Personnel.......................... 13
Performing Artists........................................ 14
Festival Programs and Annotations
Wednesday, April 27.................................... 20
Thursday, April 28...................................... 22
Friday, April 29......................................... 26
Saturday, April 30...................................... 29
198384 New Season of International Presentations........... 31
A Pictorial Review -May Festivals since 1894................ 34
May Festival Artists, 18941983 inclusive..................... 42
May Festival Premieres.................................... 47
Encore Membership, 198283............................... 48
Index to Festival Advertisers............................... 64
Compliments of
Merrill Lynch
Pierce
Fenner 8 Smith Inc.
332 E. Liberty, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 (313) 7694300
Edward F. Heekin Resident Manager
The Ten Commandments of Concert Etiquette According to Byron Belt
". . . here are some rules that should be reprinted in every program book in America. Simple common sense and courtesy will vastly improve the serenity and happiness of sharers in the magic of the arts."
THOU SHALT NOT
Talk. The first and greatest commandment. Stay home if you aren't in the mood to give full attention to what is being performed on stage.
Hum, Sing or Tap Fingers or Feet. The musicians don't need your help, and your neighbors need silence. Learn to tap toes quietly within shoes. It saves a lot of an?noyance to others, and is excellent exercise to boot.
Rustle Thy Program. Restless readers and page skimmers aren't good listeners, and greatly distract those around them.
Crack Thy Gum in Thy Neighbors' Ears. The noise is completely inexcusable and usu?ally unconscious. The sight of otherwise ele?gant ladies and gentlemen chewing their cud is one of today's most revolting and antiaesthetic experiences.
Wear LoudTicking Watches or Jangle Thy Jewelry. Owners are usually immune.
but the added percussion is disturbing to all. Open CellophaneWrapped Candies.
Next to talking, this is the most general serious offense to auditorium peace. If you have a bad throat, unwrap your throatsoothers between acts or musical selections. If caught off guard, open the sweet quickly. Trying to be quiet by opening wrappers slowly only prolongs the torture for everyone around you.t
Snap Open and Close Thy Purse. This problem used to apply only to women. But to?day, men often are equal offenders. Leave any purse, opera glasses case or what have you un?latched during the performance.
Sigh With Boredom. If you are in agony -keep it to yourself. Your neighbor just may be in ecstasy -which also should be kept un?der quiet control.
Read. This is less an antisocial sin than per?sonal deprivation. In ballet or drama it is usu?ally too dark to read, but in concerts it is typi
cal for auditors to read program notes, skim ads and whatever. Don"t. To listen means just that. Notes should be digested before (or after) the music -not during. It may, however, be better for those around you to read instead of sleeping and snoring.
Arrive Late or Leave Early. It is unfair to artists and the public to demand seating when one is late or to fuss, apply makeup and de?part early. Most performances have scheduled times; try to abide by them.
There are other points, of course, and each reader will have a pet peeve we have omitted. However, if just these were obeyed, going to performances would be the joy it was intended to be and we all would emerge more refreshed. Criticatlarge for the Newhouse News Service;
reprinted with his permission. tEd. note --If all else fails to soothe the troubled
throat, remove ihy cough from the auditorium.
The Philadelphia Orchestra
Violins
Norman Carol Concertmaster
William de Pasquale Associate Concertmaster
David Arben
Associate Concertmaster
Morris Shulik Owen Lusak David Grunschlag Frank E. Saam Barbara Sorlien Herbert Light Luis Biava Larry Grika Cathleen Dalschaert Herold Klein Julia de Pasquale Vladimir Shapiro Jonathan Beiler Arnold Grossi
Irvin Rosen Robert de Pasquale Joseph Lanza Philip Kates Irving Ludwig Jerome Wigler Virginia Halfmann George Dreyfus Louis Lanza Stephane Dalschaert Booker Rowe Davyd Booth Isadore Schwartz Cynthia Williams Barbara Govatos Hirono Oka
Violas
Joseph de Pasquale James Fawcett Sidney Curtiss Charles Griffin Gaetano Molieri Irving Segall Leonard Bogdanoff Albert Filosa Wolfgang Granat Donald R. Clauser Renard Edwards Patrick Connolly
Cellos
William Stokking George Harpham Harry Gorodetzer Lloyd Smith Joseph Druian Bert Phillips Richard Harlow Gloria Johns William Saputelli Patricia Weimer Marcel Farago Kathryn Picht
Basses
Roger M. Scott Michael Shahan Neil Courtney Ferdinand Maresh Samuel Gorodetzer EmilioGravagno Henry G. Scott Peter Lloyd John Hood
Some members of the string sections voluntarily rotate seating on a periodic basis.
Flutes
Murray W. Panitz David Cramer Loren N. Lind Kazuo Tokito Piccolo
Oboes
Richard Woodhams Stevens Hewitt Charles M. Morris Louis Rosenblatt English Horn
Clarinets
Anthony M. Gigliotti Donald Montanaro Raoul Querze Ronald Reuben Bass Clarinet
Bassoons
Bernard Garfield Mark Gigliotti Adelchi Louis Angelucci Robert J. Pfeuffer Contra Bassoon
Horns
Nolan Miller David Wetherill
Associate Randy Gardner Daniel Williams Howard Wall Martha Glaze
Trumpets
Frank Kaderabek Donald E. McComas Seymour Rosenleld Roger Blackburn
Trombones
Glenn Dodson Tyrone Breuninger Joseph Alessi Charles Vernon Bass Trombone
Tuba
Paul Krzywicki
Timpani
Gerald Carlyss Michael Bookspan
Battery
Michael Bookspan Alan Abel Anthony Orlando William Saputelli
Celesta, Piano and Organ
William Smith Marcel Farago Davyd Booth
Harps
Marilyn Costello Margarita Csonka
Librarians
Clinton F. Nieweg Robert M. Grossman
Personnel Manager
Mason Jones
Stage Personnel
Edward Barnes, Manager Theodore Hauptle James Sweeney
Stephen Sell. Kxecutive Director Joseph H. Santarlasci. Manager John H. Orr, Assistant
May Festival 1983
The Philadelphia Orchestra
Riccardo Muti, Conductor
In the 90year history of the Ann Arbor May Festival, one orchestra has provided the heart?beat of each concert for more than half of those years -the great Philadelphia Orches?tra, now marking its 48th consecutive year of participation in our Festival. The Philadelphia Orchestra first performed in the Festival in 1936 under Leopold Stokowski, during his last season with the Orchestra. (Stokowski and the Philadelphians had previously given two con?certs here in 1913 and 1914, the first two sea?sons of his tenure with the Orchestra.) In 1937, the Orchestra returned to Ann Arbor with its new conductor, Eugene Ormandy, thus beginning the love relationship which was to flourish between conductor, concertgoer, and orchestra for the next 46 years. The 1982 Festival marked Mr. Ormandy's 47th con?secutive year in Ann Arbor.
The Philadelphia Orchestra was formed in 1900 by a group of music lovers who decided that Philadelphia should have its own pro?fessional symphony orchestra. The German musician Fritz Scheel became its first per?manent conductor who, together with his Ger?man successor Carl Pohlig, laid the foundation for a great orchestra. At the beginning of the Orchestra's thirteenth season, a young man who had been conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra became the third con?ductor of The Philadelphia Orchestra. His name was Leopold Stokowski, and he re?mained in Philadelphia for nearly a quarter of a century, generating an intense brand of musical excitement which moved the Orches?tra into the national spotlight. Eugene Orman?dy then held the reins as Music Director for 44 years, a record unequaled by any conductor of any major orchestra in the world. Riccardo Muti, Mr. Ormandy's handpicked successor, became Music Director in 1980, conducting ten weeks of the 198081 season, fourteen weeks in the 198182 season, and fifteen weeks during the current season.
The Philadelphia Orchestra is probably the world's most traveled symphonic organiza?tion. In addition to extensive touring through
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out the United States and Canada, it has visit?ed Europe on six different occasions. On its most recent European tour, in AugustSeptember 1982, the Orchestra gave fourteen concerts, all conducted by Mr. Muti, his first trip to Europe with the Philadelphians. Prior to that, the Orchestra had made five European tours (1949, 1955, 1958, 1970. and 1975); a trip to Russia, with concerts in Kiev, Moscow, and Leningrad (1958); concerts in Latin Amer?ica during a fiveweek, 15.000mile tour (1966); trips to Japan (1967. 1972, 1978, and 1981); and in September 1973 became the first United States orchestra to be invited to per?form in mainland China. Mr. Ormandy con?ducted four concerts in Peking and two in Shanghai on this important ambassadorial mis?sion. The Orchestra has also given concerts in Mexico and Korea.
During the 197879 season, the Orchestra was the first of seven major symphony orches?tras to be sponsored by American Telephone and Telegraph Company on tours of American cities, and under its aegis has made trans?continental tours and a tour of the Southern states. Currently, the Orchestra is on an ex?tended tour of eleven Midwest cities, also with American Telephone and Telegraph support.
As one of the world's most recorded orches?tras, the Philadephia lists hundreds of LPs in the current catalogue. Mr. Ormandy and the Philadelphians have earned three of the seven Gold Records ever awarded for classical re?cordings by the Recording Industry Associa?tion of America. The Orchestra's initial re?cordings with Mr. Muti, while he was still Principal Guest Conductor, appeared in 1979; he has so far recorded nine albums with the Philadelphians. The Orchestra currently records for Angel, RCA Red Seal, Delos, Telarc, and CBS Masterworks.
Riccardo Muti is nearing the end of his third season as Music Director of The Philadelphia Orchestra. His association with the Orchestra began in 1972 when he was invited by Eugene Ormandy. then Music Director, to Philadel?phia as a guest conductor. Alter five annual appearances. Mr. Muti became Principal Guest Conductor in Philadelphia in 1977 and Music Director three years later, upon Mr. Ormandy's retirement as Music Director in 1980. Mr. Muti also serves as Conductor Laureate of the London Philharmonia. having relinquished his position as Music Director. The London position was specially created for him by the players of the Philharmonia in recognition of his tenyear association with that orchestra.
From August 23 to September 12, 1982, Mr. Muti and The Philadelphia Orchestra appeared together for the first time in Europe to high critical and popular acclaim. They per?formed in the Lucerne and Edinburgh Festi?vals, the Flanders Festival in Brussels, the Mahler Festival in Berlin, the Proms in London, and gave concerts in Vienna. Frankfurt, and Paris -in all. fourteen performances, eight cities, six countries, twenty nights.
In addition to his Music Directorship of The Philadelphia Orchestra and his continuing association with the London Philharmonia, Mr. Muti has an enormously productive sche?dule in European opera houses and concert halls. His direction of a new production of Mozart's Cost fan tutte at the Salzburg Festi?val in the summer of 1982 prompted high praise from German. Austrian, and London critics alike. It was the acknowledged hit of the Festival and will be repeated during the 1983 Festival season. Mr. Muti will also direct a Cost production at La Scala in Milan next month. His other opera activities in the 198283 season include the opening of the La Scala season with a new production of Verdi's Ernani, a new production of Verdi's Rigoletto with the Vienna State Opera in March and June 1983. and the direction of numerous pro
ductions at the Teatro Comunale and Maggio Musicale in Florence where he served as Music Director for many years.
Mr. Muti is a Frequent guest conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic, the Concertgebouw of Amsterdam, and the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, which he most recently conducted at the Salzburg Festival in August 1982. He also has appeared in Europe with the Orchestre National de France and the London Philharmonia, and in the United States with the Boston and Chicago Symphony Orchestras.
He records exclusively for EMI (Angel) with both The Philadelphia Orchestra and the London Philharmonia; recent releases include both opera and orchestral repertoire. Many of his recordings have received international awards for excellence. One of the conductor's most recent awards was an Honorary Doctorate of Letters from the University of Warwick in Coventry, England.
The Maestro first appeared in Ann Arbor as Principal Guest Conductor of The Philadelphia Orchestra in our 1979 May Festival; we wel?come his return now as Music Director.
Krystian Zimerman, Pianist
Since his first international successes as a teenager, the Polish virtuoso pianist Krystian Zimerman has created a rapidly growing following throughout Europe and North Amer?ica with each successive debut appearance. He has performed in Paris. London. Rome. Vienna, at the Salburg and Lucerne Festivals, and as a regular guest soloist of the Berlin Philharmonic under Herbert van Karajan and other conductors, performing with them both in Berlin and abroad. Mr. Zimerman first appeared in North America during the 197879 season, which included orchestral per?formances in Minneapolis. Pittsburgh. Toronto, Houston, and with the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Carlo Maria Giulini. and also recitals in Dallas and Toronto. The pian?ist's New York debut was in November 1979 in Avery Fisher Hall with the New York Philharmonic under Zubin Mehta. This occa?sion prompted music critic Harold Schonberg to write that "not since the young Ashkenazy, has a pianist of equivalent years delivered
the Chopin F minor with such authority." Mr. Zimcrman's playing of Chopin was also compared to the late Dinu Lipatti by the Minneapolis Tribune critic, who called the young Polish pianist "an artist mature way be?yond his years." It has been noted by many that he even resembles drawings of the young Chopin.
Mr. Zimcrman records exclusively for Deutsche Grammophon. His releases in?clude orchestral recordings with the Berlin Philharmonic under von Karajan, the Los Angeles Philharmonic under Giulini. and the English Bach Festival Orchestra under Leonard Bernstein; recital discs include sonatas by Mozart and Brahms, and various Chopin works.
Krystian Zimerman was born in Zabrze, Poland, in 1956 and began playing the piano at the age of five. He studied at the Kattowice School of Music with Andrzeij Jasinsky of the Warsaw Conservatory and won seven first prizes both at home and abroad before entering one of the most prestigious of all music com?petitions -the Chopin International Piano Competition in Warsaw. The Competition, es?tablished in the 1920s and held every fifth year, includes Maurizio Pollini, Vladimir Ashkenazy, and Martha Argerich among its former winners. In 1975, at the age of 18, Mr. Zimerman competed against 118 pianists from 30 different countries. Not only did he capture first prize of the ninth Chopin Competition, he came away with three more "firsts": the first time the winner was a native Pole, the young?est ever to win the competition, and an award created specially for him. The latter honor was presented for the most convincing interpreta?tion of a polonaise, the mazurkas, a sonata, and a concerto.
May Festival concertgoers now hear Mr. Zimerman in his first Ann Arbor appear?ance, following his debut with The Phi?ladelphia Orchestra earlier this month.
Gidon Kremer, Violinist
The career of the brilliant violin virtuoso Gidon Kremer has encompassed the entire world. He has participated in most of the ma?jor international festivals including Salzburg, Prague, Dubrovnik. Berlin, London, Helsinki. Zurich. Moscow, and Tokyo. He has played with virtually every major orchestra on today's concert scene, including the Berlin
Philharmonic, the Vienna Philharmonic, the New York Philharmonic, the Boston Sym?phony, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the Los Angeles Philharmonic, the San Francisco, the great trio of British orchestras (London Philharmonic. Royal Philharmonic, and Philharmonia Orchestra), as well as the Concertgebouw of Amsterdam, the NHK Sym?phony of Japan, and all of the great symphony orchestras of the Soviet Union. These appear?ances have afforded him the opportunity to work with most of the great conductors of the present day -Bernstein, von Karajan, Giulini. Jochum. Previn. Abbado, Levine, and Maazel. to mention only a few.
Mr. Kremer has had an astonishingly active recording career. Incorporating his wideranging repertoire, he has produced more than 25 albums for Philips, Deutsche Grammophon. Melodiya. Hungaroton, Eurodisc. An?gel, and Vanguard. His records have garnered the Grand Prix du Disque and the Deutsche Schallplatenpreis, both coveted awards in the industry.
Gidon Kremer's interest in and dedication to modern music has been amply demonstrated by his participation in the contemporary music festivals of Tallinn. Warsaw, and Berlin. He has also given the first performance of many modern violin works, including compositions by Henze. Stockhausen, Schnittke, and Pert. Additional world premieres are planned for the future.
Born in 1947 to a highly musical family in Riga. Latvia. Mr. Kremer began studying violin at the age of four with his father and grandfather. At seven he entered the Riga School of Music under the tutelage of Pro?fessor Sturestep, and at sixteen won the First Prize of the Latvian Republic. During his eight years of apprenticeship to famed violinist David Oistrakh at the Moscow Conservatory, Mr. Kremer was a prize winner at the Queen Elisabeth Competition in Brussels, and won First Prize in the Fourth International Tchaikovsky Competition in 1970.
Mr. Kremer, who plays a Stradivarius, is making his first Ann Arbor appearance. He will return in October to appear in the Choral Union Series as soloist with the English Chamber Orchestra.
Theo Alcantara, Guest Conductor
It is with special pride and enthusiasm that area concertgoers welcome Theo Alcantara back to Ann Arbor. He is remembered for his outstanding years as Conductor of University Orchestras at the University of Michigan (19681975), his appearances as guest con?ductor with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, and as Music Director and Conductor of the Grand Rapids Symphony. Currently Music Director of the Phoenix Symphony and Artis?tic Director of the Music Academy of the West Summer Festival, he stands acclaimed as one of the most dynamic and soughtafter con?ductors of the day.
In demand on both orchestra and opera podiums. Maestro Alcantara has conducted many of the major opera companies and sym?phony orchestras. He has led the Philadelphia Orchestra at the Saratoga Performing Arts Center; the symphony orchestras of Pitts?burgh, Detroit, Seattle. Vancouver, Puerto Rico, and Honolulu; the Kansas City and Miami Philharmonics; the Radio Orchestras of Paris, Berlin. Madrid, and Copenhagen; the National Orchestras of Spain and Mexico; and the Aspen and Grant Park Festival Orchestras.
In the opera world he has conducted the Metropolitan Opera tour performances of Don Giovanni; the Washington Opera in L'Elisir d'Amore, Don Pasquale, and Lai Traviata; the San Diego Opera in Elektra, Turandot, and Aida; the Pittsburgh Opera in Salome and Tosca; New York City Opera in Puritani in New York and Los Angeles; Miami Opera in La Traviata; Canadian Opera in Mozart's Magic Flute; and Teatro Colon. Buenos Aires, in Tales of Hoffmann.
Maestro Alcantara was born in Cuenca, Spain, and began his musical training as a choir boy in a Spanish seminary at the age of seven. He later received diplomas in piano and composition from the Real Conservatorio de Musica in Madrid. During his student days, he toured as a concert pianist and accompanist throughout Spain, France, and North Amer?ica. He received his diploma in conducting at the Akademie Mozarteum in Salzburg. Aus?tria, and at this time was appointed Associate Conductor of the Camerata Acadcmica Orchestra. He was later awarded the Lilli Leh?man Medal for his outstanding achievements
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as a conductor. In 1964, Mr. Alcantara was engaged as conductor with the Frankfurt Op?era Theatre in Germany, an appointment he held until 1966. the year he won the Silver Medal at the Mitropoulos International Con?ducting Competition in New York.
This is the maestro's second appearance un?der University Musical Society auspices -the first was in 1975 when he conducted the Uni?versity Orchestra in the first School of Music -Musical Society Benefit Concert featuring cellist Mstislav Rostropovich.
Carlos Montoya, Flamenco Guitarist
Born in Madrid. Carlos Montoya is. as the Spaniards say. "Gitano por los cuatro costados," or literally. "Gypsy on all four sides." At the age of eight he started playing, learning first from his mother who played guitar for her own enjoyment, and then from "Pepe el Barbero." a barber in Madrid who also taught guitar. After one year Pepe said there was nothing more he could teach his talented pupil, so Carlos left to gain what he could from the great Flamenco guitarists of the time.
Montoya's real training, however, was in the school of experience. When the late Antonia Merce -La Argentina -came to Madrid looking for a guitarist, she chose Montoya. He left his native Spain for the first time to tour all of Europe with her for three years. This was just the beginning of his many concert tours which would take him all over the world.
In 1948, Montoya took a then unheard of step for Flamenco guitarists who had always worked with a singer or dancer. He decided to give a full concert of Flamenco guitar music. Since the repertoire of most Flamenco players is limited, such a program had never before been presented. It was a formidable idea, but Carlos Montoya realized it with great success, going on to give solo recitals both in Europe and through the United States and Canada. With an evergrowing following, he culminat?ed these appearances with a concert to an over?flow audience at New York's Town Hall.
Mr. Montoya"s "gypsy blood" and unique improvisational gilts (this masterful musician doesn"t read a note of formal music) are the elements distinguishing his Flamenco from classical guitar. Although he never plays an arrangement of his own without adding some?thing new. he has had many of his pieces
published in an effort to capture at least some part of this wonderfully rich art form that heretofore had never been written down.
After many years of solo concerts, it be?came the guitarist's dream to appear as guest soloist with full symphony orchestra. For this he wrote, in collaboration with Julio Estaban, his "Suite Flamenca," in the words of the composer, "to transport pure Flamenco guitar playing into the midst of an orchestra and have them join me in unadulterated Flamenco." His 25year dream came to fruition in 1966 when the "Suite Flamenca" had its world premiere in 1966 with the St. Louis Symphony.
Though the guitarist is no stranger to Ann Arbor-in fact, quite the opposite, with his solo recitals in 1973. '74, "78. and'82 --this is his first May Festival appearance, now in the dual role of composer and performer.
Donald Bryant
Director. University Choral Union
Donald Bryant was appointed conductor of the University Choral Union in 1969, becom?ing the seventh conductor of the chorus since its beginning in 1879. He has conducted the annual Christmas "Messiah"" concerts and has prepared the singers each year tor their May Festival performances.
He was instrumental in the formation in
1969 of The Festival Chorus, a smaller group of singers selected from the Choral Union, which made its first major appearance in the
1970 May Festival. Dr. Bryant subsequently conducted this chorus in concert performances with the Paul Kuentz Chamber Orchestra of Paris, the Mozarteum Orchestra of Salzburg, the Prague Chamber Orchestra, and the Orpheus Ensemble of New York. He also prepared them for appearances with visiting orchestras from Leningrad, the Hague. Rotter?dam, Melbourne, and the symphony orches?tras of Detroit, Boston. Baltimore, and Philadelphia. Special concerts with major works by Handel commemorated the founding of the Musical Society: "Israel in Egypt" in 1980, and "Judas Maccabaeus"1 in 1981. Un?der Dr. Bryant's leadership, members of the chorus traveled abroad for concert tours in Eu?rope (1976), Egypt (1979), and Spain (1982).
Dr. Bryant has written several compositions which include choral works for youth and adult church choirs, a suite for piano, and an opera, "The Tower of Babel." The latter was conimissioned by the First Presbyterian Church of Ann Arbor, where he serves as Music Director, for presentation during the Church's sesquicentcnnial celebration in 1976. In 1980 the Center for Russian and East European Studies at the University of Michi?gan commissioned him to write choral settings for the poetry of Czeslaw Milosz and Sandor Weores. Three of these songs were included in a program given by conductor Bryant and The Festival Chorus for the Center's "Cross Cur?rents" Festival in 1981.
Prior to his appointment at the University of Michigan, Dr. Bryant was director of the Columbus Boychoir School for 20 years, dur?ing that period performing more than 2.000 concerts as conductorpianist throughout America. Europe, and Japan. For this choir, he composed a Mass which was performed in 1953 at the Chautauqua Festival in New York by his Boychoir and the Chautauqua Festival Orchestra. The Choir made recordings for Decca, RCA. and Columbia, and appeared on network televison shows, including the Bell Telephone Hour.
Dr. Bryant earned his bachelor and master degrees at the Juilliard School of Music in New York, where he studied piano, voice, and composition. He is currently on sabbatical leave from the University Musical Society until next fall.
The Festival Chorus of the University Choral Union
The University Choral Union has presented major choral works each spring since 1894 when the May Festival concerts were in?augurated. These have been performed with the Boston Festival Orchestra (18941904). the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (19051935), and The Philadelphia Orchestra (1936 to the present), under such conductors as Frederick Stock. Gustav Hoist. Howard Hanson. Igor Stravinsky. Thor Johnson. Eugene Ormandy, Jindrich Rohan. John Pritchard. Aaron Copland, Robert Shaw. Aldo
Ceccato, and this yearTheo Alcantara. Chorus membership is a blend of students, faculty, townspeople, and other area residents, in keeping with the objective of the Society as stated in its bylaws: "to cultivate public inter?est in music and the related arts, to stimulate participation by the members of the University and local communities, and to promote sup?port for the Society's endeavors . . . for the attainment of this end the Society undertakes the maintenance of the University Choral Union for musical education and public performance."
The full Choral Union, sometimes number?ing as many as 375 members, has also present?ed the traditional December Christmas "Messiah" concerts (increased to two per?formances in 1946 and three performances since 1965). and has sung with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra, the Minnesota Orches?tra, and the Midland Symphony, in addition to its May Festival performances. The Choral Union has presented several world premieres at these May Festivals, some of them com?missioned by the Musical Society. (A com?plete listing of premieres appears elsewhere in this book.) The most recent commission was for the Society's 100th Anniversary Season -Gian Carlo Menotti's "A Song of Hope."
In 1969 a smaller chorus was organized for more flexibility, with members selected from the larger Choral Union. This group perform?ed with The Philadelphia Orchestra in the May Festivals of 1970, '76, and '77. and with visit?ing orchestras throughout the decade such as the Leningrad. Hague, and Rotterdam Philhar?monics: the Detroit. Boston, and Baltimore Symphonies: the Orpheus, Prague, and Paul Kuentz Chamber Orchestras: the Melbourne Symphony and the Mozartcum Orchestra of Salzburg. Singers from this chorus also represented Ann Arbor and the University Musical Society abroad, in three highly suc?cessful concert tours: to Europe during the 1976 Bicentennial year, to Egypt in March 1979, and to Spain in May 1982.
This year's May Festival chorus member?ship is 150. with all singers selected by audi?tion. Shown here is last year's Festival per?formance of Mendelssohn's "Elijah."
Leif Bjaland
Choral Union Acting Conductor
To recognize Leif Bjaland's talents in the field of conducting, the Board of Directors of the University Musical Society awarded him the first Thor Johnson Memorial Conducting Fellowship. Mr. Bjaland served as Assistant Conductor of the Choral Union during the 197980 and 198081 seasons, and this spring has assumed full responsibility in preparing the chorus for its performance of "Carmina Burana" during conductor Bryant's sabbatical leave.
Mr. Bjaland received his masters degree in orchestral conducting from the University of Michigan, where he was a student of Gustav Meier. During his tenure at UM. he served as assistant conductor of both the University Symphony Orchestra and the Opera Theatre, as associate conductor of the Michigan Youth Symphony, and conducted numerous musi?cals. After his graduation. Mr. Bjaland be?came a conducting fellow at the Aspen Music Festival where he was selected by the faculty to conduct several world premiere per?formances. He was one of four chosen from a field of 160 to participate in the Sir Georg Solti Conductors Workshop and, as a result of his performance there, was invited by Maestro Solti to come back last season to conduct a subscription concert with the Chicago Civic Orchestra. The young conductor was describ?ed by Solti as ". . .a very musical young con?ductor with excellent career potential."
During the fall of 1981. Mr. Bjaland was in residence at DePauw University where he gave lectures and master classes in conducting and led the University Orchestra in concert. He also served as guest conductor of the Mid?land Symphony Orchestra. Last summer he was in the conducting seminar at the Berkshire Music Center and worked with Seiji Oawa and Erich Leinsdorf. Currently Mr. Bjaland serves as resident conductor of the Flint In?stitute of Music and assistant conductor of the Flint Symphony Orchestra.
Rockwell Blake, Tenor
Within a short time, Rockwell Blake has earned an outstanding reputation as one of the brightest young tenors on the musical scene and a Rossini interpreter of the first order. His quality, agility, and fluency, especially in the be! canto repertoire, have earned him such critical accolades as "he seems to be what the world has been waiting for ever since the Ros?sini revival began" (Andrew Porter, The New Yorker); and "an absolutely astonishing ex?hibition of coloratura singing" {The Houston Post). Mr. Blake returned to the Metropolitan Opera this season for his renowned Count Almaviva in Barbiere di Siviglia, after per?forming the role at the Met in 198182 when the production received its premiere. He has sung this role to critical acclaim with the Houston Grand Opera. Hamburg State Opera, Vienna State Opera, Dallas Civic Opera, Fort Worth Opera, and National Arts Centre, Otta?wa, in addition to the Met. He also appeared in Carnegie Hall's Rossini Festival, singing La Donna del Lugo opposite Marilyn Home, a work which he performed last season in its American stage premiere with the Houston Grand Opera. In addition, he was a soloist in Handel's "Messiah" with the National Sym?phony Orchestra in Washington. D.C. and with Musica Sacre in New York.
Notable engagements of recent seasons include his Metropolitan Opera debut as Lindoro in L'ltaliana in Algeri opposite Marilyn Home; his Philadelphia Orchestra debut in Pulcinella; his Chicago Symphony debut in Oedipus Rex conducted by Claudio Abbado; Rossini's Mose in Lisbon; Puritani with the Concert Opera Orchestra of Boston; performances with the New York City Opera in Count Ory, Anna Bolena, Don Giovanni, and La Cenerentola; performances with the Houston Grand Opera and Dallas Civic Opera in La Cenerentola opposite Frederica von Stade; L'ltaliana in Algeri with the Hamburg State Opera; Lucia di Lammermoor and Daughter of the Regiment with the National Arts Centre, Ottawa, and appearances with the Israel Philharmonic. Berlin Concert Choir, and Musica Sacre. Mr. Blake has also sung with the Washington Opera. Baltimore Sym?phony, OperaOmaha, Michigan Opera Theatre, Kennedy Center Summer Opera, Wolf Trap, and Teatro de la Monnie. Brussels.
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Future engagements include his debut with the AixenProvence Festival during the summer of 1983, when he performs in the rarelyheard Mozart opera Milridate, re di Ponto. Highlighting his 198384 season will be his debut with the Lyric Opera of Chicago, starring in JeanPierre Ponnelle's production of La Cenerentola.
Winner of the First Richard Tucker Award in 1978, Mr. Blake has traveled a long way from Plattsburgh. New York, the town near the Canadian border where he grew up, studied music, and continues to live. This per?formance marks his Ann Arbor debut.
Mary Burgess, Soprano
Lyric soprano Mary Burgess divides her re?markable talents equally between the operatic stage and the concert platform. This season she sang in Mahler's monumental Eighth Symphony with the Phoenix Symphony, under Theo Alcantara, with the Canterbury Choral Society in its anniversary concert at Fisher Hall in Lincoln Center, and made her debut with the Boston Symphony Orchestra in per?formance and recording of Beethoven's "Choral Fantasy" under Seiji Ozawa. She also performed with the Santa Barbara Sym?phony, the Nevada Opera (Mimi in La Boheine), and the Augusta Opera (Micaela in Carmen). A year ago Miss Burgess was sopra?no soloist in "Carmina Burana" in the Cincin?nati May Festival and with the Cleveland Orchestra at the Blossom Music Festival.
During the 1981 82 season, the artist was heard as the Countess in Le Nozze di Figaro with the St. Petersburg Opera, in the title role of Madama Butterflx with the Nevada Opera, and as the Governess in The Turn of the Screw with the Baltimore Chamber Opera. She appeared as guest soloist with the symphony orchestras of Portland, Akron, and Santa Barbara, sang a Vivaldi and Haydn program at Carnegie Hall, and performed with the Sea Cliff Chamber Players. She returned to the Minnesota Orchestra to participate in its annu?al "Messiah" performances.
In recent seasons Miss Burgess has sung with the opera companies of New Orleans, Nevada, Shreveport. Spoleto (Italy), Nether?lands, Dublin, Festival Ottawa, and the Belgian National Opera, among others, portraying the heroine roles of Cavalli, Mozart, Beethoven, and Puccini. She has been guest soloist with the symphony orchestras of Chicago, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Seattle, Louisville, and Minnesota; the Rochester and Rhode Island Philharmonics; the Ravinia and Marlboro Music Festivals, and the Cincinnati and Ann Arbor May Fes?tivals.
Miss Burgess is a native of Anderson, South Carolina, and a graduate of the Curtis Institute of Music in Philadelphia. She first sang in Ann Arbor as soloist in two concerts of the 1970 May Festival, in Bach's "Magnificat" and Beethoven's "Choral Fantasy." This is her second appearance in our city.
J. Patrick Raftery, Baritone
J. Patrick Raftery has emerged in recent seasons as one of America's outstanding bari?tones. Still in his early twenties, Mr. Raftery is the 1981 recipient of the Richard Tucker Music Foundation Award. Already he has sung with several of the nation's leading opera companies including the Chicago Lyric Opera. Washington Opera, and the San Diego Opera. He made his Chicago debut in 1980 in Boris Godunov and returned to the company in the 1981 season as Mercutio in Romeo et Juliette opposite Mirella Freni and Alfredo Kraus. He also appeared with the Washington Opera as Figaro in a revival of the highly acclaimed production of Barbiere di Siviglia which premiered in 1980. and with the San Diego Opera as Valentin in Faust. In March of 1982 he made his New York City Opera debut as Riccardo in Bellini's Puritani, and then returned to San Diego for the title role in The Barber and for the United States premiere of Verdi's Corsaro. Mr. Raftery made his European debut in Paris in 1981 as Zurga in Bizet's The Pearlfishers.
The current season saw his debut at the Hamburg State Opera in a revival of J. C. Bach's Amaclis di Caule; his Houston Grand Opera debut as Silvio in a new Pagliacci with Jon Vickers, staged by JeanPierre Ponnelle; and his first Escamillo in Carmen for the Washington Opera. Future engagements for Mr. Raftery include his San Francisco debut in June 1983 as Marcello in La Bohime. He will also participate in the American premiere of Chabrier's Gwendoline in San Diego. His debut at Glyndebourne in Cost fan tutte is scheduled for summer of 1984.
Mr. Raftery has also won high praise as a concert soloist in appearances with the Boston Symphony under Seiji Ozawa in Boris Godu?nov at Tanglewood, and with the Honolulu Symphony in the Brahms Requiem. He sang his first "Elijah" at the Kennedy Center in April of 1982.
The young baritone now adds Ann Arbor's May Festival to his widening list of debut performances.
Battle Creek Boychoir
The Battle Creek Boychoir was formed in 1978 by its Director. Charles Olegar, as an ex?pansion of a church music program. In 1980 it became an independent organization and is now the only communitybased boychoir in the state of Michigan. Nonsectarian and non?profit, it is affiliated with the Community United Arts Council, the Americas Boychoir Federation, the International Society of Boychoirs, and the Royal School of Church Music in America. The ensemble has appeared across the United States and Canada in per?formances ranging from local club appear?ances to concerts at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington. D.C., as well as the great cathedrals of New York, Chicago, and Toronto. Last June it received one of twelve gold medals, from a field of 250 contenders, at the 1982 Performing Arts Mus?ic Festival held in Orlando. Florida.
Repertoire of the Battle Creek Boychoir is drawn from the major periods of composition.
Recent programs have included the music of Handel, Bach, Schubert, Haydn. Brahms, and Britten. The group is equally committed to contemporary literature, and has had works written especially for it.
Most of the boys are residents of the Battle Creek area, with a few coming from outlying areas such as Olivet and Richland. They range in age from eight to fourteen, and the number of members in the main performing group may vary between 20 and 28.
Charles Olegar. founder and director, has specialized in boychoir work throughout his career as a professional musician. He received his formal education at the Cleveland Institute of Music and Kent State University, followed by professional study at the Royal School of Church Music in Croydon, England.
This is the first appearance of Mr. Olegar and the Battle Creek Boychoir in Ann Arbor under Musical Society auspices.
PROGRAM NOTES
by Richard Freed
"LES PRELUDES" Franz Liszt
Born: October 22, 1811, in Raiding, Hungary Died: July 31, 1886, in Bayreuih
Liszt's first serious involvement with the orchestra as a means of expressing his person?al thought came in his midthirties, when he began his spectacular pilgrimage from virtuosocomposer to musical prophet. He ended his public career as a pianist with a recital in the Ukrainian city of Elisabethgrad (since renamed Stalingrad, and now known as Volgograd) in 1847. just as he turned 36. The following year, with the Princess Carolyne zu SaynWittgenstein. whom he had met during that Ukrainian tour, he began his 13year tenure as conductor of the Court Theatre in Weimar. There he presided over the world premiere of Wagner's Lohengrin (1850), revived works of Gluck and Schubert, con?ducted all nine of the Beethoven symphonies in sequence, and presented notable per?formances of orchestral and operatic works of Berlioz and Schumann. There, too, he wrote most of his literary works and nearly all of his own major works for orchestra.
Liszt is generally credited with the "inven?tion" of the symphonic poem, the form of orchestral music that tells a story, paints a pic?ture, probes a character, or simply evokes a specific mood corresponding to a literary, historical, or philosophical subject. He com?posed 13 works so designated (in addition to various others which qualify as symphonic poems without the label); a dozen were pro?duced between 1848 and 1857, all dedicated to the Princess SaynWittgenstein. and the last -From the Cradle to the Grave -came along a quartercentury later. Some were cast in as many as four different versions (not counting the various subsequent keyboard transcriptions), and most were entrusted to Liszt's associates Joachim Raff and August Conradi for the original orchestration. From about 1854 Liszt did his own orchestrating, and personally revised the compositions pre?viously orchestrated by Raff and Conradi; the final versions of all the symphonic poems are in his own scoring.
Les Quutre Elemens, a cantata on words by Joseph Autran which Liszt composed for male chorus and piano in 1844 and 1845. was orchestrated by Conradi in 1848. and the first version of the Les Preludes, composed then as an overture for that work, was probably scored by him at that time. When Liszt decided to use the material for an independent work two years later, he tailored it to correspond to a philosophical poetic work by his contempo?rary Auguste dc Lamartine, the gist of which is: "What is life but a series of preludes to death" Under the title Les Preludes (d'apris Lamartine), this most famous of all his orchestral works was first performed in Weimar on February 28. 1854, under the com?poser's direction.
As in most of Liszt's tone poems, we have here a basic "germinal" theme which under?goes various transformations, a second theme of considerable importance, and a number of contrasting sections -in this case represent?ing episodes of struggle and serenity -
culminating in a final affirmation of something loosely described as "spiritual triumph." It may be noted that the initial theme in this work is related to the ' 'Muss es sein" motif in Beethoven's String Quartet in F major. Op. 135, and "preechoes" the opening of Cesar Franck's Symphony in D minor.
CONCERTO NO. 2 IN A MAJOR FOR PIANO AND ORCHESTRA Franz Liszt
It has always been customary for the virtuosocomposer to provide himself with concertos to make the grandest impression on the largest audience. Chopin composed both of his piano concertos before he left Poland at the age of 21. Liszt, too, conceived his own two concertos -in fact, all three of his finest works for piano and orchestra, the third being the Totentanz -when he was in his twenties, but he did not complete or introduce any of them till he was in his midforties.
In the case of his First Concerto, in Eflat, 25 years passed between the first sketches, made in 1830. and the premiere, given in 1855. Part of the explanation here is Liszt's in?experience in writing for orchestra. It was not until the 1840s. when he took up his duties as court conductor in Weimar, that he began writing orchestral music in earnest. A dozen of his 13 symphonic poems were composed dur?ing that period, and in orchestrating them, as well as his concertos, he had the assistance of his young associate Joachim Raff (18221882, remembered now as an interesting minor com?poser). It was not until 1854 that Liszt felt confident enough to dispense with such help, and from then on he did all of his orchestration himself: the final versions of the concertos, the Totentanz and all the symphonic poems are thoroughly his own.
After Raff completed the scoring of the Eflat Concerto. Liszt himself made two revi?sions, the first in 1853 and the second about a year after the 1855 premiere. The published score bears a dedication to Henry Litolff (18181891), whose Concertos symphoniques Liszt admired. Liszt's own concertos were ini?tially presented under that title, and it is clear that he sought to produce some sort of synthe?sis of elements of both the concerto and the symphony in them. The First, in fact, is said to have been modeled in large part after Beethoven's Fifth Symphony, as well as after certain features of that composer's Fourth and Fifth piano concertos.
The Second Concerto was not sketched until 1839 and was not completed till the same year its predecessor was (1849), again with Raff's help. This Concerto in A major was then re?vised two or three times before it was first heard on January 7. 1857, at Weimar. In the premiere of the First Concerto, Liszt himself was the soloist and Hector Berlioz conducted; for the premiere of the Second. Liszt assumed the conductor's role and gave the solo honor to his pupil Hans Bronsart von Schellendorf (18301911, another minor composer whose works have received some notice on a small scale recently). A fourth and final revision was made in 1861, and the score was finally published two years after that, with a dedica?tion to Bronsart.
This Concerto might be considered the most "symphonic" of Liszt's concerted works.
Here the orchestra is given fuller parity than in any of his other works in this category, and the writing shows an imagination and assurance on the level of what Liszt achieved in the Faust Symphony and the finest of his sym?phonic poems. The piano is definitely the star, though, as we are reminded in the overall bril?liance of the solo part and, in particular, in the cadenzalike passages that link the sections of this work together.
In his First Concerto Liszt departed from the conventional concerto format to add a move?ment, but linked the last three of the four movements together; the Second Concerto is cast in a single movement. Like most onemovement symphonies and concertos, this one falls into divisions corresponding more or less to the respective movements of conventionally structured works. The big Lisztian difference is the rhapsodic sweep which renders analysis both problematical and gratuitous. The Con?certo in A might be said to contain three nor?mal movements plus an introduction and a concluding apotheosis -or a miniature threemovement work followed by an expansive fantasy on its materials. Since it is built entire?ly on a single theme, the effect is virtually seamless.
The treatment of that theme is not a series of variations, but rather a chain of metamorpho?ses in which it is always clearly recognizable
-a stunning illustration of the principle Liszt called "transformation of themes." The trans?formations assume so many varied characters
-yearning, solemn, martial, sensuous, serene, heroic -that the Boston critic William Foster Apthorp suggested, nearly a hundred years ago. that the Concerto might have been titled "The Life and Adventures of a Melody." Apthorp, who frequently attacked Tchaikovsky and Liszt in the matter of form, was fascinated by this work and responded with writing almost as colorful as the music itself:
"It is as if some magician in some huge cave, the walls of which were covered with glistening stalactites flashing jewels, were reveling his fill of all the wonders of color, brilliancy, and dazzling light his wand could command. Never has even Liszt rioted more unreservedly in fitful orgies of flashing color. It is monstrous, formless, whimsical, and fantastic, if you will; but it is also magical and gorgeous as anything in the Arabian Nights. It is its very daring and audacity that save it."
Virtuosity is never absent in this work, but it is sustained by an abundance of substance uncommon in virtuoso display pieces. Perhaps part of Liszt"s purpose in giving this Concerto to Bronsart to introduce was to remind his con?temporaries that he himself was, after all, not merely a virtuoso, but a composer.
EXCERPTS FROM SUITES 1 and 2 FROM THE BALLET, "ROMEO AND JULIET" Sergei Prokofiev
Born: April 23, 1891, inSontzovka, Russia Died: March 5, 1953, in Moscow
When Prokofiev left his homeland in 1918, at the age of 27, he had a reputation as an enfant terrible, earned with the "barbaric" rhythms and colors of such works as the Scythian Suite and his first two piano con?certos. When he returned to settle in Moscow
after his 15 years in the West, his decision to do so was accompanied by another decision on the artistic level, to compose in a style that would be more accessible to his Soviet audi?ences, to be more directly communicative without lowering his professional standards or abandoning his individuality. The spiky irony and grotesque imagery of his earlier works were replaced now by a more expansively lyrical style and a treatment of dramatic sub?jects more directly rooted in Russia's musical past. Because he had not fared well as a symphonist (his magnificent Fifth Symphony would not appear till January, 1945). he felt he could establish contact with his new audience most effectively through virtuoso works for soloists and works for the stage and Films. His first film score, for Feinzimmer's Lieutenant Kizheh, dealt with satire in the manner of an affectionate fairytale; the warmhearted Violin Concerto No. 2 (G minor. Op. 63), in?troduced in 1935, was the first of the great works of his maturity. Even before the Con?certo was conceived, however, the seeds had been planted for Romeo and Juliet, the ballet score which many consider Prokofiev's true masterpiece for the orchestra.
Romeo and Juliet is unquestionably the most successful "full evening" ballet created in this century, but. like numerous other simi?larly successful works, it had a hard time get?ting off the ground. It was a request from the Kirov Theatre in Leningrad, toward the end of 1934, that initiated the project. The Kirov changed its mind before Prokofiev had written a note, but by then he had become so fascina?ted with the idea that he did not want to drop it, and a contract was signed for presentation of the ballet at the Bolshoi Theatre in Mos?cow. In the spring of 1935 Prokofiev and the choreographer Piotrovsky consulted with Sergei Radlov, who had produced several of Shakespeare's plays, and the three developed a scenario for the ballet. For a time they con?sidered giving the work a happy ending (as Prokofiev remarked later, "living people can dance -the dead cannot"), but in the end they remained faithful to Shakespeare.
The contract was voided the following summer when Prokofiev submitted his score and it was rejected as "undanceable" by the Bolshoi management. Prokofiev then extract?ed two concert suites from the score, which he introduced in Moscow and Leningrad during the 193637 season, and he also arranged ten numbers for piano. The response to the music was highly favorable, but still the ballet found no takers; even the Kirov's school company turned it down. When Romeo and Juliet was finally staged, in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in December 1937, Prokofiev was not consulted and did not attend, but a year later the Kirov decided to produce the work after all, and the Soviet premiere took place there on January 11, 1940; Galina Ulanova danced the role of Juliet in both of these premieres.
Prokofiev was not finished with the ballet when it was performed in Leningrad. He had made several additions to the score and had enlarged the orchestra at the request of the dancers and the choreographer, Leonid Lavrovsky. Further additions were made the following year, and there were still more for the Bolshoi premiere of 1946 (in which year Prokofiev also introduced a third concert suite). Overall Prokofiev worked on and
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revised this score nearly as long as Beethoven did on Fidelia and, as in that case, it was a work especially close to its composer's heart. "I have taken special pains," Prokofiev de?clared, "to achieve a simplicity which will. I hope, reach the hearts of all listeners. If people find no melody and no emotion in this work. I shall be very sorry -but I feel sure that soon?er or later they will."
And of course they did. sooner rather than later. The ballet itself has become immensely popular through various choreographic treat?ments in the West as well as in the USSR, and Kenneth MacMillan's version for Britain's Royal Ballet was made into a film by Paul Czinner, with Dame Margot Fonteyn and Rudolf Nureyev in the leading roles. The music itself, in the form of Prokofiev's own concert suites or various sequences of excerpts -or even, occasionally, the entire score -has also taken a permanent place in the concert repertory, and the two suites the composer produced in advance of the ballet's premiere are regarded as quintessential Prokofiev. Each of these suites is in seven movements; for the present performance, Riccardo Muti has selected five sections from each suite and is framing those from Suite No. 1 with those from Suite No. 2 in such a way as to provide for dramatic continuity. The sequence is as follows:
Montagues and Capulets (Suite II, No. 1). The Dance of the Knights at the Capulets' ball (Act I, Scene 4), prefaced by the music from Scene 1 which accompanies the entrance of the Duke of Verona as he orders the warring families to lay down their arms.
The Young Juliet (Suite II, No. 2). Juliet playfully resists the Nurse's efforts to help her dress for the ball (Act I, Scene 2).
Madrigal (Suite I, No. 3). Romeo and Juliet meet at the Capulets' ball (Act I, Scene 4), a gathering Romeo, Mercutio and Benvolio have "crashed" wearing masks; they are by turn playful and tender, till at last Juliet runs off.
Minuet (Suite I, No. 4). The arrival of the guests at the ball. Act I. Scene 3.
Masks (Suite I, No. 5). Usually -and misleadingly -listed as "Masques," this number follows the preceding one in the bal?let, accompanying the arrival of the three masked Montagues.
Romeo and Juliet (Suite I, No. 6). The Balcony Scene, from the end of Act I.
The Death of Tybalt (Suite I, No. 7). From the end of Act II. Scene 3: After Mercutio is killed in a duel by Tybalt. Romeo challenges the latter and kills him in a furious fight.
Friar Laurence (Suite II, No. 3). The first visit to the Friar's chapel, from the opening of Act II, Scene 2.
Romeo and Juliet before Parting (Suite II, No. 5). The farewell pas de deux after the bridal night (Act III, Scene 1).
Romeo at the Tomb of Juliet (Suite II. No. 7). Having failed to receive Friar Laurence's message explaining the sleeping potion given to Juliet. Romeo enters the Capulet family crypt, kills Paris, whom he finds mourning at Juliet's bier, and then, after a final reminiscence of their shortlived happi?ness, takes poison and dies (Act IV, the Epilogue).
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PROGRAM NOTES
by Richard Freed
OVERTURE, "CALM SEA AND PROSPEROUS VOYAGE," OP. 27 Felix Mendelssohn
Born: February 3, 1809, in Hamburg Died: November 4, 1847, in Leipzig
The euphonious English title of this work, inspired by Goethe's twin poems Meeresstille and Gluckliche Fahrt, does not give an accu?rate indication of the programmatic burden. The title must strike anyone as a wish for, or description of, an untroubled sailing, but "Be?calmed" is what is really meant here: the sea in question is not only free of storm but with?out wind at all. Since wind was the main source of nautical propulsion in the poet's time, the "calm" makes for anxiety rather than serenity, until at length a welcome breeze sends the voyagers on their way again. The two poems, short enough to be printed here in full, have been rendered in English as follows:
Calm Sea
Deep stillness presses upon the waters, The sea lies motionless; The captain sees with anxious eye The polished plain surrounding him. No wind from any direction! A horrid, deathlike stillness! Not a single wave plays Upon the vast expanse.
Prosperous Voyage The mists are torn asunder, The heavens are brightened. And Aeolus loosens The anxious ties. Winds now blow gently, The captain bestirs himself. Make haste! Make haste! The waves now are parted. The distance comes nearer, Already I can see land!
Beethoven set these verses for chorus and orchestra in 1815, and in the same year Schubert made a song of Meeressiille alone. Mendelssohn's concert overture, in which he allowed the form to be dictated entirely by that of Goethe's poem, was composed in 1828, when he was just 19 years old, and was in?troduced in Berlin on April 18 of that year. Donald Francis Tovey, in his famous Essays in Musical Analysis, mentioned similarities between Mendelssohn's treatment of the first part and Beethoven's in his choral piece, but added that "there is very little chance of build?ing up the vocal setting of the Prosperous Voyage into more than an appendix to the Calm Sea. The opportunity is far greater for a purely instrumental piece; and accordingly, as soon as Mendelssohn has broken into the pro?fundities of the calm by a faint breath of zephyr in the flute, all the conditions are ready for a firstrate piece of broadly impressionistic music."
The deliverance of the becalmed seafarers is heralded by a quickening of tempo (the captain does bestir himself), and the landsighting is confirmed in a slow and majestic coda replete with beating drums and ringing trumpets. After this jubilation, the work ends softly, with three chords which Tovey cited as "a poetic surprise of a high order."
While this lovely and effective work is surely one of Mendelssohn's most original conceptions and for some time enjoyed great popularity, it has all but disappeared from con?cert programs in our century. Until this month, first in Philadelphia and now in Ann Arbor, the Philadelphia Orchestra's only previous performances of the work were given on Octo?ber 29 and 30 and November 2. 1976, then as now under the direction of Riccardo Muti. Listeners unfamiliar with the overture, though, may recognize one of its prominent themes (the "faint breath of zephyr in the flute" which initiates the "Prosperous Voyage" section) as the one quoted by Elgar in the penultimate section of his Enigma Variations to represent a friend embarking on a long sea voyage.
CONCERTO IN D MINOR FOR VIOLIN AND ORCHESTRA
Robert Schumann
Born: June 8, 1810, in Zwickau, Saxony Died: July 29, 1856, at Endenich (near Bonn)
Schumann and Mendelssohn were not only contemporaries but colleagues, both devoted to the service of music other than their own. It was Mendelssohn who brought about a revival of interest in the works of Bach, and it was Schumann who discovered the score of Schubert's Great C major Symphony -which he gave to Mendelssohn for performance. They both had contact with Joseph Joachim when the distinguished violinist, composer, conductor, and pedagogue was beginning his career -a career in which such composers as Brahms and Dvorak were to write concertos for him. Mendelssohn did not write music for Joachim, but was the conductor when Joachim, at the age of 13, made his London debut in the Beethoven Violin Concerto; it was that performance that is generally credited with putting that great work at last into the general repertory. Schumann knew Joachim when the latter was in his twenties, and did write music for him. In 1853 Schumann, his pupil Albert Dietrich, and Johannes Brahms (who had been introduced to Schumann by Joachim) collaborated on the socalled "FAE" Sonata for violin and piano as a tribute to Joachim, and in the fall of the same year Schumann alone composed two works for violin and orchestra intended for Joachim. The singlemovement Fantasy in C major. Op. 131, written early in September, was promptly performed at the end of the following month, but the fullscale concerto Schumann com?posed between September 27 and October 3 was not heard in Schumann's lifetime or Joachim's.
On October 7. 1853, four days after he completed the composition of the Concerto. Schumann sent the score to Joachim with a request for suggestions for improvement, and several changes were subsequently noted in Schumann's hand. Thoughts of introducing the work in Dusseldorf were abandoned, though, when Schumann stepped down as music director there later that fall, and within a few months his illness had advanced to a stage at which it required his confinement in the asy?lum in which he died a little more than two years later. In the decade or two following Schumann's death. Joachim was known to play the Concerto in private for friends with
whom he discussed the score, but in his later years he not only stopped that practice but be?came reluctant even to talk about the work. In a letter to his biographer Andreas Moser. dat?ed August 5, 1898. Joachim broke his silence on the subject for the last time:
'"You ask me for information about a Violin Concerto by Schumann, the manuscript of which is in my possession. I cannot speak of it without emotion, as it is a product of the last halfyear before my dear master and friend be?came insane. . .
""The fact that it has not been published must convince you that it cannot be ranked with his many other glorious creations. A new Violin Concerto by Schumann -with what rejoicing it would have been greeted by all my colleagues! And yet my conscientious anxiety for the reputation of the beloved composer kept me from allowing this work to be printed, despite the great clamor for it on the part of numerous publishers. It must be acknowl?edged that a certain mental lassitude, a sem?blance of true intellectual energy, shows how he tried to force matters. Certain parts (how could it be otherwise!) give evidence of the composer's deep feeling, but these contrast with the work as a whole in a way that is all the more distressing.
"The first movement (in an energetic but not fast tempo. D minor, 44 time) reveals an esthetic obstinacy, now taking a violent on?ward urge, now dragging defiantly. The first tutti goes over effectively into a second tender theme written in a pure and beautiful mood. Genuine Schumann! But this does not come to a spirited development, and reverts gradually to the faster tempo with bewildering passages which fail to achieve the desired brilliant cli?max of the solo part because of the unidiomatic writing for the violin. The second tutti re?peats in F major the opening measures. In the following solo, which seems in the develop?ment almost too intimate for a violin concerto, there is sketched a beautiful organ point built up on the dominant of the principal key. This could produce a great effect, but falls short of it because of the position in which the violin part is written, and because the instrumenta?tion does not lend sufficient support to the in?creasing intensity of the material.
"Profoundly characteristic and full of deep feeling is the opening of the second movement (it is headed "Slow"), and it leads to an ex?pressive melody for the violin. Oh, that this blessed dreaming could have been held fast, glorious master! So warm, so tender, as ever before! But. . . this blossoming fantasy soon gives way to a morbid brooding. The flow of ideas drags along . . . and, as though the com?poser himself longed to get free of the drabness of these reflections, he pulls himself together and. with an accelerated tempo, goes over into the finale, a polonaiselike move?ment in 34 time (lively, but not fast). The principal theme is introduced in spirited man?ner, but becomes monotonous in the develop?ment and adopts a certain characteristic rigid?ity of rhythm. In this movement, too. there is no lack of interesting details, as, for instance, the graceful suggestions of the dreamy Adagio, contrasting beautifully with the pompous principal motif of the finale. But here, too, you do not realize a feeling of com?plete and cheerful enjoyment. . . Tiresome repetitions now follow, and the brilliantly
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planned figuration forces unaccustomed and ineffective effort upon the solo violin.
"Now that I have . . . given you the in?formation about the Concerto, you will un?derstand why you have had to urge me so often. Not willingly does one let reflection rule where one is accustomed to love and revere wholeheartedly."
That, apparently, was Joachim's last word on the subject. When he died in 1907, the score was left to the Prussian State Library in Berlin with the proviso that it should not be published until 100 years after Schumann's death. The matter had by then already been largely forgotten, and hardly anyone even seemed to know where the score had been deposited.
As it turned out, the world did not have to wait till 1956 to hear the Concerto. Jelly d'Aranyi. the famous Hungarian violinist for whom Ravel wrote his Tzigane, was Joachim's grandniece and lived in his house?hold during his final years. Early in 1937 she announced that she had been visited by the spirit of her greatuncle and that of Schumann himself, both urging her to retrieve the score and make the work known. (This was not the first appearance of the supernatural in the life of the Concerto. The beginning of the theme of the work's slow movement is identical with that of a melody Schumann set down in Febru?ary 1854, when he said the spirits of Schubert and Mendelssohn had wakened him from his sleep to give it to him. After Schumann's death Brahms used that theme as the basis for a set of variations for piano duet, his Op. 23.) In any event. Miss d'Aranyi enlisted the aid of Wilhelm Strecker. then head of B. Schott's Sohne. the famous publishing house in Mains, who succeeded in persuading the Library to re?lease the score for publication.
The first public performance of the Concerto was given by Georg Kulenkampff with the Berlin Philharmonic under Hans SchmidtIsscrstedt in a broadcast concert on November 26, 1937. Ten days later Yehudi Menuhin performed the work with piano accompaniment in Carnegie Hall, and on De?cember 23 he gave the American orchestral premiere with Vladimir Golschmann and the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra. Four weeks later, on January 21 and 22. 1938, the same soloist performed it with The Philadelphia Orchestra, Eugene Ormandy. conducting, the only performances of the Concerto by the Philadelphians until this month with Gidon Kremer, first in Philadelphia and now in Ann Arbor. Both Menuhin and Kulenkampff recorded the Concerto on 78s. and recently there has been a new wave of interest in the work, documented by new recordings, though the Concerto is still pretty much a stranger in the concert hall. The present performance, by one of today's out?standing violin virtuosi, should enable listen?ers to judge for themselves whether Joachim's initial judgment of the Concerto was too harsh, or whether he was justified in reversing that verdict 30 years after his death, as report?ed by his grandniece.
Orchestral parts for Schumann's Violin Con?certo furnished by EuropeanAmerican Music, agent for Schott.
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SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN D MAJOR, OP. 73 Johannes Brahms
Born: Mav 7, 1833, in Hamburg Died: April 3. 1897, in Vienna
Brahms did not approach the idea of sym?phonic creation lightly, and certainly not hasti?ly. As early as his 21st year, he made some starts in the direction of a symphony, but those early efforts were either abandoned or convert?ed for use in his First Piano Concerto and other works. He was to a degree genuinely in?timidated by the spectre of Beethoven, as in?dicated by his oftenquoted remark on "how the likes of us feels to hear the tread of such a giant behind us." and he did not produce a completed symphony until 1876. when he was 43. Once the First was accomplished, though (and received with the greatest enthusiasm everywhere), Brahms was able to compose his Second Symphony quickly and confidently. He started work on it while completing the piano duet arrangement of the First, in the summer of 1877. and before the year ended it was not only completed but actually perform?ed. The First had had a hard birth, and emerg?ed rather defiantly triumphant: the Second flowed with cheerful spontaneity, and is the most lyrical and sunlit of all Brahms"s sym?phonies. (Its character came as a surprise to the Viennese after the "monumental" style of its predecessor, as Brahms knew it would; dur?ing the rehearsal period he mischieviously appeared wearing a black armband, "in de?ference to the sorrowful nature of my latest child."
The radiant mood of the work is established at once by the threenote motif in the lower strings and the answering horncall which open the first movement. The second theme is one of Brahms"s characteristic outpourings of warm, glowing contentment, related in both shape and spirit to the wellloved Cradle Song (Op. 49, No. 4) and the piano Waltz in Aflat (Op. 39. No. 15). The first theme is treated fugally in the development, and new motifs spun off by variations in the rhythm are hailed and dismissed by clipped utterances from the brass. The horns enjoy prominence throughout the movement, which ends, following a lovely horn solo in the coda, even more tenderly than it began.
The mood turns serious in the second move?ment, whose solemn first theme might have suggested to descriptiveminded listeners in the 1870s a scene of forest depths at twilight. With the second theme, a hymnic quality be?gins to pervade the music, whose solemnity assumes a tranquil, rather than sombre, character.
The pastoral element by now so apparent in the Symphony is emphasized by the solo oboe in the third movement, which is not a scherzo, but an intermezzo of great charm and in?timacy. The orchestra is reduced for this movement, whose unexpectedly animated middle section (Presto ma non assai) never becomes really boisterous but serves, by way of contrast, to heighten the serenity of the Allegretto that wraps around it. At the pre?miere this movement had to be repeated for the enthusiastic audience.
Following the energetic but somewhat mysterious opening of the final movement, its first theme is restated in an exhilarating orchestral outburst and then, the way cleared
by the goodnaturedly snarling and crackling winds, the broad second theme makes its en?trance, aglow in lambent sunset colors. Brahms builds to the invigorating coda with subtle ingatherings of strength; it is a paean of sheer exuberance, in which the finale's lyrical second theme is transformed into a bla.ing fanfare which ends the Symphony on a note of Dionysiac exultation virtually unparalleled among Brahms's works.
BRAHMS THE MODERNIST
by David Wright, Pianist and Music Critic
An admirer of Johannes Brahms, hoping to win some points with the master, once pointed out to him some resemblances between his Piano Sonata in C major. Op. I. and Beethoven's Hammerklavier Sonata. Brahms replied. "Every jackass notices that!"
A conversation with Brahms could be hard going, and Brahms knew it as well as anyone. He used to invite friends to join him at his fa?vorite Vienna cafe. The Red Hedgehog, and "have lunch with the two pricklies." No sub?ject was more likely to provoke his legendary sarcasm than comparisons between him and Beethoven.
Brahms never asked to be the torchbearer for classicism. Conservative critics like the redoubtable Eduard Hanslick needed a stick to beat Liszt and Wagner with, and Brahms came readily to hand. Who else, in the middle and late nineteenth century, was composing "absolute" music (that is. with no program attached) of the highest quality, in concise movements, using the instrumental forces for which Haydn and Beethoven wrote
Smallbore Wagnerites enthusiastically joined the fray, calling Brahms's music "cold." "gray." and "totally played out." Wagner and Liszt themselves were more generous, the former reportedly marveling at "what can still be done with the old forms in the hands of one who knows how to deal with them": Liszt commented, with typical insight, that in Brahms's Second Piano Concerto "thought and feeling move in noble harmony."
Now that the Romantic effusions of some of his contemporaries seem to have led to a dead end. it is that balance of "thought and feel?ing" that we prize in Brahms's music. Since he lacked Wagner's compulsion for selfexplanation, it's up to us to clear away the deadwood of contemporary propaganda (from both friends and foes) and discover what a modern figure in music Brahms really was.
Arnold Schoenberg. the (modernist, cer?tainly thought so. In his essay "Brahms the Progressive." Schoenberg demonstrates that Brahms took a back seat to no one. not even Wagner, when it came to exploring the ex?pressive possibilities of irregular phrases, un?hitched rhythms, and indefinite tonality. II he favored cohesive forms from the past. Schoenberg says, it was because they gave his musical arguments greater clarity and force. In fact. Brahms owned and cherished an au?tograph copy of Tannhduser, and his works contain many a Wagnerian movement: those mysterious shifting chords in the Andante of the Third Symphony, for example, or the First Symphony'sMeistersingerWke finale. Even as "Brahmsian" a work as the robust Rhap?sody for piano. Op. 79. No. 2. keeps us guess?ing for bars on end about what key it's in (the answer is G minor). Such are the modernisms in (he music; a look at the composer's life re?veals still more.
Brahms was born on May 7. 1833 in Hamburg, the son of a struggling doublebass player. The conflicting traits of his adult per?sonality, the generosity lurking behind the crusty manner, are traceable to his early years. At home, with parents who scraped and sacrified to net him the best music teachers in
town, he learned what love can accomplish; in Hamburg's waterfront taverns, where he bolstered the family income by playing bar?room piano for drunken sailors and prostitutes, he learned how low the human species can sink.
Brahms's security blanket, from childhood on, was the music of earlier masters, from Schumann back through Beethoven and Bach to Schiitz and the centuries beyond. (A staunch patriot and admirer of Bismarck, he rarely ventured far from the German tradition in his scholarship or outlook.) A strong identification with the past was then, paradoxically, a very modern trait for a com?poser. Thirty years before Debussy's edition of Chopin. Brahms was issuing scholarly edi?tions of Schumann and Baroque masters. Fifty years before Bartok. he was collecting and arranging folksongs of his native country. A century before today's crop of composerprofessors on campus. Brahms was debating on equal terms with leading musicologists on issues of text and performance in old music.
But as Beethoven said. ""Art always de?mands something new from us." What is the "something new" that brings listeners back again and again to Brahms's works In part, it's the very modesty of their goals; Brahms the agnostic reaches for no spiritual raptures, and Brahms the bourgeois tears no passion to tatters. Although his music is anything but simple, it seems to celebrate simple virtues: courage, equanimity, kindness, economy, conviviality, hard work.
Brahms's discontents seem very like ours. Outwardly, his life was one success after an?other-early and evergrowing professional recognition, plenty of money and friends, robust health. And yet his consistent artistic success was won at a terrible cost -the de?struction by Brahms himself of every Hawed, or even possibly Hawed, work he produced. (At least four violin sonatas and a dozen string quartets are known to have met this fate before he allowed one to survive.) Avoiding intimacy poisoned his personal life as well: generous beyond measure with friends, relatives, and colleagues. Brahms hid his own needs behind a screen of rudeness, and lost even his closest friends for long periods when fear of a "scene" prevented him from clearing up mis?understandings. Many attractive opportunities for marriage or prestigious positions came his way. but he always found an excuse not to take them.
There are bright spots in this picture, of course. The simple joy of German folksong enlivens many of his melodies, whether in song or symphony, the ambience of Vienna, his adopted city, delightfully softens the old "prickly" in his Liebeslieder for two pianos and vocal quartet, his piano Waltzes. Op. 39. and many other works. The happy summers Brahms spent taking long walks and compos?ing in the Swiss or Austrian countryside gave us such works as the Horn Trio. Op. 40. and the Second Symphony, full of the sparkle of fresh air and clear water. And while Brahms's love still burned bright for such beautiful sing?ers as Agathe von Siebold and Hermine Spies, he composed some of the finest songs in the rich Lieder tradition.
And then there's the sheer satisfaction of mastery rampant. It's there even in the sprawl?ing youthful piano sonatas, though not "every
jackass" notices it. It's in the intellectually dazzling -and fun to listen to -sets of variations on themes by Handel. Paganini. and Haydn, in which Brahms does for the ancient science of transforming a theme what Einstein will do for physics. It's in the many chamber works, from sonatas to sextets, their familiar classical forms renewed by irrepressible polyphony and "variationing." It's in the German Requiem, never obscuring the simple message of love and comfort that made this Brahms's most beloved work during his life?time, and ever since. It's in the four sym?phonies, the crown of his maturity, and es?pecially the Fourth, shining through that dark work's most pessimistic moments. And it's in the last piano pieces, each one brief, con?centrated, contrapuntal, endlessly mutable, a direct ancestor to the piano works of Schoenberg. Berg. Webern.
So perhaps it's time to lay to rest that old slogan about the "Three B's" -Bach. Beethoven. Brahms -along with the gushy Beethoven idolatry of the nineteenth century. Brahms's memory deserves better than that. The ember this sorrowful man was blowing on was not Beethoven's, but his own. A century and a half after his birth, the glow still warms us.
This article first appeared in "Slagebill. " Oby David Wright. 19X3.
PROGRAM NOTES
by Richard Freed
OVERTURE TO "R1ENZI" Richard Wagner
Born: May 22, 1813, in Leipzig Died: February 13, 1883, in Venice
Cola Rienzi, der letzte der Tribunen ("'Cola Rienzi. the Last of the Tribunes"), composed between 1838 and 1840. was the third of Wagner's completed operas, the second to be produced, and the first to earn him success. Though Weber's influence is still discernible, and Meyerbeer's too, it was in this work that Wagner's own voice began to be heard. By the time Wagner conducted the first performance of Rienzi, at the Dresden Court Theatre on October 20. 1842. he had already completed The Fhini; Dutchman, whose premiere in the same theatre some ten weeks later made him. literally overnight, a figure of major importance.
Wagner was so distressed by Rienzi'.s un?precedented length on the night of the pre?miere (it is in five acts, and more than twice as long as the Dutchman) that he returned to the theatre early the next morning prepared to make substantial cuts in his score, but the enthusiastic cast would not hear of it. The op?era remained popular in Germany for several decades, but is rarely staged anywhere now. Except for an occasinal rendering of "Rienzi's Prayer" by a tenor appearing in an orchestral concert, and Birgit Nilsson's recording of one of Adriano's arias (Wagner still wrote arias in Rienzi), the work is remembered solely by its Overture, and few who are familiar with it have any notion of the plot or even the setting.
The opera is based on BulwerLytton's novel of revolution in 14thcentury Rome, which had already been adapted as a play by Mary Russell Mitford. The appeal of this story to Wagner is easily recognizable, for it in?volves not only a tragic hero victimized by his beneficiaries, but also the theme of ?"redemp?tion through love" which figures so con?spicuously in several of his later music dra?mas. In this story. Cola Rienzi is a popular hero, a young notary who is named Tribune after he has overthrown the oppressive nobles. He frustrates their first two attempts to restore themselves to power, but in their third try they succeed in deluding the people, and Rienzi is betrayed by his friend Adriano. despite Adriano's love for Rienzi's sister Irene. The fickle mob then turns on its former hero, stoning Rienzi. pursuing him to the Capitol and finally setting the building afire. At the end of the opera Adriano makes his redemp?tive gesture, dashing into the flaming Capitol to die with Rienzi and Irene.
The Overture is built on motifs from the opera. The swelling trumpet at the beginning is the herald's summons to the people; the Wcberesque theme in the strings is from Rienzi's Prayer; the rumbustious, percussionfilled episode reflects the nearintoxication with which the crowd regards Rienzi as hero; punctuating the development of these mate?rials is a fanfare (whose tune resembles the old round Row, row, row your boat) representing Rienzi's battle hymn. At the end the bacchana?lian hero's music sweeps everything before it.
SUITE FLAMENCA Carlos Montoya
Born: December 13, 1903 in Madrid Now living in New York Cit
Carlos Montoya tells us that the Suite Flamenca evolved in his mind for more than 25 years. In 1942. while appearing with La Argentinita in concerts of the Rochester Philharmonic, he was heard during a pre?concert warmup by Jose Iturbi (then con?ductor of that orchestra), who expressed the wish that they might work together to create "a real Flamenco suite.'" Some two decades later Montoya tried writing such a suite in col?laboration with various composers, but none of those attempts proved successful. "My idea was not to learn a piece with a Flamenco flavor by a composer," he said, ""but rather to transport pure Flamenco guitar into the midst of an orchestra and have [the musicians] join me in unadulterated Flamenco." He finally did find an effective collaborator, in the per?son of Julio Esteban. whom he had met in the 1930s and who subsequently became a member of the piano faculty of the Peabody Institute in Baltimore.
"Julio and I started from scratch," Montoya recalls, "and wrote the full suite in a relatively short time -and this was a real Flamenco piece. In the Suite, the orchestral parts always remain as written, but are never out of character with the impulsive spirit of Flamenco. There are passages in which I play along with the orchestra, and many in which I am free to improvise my own cadenzas and then bring the orchestra back in by means of cues to be found in prearranged chord phrases. For this reason, no two performances of the Suite will ever be exactly alike. This is Flamenco.
"The Suite Flamenca is based on four traditional Flamenco forms. The first move?ment. Minera, is a lyrical taranta, one of the oldest songs of the Spanish Gypsies. Aires ii;i Pukntk. the second movement, is a garroiin, a gay and rhythmic Andalusian dance. This is followed by Generalife, a granafna. As the name indicates, this is from Granada, the Generalife being part of the Alhambra: this is not a dance rhythm, but is much freer in form and is often sung. Jaleo, the closing sec?tion of the Suite, is the bulen'apor soled, a syncopated and rapid Gypsy dance. Until now, it was thought to be playable only by Spanish Gypsies."
CARMINABURANA Carl OrfT
Born: July 10, 1895. in Munich Died: March 29, 1982. in Munich
In 1925, when he was 30, Carl Orff helped to found a school in Munich with the purpose of promoting "rhythmical education." Rhythm was his central concern in teaching children (he began his famous Schulwerk in the same year), and it has been the local element of his own music. His music owes a good deal of its particular color and flavor, also, to another activity which he began in 1925: it was in that year that he prepared the first of his three edi?tions of Monteverdi's Orfeo. and he was sub?sequently to interest himself productively in other works of Monteverdi and his English contemporary William Byrd. Orff's first major
work -the one with which he himself de?clared he began his ?"complete works." and was unquestionably the making of him as a composer -did not come along until his 42nd year; it was Carmina Burana, which reflects the emphases just cited, and was directly stimulated by his exposure to still earlier material.
The title Carmina Burana means simply "Songs of Beurcn," carmina being the plural of the Latin carmen -song, or chant -and the second word identifying the geographical source of the material, a manuscript dis?covered in 1803 at the old monastery of Benediktbeuren in Upper Bavaria, where it had been preserved since the 13lh century. It comprised dozens of songs notated over a per?iod of a hundred years or more, originally sung by students passing through from various parts of Europe; some of the texts were in Latin, some in MiddleHigh German, some in Old French. The verses are earthy and un?pretentious, some ribald, some erotic, some sardonic: the nearest phenomenon in English literature -in spirit, if not in form -might be the Canterbury Tales of Chaucer.
The Carmina Burana were published in 1847. and Orff came across the collection in 1935. He was enchanted, and set about at once to spread the enchantment in a style both uniquely his and curiously apposite to the spir?it of the antique texts. With the help of the writer Michael Hofmann. Orff selected some two dozen of the most intriguing songs for treatment, then organized them into three large sections with a prologue and epilogue, styling the whole a "scenic cantata." The subtitle in his score reads Cantiones profanae cantoribus el choris cantandae comitantibus instruments atque imaginibus magicis ("'Secular songs for solo singers and chorus with the accompani?ment of instruments and magical tableaux" -i.e., with miming and dancing). The score calls for solo soprano, tenor, and baritone, adult mixed chorus, children's chorus and a large orchestra (with four percussionists in addition to the timpanist).
The premiere, staged in Frankfurt on June 8, 1937, was a great success. Orff S imagina?tive use of voices and instruments, his simple and forceful melodic designs and. most of all. his extraordinary rhythms exerted a visceral impact that was as unprecedented in its sheer excitement as that of Stravinsky's Rite of Sprint; had been 24 years earlier, and yet was not controversial, as that work had been when new. but downright irresistible. (Some of the factors in its success were anticipated in another Stravinsky work. LesNoces, which also relies heavily on ostinato rhythms and strong, unelaborated themes without counter?point.) In 1943 Orff produced a similar work. Catulli Carmina. based on poems of Catullus, and another. Trionfo diAfrodite, followed in 1953. at which time the three were brought together as a trilogy; Carmina Burana has continued to be favored separately, though, and is still staged with some frequency, though it is usually presented in concert form, as in the present performance.
Since Orff was especially intrigued by (he representation of the Wheel of Fortune on (he cover of the published texts, this was the im?age he chose for his prologue, a twopart apos?trophe to Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi ("For?tune, Empress of the World"), sung by the
full chorus with orchestra.
Part I celebrates the glories of spring, and is divided into two subsections. The first. Primo vere ("In Springtime" I. comprises three songs welcoming the season: the second. Um dem Anger ("On the Green"), begins with a rumbustious Dance, the only piece without voices in the entire work, and continues with four increasingly lusty choral songs.
Part II. Taberna, is a sequence of drink?ing songs for the two male soloists and male chorus. Most striking here are the plaint of a roasting swan (tenor, falsetto) and the song of the Abbot of Cucany. a parody of Gregorian chant for the baritone and chorus.
Part III. Courd'amours (''The Court of Love"), is an intoxicating glorification of youth and pleasure, rewarding the solo so?prano for her patience through the preceding sections with some stunning (and challenging) opportunities for display. If the rollicking and insinuating Tempus estjocundum (in which the baritone and the boys have the most fun) is the single most ingratiating portion of the score, the soprano's Dulcissime, which fol?lows to conclude Part III. is surely the most brilliant.
Blanziflor el Helena follows Part III as a brief intermezzo, leading to a reprise of the opening O Fortuna as epilogue.
Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi
1. O Fortuna (Chorus)
2. Fortune plango vulnera (Chorus)
I Primo Vere
1. Veris leta fades (Chorus)
2. Omnia sol temperat (Baritone)
3. Ecce gratum (Chorus)
Uf Dem Anger
1. Tanz (Orchestra)
2. Floret silva (Chorus)
3. Chramer. gip die varwe mir (Soprano; Chorus)
4. Reie
Swaz hie gat umbe (Chorus) Chume. chum geselle min (Chorus) Swaz hie gat unbe (Chorus)
5. Were diu werlt alle min (Chorus)
II In Taberna
1. Estuans interius (Baritone)
2. Olim Lacuscolueram
(Tenor; Male Chorus)
3. Ego sum abbas (Baritone: Male Chorus)
4. In taberna quando sumus (Male Chorus)
III Cours D'Amours
1. Amor volat undique (Soprano and Boychoir)
2. Dies, nox et omnia (Baritone)
3. Stetit puella (Soprano)
4. Circa mea pectora (Baritone; Male Chorus)
5. Si puercum puellula (Male Chorus)
6. Veni. veni. venias (Double Chorus)
7. In trutina (Soprano)
8. Tempus estjocundum (Soprano. Baritone: Boychoir)
9. Dulcissime (Soprano)
Blanziflor et Helena
1. Ave formosissima (Chorus)
Fortuna Imperatrix Mundi 1. () Fortuna (Chorus)
27
., 1903 in Madrid
W York City
ya tells us that the Suite cd in his mind for more than 2, while appearing with La ncerts of the Rochester
worK -me one wun which iic iiimscn ucclared he began his ?"complete works.'" and was unquestionably the making of him as a composer -did not conic along until his 42nd year; it was Carmina Bur ana, which reflects the emphases just cited, and was directly stimulated by his exposure to still earlier material.
The title C.armina Runina means simnlv
I'llllllal II1OIUL , MC WU.N IICU1U UU1 II
concert warmup by Jose Iturbi (t ductor of that orchestra), who ex wish that they might work togethi "a real Flamenco suite." Some t later Montoya tried writing such ; laboration with various composei of those attempts proved succcssl idea was not to learn a piece with flavor by a composer." he said. ' transport pure Flamenco guitar in of an orchestra and have [the mu me in unadulterated Flamenco." did find an effective collaborator son of Julio Hsteban. whom he h; the 1930s and who subsequently member of the piano faculty of ft Institute in Baltimore.
"Julio and I started from serai Montoya recalls, "and wrote the relatively short time -and this Flamenco piece. In the Suite, the parts always remain as written, b out of character with the tmpulsi' Flamenco. There are passages in along with the orchestra, and ma am free to improvise my own cac then bring the orchestra back in t cues to be found in prearranged phrases. For this reason, no two of the Suite will ever be exactly ; Flamenco.
"The Suite Flamenca is based traditional Flamenco forms. The nient. Mini:ka. is a lyrical laran, oldest songs of the Spanish Gyp del Puente, the second movemi roli'n, a gay and rhythmic Andah This is followed by Generalife As the name indicates, this is fro the Generalife being part of the is not a dance rhythm, but is mm form and is often sung. Jaleo, tl tion of the Suite, is the bulerlap syncopated and rapid Gypsy dan now. it was thought to be playab Spanish Gypsies."
CARMINA BURANA Carl Orff
Bom: July 10, 1895. in Munich Died: March 29, 1982, iiiMimn
In 1925, when he was 30, Carl ( found a school in Munich with tl promoting "rhythmical educatu was his central concern in teachi (he began his famous Schulwerk
oairt ,..,! il kor kun il... I. . ,1 ..
ig a jichcn conjressed the ;r to create wo decades i suite in col?'s, but none ill. "My . a Flamenco "but rather to ito the midst iicians) join He finally , in the perid met in became a ic Peabody
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full suite in a vas a real orchestral ut are never e spirit of which I play ny in which I lcnzas and y means of chord
performances llike. This is
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"Songs ol Beuren of the Latin carmc the second word it source of the mate covered in 1803 at Benediktbeuren in had been preservei comprised dozens iod of a hundred y sung by students p parts of Europe: sc Latin, some in Mi' Old French. The v pretentious, some sardonic: the nean literature -in spi be the Canterbury
The Carmina B 1847. and Orffcai 1935. He wasenc once to spread the uniquely his and c it of the antique te writer Michael He two dozen of the r treatment, then or sections with a pn the whole a "seen his score reads Cci el choris cantandi clique imaginibus solo singers and c ment of instrumen i.e.. with miming calls for solo sopr adult mixed chom large orchestra (w addition to the tiir
The premiere, 5 8. 1937. wasagrt tive use of voices and forceful melo his extraordinary i impact that was a; excitement as that Spring had been 2 not controversial, new. but downrig factors in its succi another Stravinsk also relies heavily strong, unelaborai point.) In 1943 Oi Catulli Carmina, and another. Trioi 1953. at which til together as a triloi continued to be fa nrl is still sln.'cd
. cannina Deing tne plural n -song, or chant -and lentifying the geographical rial, a manuscript disthe old monastery of Upper Bavaria, where it J since the 13lh century. It of songs notated over a perears or more, originally iassing through from various me of the texts were in ddleHigh German, some in erses are earthy and unribald, some erotic, some :st phenomenon in English rit, if not in form -might Tales of Chaucer. urana were published in me across the collection in hanted. and set about at enchantment in a style both uriously apposite to the spirxts. With the help of the ifmann. Orff selected some nosl intriguing songs for ganized them into three large )logue and epilogue, styling ic cantata." The subtitle in ntiones profanae cantoribus w comitantibus instrumentis magicis ("'Secular songs for horus with the accompaniits and magical tableaux" -and dancing). The score ano. tenor, and baritone. s. children's chorus and a ith four percussionists in ipanist).
taged in Frankfurt on June ;at success. Orff's imaginaand instruments, his simple die designs and. most of all. rhythms exerted a visceral unprecedented in its sheer of Stravinsky's Rite of 4 years earlier, and yet was as that work had been when ht irresistible. (Some of the ;ss were anticipated in y work. LesNoces, which on ostinato rhythms and led themes without counter?ff produced a similar work, based on poems of Catullus. ifodiAfrodite, followed in ne the three were brought zy; Carmina Burana has vored separately, though, with some frequency.
ming the season: the second. Um "On the Green"), begins with a Dance, the only piece without entire work, and continues with ngly lusty choral songs. Taberna, is a sequence of drinkr the two male soloists and male .t striking here are the plaint of a in (tenor, falsetto) and the song of ; Cucany. a parody of Gregorian ! baritone and chorus. lour d'amours ("'The Court of in intoxicating glorification of leasure. rewarding the solo sor patience through the preceding h some stunning (and challenging) ?s for display. If the rollicking and Tempus estjocundum (in which and the boys have the most fun) is ost ingratiating portion of the jprano's Dulcissime, which fol;lude Part III. is surely the most
r el Helena follows Part III as a ezzo, leading to a reprise of the ?oriutui as epilogue.
Imperatrix Mundi
irtuna (Chorus)
jne plango vulnera (Chorus)
PROGRAM NOTES
by Richard Freed
OVERTURE TO "I VESPRI SICILIANS Giuseppe Verdi
Born: October 10, 1813, in Le Roncole, Italy Died: January 27, 1901, in Milan
I VespriSiciliani("The Sicilian Vespers"), commissioned for the Paris Exhibition of 1855, was the 19th of Verdi's operas, the first one he wrote to a French libretto (by Eugene Scribe and Charles Duveyrier). and his first to have its premiere at the Paris Opera (June 13, 1855). The story of a patriotic uprising against the French occupation forces in 13thcentury Sicily, though it didn't disturb the French audiences some five centuries after the event, was not approved for presentation in Italy at that time, and Verdi's music, adapted to an en?tirely different libretto by E. Caimi, was pre?sented at La Scala under the title Giovanna di Guzman on February 4, 1856. Five years later, with Italian independence at last a reality, the original libretto was translated into Italian, and since then the opera has been best known in this version, as Vespri Siciliani.
The qualifying comment, of course, is that the opera itself is not at all wellknown. It is generally adjudged one of Verdi's weaker efforts and. with the exception of the noble bass aria ' 'O tu, Palermo," it is remembered only for its Overture, of which Francis Toye, Verdi's first English biographer, wrote: "Un?doubtedly the best thing about the opera is the overture, perhaps the most successful written by the composer, which is both vigorous and ingenious." Fiery and lyrical themes, all of them typical of Verdi at his most dramatically expressive, alternate in such a way as to con?stitute a most effective little tone poem embodying the essence of the drama.
SYMPHONY NO. 4 IN D MINOR, OP. 120 Robert Schumann
Born: June 8, 1810, in Zwickau, Saxony Died: July 29, 1856, atEndenich (nearBonn)
Schumann characteristically concentrated on a single medium at a time in his creative efforts. In 1840 he produced an astounding quantity of songs, including the Dichterliebe and both of the Liederkreis cycles: 1842 was a chamber music year, in which he composed his three string quartets, the Piano Quintet and the Piano Quartet; 1841 was a year for sym?phonies. Schumann composed three major symphonic works that year, in addition to the "Concert Fantasy" which eventually became the first movement of his Piano Concerto. At the end of January he wrote his First Sym?phony, in Bflat. which he labeled the Spring Symphony: when spring actually came, he composed the Overture. Scherzo and Finale, which he at one time considered calling a "Symphonette," and in September he pro?duced this Symphony in D minor, which was then his Second.
Less than a week was required for Schu?mann to compose this Symphony, and not much longer to orchestrate it. When Ferdinand David conducted the premiere in Leipzig, on December 6. 1841, the work was billed as "Symphony No. 2." Schumann was not en?tirely pleased with it. and withheld it from publication for more than a decade, during
which time he published his C major Sym?phony of 1846 as No. 2 and the Rhenish Sym?phony of 1850 as No. 3. When he undertook his revision of the D minor in December 1851, he considered retitling it "Symphonic Fanta?sia," but it became instead his Symphony No. 4, and in accordance with the new chronology it was given the opus number 120. Schumann conducted the revised version in Diisseldorf and elsewhere in 1853.
The revisions, in both form and orchestra?tion, were extensive. A part for guitar in the original version of the slow movement was eliminated and several orchestral parts were doubled, accounting for the "thickened tex?ture" that distressed many of Schumann's admirers. (One of them. Johannes Brahms, was so insistent on the superiority of the original version that he had it published in the 1880s. over the protest of Schumann's widow.) In addition to modifying certain tem?po markings and tightening the structure of the individual movements. Schumann also decreed in his revision that the four move?ments be played without pause (hence the no?tion of calling the work a Fantasia). The "cyclic" reappearance of themes, or frag?ments of themes, throughout the sequence is a further unifying factor.
The first movement opens with an atmos?pheric introduction during which thematic elements gradually take shape. The Allegro ("Lebhqft," in Schumann's German marking) begins with a vigorous statement of the theme which is to be the "motto" throughout the Symphony. The movement's course is a jour?ney from darkness into light, ending in an ex?ultant blaze of D major which might be said to foreshadow the finale of Brahms's symphony in that key.
The Romanze, brief and exquisitely fash?ioned, has a more direct connection with Brahms, who based the third movement of his own Third Symphony on this movement's main theme, as a memorial gesture nearly 30 years after Schumann's death.
One of Schumann's finest symphonic movements is the Scherzo, whose theme is basically an elaboration of the "motto" motif, but is also strikingly similar to that of the cor?responding movement -a Menueiw -of the Symphony No. I in F minor of Johann Wenzel Kalliwodal 18011866). Schumann knew Kalliwoda, and both he and Clara performed as soloists with the orchestra Kalliwoda conduct?ed in Munich; he must have known the Sym?phony in F minor, too, which was composed in 1826 and was one of Kalliwoda's most pop?ular works. In any event, while the similarity of themes is striking enough to be mentioned, the one is not an exact duplicate of the other, and the relationship of Schumann's Scherzo theme to the "motto" of the D minor Sym?phony is no less apparent. By way of pro?nounced contrast, this conspicuously energetic Scherzo is provided with an extremely gentle Trio, in Bflat.
The final movement, like the first, has a slow introduction, but in this case it serves more as a bridge passage from the quiet con?clusion of the Scherzo to the rumbustious finale proper, which commences with a dramatic proclamation of the "motto" theme and cites other material from the preceding movements along the way. A bustling orchestral buildup leads to a lusty fanfare
30
theme from the horns, and a robust Landlerlike motif, unhintedal before, is introduced by the cellos during a brief respite before the final onrush to the exuberant conclusion.
SYMPHONY NO. 9 IN C MAJOR Franz Schubert
Born: January 31, 1797. in Lichtenthal [now part of Vienna)
Died: November 19, 1828, in Vienna
The last of Schubert's symphonies has al?ways been called "the Great C major." and this reference is frequently assumed to be a gesture of respect, as well it might be: indeed, in announcements of concerts and labeling of recordings the word "Great" is hung on as a sobriquet in the manner of "Pastoral" or "Rhenish." The term in this case did not originally represent a value judgment, how?ever, but was simply a way of saying "Big." in distinguishing this work from Schubert's "Little C major" Symphony, his Sixth. It was helpful to be able to refer to the "Big C major." particularly because of uncertainties regarding the number to be affixed to the work.
For some time the "Great C major" was catalogued as No. 7. though it was always assumed to have been composed later than the "Unfinished" Symphony, which is known as No. 8: on occasion it has even been listed as No. 10. In the latter case the two gaps left open in the cycle were for a Symphony in E major -chronologically but unofficially No. 7 -which Schubert sketched in full in 1821 but never got round to scoring, and for another Symphony in C major which he was thought to have composed at Gmunden and Gastein in 1825 or 1826. The Symphony in E major, which has retained its position in the numeri?cal cycle without ever having been officially awarded the number, was first brought to light in 1883. when John Francis Barnctt published his arrangement of the score for piano duet: some 50 years later an effective orchestration was produced by the conductor Felix Weingartner. The socalled "Gastein Sym?phony" has never been found: Joseph Joachim advanced the theory that the Grand Duo in C major for piano, four hands. Op. 140 (D. 813). was actually Schubert's reduction of an orchestral score, and he orchestrated the Duo himself as a "restoration" of the lost symphony.
In our own time it has been suggested that the mysterious "Gastein Symphony" might be none other than the "Great C major" itself, which was long believed to have been com?pleted in March 1828. but which might not have been that late, after all. John Reed, in his book Schubert: The Final Years, published in 1972. makes a persuasive case for 1826 as the actual year of this work's completion. This question may never be settled, but there is by now virtually universal agreement on "9" as the proper number for this work, and on its position as the capstone of Schubert's activity as asymphonist.
Together with another Ninth, that of Beethoven, this Ninth of Schubert is one of the most revered of all symphonies, and among musicians themselves it may well be the most beloved of all. occupying a position in the orchestral literature akin to that of Schubert's
String Quintet in the same key, completed only weeks before his death, in the realm of chamber music. Schubert never heard either of these masterworks performed, and it seems more than a little ironic that it was the initial resistance on the part of orchestral players that delayed the entry of this Symphony into the repertory.
The prestigious Society of Friends of Music in Vienna, it appears, had scheduled this Sym?phony for performance in 1828. but rejected it as being too difficult to perform. (It has never been conclusively established that this was in?deed the Schubert symphony in question, but it is more than probable.) On that occasion the "Little C major" was substituted, and thus be?came the only Schubert symphony given a concert performance during the composer's lifetime. It was not until ten years after Schubert's death that the score of the "Great C major" was discovered by Robert Schumann and sent by him to Felix Mendelssohn, who conducted the premiere performance in Leipzig on March 21. 1839. A few years later, when Mendelssohn put the work into rehearsal for one of his London concerts (for the same Philharmonic Society that had commissioned Beethoven's unprecedented Ninth), the orchestra members so derided portions of the finale that he was forced to withdraw it.
Franc,oisAntoine Habeneck. who suc?cessfully completed the first "integral" per?formance of all of Beethoven's symphonies in Paris as early as 1831. tried to introduce the Schubert Ninth in that city a decade or so later, and was confronted by an orchestral rebellion of the sort Mendelssohn had faced in London. In the 1840s the newness of Schubert's masterwork was still intimidating. Significantly, in reporting on his discover) of the score among Schubert's effects. Schumann not only noted the work's "heavenly length." but re?marked that "it leads us into regions which -to our best recollections -we had never be?fore explored."
The opening phrase of the introductory An?dante, given out by the two horns, is majestic and broad, defining the vast scale to which the entire work is drawn. What follows in this ex?pansive introduction and in the movement proper (Allegro ma non troppo) reveals some of the more obvious aspects of Schubert's legacy to both Brahms and Bruckner. Brahmsian before the fact is the characteristic texture of the strings' first entrance and the distinctive colors achieved with the winds. Bruckner's style is foretold in the noble simplicity of the opening theme (suggesting massiveness with?out being massive), in the development of most of the movement's materials from the second of the threenote phrases in that theme, and in the elaborate coda which culminates in a glorification of the opening material.
The slow movement, characterized by Donald Francis Tovey as a "heartbreaking show of spirit in adversity." is the sort of music only Schubert could have written: the combination here of lyricism, stark drama, and an intensity made all the more poignant by the obvious effort toward restraint is some?thing uniquely his. This is music from the same grim and pathetic, yet proud world as the songcycle Die Winterrei.se (completed in 1827). Its key, A minor, as we might recall from the famous Op. 29 String Quartet, had a personal poignancy for Schubert similar to that
of G minor for Mozart. The second theme in F major is broad and consolatory, one of the most expansive such gestures in any of Schubert's instrumental works. Schubert builds on these materials to achieve a climax as emotionally explicit as those to come decades later from Tchaikovsky, and in fact caps it in the same way Tchaikovsky did in both his Fourth and Fifth symphonies (and Strauss did in his Don Juan, composed in 1888. the same year as Tchaikovsky's Fifth): a sudden "'shattering silence," an unexpected void following upon an unrestraintedly violent outcry. Here is unabashedly "confessional" music, at least a few years before Berlioz's
Symphonie fantastique and a full halfcentury before Tchaikovsky began his "auto?biographical" symphonies.
In his first five symphonies, all produced by the time he was 19. Schubert called his third movements minuets, though most of them strike us as scherzos. His first declared sym?phonic scherzo, in the Sixth Symphony (1818), was clearly modeled after the one in Bcethoven"s Seventh; the one in the Ninth admits of no models other than those Schubert himself provided in his chamber music and piano sonatas. It is a rough peasant dance given Olympian proportions, and its trio is a similarly idealized Lonelier.
Quite uncharacteristically. Schubert took the trouble to go over the first three move?ments and make emendations here and there, but the phenomenal spontaneity of the finale is in no way misleading: it was written at a furious pace (Lawrence Gilman's marvelous phrase was "a sacred fury of inspiration"), and not a note was changed. Along the course of this inexhaustible and truly climactic move?ment one may hear a fleeting echo -perhaps intentional on Schubert's part, perhaps not -of the theme of the final chorus of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony; it does not seem at all in?appropriate, but it appears as a mere flicker in the wholly Schubertian blaze.
Choral Union Series
Choice Series
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Series
Debut & Encore Recital Series
A New Season of International Presentations
198384
Isaac Stern, Violinist............................................Sat. Oct 1
English Chamber Orchestra
with Gidon Kremer, Violinist.............................. Thurs. Oct. 27
Los Angeles Chamber Orchestra, Gaechinger Kantorei
of Stuttgart, and soloists; Helmuth Rilling, Conductor........Tues. Nov. 1
Warsaw Philharmonic, with Misha Dichter, Pianist ..........Thurs. Nov. 10
Mstislav Rostropovich, Cellist...............................Wed. Nov. 16
Leontyne Price, Soprano........................................ Sat. Feb. 4
Vienna PhilharmonicLeonard Bernstein..................... Wed. Feb. 15
Orchestre National de FranceLorin Maazel.................Thurs. Mar. 8
Czech Philharmonic Orchestra ..............................Sun. Mar. 25
YoYo Ma, Cellist............................................ Wed. Apr. 4
Ballet Nacional Espanol...................................Wed. Sept. 28
Western Opera Theater, Madama Butterfly...............Fri. & Sat. Oct. 7 & 8
New World Ballet of Caracas .............................. Wed. Oct. 26
Soviet Emigre OrchestraLazar Gosman.......................Wed. Nov. 2
Pittsburgh Ballet, Tchaikovsky's Nutcracker ............ Fri.Sun. Dec. 1618
Welsh National Opera Chorus............................... Mon. Jan 16
Paul Taylor Dance Company........................... Fri.Sun. Jan. 2729
Oakland Ballet......................................Mon.Wed. Mar. 57
Musica Antiqua of Cologne ................................ Tues. Oct. 11
Beaux Arts Trio............................................. Sun. Oct. 23
New World String Quartet.................................. Sun. Nov. 6
Franz Liszt Chamber Orchestra (Budapest)................... Sun. Nov. 20
Richard Stoltzman, Clarinet, and
William Douglas, BassoonPiano............................Thurs. Jan. 12
Takacs String Quartet (Hungary) ........................... Tues. Feb. 28
Northwood OrchestraDon Jaeger.........................Thurs. Mar. 29
Orpheus Chamber Ensemble ................................... Fri. Apr. 13
James Tocco, Pianist ........................................ Wed. Oct. 19
Hermann Baumann, French horn................................Fri. Nov. 18
Cecile Licad, Pianist .......................................... Sat. Jan. 14
Peter Zazofsky, Violinist ......................................Sun. Mar. 4
Handel's Messiah ....................................... Fri.Sun. Dec. 24
Ninetyfirst Annual May Festival...................... Wed.Sat. Apr. 2528
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University Hall
I
t was in 1888. almost ten years alter the Uni?versity Musical Society's first concert in 1879, that Albert A. Stanley came to Ann Arbor from Rhode Island to head matters musical at the University of Michigan. With a back?ground as organist and with four years of pro?fessional music training at the Leipzig Con?servatory of Music behind him. Stanley plunged into his duties with gusto. He reorgan?ized the Choral Union, opened a reorganized School of Music in 1892. and in 1893 spearheaded the building of a new music school on Maynard Street which remained in use for that purpose for the next 70 years.
Beginning in 1890. the Boston Symphony Orchestra came to Ann Arbor each spring for a concert in the Choral Union Series, but in the spring of 1894 it was suddenly unavailable. What to do ""Dad" Stanley, as he was now affectionately called, took a look at another Boston ensemble, the 50piece Boston Festi?val Orchestra (no connection with the other one) under Emil Mollenhauer. To make the orchestra's trip to Ann Arbor worthwhile, ""Dad" hit upon the idea of using the Boston Festival Orchestra for three concerts and call?ing it the "First Annual Ann Arbor May Festival." The highlight of the weekend would be Verdi's "Requiem." a major work lor full chorus, orchestra, and soloists, per?formed here only twenty years after Verdi himself conducted its premiere in Milan. Italy. And so. on that Saturday night. May 19, 1894, began the tradition of the chorus' participation in successive Festivals. This first Festival took place in the second tloor auditorium of Uni?versity Hall, a building in the center of the University campus (behind the present Angell Hall), which was dedicated in 1873 and razed in 1950.
1894: The Choral Union and Boston Festival
Orchestra rehearse the Verdi "Requiem" in University Hall's auditorium (above), for their performance in the first May Festival (right).
Albert A. Stanley
A;i early children's chorus assembles in front of the School of Music building on Maynard Street.
r new era began for the Choral Union and the Musical Society in 1913. That year saw the completion of the magnificent new Hill Audi?torium, made possible by a $200.000 bequest from Arthur Hill, a former regent from Saginaw. and designed by Albert Kahn. The 20th Annual May Festival took place on Hill Audi?torium's much larger stage, and ushered in the years of the Festival Youth Chorus. Many in our audiences today have fond memories of singing in this chorus, a group of 400 singers selected each year from the Ann Arbor Public Schools. The Youth Chorus remained a part of the May Festival for the next 45 years, with Juva Higbee and Marguerite Hood two of its bestremembered conductors.
1913: The first Max Festival in Hill Auditorium. Youth Chorus members are photographed with soloist Ernestine SchumannHeink (in center).
D
"ad Stanley had used his enthusiasm and vision to turn seeming misfortune into great success. As everyone now knows, the 1894 Festival has stretched into 90 -weathering two major wars and various economic de?pressions. The Boston Festival Orchestra be?came the first "orehestrainresidence." traveling annually to Ann Arbor with its con?ductor Emil Mollenhauer for eleven years. 1905 to 1935 were the years of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra under Frederick Stock. In 1936 The Philadephia Orchestra under Leopold Stokowski (his last season in Phil?adelphia) began its long Festival tenure in Ann Arbor, with Eugene Ormandy coming in 1937 as the Orchestra's new conductor.
c. 1920: Charles Sink (far left) stands next to Frederick Stock. with "Dad" Stanley (right) in front of Hill Auditorium.
C. 1918: Business Manager Sink supervises office in the School of Music, which served both school and concert needs until 1940 when the Musical Society moved to Burton Tower.
I
n the early 19(X)s two young men. destined to have an impact on Ann Arbor's musical scene, were studying at The University of Michigan. Charles A. Sink obtained his de?gree in 1904 and immediately became Secre?tary of the School of Music; Earl V. Moore graduated in 1912 and at once joined the fac?ulty of the School of Music. At this juncture, it is helpful to understand the long and some?times seemingly confusing relationship be?tween the University Musical Society and the School of Music: The University Musical So?ciety established, controlled, and operated the School of Music from 1881 until 1929; the School was then accepted into The University of Michigan, received University financial support, its faculty bore academic rank, and students pursued University degrees. Admin?istration of the School, however, stayed in the hands of the Musical Society until the fall of 1940. at which time The University of Michi?gan took over full management of the School of Music, and the Musical Society directed its attention to sponsoring the professional con?certs and maintaining its chorus.
M,
Lr. Sink, the young graduate and not him?self a musician (his training was in the clas?sics), quickly became Business Manager of the School and gradually assumed other man?agerial responsibilities which led him to be named President of the University Musical So?ciety in 1927. From early in his career until the late 1950s, he was responsible for booking the hundreds of concert artists who performed in Ann Arbor. Often referred to as the Dean of Concert Managers. Dr. Sink developed the Choral Union Series and May Festivals as models of the highest quality of artistic achievement. During his fifty years of service, he put Ann Arbor on the musical map. at the same time keeping musical affairs at Michigan on a.sound financial basis. Mr. Sink retired from administrative duties in 1957. continuing as President of the Board of Directors of the Musical Society until 1968; he died in December 1972.
l_ike "Dad" Stanley. Earl V. Moore was an organist, composer, and conductor, a natural successor to Mr. Stanley when he retired in 1921. Indeed. "Dad" had referred to him as his "righthand man." Alter a search was conducted (composerconductor Gustav Hoist was among those considered). Earl Moore was chosen in 1923 to be Musical Director of the Musical Society. Professor of Music, and con?ductor of the Choral Union. He conducted the Choral Union in 27 May Festivals, from 1913 to 1939. Dr. Moore then continued his func?tion as Director of the School of Music w hen it was absorbed into The University of Michigan in 1940. his title changing to Dean in 1946. He remained in that capacity until his retirement in I960. The present School of Music building on North Campus, built in 1964. bears his name in recognition of his expert leadership. At this writing. Dr. Moore is still enjoying retirement in the sunny climes of southern California.
37
Early 1900s: A young Charles Sink, hatinhand, poses in front of the School of Music.
1923: Earl V. Moore (right), newlynamed conductor of the Choral Union, is congratulated by Charles Sink.
1938: Alva Sink. Albert Spaldinfi. Mrs. Spalding, Arthur Rubinstein.
Springtime in Ann Arbor is described by Chicagoan Charles Walt, editor The Music News. Following his attendance at the I9JI May Festival, he wrote this story, partially reprinted here, dateline June 5. 1931.
Ann Arbor is wonderful and at the same time utterly charming.
Wonderful in its great University--its consolidation of opinion among residents that there is no other place to compare with it--wonderful in its art aspect, its literary taste and its musical development--wonder?ful in its kindhearted and generous friend?liness and almost beyond compare in the beauty of its architecture, its trees and lawns and its all enveloping displays of flowers.
Not in its great University buildings alone and the gorgeous landscape gardening surrounding the palatial houses of its many affluent citizens, but also charming in the modest homes and the smaller areas of flowers which abound around every door?step and overflow every side and back yard with tulips, lilacs (purple and white), pansies, lilies, and every other item of the spring catalog with abundant promise for the summer to come.
As one walks along Main Street and looks across the valley of the small river, he gasps at the beauty of the masses of flower?ing fruit trees, pyramiding masses of pink and white on the gentle hills beyond.
Not in England itself have [ seen a more beautiful formal garden than that which is entered from the main corridor of the splendid new Woman's League building. A walledin garden it is, with loose flagstone walks bisecting the generous flower beds. The cracks between the stones are allowed to run riot with grass and, at present, the beds are just one glorious mass of tall, waving tulips, every color imaginable, some never seen before.
A REGULAR COUNTRY MARKET
Just across from the hospitable Hotel Allencl, where I always stay and always am happy, is the City Hall Square, with its wonderful trees, its Civil War statue, its benches where old men and children sit to?gether in the sun.
There is a broad sidewalk encircling the entire block and here--on Saturdays--is held the most bucolic and sweetsavored market I ever saw, and--I visit it each year without fail.
This is no market of professional huck?sters and offers no cheap trash of any de?scription. It is--rather, the place where the actual producer from the countryside sells his actual fresh made, newly laid and "garnered today" wares. Golden rolls of butter and jars of cottage cheese laid on clean cloths atop a drygoods box invite at?tention. Peck measures of potatoes, dry onions, gladioli bulbs, pop corn, hickory nuts and black walnuts stand in soldierly rows. Bushel baskets full of tender, young radishes, cleanwashed scarlet, and huge bunches of succulent, green onions make one wish he had a saltcellar at hand and could just sit down on the curb and founder himself. Rhubarb too, in long, pinky stalks, beautiful asparagus and lettuce aplenty as well as spicy cress, dried herbs and legumes.
Homemade cakes, melting cookies, canned fruit, honey, beeswax, great jars of baked beans and cooked white hominey.
Dressed and undressed chickens in order?ly piles and in small coops, live rabbits also.
And if I begin talking about the flowers there will be no more space for anything else--tiny seedlings by the dozen, bouquets of everlastings, tubs of lilac, buckets full of trilliums and other wild charmers, and-well, just everything including heaps of "greens," dandelions and such like, young trees, bushes, cabbage and tomato plants, boxes of surprised, pansy faces.
A lady said to me at the Friday luncheon at Barton Country Club--"Indeed Ann Arborites do love their hometown, when they move to California they write back lamenting the Michigan flowers, and no business man in Ann Arbor could be in?duced to go to Chicago unless he was of?fered at least one thousand dollars a year more for just the same kind of a job he was leaving here."
It was at this same luncheon that Dr. Albert A. Stanley said, "I will be eighty years old this month and have spent the greater part of my life here and my choice of a heaven would be just to live my life right over again and see once more the wonderful development of Ann Arbor."
Early 1930s: Glenn McGeoch stands
behind UM President Alexander
Ruthven and Maestro Frederick Slock
at a luncheon gathering.
1936: Leopold Slokowski (right) receives {i welcome from Mr. Sink.
Early 1930s: Howard Hanson. Felix liorowski. and Earl Moore enjoy the annual Friday luncheon outing at liarton Hills Country Club.
The
he 1930s brought two students from Mid?western states to the University of Michigan, who would first meet in the School of Music and later become colleagues. Born in Wiscon?sin Rapids. Wisconsin, in 1913. Thor Johnson arrived on campus for graduate study in 1934, to further his childhood ambition to be the conductor of a symphony orchestra. Alter his degree work at UM. he studied in Europe in Salburg. Leipzig, and Prague, and at the Berkshire Music Center. Tanglcwood, as a student of Serge Koussevitky. 1937 found him back in Ann Arbor, engaged by Dr. Sink as conductor of the University Little Sym?phony, composed of 1520 selected music stu?dents. Under Mr. Johnson's direction, the Lit?tle Symphony gave an average of 50 concerts each year, across 28 states, until 1942. Thor Johnson made his conducting debut with The Philadelphia Orchestra at the 1940 May Festival, and subsequently appeared as guest conductor at a total of thirty May Festivals, from 1940 to 1973. He was also music director of the Cincinnati and Nashville Symphony Orchestras, and founded several music festi?vals, his two favorites being the Peninsula Music Festival of Fish Creek. Wisconsin, and the Early Moravian Music Festival in North Carolina. He championed the new music of American composers by giving literally hun?dreds of American and world premieres, many of which took place in our May Festivals with the Choral Union and Philadelphia Orchestra. Thor Johnson's productive career was cut short by complications following brain sur?gery: he died January 16. 1975. in Nashville. From his generous bequest to the Musical So?ciety, a memorial fellowship to assist talented conducting students in the School of Musicwas established in his name in 1979: it was first awarded to Leil Bjaland and is currently held by William Robertson.
Oitting in the wind section of Thor Johnson's Little Symphony in the late 1930s was a young music student straight from Nebraska. His name was Gail Rector and his instrument was the bassoon. While a student, he also sang in the Choral Union and did his first managerial stint as manager of the Little Symphony and the University Symphony Orchestra for two years. He served in the Armed Forces for two years during World War II. but sooner rather than later found his way back to Ann Arbor and the Musical Society. The rest is modern history. Gail Rector has served the Musical Society since 1945 (with the exception of threeyears in Boston as Assistant Manager of the Boston Symphony Orchestra), first as Assis?tant to the President (19451954). then Execu?tive Director! 19571968). and since 1968 as President. Performing artists and concertgocrs. so long accustomed to an atmosphere mutually conducive to the highest order of musicmaking, continue to find Ann Arbor a musician's mecca. May it long be so!
Supplemental Reading:
100 Years of Great Performances: University
Musical Society (1980)
100 Years of Music at Michigan: UM School
of Music (1979)
Thor Johnson, American Conductor: Louis
Nicholas (1982)
1941: Thor Johnson and Charles Sink.
1943: Fritz Kreisler in Green Room.
1943: Charles Sink. Dorothy May nor, Alexander Hilsberg, Liix Pans.
1941: After a rehearsal, Jascha Heifetz (second from left) leaves hack door of Hill Auditorium with Alexander Hilsberg, as student Gail Rector (far right) watches.
1949: Gladys Swarthout, with fountain and Toner in background.
1957: Thor Johnson conducts a piano rehearsal for "Aida" with (standing) Lester McCoy, Choral Union conductor, and soloists Nicola Moscona, Leontyne Price, Martha Liplon. and Rudolf Peirak.
1950: Ljuba Weliisch in rehearsal with Eugene Ormandy.
1974: Yehutli Mewhin and Eugene Ormandy.
1966: Monlserral Caballe with Mr. Ormandy.
1967: Mstislav Roslropovich greets the Sinks.
1959: Dorothy Kirsten visits backstage with Gail Rector and Mr. Ormandy.
1976: Composerconductor Aaron Copland (left) highlights the
liici'iuennial year.
1970: Rudolf Serkin. Vein Cliburn, Gail Rector.
I9H0: Isaac Stern, with UM President Harold Shapiro and Mrs. Shapiro.
1974: Beverly Sillx, Gail Rector, Eugene Ormandy.
1976: Maestro Ormandy and Marilyn Home.
1978: An expressive Vladimir Horowitz shares a thought with Maestro Ormaiuh.
1957: Thor Johnson conducts a piano rehearsal for "Aida" with (standing) Lester McCoy, Choral Union conductor, and soloists Nicola Moscona, Leontyne Price, Martha Upton, and Rudolf Petrak.
1966: Montserrat Caballewith Mr. Ormandy.
1950: Ljuba Welitsch in rehearsal with Eugene Ormandy.
1967: Mslislav Rostropovich greets the Sinks.
1974: Yehudi Menuhin and Eugene Ormandy.
1959: Dorolhy Kirsien visits backstage with Gail Rector anil Mr. Ormamlx.
1976: Composerconductor Aaron Copland (left) highlights the
Bicentennial sear.
1970: Rudolf Serkin, Van Cliburn, Gail Rector.
1974: Beverly Sills. Gail Rector, Eugene Ormandy.
19X0: Isaac Stern, with UM President Harold Shapiro and Mrs. Shapiro.
1976: Maestro Ormandy and Marilyn Home.
1978: An expressive Vladimir Horowitz shares a thought with Maestro Ormundx.
May Festival Artists 18941983 Orchestras, Conductors, Soloists, Choral Groups
Orchestras
BOSTON FESTIVAL ORCHESTRA
18941904 inclusive
Emil Mollenhauer. Conductor
18941904 inclusive
CHICAGO SYMPHONY ORCHESTRA
19051935 inclusive
Frederick Stock, Conductor
19051935 inclusive
THE PHILADELPHIA ORCHESTRA
19361983 inclusive Leopold Stokowski. Conductor
1936 Eugene Ormandy, Conductor
19371982 inclusive
Riccardo Muti. Conductor
1979, 1983
Participating Conductors
Theo Alcantara Felix Borowski George Bowen Russell Carter Saul Caston Aldo Ceccato Aaron Copland Roxy Cowin Robert Craft Eric De Lamarter Georges Enesco Percy Grainger Howard Hanson Juva Higbee Alexander Hilsberg Gustav Hoist Marguerite Hood
Sopranos
Leonora Allen Perceval Allen Selma Amansky Sara Anderson Martina Arroyo Florence Austral Rose Bampton Inez Barbour Frances Bible Lillian Blauvelt Judith Blegen Alice Bliton Anne Bollinger Lucrezia Bori Inge Borkh Anne Brown (Master) Gerald Brown (Master) Leslie Brown Grace Bumbry Mary Burgess Hilda Burke Clara Henley Bussing Montserrat Caballe Emma Calve Frances Caspary Leonora Corona Regine Crespin
Jose Iturbi Thor Johnson Joseph Maddy Harl McDonald Earl V. Moore Geneva Nelson Charles O'Connell John Pritchard Jindrich Rohan Robert Shaw
Stanislaw Skrowaczewski William Smith Albert A. Stanley Igor Stravinsky Virgil Thomson Hardin Van Deursen Hermann Zeitz
Shanna Cumming Phyllis Curtin Agnes Davis Lisa Delia Casa Victoria de los Angeles Bernice de Pasquali Ruth Diehl Claire Dux Florence Easton Eileen Farrell Maude Fay Anna Fitziu Kirsten Flagstad Olive Fremstad Johanna Gadski Mabel Garrison Lucy Gates Dusolina Giannini AlmaGluck Frances Greer HildeGueden Nanette Guilford Emily Stokes Hagar Janice Harsanyi Ethyl Hayden Judith Hellwig Frieda Hempel
Igor Stravinsky
Louise Homer
Rose Bampum
Jindrich Rohan
John Prilchard
Joan Sutherland
Birgit Nilsson
Rosa Ponselle
Nornia Hcydc Florence Hinkle Jane Hobson Marilyn Home Fredericka S. Hull Helen Jepson Grace JohnsonKonold Lois JohnstonGilchrist Emma Juch Suzanne Keener Evta Kileski Dorothy Kirsten Maud C. Kleyn Olive Kline Ilona Kombrink Nina Koshetz Emmy Krueger Leone Kruse Marjorie Lawrence Thelma Lewis Juliette Lippe Goeta Ljungberg Anna Lohbiller Kathrina LohseKlafsky Florence Macbeth Charlotte Maconda Virginia MacWatters Evelyn Mandac Lois Marshall Doris Marvin Edith Mason Dorothy Maynor Marjorie McClung Ruth McCormick (Master) Bejun Mehta Zinka Milanov Marie Montana Mary Moore Nina Morgana Patrice Munsel Claudia Muzio Patricia Neway Birgit Nilsson Maralin Niska Lillian Nordica Jessye Norman Jarmila Novotna Mildred Olson Jane OsborneHannah Dorothy Park Adele Parkhurst Frances Peralta Gwendolyn Pike
Lily Pons
Rosa Ponsclle
Leontync Price
Marie Rappold
Judith Raskin
Lillian French Read
Regina Resnik
Elisabeth Rcthberg
Corrine RiderReedKelsey
Anita Rio
Faye Robinson
Ruth Rodgers
Noclle Rogers
Stella Roman
Louise Russell
Shirley Russell
Sibyl SammisMaeDermid
Bidu Sayao
Geraldine Schlemmcr
Jean Seeley
Marcella Sembrich
Myrna Shadow
Betsy Lane Shepard
Beverly Sills
Alma Jean Smith
Lenora Sparkes
Mrs. W. E. Spitzkey
Maria Stader
Burnettc Bradley Staebler
Eleanor Steber
Suzanne Sten
Rise Stevens
Rose Stewart
Grete Stueckgold
Marie Sundelius
Joan Sutherland
Pia Tassinari
Rosa Tentoni
Helen Traubel
Veronica Tyler
Benita Valente
Jeannette van der Vepen Reaume
Astrid Varnay
Galina Vishnevskaya
Thclma von Eiscnhauer
Jeanette Vreeland
Jennifer Vyvyan
Jennie Patrick Walker
Dorothy Warenskjold
Ljuba Welitsch
Frances Dunton Wood
Marie Kunkcl Zimmerman
Mezzosopranos & Contraltos
Mabcllc Addison Merle Alcock Marian Anderson Elsie Baker Katherine Bloodgood (Master) John Bogart Isabelle Bouton Sophie Braslau Margaret Calvert Bruna Castagna Lili Chookasian Katherine Ciesinksi Lorctta Degnan Hope Bauer Eddy Cloe Elmo Eleanor Felver Birgit Finnila Maureen Forrester Coe Glade
Hertha Glaz Jeanne Gordon Mina Hager Barbara Hilbish Louise Homer Doris Howe Nora Crane Hunt Clara J. Jacobs Josephine Jacoby Anna Kaskas Margaret Keyes Minerva Komenarski Jeanne Laval Carolina Lazzari Augusta Lenska Myrtle Leonard Martha Lipton Mary MacKenzie Elizabeth Mannion
Stanislaw Skrowaczewski
Victoria de lo.s Angeles
Rise Stevens
Gustav Hoist
Robert Shaw
Aldo Ceccalo
Marian Anderson
MezzoSopranos & Contraltos (Continued)
Margaret Matzcnauer Kathryn Mcislc Alexandrina Milchcva Christine Miller Mildred Miller Janice Moudry Florence Mulford Grace Munson Lorna Myers Rosalind Nadell Margarete Ober Nell Rankin Eleanor Reynolds Emma Roberts Fielding Rosclle Jean Sanders Anna SchramImig Ernestine SchumannHeink Daisy Force Scott
Tenors
Paul Althousc Waldie Anderson Jacques Bars Kurt Baum Daniel Beddoe Joseph T. Berry Barron Berthald Jussi Bjoerling Rockwell Blake Giuseppe Campora Fernando Carpi Arthur Carron Giuseppe Cavadore Leslie Chabay Mario Chamlee Holmes Cowper Richard Crooks Albert Da Costa Tudor Davies Horace L. Davis Coloman de Pataky Murray Dickie Andreas Dippel Warren Foster Maurice Gerow BeniaminoGigli John Gilmore Dan Gridley Arthur Hackett William Hain Glenn P. Hall James Hamilton George J. Hamlin Orvillc Harrold Harold Haugh Jon Humphrey Frederick Jagel Howard Jarratt Edward Johnson Fred Killeen Morgan Kingston Felix Knight Stanley Kolk Arthur Kraft Charles Kullman Forrest Lamont William J. Lavin
Bessie Sickles Joanna Simon Janet Spencer Gertrude May Stein Gladys Swarthout Enid Szantho Nell Tangeman Marion Telva Blanche Thebom Kerstin Thorborg Blanche Towle Claramae Turner Nevada Vander Veer Cyrena Van Gordon Jean Watson Tann Williams Rosalie Wirthlin Elizabeth Wysor
Hipolito Lazaro Emmett Leib Richard Lewis David Lloyd Charles Marshall Riccardo Martin Giovanni Martinclli Nino Martini John McCollum John McCormack J. H. McKinley Lauritz Melchior Reed Miller G. Leon Moore James Moore Rhys Morgan Lambert Murphy Ottis Odra Patton Marshall Pease Jan Peerce Rudolf Petrak Henry Price Kenneth Riegel William H. Rieger Frank Ryan. Jr. Tito Schipa Alfred D. Shaw Clarence Shirley Leopold Simoncau Zurab Sotkilava John Stewart Sidney Straight Charles Stratton Brian Sullivan Roydcn Susumago Set Svanholm Fcrruccio Tagliavini Armand Tokatyan Edward C. Towne Richard Tucker Ellison van Hoose Theodore Van Yorx William Wcgcner William Wheeler Walter Widdop Evan Williams
Ernestine SchumannHeink
John Charles Thomas
William Warfield
Dietrich FischerDieskau
George London
Martial Singher
Rudolf Firkusny
Lawrence Tibben
Baritones & Basses
W. Roy Alvord Pusqualc Amato Salvatore Baccaloni Vicente Ballester Chase Baromeo Mario Basiola Donald Bell Ara Berberian Joseph T. Berry Sidney Biden Mark Bills David Bispham Richard Bonelli Kim Borg John Brownlcc Giuseppe Campanari John Cheek William H.Clarke Louis Cogswell Horatio Connell Norman Cordon Claude Cunningham Royal Dadmun Giuseppe Danise Vernon D'Arnalle Giuseppe Del Pucntc Giuseppe de Luca Michael Devlin Robert Richard Dieterle Allen A. Dudley Philip Duey Nelson Eddy Aurelio Estanislao Wilbur Evans Keith Falkner Bernard Ferguson Dietrich FischerDieskau Ezio Flagello George Galvani Emiliode Gogorza Donald Gramm Marion Green Leslie Guinn John Gumey William Gustafson Mack Harrell Theodore Harrison Max Heinrich Ralph Herbert Barre Hill Jerome Hines William Wade Hinshaw Gustaf Holmquist William A. Howland Julius Huehn EarlcG. Killeen Alexander Kipnis
Pianists
Victor Babin
Gina Bachauer
William Bachaus
Harold Bauer
Fannie BloomfieldZeisler
Jorge Bolet
Alexander Brailowsky
Joseph Brinkmun
John Browning
Robert Casadesus
Van Cliburn
Bella Davidovich
Elizabeth Davics
Anthony Di Bonaventura
Gardners. Lamson Carl Lindcgren George London Frederic Martin Robert J. McCandliss Robert McFerrin Morley Meredith Robert Merrill Hcinrich Meyn Arthur Middleton Gwylim Miles Sherrill Milnes Carlo Morelli Nicola Moscona Frederick A. Munson David Nash Oscar Natzka Maxim Panteleieff Willis Patterson Fred Patlon James Pease Rollin Pease Ezio Pinza J. Patrick Raftery Leon Rothier Titta Ruffo Carl Schlegel Henri Scott Andres de Segurola Frederic ShatTmaster Cesare Siepi William Simmons Martial Singher Kenneth Smith YiKwei Sze Martti Talvela John Charles Thomas Lawrence Tibbett Charles Tittmann Giorgio Tozzi Theodore Uppman Hardin Van Deursen William Warfield Leonard Warren Theodore Webb Robert Weede Reinald Wcrrcnrath John White Clarence E. Whitehill Myron W. Whitney. Jr. Lawrence Winters Herbert Witherspoon James Wolfe F. Howland Woodward Renato Zanelli Otto Z. Zelner
Jeanette DurnoCollins Philippe Lntremont Rudolf Firkusny Leon Fleisher Malcolm Frager Claude Frank Dalies Frantz Arthur Friedheim Ossip Gabrilowitsch Rudolf Can Glenn Gould Gitta Gradova Gary Graffman Percy Grainger
Sherrill Millies
Beniamino Gigli
Jerome Nines
Richard Tucker
Richard Crooks
Gina Bachauvr
Glenn Gould
Pianists (Continued)
Ethel Hauser Josef Hofmann Vladimir Horowitz Ernest Hutchcson Eugene Istomin Jose Iturbi Byron Janis Grant Johannesen Alberto Jonas William Kapell Alicia de Larrocha Ethel Leginska Tina Lerner Oscar Levant Mischa Levitzki Josef Lhevinne Eugene List Albert Lockwood Pierre Luboshutz Guy Maier Benno Moiseiwitsch
Organists
E. Power Biggs Richard Keys Biggs M. Joseph Bonnet Palmer Christian Charles M. Courboin Clarence Eddy
Violinists
Ruth Breton Anshel Brusilow Guila Bustabo Norman Carol Mischa Elman Georges Enesco Henri Ern Zino Francescatti Mayumi Fujikawa Carroll Glenn Sidney Harth Jascha Heifetz Alexander Hilsberg Ani Kavafian Joseph Knitzer Jacob Krachmalnick Leopold Kramer Fritz Kreisler Gidon Kremer Sylvia Lent Lea Luboshutz Yehudi Menuhin
Cellists
Emanuel Feuermann Fritz Giese Arthur Hadley Alex Heindl Alfred Hoffmann YoYo Ma Lome Munroe
Flutists
William Kincaid John Krell (piccolo) Ernest Liegl
Gcnia Nemenoff Barbara Nissman Ignace Jan Paderewski Lee Pattison Sergei Rachmaninoff Sviatoslav Richter Hans RichterHaaser Arthur Rubinstein Gyorgy Sandor Ernest Sehelling Artur Schnabel PeterSerkin Rudolf Scrkin Martinus Sieveking Susan Starr Brahm van den Berg Elsa von Grave Vitya Vronsky Andre Watts James Wolfe KrystianZi merman
Ralph Kinder Edwin Arthur Kraft Earl V. Moore Robert Noehren Llewellyn L. Renwiek Leopold Stokowski
Nathan Milstcin Mischa Mischakoff Jeanne Mitchell Erica Morini Itzhak Perlman Ruth Posselt Michael Rabin Benno Rabinof Ruggiero Ricci Erna Rubinstein Albert Spalding Tossy Spivakovsky Issac Stern Marian Struble Bernard Strum Joseph Szigeti Charles Treger Anthony Whitmire Felix Winternitz Hermann Zeitz Efrem Zimbalist
Zara Nelsova Gregor Piatigorsky Leonard Rose Mstislav Rostropovich Bruno Steindel William Stokking Carl Webster
Charles North Murray Panitz Frank Vcrsaci
Josef Hofmann
Sviatoxlav Richter
Gregor Piatigorsky
Ignace Jan Paderewski
Nathan Milslein
A rlhur Rubinstein
Sergei Rachmaninoff
Alicia dv Lurniiiui
Violists
Robert Courte Joseph dc Pasquale William Primrose
Guitarists
Carlos Montoya Christopher Parkening Andres Segovia
Other Solo Instrumentalists
Alfred Barthcl (oboe) Marilyn Costello (harp) John Dc Lancic (oboe) Leopold de Marc (French horn) Bernard Garfield (bassoon) Anthony Gigliotti (clarinet)
Choral Groups
Battle Creek Boychoir
Boy Choir (local)
Children's Choir (Clague School)
Congregational Church Choir
Festival Youth Chorus
Lyra Male Chorus
Narrators
(Rabbi) Barnett Brickner Edwin Burrows Marvin Diskin Richard Hale William Halstead Nancy Heusel Richard Hollister
Gilbert Johnson (trumpet) Mason Jones (French horn) Van Veachton Rogers (harp) Alberto Salvi (harp) Michael Webster (clarinet)
St. Andrew's Church Choir Stanley Women's Chorus University Choral Union and
Festival Chorus University Girls Glee Club University Glee Club
Paul Leyssac
Hugh Norton
Jerrold Sandier
Erica von Wagner Stiedry
Thomas C. Trueblood
Theodor Uppman
Vera Zorina
May Festival Premieres (All are choral works except the 1959 Virgil Thomson piece.)
1921 --Earl V. Moore: Voyage of Arion (2)1923 -Gustav Hoist: The Hymn of Jesus 1924 -Frederick Delius: Sea Drift 1924 -Ottorino Respighi: La Primavera (1)(2)1926-Howard Hanson: Lament for Beowulf (1)12)1927 -Howard Hanson: Heroic Elegy
1927 -Gustav Hoist: First Choral Symphony (excerpts) (2)1932 -Gustav Hoist: A Choral Fantasia
1932 -Nikolai RimskyKorsakov: The Legend of Kitesh (11(2)1933 -Howard Hanson: Merry Mount
1934 --Robert Heger: Ein Friedenslied. Op. 19 (1)(2)1935 -Howard Hanson: Drum Taps (1)1935 -Dorothy James: Jumblies
1937 -Eric Fogg: The Seasons (1)1938 -Dorothy James: Paul Bunyan
(1)1949 -Llywelyn Gomer: Gloria in Excelsis
1951 -Constant Lambert: Summer's Last Will and Testament (1H3)1953 -Normand Lockwood: Prairie
1954 -Carlos Chavez: Corrido de " El Sol'' 1959 -Francis Poulenc: Secheresses (1)1959 -Virgil Thomson: Fugues and Cantilenas from the UN film Power Among Men (orchestral) (1)(3)1963 -Ross Lee Finney: Still Are New Worlds (11(3) 1967 -Ross Lee Finney: The Martyr's Elegy (1)0) 1980 -Gian Carlo Menotti: A Song of Hope
( l)world premiere (remainder United Stales premieres)
(2)1 he composer conducting
(3Commissioned bv the University Musical Society
Andres Segovia
William Primrose
Tossy Spivakovsky
Vera Zorina
ENCORE!
The University Musical Society gratefully recognizes the following business firms
and individuals whose continuing support is so vital to our success. Their contributions, and those from several who wish to remain anonymous,
ensure that high quality programming will flourish in Ann Arbor. Listings include contributors recorded from January 1,1982 to March 22, 1983.
Business Firms
GUARANTORS
J. F. Ervin Foundation Ford Motor Company Jacobson's Stores, Inc. Liberty Music Shop Merrill Lynch Pierce Fenner&
Smith. Inc.
The Power Foundation WarnerLambertParke. Davis
SPONSORS
Ann Arbor News Edwards Brothers, Inc.
Townsend & Bottum. Inc. University Microfilms International Stephen Winehell & Associates
BENEFACTORS
Ann Arbor Bank & Trust Company Conlin Travel Bureau Deloitte Haskins & Sells Drake's Sandwich Shop Great Lakes Federal Savings King's Keyboard House John Leidy Shop. Inc. Malloy Lithographing. Inc.
National Bank & Trust Company Old German Restaurant Oyster Bar & Spaghetti Machine Shar Music Company
PATRONS
Arbor Farms Markets Bechtel Power Corporation Borders Book Shop Buckhcim & Rowland. Inc. Chelsea Flower Shop Comerica Bank. Ann Arbor
Culligan Water Conditioning ofWashtenaw County. Inc.
Gelman Sciences, Inc.
Maize and Blue Properties. Inc. Campus Inn and Bell Tower
Michigan National Bank. Ann Arbor
Middle Earth
Paine Webber Jackson & Curtis. Inc.
Pearson Cleaning Company
Sam"s Store. Inc.
Seva Restaurant
State Street Area Association
Edward Surovell Company. Realtors
Individual Encore Memberships
GUARANTORS
Mr. RichardS. Bcrger
Dr. James H. Botsford
Mr. & Mrs. William L. Briltain
Margaret & Douglas Crary
Mrs. Leland I. Doan
Dr. & Mrs. J. Donald Hanawalt
Mr. Mrs. Peter N. Heydon
Dr. & Mrs. Richard David Judge
Mr. & Mrs. John McCollum
Mr. & Mrs. Edwin E. Meader
Dr. & Mrs. Michael Papo
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Stegeman
Dr. & Mrs. Harry Towsley
SPONSORS
Dr. Eileen Blumenthal Mr. & Mrs. David S.Clyde Mr. & Mrs. William J. Conlin Samuel S. & Nancy L. Corl Rosalie Edwards Mrs. Fanni Epstein Mr. & Mrs. Edward P. Frolich Mr. & Mrs. Britton L. Gordon Mr. & Mrs. Harlan Hatcher Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Howe Paul & Ruth McCracken Mrs. Glenn D. McGeoch Mr. & Mrs. William B. Palmer Mr. & Mrs. Wilbur K. Pierpont Dr. & Mrs. Melvin J. Reinhart Mrs. Charles A. Sink Mr. & Mrs. Chester G. Starr Dr. & Mrs. Ron J. Vanden Belt Mr. & Mrs. Theodor R. Von Voightlander
BENEFACTORS
Dr. & Mrs. Gerald D. Abrams Mr. & Mrs. Gardner Ackley Dr. & Mrs. Robert G. Aldrich Dr. & Mrs. David G. Anderson Dr. & Mrs. Gerald Berlin Mr. & Mrs. Robert Brauburger Mr. & Mrs. Duane E. Briggs Mr. & Mrs. Allen P. Britton Drs. John H. & Barbara E. Bryant Mr. & Mrs. Daniel T. Carroll Mr. & Mrs. Raymond S. Chase
Dr. & Mrs. George Chatas
Mr. & Mrs. John Alden Clark
Mr. Kenneth Collinson
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon A. Comfort
Mr. & Mrs. Cecil C. Craig
Mr. & Mrs. H. Richard Crane
Mr. & Mrs. John F. Daly
Mr. John B. Davies
Rev. Timothy J. Dombrowski
Dr. & Mrs. Edward F. Domino
Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Dunham
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W. Ehrlicher
Mr. & Mrs. Emil E. Engel. Jr.
Dr. Stewart Epstein
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas Evans
Mr. & Mrs. Robben Fleming
Dr. & Mrs. John Floyd
Mr. & Mrs. Dale P. Fosdick
Dr. & Mrs. David Noel Freedman
Miss Florence B. Fuller
Mr. & Mrs. Victor Gallatin
Mr. & Mrs. Edward O. Gilbert
Elmer G. Gilbert &
Lois M. Verbrusme William & Ruth Gilkey BettyAnn & Dan Gilliland Paul & Anne Glendon Mr. Edwin Goldring Dr. Alexander Gotz Mr. & Mrs. Victor L. Graf, Jr. Mr. & Mrs. John R. Griffith Mr. & Mrs. Elmer F. Hamel Mrs. Robert Hamilton Dr. & Mrs. John J. Hartman Mr. & Mrs. Maurice B. Hodges Mr. Frederick G. L. Huetwell Mr. & Mrs. Ray A. Hulce Mrs. George R. Hunscbe Dr. John & Patricia Huntington Mr. & Mrs. Russell L. Hurst Mitzi & Sam Irwin Janet & Wallie Jeffries Mr. & Mrs. Ernest A. Jones Mr. & Mrs. Richard A. Jones Mr. William R. Kinney Mr. & Mrs. Jerome R. Koupal Mr. & Mrs. Harold M. Levinson Dr. & Mrs. Paul R. Liehter Dr. Dean S. Louis
Dr. & Mrs. Robert G. Lovell
Mr. & Mrs. Carl J. Lutkehaus. Jr.
Mr. John MacKrell
Dr. & Mrs. Richard McLeary
Mr. & Mrs. Alan G. Merten
Maxine S. Miles
Dr. & Mrs. Joe D. Morris
Dr. & Mrs. William R. Olsen
Mr. & Mrs. DavidW. Osier
Prof. & Mrs. Charles G. Overberger
Col. & Mrs. Chare Passink
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick J. Peters
Mrs. Patsy C. Peterson
Lawrence & Ann Preuss
Mr. & Mrs. William H. Price. Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Millard H. Pryor
Dr. & Mrs. Gardner C. Quarton
Mr. & Mrs. Gail W. Rector
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Reed
Mr. & Mrs. Richard D. Reminiiton
Mr. & Mrs. William D. Revelli
Dr. Harry J. & Donna T. Richter
Mr. Douglas F. Roby
Miss Mary R. RomigdeYoung
Stephanie L. Rosenbaum &
Robert L. Farrell Dr. & Mrs. Amnon Rosenthal Dr. & Mrs. Owen Rottschafer Mr. & Mrs. Peter C. Shaberg Dr. & Mrs. David W. Schmidt Dr. & Mrs. Charles Schmitter. Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Thomas J. Schriber Drs. Irving & Carol Smokier Mr. & Mrs. Everett J. Soop Mr. & Mrs. A. K. Steigerwalt Mr. Helmut F. Stern Elizabeth Lamb Stranahan Dr. & Mrs. Jeoffrey K. Stross Dr. & Mrs. E. Thurston Thieme Mr. & Mrs. Tcrrill O. Tompkins Mr. & Mrs. John C. van der Velde Mr. & Mrs. Marc R. von Wyss Mrs. George Wadley Mrs. Paul C. Wagner Dr. & Mrs. Andrew S. Watson K. G.&F. K.Wilhclm Dr. & Mrs. Sherwood B. Winslow Mr. & Mrs. Mark A. Wolcott Col. & Mrs. Ernest A. H. Woodman
Drs. John T. Wright Kathryn A. Wimbish
PATRONS
Dr. & Mrs. Juan E. Alejos
Dr. & Mrs. Peter Aliferis
Mr. & Mrs. Francis A. Allen
Mr. & Mrs. George Amend!
Herb & Carol Amsler
Ralph R. & Elaine T. Anthony
Mr. & Mrs. Max K. Aupperle
Miss M. A. Baranowski
Mr. & Mrs. Cyril H.Barnes. Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond O. Bassler
Mr. Rick Bay
Mr. Henry Bednarz
Dr. & Mrs. Douglas M. Behrendl
Mr. & Mrs. Omer E. Bellli
Mr. & Mrs. Harry Benford
Dr. & Mrs. Rodney R. Bent
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert O. Benz
Ruth Ann & Stuart J. Bercstein
Mr. & Mrs. Philip C. Berry
Mr. & Mrs. James R. Beuche
Dr. R. J. Bijkerk
Mr. & Mrs. Guido A. Binda
Mr. Wm. W. Bishop. Jr.
C. John Blankley &
Maureen Holey Dr. Marshall J. Blondy Mr. & Mrs. Ralph O. Boehnke Mr. & Mrs. Milford Boersma Mr. & Mrs. Jay A. Bolt Mr. & Mrs. C. E. Bottum. Jr. Drs. Robert M.& Charlotte
Mistretta Bradley Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Briggs Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Brower Dr. & Mrs. C. Arch Brown Mr. & Mrs. HughC. Brown Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Brown Mrs. Wellington R. Bun Dr. Bernard & Sylvia Carroll Mr. & Mrs. Carleton G. Carver Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth L. Casey Nancy & James T. Cassidy Jamie Beth Catlin Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas G. Chapekis Dr. & Mrs. Alfred Ching
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond F. Clevenger
Wayne & Melinda Colquitt
Dr. & Mrs. Jeffrey J.Colton
Mr. Graham H. Conger
Mr. & Mrs. Gage R. Cooper
Dr. & Mrs. Arnold G. Coran
Mr. & Mrs. C. Merle Crawford
Ray & Eleanor Cross
Mr. & Mrs. Mark E. Croxton
Sally A. Cushing
Mr. & Mrs. Horace W. Davenport
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur W. Davidge
Mr. James A. Davies
Dr. & Mrs. Russell N. DeJong
Dr. Felix & Grace de la Iglesia
Miss Mildred F. Denecke
Mr. & Mrs. Edmond F. DeVine
Mr. & Mrs. John B. DeVine
Mr. & Mrs. William T. Dobson
Mr. & Mrs. Dixon Raymond Doll
Robert & Katherine Doyle
Mrs. Nancy Griffin DuBois
Jim & Anne Duderstadt
Mr. & Mrs. Charles C. Dybvig
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Eisenhardt
Mr. & Mrs. Sheldon R. Erickson
Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Eschman
Helen & Michael Feinberg
Mr. James F. Filgas
Mr. & Mrs. George W. Ford
Mr. & Mrs. George H. Forsyth
Mr. & Mrs. Ted Fosdick
Miss Phyllis W. Foster
Ms. N. Fukuda
Mr. & Mrs. Richard F. Carman
Mr. & Mrs. Garnet R. Garrison
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Gelman
Dr. & Mrs. Paul W. Gikas
Dr. SidGilman
Dr. & Mrs. Carl Gingles
Mr. & Mrs. Fred M. Ginsberg
Dr. Robert Glasgow
Dr. & Mrs. Wm. C. Godwin
David & Linda Goldberg
Dr. & Mrs. John R. G. Gosling
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Graham
Prof. & Mrs. Whitmore Gray
Miss Dorothy Greenwald
Alexander G. & Susie Guiora
Helen & George O. Hackett
Mr. & Mrs. George N. Hall
Mr. L. T. Harbeck
Mr. & Mrs. Clifford H. Hart
David & Patricia Haskell
Drs. Robert & Sherry Hatcher
Prof. Harold & Anne Haugh
Mr. & Mrs. Karl Hauser
Dr. & Mrs. William Hawks. Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Douglas A. Hayes
Mr. & Mrs. Walter Hayes
Dr. & Mrs. John A. Henke
Mr. & Mrs. George W. Hoddy
Mrs. Janet Woods Hoobler
Kristin & Wolfgang Hoppe
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur G. Homer
Dr. & Mrs. Verne L. Hoshal, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. F. B. House
Miss Sarah Katherine Hoyt
Dr. & Mrs. William N. Hubbard. Jr.
Edward E. Hucke
Mr. & Mrs. George J. Huebner
Mr. & Mrs. Raymond T.
Huetteman. Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Ralph M. Hunter Dr. Martin & Susan Hurwitz Miss Esther Ann Jackson Gretchen & John Jackson Nancy Bird Jacobson Keith & Kay Jensen Mr. & Mrs. Herbert Johe
Mr. & Mrs. Paul G. Johnson
Dr. Slevo & Susan Julius
Mr. & Mrs. Wilford Kaplan
Mrs. Donald Kehl
Miss Ida Kemp
Mrs. James A. Kennedy
Mr. & Mrs. Ted Kennedy. Jr.
Mrs. Ted Kennedy, Sr.
Mr. Dee Morgan Kilpatrick
Dr. & Mrs. Richard A. Kutcipal
Mr. & Mrs. Lee E. Landes
Mr. & Mrs. Henry M. Lapeza
Mr. & Mrs. John G. Lapp
Dr. Donald & Lois Largo
Ms. Olya Lash
Mr. & Mrs. Neal Laurance
Dr. Harold J. Locketl
Lawrence & Rebecca Lohr
Mr. & Mrs. Richard S. Lord
Ms. Doris L. Leucke
Dr. Lawrence N. Lup
Mr. F. A. Lux
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth C.
MacGillivray. Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Harriss C. Malan Alan & Carla Mandel Mrs. Paul E. Mann James B. & Ingrid K. Martin Mr. & Mrs. John W. Martin. Jr. Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Mayes Mrs. Lester McCoy Griff & Pat McDonald Mr. Patrick McLain Mr. & Mrs. F. N. McOmber Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Meredith Dr. & Mrs. Herman Merte Dr. & Mrs. Leo J. Miedler Mr. & Mrs. Evan F. Miller George & Jacki Miller HelenS. & Barry Miller Dr. James M. Miller Mr. & Mrs. Newell D. Miller Miss Rhea E. Miller Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Mitton Dr. & Mrs. H. David Moehring Ms. Elaine L. Moncur Miss Dorothy V. Mummery Dr. & Mrs. James Wm. Myers Mr. & Mrs. Marvin L. Niehuss Dr. & Mrs. Ronald H. Nishiyama Mrs. A. Geoffrey Norman Dr. & Mrs. Harold A. Oberman Mr. Robert O'Brien Dr. Nels & Mary Olson Mr. & Mrs. George E. Palmer Mr. & Mrs. Sujit K. Pandit George & Helen Papageorgiou Mrs."Richard L. Park Marian & William A. Paton. Jr. Mr. & Mrs. John D. Paul Mr. & Mrs. Joseph N. Payne Prof. & Mrs. J. Raymond Pearson Mr. & Mrs. D. Maynard Phelps Harry E. Pickering William J. & Betty K. Pierce Maj. Gen. & Mrs. Robert R. Ploger Mr. & Mrs. L. Norris Post Mr. & Mrs. Galen B. Price Mr. Ernst Pulgram Dr. Rudolph Reichert Mr. & Mrs. H. Robert Reynolds Mr. & Mrs. Frank Richart Dennis & Karwyn Rigan Mrs. Frances Greer Riley Mr. & Mrs. Roland I. Robinson Hal & Maggie Rotman Dr. Nathaniel H. Rowc Mr. & Mrs. Charles H. Rubin Mr. & Mrs. Samuel J. Rupert Mr. & Mrs. William F. Ruzicka
Dr. & Mrs. Richard C. Schneider
Brett & Barbara Seabury
Mr. & Mrs. Harold Shapiro
Dr. & Mrs. John N. Sheagren
Mr. & Mrs. John H. Sherf
Mrs. Herbert E. Sloan
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Smith
Mrs. James H. Spencer
Mr. & Mrs. Herbert W. Spendlove
Theodore J. & E. Lloyd St. Antoine
Mr. & Mrs. Mark Chancellor
Stevens
Mr. & Mrs. John D. Stoner Mr. & Mrs. Richard H. Suehrstedt Mr. & Mrs. Maxwell G.Sweet Mr. & Mrs. Frank L. Tarzia Mr. & Mrs. Robert M. Teeter Mr. Ronald L. Teigen Miss Virginia W. Tibbals Mrs. MischaTitiev Dr. & Mrs. Vincent Turcotte Mr. & Mrs. Herbert H. Upton. Jr. Dr. JerroldG. Utsler Madeleine Vallier Dr. & Mrs. Carl Van Appledorn Dr. & Mrs. Paul M. Vanek Dr. & Mrs. John J. Voorhees Mr. FredG. Walcott Mr. & Mrs. Bruce T. Wallace Mrs. William C.Walz Mr. & Mrs. Thomas C. Wang Dr. & Mrs. Philip C. Warren' Dr. & Mrs. Charles M. Watts Rebecca & Walter M. Whitehouse Mr. & Mrs. Brymer Williams Carroll V. & Dorothy Williams Dr. & Mrs. Douglas L. Wood Dr. & Mrs. Stanley J. Woollams Mr. & Mrs. Charles R. Wright
DONORS
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Adams Russell & Beverly Bradley Aiuto Mr. & Mrs. Jackson H. Allington Mr. Ernest E. Andrews Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Angell Catherine S. Arcure Mrs. Leonard W. Arnison Dr. & Mrs. J. David Ausuni Judith & David Ballou Stephen & Mary Bates Dr. &Mrs. JereM. Bauer Dr. Janet K. Baum &
ErikW. Melander Dr. & Mrs. William H. Beierwaltes Roderick J. Bieber&
Catherine A. McMichael Dr. & Mrs. Ronald C. Bishop Mr. Visvaldis Biss Mr. & Mrs. H. Harlan Bloomer Alexander & Kimberley Boedy Dr. & Mrs. Giles G. Bole Edward & Ruth Bordin Mr. Paul D. Borman Mrs. Curtis E. Bottum Miss Lola M. Bradstrect Mr. & Mrs. Kirby Brown Mrs. Marion W. Brown Joachim & Marsha Bruhn Mrs. Webster Brumbaugh Mr. David M. Buesieleisen Mrs. Elizabeth B.Bullard Mrs. Sally Burden Arthur & Alice Burks Mr. & Mrs. Robbins Burling Mrs. Marjorie H. Burnell Mr. & Mrs. JohnS. Bunt Mrs. HelenS. Butz Mrs. Letitia J. Byrd
Dr. & Mrs. Darrell A. Campbell
Mrs. Jean W. Campbell
Miss Ruby A. Campbell
Mr. & Mrs. Charles Cannell
Dr. Ruth Cantieny
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph P. Chandler
Mr. & Mrs. Tsun Chang
J. Wehrley & Patricia Chapman
Dr. Arnold C. Chamley
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Chudacoff
Ms. Nancy Cilley
Toby & Margaret Citrin
Mr. Harold R. Clark
Mrs. Robert O. Cleveland
Mr. & Mrs. R. N. Coe
Dr. & Mrs. Bennett Cohen
Mr. & Mrs. Howard A. Cole
Miss Eleanor S. Collins
Dr. & Mrs. Howard C. Comstock
Dr. Thomas K. & Sandra S.
Connellan
Mr. Robert S. Corredera Miss Marjorie Cramer Mr. & Mrs. Harry Cross Dr. & Mrs. Robert J. Crossen Mr. & Mrs. James I. Crump Mr. & Mrs. John R. Dale Ms. Marylee Dalton Mr. & Mrs. Ronald G. Dawson Mr. & Mrs. Hermann Th. Decker Dr. James M. Deimen Mr. & Mrs. Benning Dexter Prof. & Mrs. A. Nelson Dingle Mrs. Helen Dobryden Mr. & Mrs. Richard Dougherty Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Douglas Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Gould Dow Dr. & Mrs. Howard V. Dubin Dr. & Mrs. Ivan F. Dull Mr. Richard F. Dunn Maralyn S. Edid Dr. & Mrs. Andrew Eisenberg Mr. & Mrs. Mark K. Enns Richard Epstein & Ellen Wagner Dr. & Mrs. Stefan Fajans Mrs. Mary K. Fancher Dr. & Mrs. John A. Faulkner Mrs. Barbara L. Ferguson Mr. & Mrs. Sidney Fine Dr. & Mrs. Harold Firestone Mr. & Mrs. Carl H.Fischer Mr. & Mrs. Charles R. Fisher Mr. & Mrs. John E. Fisher Mr. & Mrs. Howard P. Fox Richard & Joann Freethy Dr. Arthur B. French Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Gallagher Mr. & Mrs. Don Gargaro Dr. & Mrs. Stanley M. Garn Mr. & Mrs. Jack J. Gams Mrs. H. C. Gauderer Miss Helen Gay Dr. & Mrs. Thomas Gelehrter James W. & Julie R. Gibson Dr. & Mrs. Albert O. Girz Dr. & Mrs. Melvyn I. Gluckman Barbara & Robert Gockel Mr. & Mrs. Albert Goldberg Dr. & Mrs. Henry J. Gomberg Mrs. William C. Grabb Mr. & Mrs. Gordon J. Graham Mr. & Mrs. Edward M. Gramlich G. Robert & Susan J. Greenberg Dr. & Mrs. George W. Greenman Susan & Mark Griffin Mr. Henry Morgan Grix Miss Barbara J. Gross Mr. Daniel H. Hagerman Allison Hale Mr. & Mrs. Robert D. Hanson
DONORS (Continued)
Miss M. Jean Harter Dr. Forrest A. Hartman Mr. Michael Hathaway Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Haugh Mrs. J. R. Hayden Dr. & Mrs. James B. Heitler Mr. & Mrs. L. W. Helmreich Dr. & Mrs. Keith S. Henley Mr. Bruce Henry Drs. NeillS. Hirst &
Juergen Buechner John & Maurita Holland S. C. & Betty Hsiao Dr. Ann D. Hungerman Mr. Robert B. Ingling Mrs. Ann K. Irish Prof. & Mrs. John H. Jackson Mr. & Mrs. Roger Jacobi Harold & Jean Jacobson Mr. & Mrs. Emil H. Jebe Miss Jane Durfee Johns Mr. & Mrs. Donald L. Johnson Dr. & Mrs. J. E. Jones Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth L. Jones Dr. &Mrs. Edgar A. Kahn Robert L. & Beatrice H. Kahn Dr. & Mrs. Jerome F. Kasle Mrs. Paul G. Kauper Lon & Marilee Kelly Mr. Howard King Rhea & Leslie Kish Dr. & Mrs. KarlS. Klicka Mr. & Mrs. Henry J. Klose Mr. & Mrs. Joseph J. Kokoszka Mr. Kenneth C. Kreger Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Krimm Geoffrey & Carolyn Krone Dr. & Mrs. BertN. LaDu. Jr. Mr. Peter F. Lambeck Mr. & Mrs. C. Theodore Larson Mr. & Mrs. Charles F. Lehmann Mr. Fernando Leon Mr. & Mrs. Richard C. Lewis Mr. & Mrs. William C. Lighthall Dr. & Mrs. Daniel E. Lipschutz Mr. & Mrs. Nathan Lipson Miss Naomi E. Lohr Miss Jane Lombard Luisa LopezGrigera Barbara & Edward Lynn Mr. & Mrs. Paul J. Maassen Ms. Bemadette Malinoski Mr. & Mrs. Edward Kinne Martin Cdr. & Mrs. Timothy H. Marvin Dr. & Mrs. Kenneth Mathews Mrs. Lawrence Maugh Mr. & Mrs. Roger Maugh Mr. & Mrs. Edward L. May David G. McConnell Mr. & Mrs. Ronald G. McCready Mr. & Mrs. W. Bruce McCuaig Elaine J. McFadden Mr. E. W.Meranda&
Miss Helen F. Meranda Mr. & Mrs. Warren A. Merchant Mr. Henry J. Merry Christopher & Deborah Meyer Dr. & Mrs. David H. Middleton Mr. & Mrs. Jack M. Miller Dr. & Mrs. James B. Miner Mr. & Mrs. Robert L. Mitchell Mr. & Mrs. John Mohler Dr. & Mrs. Arnold S. Monto Kittie Morelock Mrs. Patricia A. Moser Cruse & Ginny Moss Mrs. Erwin Muehlig Dr. & Mrs. James V. Neel Mr. David K. Nicholas
50
John & Stephanie Niederhuber
Mr. RufinoS. Nollido
Mrs. Barbara G. Oddy
Mr. Kenneth Ogilvie
Dr. & Mrs. F. D. Ostrander
Mr. David Ouzounian
Dr. & Mrs. M. Joseph Pearson
Dr. & Mrs. Benjamin A. Perry
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald H. Peterson
Dr. & Mrs. Charles W. Phillips
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick R. Pickard
Mr. Thomas M. Piedmonte
Mr. & Mrs. William R. Pierson
Mrs. Sharon McKay Pignanelli
Dr. & Mrs. James F. Pikulski
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald J. Powrozek
Mrs. J. Donald Prendergast
Mr. Jacob M. Price
Dr. & Mrs. F. L. Purcell
Mr. & Mrs. Leland J. Quackenbush
Mr. Marshall E. Quinn
Mrs. Ericka Radcliffe
Drs. Norman & Norma Radin
Mr. & Mrs. Michael Radock
Dr. & Mrs. John B. Rank
Dr. Raymond Rapaport
Vera & Michael Rasich
Mr. Richard Ream
Jim & Bonnie Reece
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel Reese
Mr. Walter A. Reichart
Katherine & William Ribbens
Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert Ross
Gustave & Jacqueline Rosseels
Mr. Robert M. Rubin
Ms. Margaret R. Runge
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas M. Sawyer
Jay & Irene Schude
Mr. & Mrs. Fred P. Schwarz
Mr. & Mrs. John Sedlander
Marvin & Harriet Selin
Ms. Janet C. Sell
Mrs. Floyd A. Sergeant
Mr. & Mrs. Donald Shankwiler
Drs. Jean & Thomas Shope
John & Arlene Shy
Dr. & Mrs. Douglas B. Siders
Dr. Bruce M. Siegan
Kenneth & Margaret Silk
Dr. Albert J. & Halina Silverman
Dr. & Mrs. Bernard J. Sivak
Dr. & Mrs. Vergil N. Slee
Dr. & Mrs. John W. Smillie
Donald C. & Jean M. Smith
Gerald & Beverly Smith
Ms. Kathleen M. Smith
Mrs. Helen M. Snyder
Mina D. Sonda
Ms. Cynthia J. Sorensen
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Sorkin
Dr. & Mrs. Robert E. Speer
Ms. Mary Polasky Stadel
Neil & Burnette Staebler
Mr. Robert W. Stephanak, Jr.
Mrs. Nancy M. Stewart
Mr. & Mrs. Louis J. Stout
Mr. & Mrs. Alfred S. Sussman
Mr. & Mrs. R. J. Swistock
Herbert Taggart
Mr. & Mrs. Laurence L. Teal
Mr. & Mrs. C. R. Tieman
Dr. Paul K. Tomich
Marjorie M. Tompkins
Dr. & Mrs. Frederik S. van Reesema
Dr. & Mrs. Francis V. Viola III
Mrs. Frederick J. Vogt
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph Voldrich
Mr. RichardS. Walinski
Mr. & Mrs. Yoshinori Watanabe
Mrs. Charles F. Weber
Dr. & Mrs. Jerry A. Weisbach
Mr. & Mrs. Gerald J. Weisman
Drs. Cary Weiss & Karen Pierce
Clarence & Jane Weiss
Mr. & Mrs. Lyndon Welch
Mr. & Mrs. Stanfield M. Wells, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. John R. Wesley
Ira & Alice Wheatley
Dr. & Mrs. Harold J. White
Miss Janet F. White
Timothy & Sally O. White
Mr. & Mrs. Nathaniel H. Whiteside
Mr. Norton Williams
Mr. Raymond C. Williams
Mrs. Elizabeth Wilson
Mrs. Marion T. Wirick
Ms. Charlotte Wolfe
Dr. & Mrs. Leonard H. Wolin
Dr. Donald Wyche
Mr. & Mrs. BoydW. Yard
Mr. & Mrs. Carl D. Yost
Ms. Ruth Woodcock Young
Mr. & Mrs. Martin E. Zcile
Dr. Charles E. Zill
SUSTAINING MEMBERS
Joan & Joel Aberbach
Miss Adelaide A. Adams
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Adams. Jr.
Mrs. John D. Adcock
Mr. & Mrs. Richard Adelman
Claire Adler
Bernard & Raquel Agranoff
Mr. & Mrs. Gordon E. Allardyce
Miss Jeannette L. Allmand
Mr. Forrest Alter
Mr. & Mrs. David Aminoff
Dr. & Mrs. Carl D. Anderson
Dr. James & Cathleen Andonian
Mr. Clarke F. Andreae
Drs. Charles & Alice Andrews
Thomas J. & Mary E. Armstrong
Dr. Leslie Arwin
Mr. K. Asgar
Dr. Peter Ash
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur J. Ashe
Donald & Shirley Axon
Dr. & Mrs. Jerald G. Bachman
Mr. & Mrs. Henry A. Bachofer, Jr.
Mrs. Reeve M. Bailey
Mr. & Mrs. Dean C. Baker
Mr. Harris H. Ball
Mr. & Mrs. William B. Ballis
Mr. E. Allan Balta
Shelli Bank & Michael Rosenzweig
Mr. & Mrs. Vincent L. Barker
Mrs. Esther M. Barnard
Mrs. T. Howe Bartholomew
Mrs. Beverley M. Baskins
Dr. & Mrs. Alan R. Bass
Mr. & Mrs. Bradford Bates
Mrs. Gerhard Bauer
Mrs. Florence N. Beach
Ms. Barbara H. Beeson
Dr. P. E. Bennett
Ms. Alice R. Bensen
Mr. & Mrs. Richard H. Benson
Dr. & Mrs. Ronald M. Benson
Mr. James H. Benz
Dr. Rosemary R. Berardi
Barbara & Reuben Bergman
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence S. Berlin
Dr. Andrew H. Berry
Mr. Robert Hunt Berry
Mr. & Mrs. Frederick J. Beutler
Jeff Bigelow & Kim Mackenzie
Mr. &Mrs. William T. Birge
Dr. Robert A. Bitterman
Mr. & Mrs. Herb Black, Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Lynn W. Blunt
Joan & Will Boddie
Mrs. George Chandler Bond
Mr. & Mrs. Howard Bond
Joyce Bonk
Dr. & Mrs. Morris Bornstein
Helen & Richard Bortfeld
Mrs. Jerri Ignasiak Bott
John & Leora Bowden
Mr. Roberts. Bowers
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Brandt
Mr. & Mrs. Carl Brauer, Jr.
Mr. & Mrs. Harvey E. Brazer
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Bremer
Ms. Paulette Bromberg
George & Razelle Brooks
Mr. & Mrs. E. H. Browder
Mr. Gene D. Brown
Mrs. Ruth A. Brown
Drs. Wesley M. & Susan S. Brown
Mr. & Mrs. Donald R. Brundage
Dr. & Mrs. Donald Bryant
Mrs. Kathleen Bugaski
Dr. Robert C. Burack
Mr. Alan J. Burg
Mr. & Mrs. Gilbert E. Bursley
Mrs. LucileC. Buta
Dan H. & Virginia Butler
Mr. & Mrs. Robert S. Butsch
Mr. & Mrs. William P. Buxton
Prof. & Mrs. Albert Cain
Miss Helen M. Calkins
Susan & Oliver Cameron
Judge Ross W.Campbell
Dr. & Mrs. Douglas D. Cantrell
Mrs. Ruth S. Capers
Dr. & Mrs. Robert B. Carbeck
Ms. Ruth D. Carey
Mr. & Mrs. Charles E. Carlson
Mrs. Finley Carpenter
Mr. & Mrs. Roy A. Carpenter
Mr. Owen B. Cathey
Dr. & Mrs. Joseph C. Cerny
Mary & David Chambers
Bruce & Janet Chapin
Mr. & Mrs. L. M. Chicoine
Mr. & Mrs. Halvor N. Christensen
Mr. & Mrs. A. A. Christman
Jean S. Cione
Mrs. William S. Clarkson
Mr. & Mrs. Joseph F. Clayton
Carl & Muriel Cohen
Mr. & Mrs. W. Oscar Collins
Mr. & Mrs. Sol R. Colton
Mr. & Mrs. Alfred F. Conard
Dr. Cynthia L. Cookingham
Mr. & Mrs. Clyde H. Coombs
Dr. & Mrs. William W. Coon
Dr. & Mrs. Richard F. Cooper
Mrs. E. CorbridgeSaddler
Mrs. Harold H. Cornelius
Miss Joanna Cornett
Mrs. Richard B. Couch
Mr. & Mrs. David Cox
Lyle & Asho Craine
Miss Mary Crawford
Miss Mary C. Crichton
Miss Grace Crockett
Mr. James E. Crooks
Mr. & Mrs. Wendel B. Crum
Dr. Rane L. & Alice Rolfes Curl
Dr. & Mrs. Edward Curtis
Mr. & Mrs. Christopher C. Dahl
Millie Danielson
David & Sherrye Dantzker
Mr. & Mrs. Gawaine Dart
Ms. Eve J. Davis
Ms. Marjorie Louise DeBoos
Loretta M. Dennany
Mrs. David M. Dennison
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence F. Derek
Dr. & Mrs. Randall S. Derifield Mrs. Florence J. Diamond Dr. William O. Dobbins III Mr. John S. Dobson Dr. & Mrs. Max E. Dodds Dr. & Mrs. Edward R. Doezema Miss Dorothy K. Donahue Mr. & Mrs. Wallace C. Donoghue Mr. & Mrs. Gordon J. Doody Dr. & Mrs. Richard P. DonMrs. Ruth P. Dorr Dr. & Mrs. John C. Drach Miss Marjory H. Drake Mr. Duane F. Dunlap Mr. Grant A. Dunlap Dr. Gerhard Dunnhaupt Prof. & Mrs. Peter L. Durcn Mr. E. E. Duvall Ms. Elsie J. Dyke Mr. & Mrs. George C. Earl Mrs. Clare Canham Eaton Mrs. Thomas C. Edwards Dr. AllenS. Ehrlich Betty & David Ehrlinger David A. Eklund Mrs. Robert C. Elderfield Sol & Judith Elkin Dr. & Mrs. Charles N. Ellis Michael & MariePierre Ellmann Mrs. John J. Ely Mary English Miss Adele Ewell Mr. & Mrs. Robert G. Faber Dr. & Mrs. Harvey Falit Iris Fauri
Mr. & Mrs. John Feikens Miss Sheila Feld Mrs. Robert S. Feldman Jeffrey T. Ferriell Marilyn & Carlos Feuchter Mr. & Mrs. Mclvin G. Fiegel Dr. & Mrs. Aaron Fincrman Mr. & Mrs. L. Alan Finlayson Mr. & Mrs. G. Fred Finzer Mr. & Mrs. Lee K. Fisher Winifred Fisher Mrs. Patricia L. Fitzgerald FredB. Fletcher Mr. & Mrs. George D. Foltz Mrs. Roberts. Ford Mr. & Mrs. Daniel C. Forshce Mr. & Mrs. Harold W. Foss Dr. Irving & Gloria Fox Mrs. Thomas Francis. Jr. Mrs. Edith S. Frank Ronald & Deborah Freedman Mr. & Mrs. Larry French Dr. Gideon Frieder Mr. & Mrs. Eliot Friedman Bart & Fran Frueh Ms. Donna Jo Fukushima William & Ann Furtwangler Harriet & Dan Fusfeld Mr. & Mrs. Bernard A. Gallcr Mrs. Priscilla Gallinger Miss Frances M. Gardner Janet & Charles Garvin Ms. Myrtle M. Gasilo Mr. & Mrs. David M. Gates Dr. & Mrs. Larry Geffen Dr. Beverley Geltner Ms. Leonore Gerstein Drs. Mary & Allan Gibbard Dr. Margaret E. Gnegy Mr. & Mrs. Stuart Goldfarb Alan Goldin & Rozanne
SandriGoldin Dr. & Mrs. Steven Gotlib Mr. Michael L. Gowing Otto & Sarah Graf
Mr. Todd W. Grant
Mr. Carl J. Grapentine
Dr. &Mrs. Serge Gratch
Mr. & Mrs. Jerry M. Gray
Mrs. Theresa W. Green
Ms. Vivian Green
Dr. & Mrs. Robert S. Greenbcrger
Mr. & Mrs. G. Robinson Gregory
L. Jane & Stephen Gregory
Mrs. Penny I. Griffith
Mr. & Mrs. Alice L. Grillot
Dr. Alexander Grinstein
Mrs. Charlene C. Gross
Dr. & Mrs. Milton Gross
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence Grossman
Martha Guenin
Jorge & Deborah L. Gumucio
Dr. & Mrs. John E. Gunning
Elliott & Carol Guttman
Ms. Anita Halberg
Mrs. KirbyT. Hall
Mr. & Mrs. Nathan B. Hall
Mr. & Mrs. Harry L. Hallock
Dr. LeeH. Halsted
Sylvia & E. G. Hamer
.Miss Frances Hamman
David G. Hanna
Dr. M. Kay Hannah
Dr. Frank Harary
Mr. & Mrs. Glenn A. Harder
Miss Margaret A. Harwick
Yeheskel & Helen Hasenfeld
Mrs. John B. Hassinen
Mr. & Mrs. William F. Hayden
Mr. William N. Hayes
Mrs. Margaret Hebcrlein
Edward & Judith Heekin
Mrs. Dorothy J. Heger
Mr. Albert W. Heinrich
Dr. & Mrs. Albert E. Heins
Mr. William C. Heifer
Mr. & Mrs. Manuel Helfman
Tom & Barbara Hendricks
Mrs. Stanley H. Henry
Mr. & Mrs. R. G. Hentschel
Debbie & Norman G. Herbert
Dr. & Mrs. Ralph Herbert
Mr. & Mrs. Albert Hermalin
Fred & Joyce Hershenson
Mr. & Mrs. Alexander Hes
Dr. & Mrs. John B. Heyde
Mrs. Catherine A. Hightower
Mr. & Mrs. Bert Hillman
Mr. & Mrs. William A. Hiltner
Mrs. Leonard E. Himler
Mr. & Mrs. John E. Hinman
Mr. & Mrs. Ronald Hinterman
Louise Hodgson
Ms. Elizabeth Hofeldt
Dr. & Mrs. Paul D. Hogg
Mr. & Mrs. Nicholas E. Holly
Mr. Eugene Holtman
Mr. & Mrs. David B. Holtzman
Dr. &Mrs. Ronald W. Holz
Mr. YatLam Hong
Ms. Rose Marie Hooper
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Hord
Mr. Bert G. Hornback
Mr. & Mrs. Don Horner
Mr. & Mrs. Phillip Horwitz
Dr. Nancy Houk
Mr. & Mrs. Graham Hovey
Ms. Sally Howe
Mr. Walid R. Howrani
Emerson & Jeane Hoyt
Mrs. Virginia E. Hunt
Mr. & Mrs. David D. Hunting
Dan & Carol Hussey
Dr. & Mrs. Saul H. Hymans
Mr. & Mrs. B. lmber
Joan & Perry Innes
Marian R. Irwin
Mr. Stuart A. Isaac
Mr. & Mrs. Sid Israel
Herman & Rachel F. Jacobs
Mr. & Mrs. Jerome Jacobson
Miss Harriet C. Jameson
Mr. & Mrs. Peter T. Jessup
Mr. & Mrs. A. Richard Johnson
Mrs. Donald R. Johnson
Elizabeth Judson Johnson
Dr. & Mrs. James M. Johnson
Mr. James S. Johnson
Mr. & Mrs. Wm. Judson Johnson
Ms. Candice L. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Phillip S. Jones
Mr. & Mrs. Robert C. Juvinall
Dr. & Mrs. Theodore G. Kabza
Dr. & Mrs. Steven Kant
Mr. & Mrs. Irving Kao
Ms. Adrienne Kaplan
Mr. Joseph V.Karle. Jr.
Dr. & Mrs. Donald L. Katz
Dr. & Mrs. Ernst Katz
Ms. Jody Keinath
Dr. Jane Kelley
Mr. & Mrs. Norman E. Kemp
Mrs. Hayward Keniston
Frank & Patricia Kennedy
Mr. & Mrs. James Kennedy
Dr. & Mrs. Robert L. Kerry
Mr. & Mrs. Robert W. Ketrow
Mr. & Mrs. Donald F. Kiel
Ms. Kathryn A. Kimmel
Mr. Donald R. Kinder
Mr. KlairH. Kissel
Mr. David J. Kitto
Lewis & Cynthia Kleinsmith
Matthew & Susan Kluger
Mrs. R. J. Knight
Mr. & Mrs. Glenn Knudsvig
Dr. Steve T. Koeff
Mr. & Mrs. Sylvan Kornblum
Dr. John Kotre
Dr. & Mrs. Richard Kraft
Ms. Lillian Krezel
James & Madelaine Krolik
Mr. John A. Krsul.Jr.
Mr. David A. Ksienski
Mr. & Mrs. Samuel K. Kuhn
Mr. Leonard Paul LaCivita
Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence A. LaFontaine
Mr. & Mrs. James Lahey
Drs. Tim & Kathy Laing
Mr. & Mrs. Seymour R. Lampert
Dr. & Mrs. Stephen G. Landau
Mrs. Patricia M. Lang
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Lanski
Dr. Edward W. Lauer
Mrs. Judson League
Fred & Ethel Lee
Paul & Ruth Lehman
Mrs. Paul Allen Leidy
Sheldon G. & Mary Lois Levy
Ralph & Gloria Lewis
Dr. & Mrs. Frederick S. Lim
Dr. & Mrs. S. Martin Lindenauer
Mr. Albert P. Loening
Dr. & Mrs. Lennart H. Lofstrom
Edward P. Loncki
Mr. & Mrs. E. Daniel Long
Mr. & Mrs. Bruce Loughry
Robert & Pamela Ludolph
Rev. Robert D. Lunsford
Ms. Victoria G. Luther
Mr. Douglas A. MacKinnon
Rev. & Mrs. Philip Rodgers Magee
Miss Ella A. Mahnken
Richard & Claire Malvin
Dr. & Mrs. Steven Manikas
Mr. & Mrs. Melvin Manis
Dr. & Mrs. Edwin L. Marcus
M. Marcus
Miss Deborah C. Margules
Dr. & Mrs. Sheldon Markel
Mr. & Mrs. Kenneth Marko
Douglas & Sandra Marks
Dr. & Mrs. William Martel
Mrs. Donald W. Martin
Mr. & Mrs. Thomas L. Martin
Mr. Thomas Martone
Mr. & Mrs. John Mason
Drs. Karen & William Mason
Dr. & Mrs. Josip Matovinovic
Chandler & Mary Matthews
Mr. & Mrs. Arthur Maust
Dr. & Mrs. Donald C. May, Jr.
Mrs. Dorli Mayerson
Mrs. BerniceG. Maynard
Ms. Jeanne L. McClaran
Mr. & Mrs. Stewart E. McFadden
Mr. Stephen McKenny
Mrs. Edward G. McKinley, Sr.
Mr. & Mrs. Curtis B. McMillin
Donald & Elizabeth McNair
Dr. & Mrs. Jerry Meislik
Mr. & Mrs. John W. Melvin
Dr. Harold L. Merchant
Mr. Victor L. Meyers
Carl J. & Ruth Mairy Miano
Dr. Kurt W. Mikat
Mr. William C. Millar
Mr. Richard H. Miller
Mr. & Mrs. Robert Rush Miller
Mr. & Mrs. William Mirsky
Mrs. John Montjoy
Dr. Donald R. Moore
Mr. & Mrs. Franklin G. Moore
Dr. Nancy D. Morrison
Mr. Brian N. Morton
Drs. T. N. Mudge&
J. K. van Valkenburg Dr. & Mrs. Bernhard F. Muller Mr. William Muschenheim Miss Yoshiko Nagamatsu Miss Ruth Nagler Mr. & Mrs. Morry Nathan Mr. George H. Needell Miss Geneva Nelson Dr. & Mrs. M. Haskell Newman Richard Nichols Mrs. RolandO. Nissle Miss Jeanne Marie Norris Colin & Nancy Oatley Mrs. Frederick C. O'Dell Mr. William O'Dowd Mr. & Mrs. Michel C. Oksenberg Mr. &Mrs. JohnT. Olsen Mr. & Mrs. J. L. Oncley Zibby & Bob Oneal Miss Kathleen Ordway Mr. & Mrs. James E. Orvis Mrs. Mark Osterlin Ms. Lillian G. Ostrand Mr. Robert Owens Mr. William Pabst Mrs. George L. Palmer Dr. Constantine & Eliana Papadakis Mr. William C. Parish Mr. & Mrs. David G. Parkes Mrs. Virginia B. Passon Mrs. Kenneth Patterson Mr. & Mrs. AraG. Paul Anita H. Payne Dr. & Mrs. Beverly C. Payne Dr. AvisH.Paz Mr. & Mrs. Douglas E. Peck Mr. & Mrs. James Persons Mrs. Doris I. Persyn Dr. & Mrs. Bertram Pitt
SUSTAINING MEMBERS (Continued)
Dr. & Mrs. Richard A. Pollak
Mr. Richard E. Popov
DavidS. & Linda Povilus
Drs. William & Diana Pratt
Mr. John R. Pringle
Dr.G. RobinaQuale
Mr. & Mrs. William R. Quayle
Mrs. Tad Rae
Peter Railton & Rebecca Scott
Dr. & Mrs. Robert Rapp
Mr. & Mrs. Robert H. Rasmussen
Miss Ethel Rathbun
Dr. & Mrs. Richard A. Reed
Robin F. &GailS. Reed
Gerald & Carol Rees
Mrs. Carol L. Reffner
Dorothy R. & Stan Rehak
Ms. Carolyn Rehmus
Mr. & Mrs. Albert Resnick
Dr. Shang Y. Rhee
Mr. & Mrs. Frank Richardson
Dr. Eric Richfield
Mr. Carl H. Rinne
Richard & Alma Robinson
Mr. & Mrs. Stephen J. Rogers
Dr. & Mrs. W. Leslie Rogers
Mrs. Ruth Rogne
Mr. Harry A. Rommel
Mrs. Borje Rosaen
Dr. & Mrs. Raymond Rose
Bernard & Barbara Rosen
William & Elinor Rosenberg
Dr. & Mrs. Robert L. Rosenfeld
George C. & Gay M. Rosenwald
Mr. & Mrs. Bernard J. Rowan
Mrs. Lovell Wood Royston
Mr. & Mrs. George M. Rubin
Miss Mabel E. Rugen
Richard & Renee Sadai
David & Ann Saffer
Mr. & Mrs. Fred Samson
Mr. & Mrs. William Sandy
John T. & Reda A. Santinga
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas N. Sardelis
Jochen & Helga Schacht
Mrs. Herbert E. Schlesinger
Dr. G. M. Schmit
Mr. & Mrs. John M. Schnur
Mr. & Mrs. Philip Schonberger
Shirley Schreidell
Drs. Monica & David Schteingart
Mr. & Mrs. Edward Schulak
Mr. & Mrs. John C. Scott
Mrs. Geraldine Seeback
Dr. & Mrs. Thomas A. Segall
Leonard & Sylvia Segel
George & Mary Sexton
Mr. & Mrs. James M. Shade
Ms. Ann Shannon
Dr. & Mrs. Brahm Shapiro
Dr. David & Elvera Shappirio
Ms. Marjorie K. Shelton
Mr. & Mrs. Maurice Sheppard
Dr. Linda B. Sherby
Mr. Carter Evan Sherline
Dr. Howard & Aliza Shevrin
Mrs. Mitsuko Shibuya
Dr. & Mrs. Muaiad Shihadeh
Dr. & Mrs. H. D. Hollis Showalter
Dr. & Mrs. Warren M. Shwayder
Dr. & Mrs. Eugene M. Silverman
Mr. & Mrs. Steven Simmons
Mr. & Mrs. Richard J. Simms
Marjorie N. Sinclair
Dr. & Mrs. Bernard Sisman
Mr. & Mrs. Allan F. Smith
Mr. & Mrs. David Boyd Smith
Marshall & Nancy Smith
52
Mr. Robert W. Smith
Warren & Catherine Smith
Teddi & Ned Smokier
Mrs. Lee H. Somers
Mr. Claudio Police Spiguel
Drs. A. C. &E. J.Spindler
Dr. & Mrs. Bertram J. Spiwak
Mr. & Mrs. Robert E. Springer
Mrs. Alfred F. Staeb
Dr. Phoebe Stanzler
Mr. & Mrs. Harold Stark
Mr. & Mrs. Eric Stein
Joanne Stein
Sarah & Fred Steingold
Dr. Richard Stock
Mr. Gary D. Stoddard
Mr. James L. Stoddard
Victor & Marlene Stoeffler
Mrs. Mira Stoll
Ms. Nan Stout
Mr. & Mrs. S. Strasius
Mrs. A. F. Strom
Ms. V. L. Strongman
Paula & Vance Strother
Mrs. William H. Stubbins
Dr. & Mrs. Samuel Stulberg
Eugene Y. Su & Christin CarterSu
Mr. & Mrs. J. Wilner Sundelson
Earl G. Swain
Dr. Richard & June Swartz
Mr. & Mrs. Waldo E. Sweet
Mr. Robert G. Sweeten
Ms. Suzanne Tainter &
Kenneth Boyer Mr. Brian Talbot Eva & Sam Taylor Miss Kathryn Telfer Mr. & Mrs. Thomas A. Terhune Mr. James M. Tervo Miss Betsy Thai
Mr. & Mrs. Norman L. Thobum Drs. Marie & Michael Thompson Michael & Martha Throckmorton Mr. & Mrs. Palmer A. Throop Mr. & Mrs. George A. Timmons Ms. A. R. Tite Mrs. Rosemary Tomasko Mrs. Richard E. Townsend Ms. Sarah Trinkaus Mrs. Edward S. Tripp Jeffrey & Lisa TulinSilver Mr. A. Warren Turski Mr. & Mrs. Richard Twining Miss Pauline Ullrich Diane C. Underhill Cecil & Lana Ursprung Miss Rose Vainstein Dr. & Mrs. Wm. H. Vander Ploeg Mr. & Mrs. Robert P. Van Ess Mr. B.Amell Van Sickle Mr. & Mrs. Lawrence H. Van Vlack Mrs. Virginia O. Vass Cheryl L. VerVaecke Dr. & Mrs. A. Vinik Joseph & Alice Vining Mr. & Mrs. Theodore R. Vogt Mr. & Mrs. Jerry Voight Mr. & Mrs. Richard F. Wagner Ms. Rosemary Walker Patricia Walsh Mrs. Marguerite E. Ward Ms. Beverly Ware Maretta L. & Robert A. Warner Mr. & Mrs. Martin Warshaw Mr. & Mrs. Robert F. Webber Mr. Edward C. Weber Dr. & Mrs. Richard E. Weber Dr. & Mrs. Wendell W. Weber Dr. Raoul & Donna G. Weisman Mr. & Mrs. Robert O. Weisman
Ms. Nancy B. Wessinger Mrs. George L. West Mrs. Carol F. Westerman Mr. & Mrs. Peter H. Wilcox Mr. J. M. Williams Nancy & Lloyd Williams Mr. &Mrs. W. L. Williams Mr. Gordon L. Wilson Mr. & Mrs. Wiley C. Wilson Dr. Linda A. Wimer Dr. & Mrs. Lawrence D. Wise Ms. Elaine W. Wolf Dr. & Mrs. IraS. Wollner Leonard & Sharon Woodcock Dr. & Mrs. Israel Woronoff Ms. Patricia Wulp Ms. Martha R.Wylie Dr. David & Geri Young Mrs. Edwin H. Young Miss Frances L. Young Mrs. Antonette Zadrozny Miss Laura J. Zeff Mr. & Mrs. Paul Zenian Mr. & Mrs. Harvey J. Zook
MEMORIALS AND BEQUESTS
Mr. & Mrs. Roscoe O. Bonisteel, Sr.
William Bom
Gordon C. Brown
Alice Kelsey Dunn
Linda E. Eberbach
Roberts. Feldman
Letitia N. Garner
Glenn D. McGeoch
Vera T. Goldring
Florence P. Griffin
Clare Griffin
Eleanor M. Harlow
George R. Hunsche
Hazel Hill Hunt
Meta Clara Jewell
Thor Johnson
Joyce E. Lee
Mr. & Mrs. Alfred H. Lovell
Frederick C. Matthaei, Sr.
F. James McCollum
Lester McCoy
Vaden W. Miles
Helen E. Mummery
Richard L. Park
Pedro Paz
Emerson F. Powrie
Gwendolyn Powrie
Mrs. Steffi Reiss
Charles A. Sink
Elizabeth Schieck Soop
William H. Stubbins
MischaTitiev
Raka Tirtha
Elizabeth Ullrich .
Paul C. Wagner
Mr. & Mrs. James French Wilson
MATCHING FUND COMPANIES
ADP Network Services Allied Chemical Foundation Amax Foundation, Inc. Bechtel Foundation The Bendix Foundation Chrysler Corporation Deloitte Haskins & Sells Dow Chemical Company Ford Motor Company General Telephone &
Electronics Corporation Hoover Universal, Inc. JSJ Corporation Mass. Mutual Life Insurance Co.
Michigan Bell Telephone Co. 3M Company Motorola Foundation National Bank of Detroit PrenticeHall Foundation, Inc. Scott Paper Company Texas Instruments Foundation The Upjohn Company WarnerLambert Company The Xerox Foundation
CLASSICS FROM DETROIT
ith elegance, authority and tastefulness Detroit automotive classics built by Ford, the Dodge and Fisher Broth?ers gained the esteem of their peers. Other classics written by Bach, Beethoven and Brit?ten are making the same impression.
We are referring to the classical music broad?cast twentyfour hours a day by Timeless FM105. Our peer group esteem is measured by the exclusive, large audience with a phe?nomenal buying power we reach every day in southeastern Michigan.
You should not overlook its importance as an advertising vehicle for your messages.
500 Temple Detroit 48201 (313) 83FM105
57
1983 MAY FESTIVAL ADVERTISERS
Angel Records......................................................... 61
Ann Arbor Bank & Trust Company......................................... 53
Ann Arbor Chamber Orchestra............................................ 9
Ann Arbor Inn......................................................... 10
Arborland Merchants Association.......................................... 59
The Bagpiper.......................................................... 60
Bay's Arcade Jewelry Shop............................................... 59
Bell System........................................................... 12
Boersma Travel........................................................ 10
Briarwood Hilton Inn.................................................... 56
Buckheim & Rowland, Inc................................................ 6
Campus Inn, Victors........................................ inside front cover
Chelsea Flower Shop.................................................... 63
Comerica Bank, Ann Arbor............................................... 9
Discount Records....................................................... 58
Ford Motor Company ................................................... 32
Fraleigh's Landscaping.................................................. 56
Fraser's Pub........................................................... 60
Geddes Lake .......................................................... 62
Generations........................................................... 9
Great Lakes Federal Savings.............................................. 56
Matthew C. Hoffmann, Jewelry Design..................................... 63
Jacobson's.......................................'..................... 10
King's Keyboard House.................................................. 63
Kitchen Port, Inc....................................................... 54
Bill Knapp's of Ann Arbor............................................... 56
John Leidy Shop........................................................ 55
Liberty Music Shop..................................................... 7
Merrill Lynch.......................................................... 11
Michigan National Bank, Ann Arbor....................................... 55
Michigan Community Theater Foundation................................... 54
NBD, Ann Arbor....................................................... 59
Nielsen's Flowers ...................................................... 60
Professional Theatre Program............................................. 8
Rabbi Guidos.......................................................... 6
Say Cheese............................................................ 6
The Steeplechase....................................................... 54
Thayer, Innes & Company................................................ 60
UM Credit Union...................................................... 54
Video Concepts, Inc..................................................... 8
Village Apothecary, Inc.................................................. 55
Weber's.................................................. inside back cover
Whiffletree............................................................ 8
WQRS............................................................... 57
Souvenir publication of the 1983 Ann Arbor May Festival
The University Musical Society of The University of Michigan
Offices in Burton Memorial Tower
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 Telephone (313) 6653717

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